Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 3 September 2019

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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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vulpinus, Rhaphiodon Spix [J. B. von] & Agassiz [L.] 1829:76, Pl. 26 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Brazilian rivers. Holotype (unique): MHNN 822. Type catalog: Kottelat 1988:84 [ref. 13380]. As Cynodon vulpinus Spix on plate. Name first published in Cuvier 1829 [ref. 995]. Confirmation of the holotype by Toledo-Piza 2000:74 [ref. 24268]. •Valid as Rhaphiodon vulpinus Spix & Agassiz 1829 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:10 [ref. 9708], Taphorn 1992:439 [ref. 23654], Gómez & Chebez 1996:46 [ref. 23791], Sverlij et al. 1998:11 [ref. 27632], Britski et al. 1999:68 [ref. 24147], Toledo-Piza 2000:69 [ref. 24268], López et al. 2002:63 [ref. 26808], Toledo-Piza in Reis et al. 2003:235 [ref. 27061] with authors as Spix & Agassiz, López et al. 2003:35 [ref. 27366] as Raphiodon, Menni 2004:72 [ref. 28131] as Raphiodon, Mirande 2010:481 [ref. 31006], Barriga S. 2014:109 [ref. 35745], Litz & Koerber 2014:12 [ref. 33622] as Raphiodon, Sarmiento et al. 2014:68, 186 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:20 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:415 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:29 [ref. 35565], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:36 [ref. 35633], Koerber et al. 2017:31 [ref. 35267], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:83 [ref. 35773] as Raphiodon). Current status: Valid as Rhaphiodon vulpinus Spix & Agassiz 1829. Cynodontidae. Distribution: Amazon, Orinoco and ParanĂ¡ River basins and rivers of Guyana: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.