Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 5 August 2019

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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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carapo, Gymnotus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:246 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] "America" [South America]. Syntypes: NRM 64 (1), NRM 8224 (1), UUZM 56 (1), ?ZMUU Linn. coll. 57 (1). Type catalog: Lönnberg 1896:23 [ref. 23530], Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:216-217 [ref. 20707], Wheeler 1991:162-163, Fig. 6 [ref. 20102], Ferraris et al. 2017:[17] [ref. 35236]. See Britski 2001:21 [ref. 26046] Not in Paraguay (Koerber et al. 2017:70 [ref. 35267]). •Mention -- (Malabarba 1989:158 [ref. 14217]). •Valid as Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus 1758 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Mago-Leccia 1994:55 [ref. 21320], Planquette et al. 1996:412 [ref. 22818], Gómez & Chebez 1996:56 [ref. 23791], Castro & Casatti 1997:342 [ref. 23333], Torelli et al. 1997:70 [ref. 24612], Albert & Campos-da-Paz 1998:423 [ref. 23853], Sverlij et al. 1998:38 [ref. 27632], Albert & Fernandes-Matioli 1999:415 [ref. 23798], Fernandes-Matioli et al.2000:803 [ref. 30364], Albert 2001:124 [ref. 25614], Albert & Crampton 2001:243 [ref. 25031], Lasso et al. 2001:100 [ref. 25928], Camargo & Isaac 2001:140 [ref. 27639] as Gimnotus, Campos-da-Paz 2002:185 [ref. 26073], Miquelarena et al. 2002:79 [ref. 26517] as cf. carapo, Crampton et al. 2003:2 [ref. 27064], Albert & Crampton 2003:7 [ref. 27077], Campos-da-Paz in Reis et al. 2003:484 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:64 [ref. 27366] as cf. carapo, Crampton & Albert 2003:2 [ref. 27433], Casciotta et al. 2003:141 [ref. 28130], Maldonado-Ocampo & Albert 2004:2 [ref. 27978], Crampton et al. 2005:99 [ref. 28092], Menni 2004:84 [ref. 28131], Fernandes et al. 2005:8 [ref. 28147], Fernandes et al. 2005:8 [ref. 28147], Milhomem et al. 2007:55 [ref. 28947] as cf. carapo, Milhomem et al. 2012:804 [ref. 31815], Rangel-Pereira 2012:364 [ref. 32319], Phillip et al. 2013:19 [ref. 32896], Barriga S. 2014:116 [ref. 35745], Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321], Sarmiento et al. 2014:104, 188 [ref. 35004], Bertaco et al. 2016:422 [ref. 34561] as aff. carapo, Ferraris et al. 2017:[17] [ref. 35236], Craig et al. 2017:418 [ref. 35568], Koerber et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35632], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:65 [ref. 35633], Craig et al. 2018:52 [ref. 35800], Azevedo-Santos et al. 2019:5 [ref. 36506], Campos-da-Paz & de Santana 2019:150 [ref. 36608], Koerber et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36736]). Current status: Valid as Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus 1758. Gymnotidae. Distribution: South America: Venezuela, Trinidad and Tobago, Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay and Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.