Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 3 December 2018

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Catalog of Fishes
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helena, Muraena Linnaeus [C.] 1758:244 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea, western North Atlantic [original: "in Europæ, Americæ Oceano"]; localities include Spain; France; Rome and Sicily, Italy; Lesbos Island, Greece; Syria; Bahamas. Syntypes: ZMUU Linn. Coll. 57 (1, only surviving specimen). Type catalog: Lönnberg 1896:24 [ref. 23530], Wheeler 1991:160-161, Fig. 5 [ref. 20102]. Lectotype or neotype fixation needed: the type locality should be restricted to Mediterranean Sea according to current usage. Originally based on multiple species and at least 36 pre-Linnaean sources including Artedi 1738:25 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:41 [ref. 30349] as Muraena pinnis pectoralibus carens; Rondelet 1554:402 [ref. 30354] as Muræna, Salviani 1558:60, Pl. (p. 59) [ref. 30229] as Muræna, Charleton 1668:126 [ref. 30580] as Muræna, Willughby 1686:103 [ref. 30164] and Ray 1713:34 [ref. 30231] as Muræna, Catesby 1743:20, 21, Pl. 20-21 [ref. 774] as Muræna maculata nigra & viridis and Muræna maculata nigra. The surviving syntype is not this species, and a neotype would be desirable (see Smith 2012:31 [ref. 32155]). •Valid as Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758 -- (Blache et al. 1973:224 [ref. 7185], Bauchot in Whitehead et al. 1986:543 [ref. 13676], Böhlke et al. 1989:195 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:145 [ref. 19379], Randall & Golani 1995:869 [ref. 21744], Santos et al. 1997:20 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:55 [ref. 24952], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:31 [ref. 26753], Jiménez et al. 2007:101 [ref. 29038], Smith et al. 2008:67 [ref. 29432], Fricke et al. 2007:23 [ref. 29533], Smith 2012:31 [ref. 32155], Stern & Goren 2013:197 [ref. 32673], Wirtz et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32972], Smith & Brito 2016:1634 [ref. 34557], Vieira et al. 2016:[4] [ref. 34869], Golani & Fricke 2018:23 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: British Isles to Cape Verde Islands [but now excluding augusti]; Red Sea (Mediterranean Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.