Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 4 December 2019

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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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spinax, Squalus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:233 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Genoa, Italy, Mediterranean Sea [original: "In Europa"]. No types known. Originally based on 4 pre-Linnaean sources including Artedi 1738:67 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:95 [ref. 30349] as Squalus pinna ani carens, naribus in extremo rostro; Willughby 1686:57 [ref. 30164] and Ray 1713:21 [ref. 30231] as Galeus acanthias s. spinax fuscus. •Valid as Etmopterus spinax (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Krefft & Tortonese 1973:42 [ref. 7165], McEachran & Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:141 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:85 [ref. 6474], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:225 [ref. 36138], Fricke & Koch 1990:7 [ref. 15494], Santos et al. 1997:13 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:21 [ref. 24952], Compagno 1999:473 [ref. 25589], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:15 [ref. 26753], Last et al. 2002:203 [ref. 26556], Golani 2005:11 [ref. 37112], Fricke 2007:26 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:16 [ref. 29533], Fricke 2008:10 [ref. 30182], George 2009:55 [ref. 30539], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:10 [ref. 36649], Straube et al. 2011:138 [ref. 31563], Straube et al. 2011:62 [ref. 31679], Parin et al. 2014:27 [ref. 33547], Goren & Galil 2015:511 [ref. 33910], Vásquez et al. 2015:53 [ref. 34111], Dyldin 2015:55 [ref. 34524], Weigmann 2016:62 [ref. 34211], Bañón et al. 2016:298 [ref. 34397], Compagno 2016:1184 [ref. 34544]). Current status: Valid as Etmopterus spinax (Linnaeus 1758). Etmopteridae. Distribution: Western Baltic Sea, northern North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Iceland and Norway south to Senegal. Habitat: marine.