Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 6 May 2019

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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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vulpinus, Squalus Bonnaterre [J. P.] (ex Pennant) 1788:9, Pl. 85 (fig. 349) [Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature... Ichthyologie; ref. 4940] Mediterranean Sea; Cornwall, England, northeastern Atlantic. No types known. Based on the 'Sea fox' of Pennant 1769:86, Pl. 4 [ref. 18527], which was based on multiple historical sources, and possibly on more than one species; neotype selection needed to stabilize the current usage of the name. •Valid as Alopias vulpinus (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Springer 1973:17 [ref. 7162], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:27 [ref. 9277], Quéro in Whitehead et al. 1984:92 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:232 [ref. 6474], Dor 1984:3 [ref. 29757], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:7 [ref. 6441], Bass 1986:102 [ref. 5635], Robins & Ray 1986:18 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:13 [ref. 25518], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:220 [ref. 36138], Paxton et al. 1989:69 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:4 [ref. 13251], Pequeño 1989:12 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:19 [ref. 24556], McAllister 1990:29 [ref. 14674], Springer 1990:85 [ref. 19319], Compagno et al. 1991:74 [ref. 21083], Cervigón 1992:168 [ref. 23827], Boschung 1992:19 [ref. 23239], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:74 [ref. 25472], Bussing & López S. 1994:18 [ref. 23101], Last & Stevens 1994:157 [ref. 23873], Goren & Dor 1994:1 [ref. 25356], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:661 [ref. 22829], Eitner 1995:562 [ref. 22404], Randall 1995:23 [ref. 22896], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:65 [ref. 24023], Santos et al. 1997:10 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:16 [ref. 24952], Cheng & Zhou 1997:22 [ref. 26385], Compagno 1998:1273 [ref. 23785], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:51 [ref. 23897], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:43 [ref. 24555], Kabasakal 1998:685 [ref. 25006], Fricke 1999:16 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:719 [ref. 25471], Compagno 1999:477 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:126 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:578 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:87 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:13 [ref. 25847], Compagno 2001:86 [ref. 26323], Soto 2001:65, 88 [ref. 26637], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:11 [ref. 26753], Branstetter in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:34 [ref. 26158], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:79 [ref. 25968], Nakabo 2002:126 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:57, 476 [ref. 26218], Compagno 2003:430 [ref. 26984], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:25 [ref. 27192], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S91 [ref. 27377], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:81 [ref. 27705], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:20 [ref. 27735], Nelson et al. 2004:51 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:72 [ref. 28072], Mundy 2005:96 [ref. 28379], Compagno et al. 2005:17 [ref. 29145], Hoese & Gates 2006:73 [ref. 28997], Fricke 2007:25 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:12 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:17 [ref. 30517], White 2008:38 [ref. 30617], Fricke et al. 2009:8 [ref. 30213], George 2009:34 [ref. 30539], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:7 [ref. 36649], Castro 2011:241 [ref. 31457], Fricke et al. 2011:345 [ref. 31242], Yamashita et al. 2012:121 [ref. 32408], Naylor et al. 2012:51 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Page et al. 2013:50 [ref. 32708], Ebert et al. 2013:310 [ref. 33045], Shinohara et al. 2014:232 [ref. 33330], Parin et al. 2014:18 [ref. 33547], Duffy & Stewart 2015:67 [ref. 34216], Dyldin 2015:47 [ref. 34524], Pietsch & Orr 2015:13 [ref. 34694], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:75 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:13 [ref. 34211], Compagno 2016:1236 [ref. 34544], Fourriére et al. 2016:452 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:605 [ref. 34923], Nión et al. 2016:19 [ref. 35565], Kells et al. 2016:64 [ref. 35888], Ebert et al. 2017:53 [ref. 35618], Ehemann et al. 2018:20 [ref. 36194], Fricke et al. 2018:9 [ref. 35805], Dyldin & Orlov 2018:164 [ref. 35920], Kumar et al. 2018:295 [ref. 36178]). Current status: Valid as Alopias vulpinus (Bonnaterre 1788). Alopiidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical through temperate seas (including Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, western Baltic Sea, North Sea). Habitat: brackish, marine.