Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 4 May 2020

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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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serpens, Muraena Linnaeus [C.] 1758:244 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea, northeastern Atlantic; localities including Norway; southern France; Rome, Italy; Lesbos Island, Greece. No types known. Lectotype or neotype fixation needed: the type locality should be restricted to Mediterranean Sea according to current usage. Originally based on multiple species and at least 13 pre-Linnaean sources including Artedi 1738:24 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:41 [ref. 30349] as Muraena exacte teres, cauda acuta apterygia; Rondelet 1554:409 [ref. 30354] as Serpens marinus, Salviani 1558:58, Pl. (p. 57) [ref. 30229] as Serpen(s) marin(us), Charleton 1668:125 [ref. 30580] as Serpens marinus, Willughby 1686:107 [ref. 30164] and Ray 1713:36 [ref. 30231] as Serpens marinus. Also appeared in Linnaeus 1766:425 [ref. 2786]. •Valid as Ophisurus serpens (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Blache et al. 1973:250 [ref. 7185], McCosker 1977:82 [ref. 6836], Bauchot in Whitehead et al. 1986:583 [ref. 13676], McCosker & Castle 1986:184 [ref. 5690], Paxton et al. 1989:120 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:73 [ref. 24556], Winterbottom et al. 1989:12 [ref. 13251], Leiby 1990:190 [ref. 13652], Kuiter 1993:27 [ref. 23929], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:136 [ref. 25472], Gomon et al. 1994:202 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:26 [ref. 25488], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Johnson 1999:721 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:32 [ref. 26753], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:106 [ref. 28072], McCosker et al. 2006:272 [ref. 29006], Fricke et al. 2007:24 [ref. 29533], Smith & McCosker 2008:167 [ref. 30622], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:18 [ref. 36649], Bañón et al. 2011:157 [ref. 31596], Wirtz et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32972], McCosker & Stewart 2015:254 [ref. 34235], McCosker 2016:1666 [ref. 34558], Kousteni & Christidis 2018:2 [ref. 36672], Carneiro et al. 2019:64 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:92 [ref. 36864], Hoschke et al. 2019:153 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Ophisurus serpens (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Widespread (but not eastern Pacific or western Atlantic), in eastern Atlantic from Spain south to South Africa, including Azores and Madeira; Mediterranean Sea. Habitat: brackish, marine.