Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 5 August 2019

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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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hepatica, Muraena Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1830:120 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 3554. Non-types: ZMB 4015 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:114-115 [ref. 26380]. Records from the Pacific probably refer to G. monochorus -- Smith 2012:16 [ref. 32155]. Muraena Hepatica and M. cinerascens were described in the same publication; appaently Randall and Golani 1995 serve as first revisers -- Smith 2012:17 [ref. 32155]. •Valid as Lycodontis hepaticus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Dor 1984:28 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Gymnothorax hepaticus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Chen et al. 1994:50 [ref. 22258], Goren & Dor 1994:7 [ref. 25356], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:viii [ref. 21953], Randall & Golani 1995:858 [ref. 21744], Böhlke 2000:395 [ref. 24954], Böhlke & McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Böhlke & Smith 2002:114 [ref. 26380], Randall 2005:38 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:83 [ref. 30952], Zhang et al. 2010:260 [ref. 31511], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:59 [ref. 35264], Smith 2012:16 [ref. 32155], Ho et al. 2015:154 [ref. 34130], Golani & Fricke 2018:21 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax hepaticus (Rüppell 1830). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.