Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 7 October 2019

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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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laevis, Raja Mitchill [S. L.] 1818:327 [American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review v. 2 (no. 5, art. 1); ref. 30214] New York City by East River, New York, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Raja laevis Mitchill 1818 -- (McEachran & Fechhelm 1982:449 [ref. 8444], Smith 1986:391 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:39 [ref. 23100], Séret 1989:126 [ref. 12827], McAllister 1990:37 [ref. 14674], Murdy et al. 1997:38 [ref. 23144]). •Valid as Dipturus laevis (Mitchill 1818) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Musick et al. 2000:9 [ref. 24959], Gomes & Paragó 2001:1 [ref. 25669], McEachran in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:65 [ref. 26158], Moore et al. 2003:171 [ref. 27076], Nelson et al. 2004:55 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:55 [ref. 32708], Weigmann 2016:109 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:260 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus laevis (Mitchill 1818). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.