Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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torpedo, Raja Linnaeus [C.] 1758:231 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea, Persian Gulf [original: "in Sinu Persico, M. Mediterraneo"]; localities include Lesbos Island, Greece; Genoa, Rome and Venice, Italy; Marseille, France; Nile River, Egypt; Iran, Persian Gulf (Arabian Gulf). No types known. Lectotype or neotype fixation needed: the type locality should be restricted to Mediterranean Sea according to current usage. Originally based on multiple species and at least 52 pre-Linnaean sources including Artedi 1738:73 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:102 [ref. 30349] as Raja tota lævis; Rondelet 1554:358 [ref. 30354] as Torpedo, Salviani 1558:143, Pl. 48 [ref. 30229] as Torpedo, Jonston 1649:30, Pl. 9 (fig. 4) [ref. 30579] as Torpedo maculosa and Torpedo, Charleton 1668:129 [ref. 30580] as Torpedo, Kempfer 1712:509, Pl. (p. 510) [ref. 30581] as Torpedo Sinûs Persici. •Valid as Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:55 [ref. 7167], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:55 [ref. 19317], Santos et al. 1997:119 [ref. 23531], Capapé et al. 1999:52 [ref. 25276], Afonso et al. 1999:82 [ref. 25466], Compagno 1999:488 [ref. 25589], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:20 [ref. 26753], Carvalho et al. 2002:30 [ref. 26091], Golani 2005:13 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:17 [ref. 29533], Wirtz et al. 2007:24 [ref. 30263], Fricke 2008:10 [ref. 30182], Welter-Schultes & Feuerstein 2008:141 [ref. 30327], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:12 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32972], Weigmann 2016:80 [ref. 34211], Carvalho & Séret 2016:1378 [ref. 34550], Carvalho et al. 2016:203 [ref. 34999], Biscoito et al. 2018:475 [ref. 37562], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:129 [ref. 37302], Carneiro et al. 2019:41 [ref. 37250], Bariche & Fricke 2020:29 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:7 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758). Torpedinidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to Angola. Habitat: marine.