Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 3 September 2019

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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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altavela, Raja Linnaeus [C.] 1758:232 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Naples, Italy, Mediterranean Sea [original: "in Mari Mediterraneo"]. No types known. Originally based on at least 8 pre-Linnaean sources including Artedi 1738:71 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:100 [ref. 30349] as Raja corpore glabro, aculeis sæpe duobus postice serratis in cauda apterygia; Colonna 1616:4, Pl. on p. ii (lower fig.) [ref. 30582] as Pastinaca marina altera, altavela dicta, Willughby 1686:65 [ref. 30164] and Ray 1713:24 [ref. 30231] as Pastinaca marina altera. •Valid as Gymnura altavela (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:72 [ref. 7167], McEachran & Capapé in Whitehead et al. 1984:204 [ref. 13675], Robins & Ray 1986:42 [ref. 23100], McEachran & Séret 1990:64 [ref. 19318], Nishida 1990:92 [ref. 19783], Cervigón 1992:200 [ref. 23827], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:53 [ref. 22793], Murdy et al. 1997:42 [ref. 23144], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:186 [ref. 23897], Compagno 1999:497 [ref. 25589], Menni & Stehmann 2000:92 [ref. 24909], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:26 [ref. 26753], Gomes & Gadig in Menezes et al. 2003:30 [ref. 27192], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:577 [ref. 26985], Dulĉić et al. 2003:871 [ref. 27138], Nelson et al. 2004:57 [ref. 27807], Fricke et al. 2007:20 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:22 [ref. 30517], Jacobsen & Bennett 2009:21 [ref. 30470], Smith et al. 2009:766 [ref. 31278], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:15 [ref. 36649], Page et al. 2013:57 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:40 [ref. 33547], Dyldin 2015:75 [ref. 34524], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:141 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:142 [ref. 34211], Séret 2016:1422 [ref. 34545], Yokota et al. 2016:512 [ref. 35009], Nión et al. 2016:23 [ref. 35565], Spier et al. 2018:5 [ref. 36103], Ehemann et al. 2019:[7] [ref. 36861], Ribeiro et al. 2019:9 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Gymnura altavela (Linnaeus 1758). Gymnuridae. Distribution: Tropical and temperate western and eastern Atlantic (including Caribbean Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea). Habitat: brackish, marine.