Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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zygaena, Squalus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:234 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic [original: "Europa, America"]; localities include Spain; Marseille, France; Rome, Italy; Lesbos Island, Greece; Syria, Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: NRM 88 (1). Type catalog: Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:208 [ref. 20707]. Originally based on multiple species and at least 24 pre-Linnaean sources including Artedi 1738:68 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:96 [ref. 30349] as Squalus capite latissimo transverso mallei instar; Rondelet 1554:389 [ref. 30354] as Zygæna, Salviani 1558:128 [ref. 30229] as Libella, Willughby 1686:55 [ref. 30164] and Ray 1713:20 [ref. 30231] as Zygæna. Spelled zygena by Bonnaterre 1788:9 [ref. 4940], and zigoena by Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817:11 [ref. 17319], see Graells 1887:185 [ref. 30438]. Spelled zygoena by Chevey 1932:6 [ref. 23060] as Cestracion. Name spelled Squalus zigaena by Sonnini 1803:74 [ref. 30464] and Berthelot 1840:115 [ref. 30346]. •Valid as Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Gilbert 1967:31 [ref. 21135], Gilbert 1973:32 [ref. 7164], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:43 [ref. 9277], Quéro in Whitehead et al. 1984:125 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:553 [ref. 6846], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:7 [ref. 6441], Bass 1986:97 [ref. 5635], Robins & Ray 1986:30 [ref. 23100], Allen & Swainston 1988:24 [ref. 25477], Scott & Scott 1988:29 [ref. 25518], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:224 [ref. 36138], Paulin et al. 1989:26 [ref. 24556], Paxton et al. 1989:87 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:13 [ref. 14125], McAllister 1990:32 [ref. 14674], Springer 1990:110 [ref. 19320], Cervigón 1992:188 [ref. 23827], Francis 1993:157 [ref. 25479], Francis & Randall 1993:128 [ref. 20996], Kuiter 1993:11 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:140 [ref. 22532], Last & Stevens 1994:275 [ref. 23873], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:722 [ref. 22829], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:69 [ref. 27969], Murdy et al. 1997:28 [ref. 23144], Santos et al. 1997:9 [ref. 23531], Allen 1997:44 [ref. 23977], Cheng & Zhou 1997:35 [ref. 26385], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:100 [ref. 24023], Arruda 1997:19 [ref. 24952], Compagno 1998:1366 [ref. 23785], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:39 [ref. 24555], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:7 [ref. 24670], Fricke 1999:25 [ref. 24106], Morón et al. 1999:148 [ref. 24253], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:118 [ref. 25013], Capapé et al. 1999:50 [ref. 25276], Compagno 1999:484 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:140 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:119 [ref. 25206], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Wang et al. 2001:34 [ref. 26566], Soto 2001:65, 85 [ref. 26637], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:15 [ref. 26753], Branstetter in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:46 [ref. 26158], Nakabo 2002:140 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:56, 475 [ref. 26218], López et al. 2002:62 [ref. 26808], Compagno 2003:505 [ref. 26984], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27192], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:73 [ref. 27705], Nelson et al. 2004:54 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:68 [ref. 28072], Mundy 2005:93 [ref. 28379], Compagno et al. 2005:46 [ref. 29145], Hoese et al. 2006:111 [ref. 29001], Fricke et al. 2007:15 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:16 [ref. 30517], Randall 2007:39 [ref. 30952], White 2008:74 [ref. 30617], George 2009:55 [ref. 30539], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:9 [ref. 36649], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:187 [ref. 30957], Castro 2011:529 [ref. 31457], Yamashita et al. 2012:125 [ref. 32408], Naylor et al. 2012:33 [ref. 34345], Page et al. 2013:52 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32972], Ebert et al. 2013:340 [ref. 33045], Parin et al. 2014:24 [ref. 33547], Duffy 2015:108 [ref. 34217], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:107 [ref. 36167], Dyldin 2015:54 [ref. 34524], Pinheiro et al. 2015:4 [ref. 34324], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:100 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:45 [ref. 34211], Compagno 2016:1335 [ref. 34544], Fourriére et al. 2016:453 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:605 [ref. 34923], Nión et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35565], Kells et al. 2016:72 [ref. 35888], Ebert et al. 2017:57 [ref. 35618], White et al. 2017:190 [ref. 35860], Ali et al. 2018:303 [ref. 36183], Dyldin & Orlov 2018:165 [ref. 35920], Ehemann et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36194], Fricke et al. 2018:18 [ref. 35805], Kumar et al. 2018:297 [ref. 36178], Spier et al. 2018:4 [ref. 36103], White & Ko'ou 2018:44 [ref. 35922], Ehemann et al. 2019:[4] [ref. 36861], Hoschke et al. 2019:153[ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus 1758). Sphyrnidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in warm temperate seas, occasionally in tropical seas (including Caribbean Sea, Mediterranean Sea). Habitat: brackish, marine.