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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Genera in the family or subfamily Syngnathidae: [ 117 ] records


Acanthognathus Duncker [G.] 1912:228 Masc. Syngnathus dactyliophorus Bleeker 1853. Type by original designation, also monotypic (only one named species included). Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Acanthognathus Mayr 1887 in Hymenoptera, replaced by Dunckerocampus Whitley 1933. •Synonym of Doryrhamphus Kaup 1856 -- (Dawson 1985:58 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Doryrhamphus Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae.

Acentronura (subgenus of Hippocampus) Kaup [J. J.] 1853:230 Fem. Hippocampus gracilissimus Temminck & Schlegel 1850. Type by monotypy. •Valid as Acentronura Kaup 1853 -- (Dawson 1984 [ref. 5276], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:89 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:15 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:446 [ref. 5650], Paxton et al. 1989:412 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:443 [ref. 22532], Paulus 1999:2266 [ref. 24794], Teske et al. 2004:273 [ref. 31602], Paxton et al. 2006:812 [ref. 29073], Stewart 2015:1053 [ref. 34254], Lourie 2016:155 [ref. 34505], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2018:120 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:48 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:91 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Acentronura Kaup 1853. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Acestra Bonaparte [C. L.] (ex Jardine) 1846:91 Fem. Syngnathus aequoreus Linnaeus 1758. Apparently not available, name published in synonymy of Syngnathus and Nerophis, and apparently not subsequently used as a valid name or senior homonym; type above as given by Fowler (MS). •In the synonymy of Nerophis Rafinesque 1810. Current status: Synonym of Nerophis Rafinesque 1810. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae.

Acmonotus Philippi [R. A.] 1896:382 Masc. Acmonotus chilensis Philippi 1896. Type by monotypy. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Acmonotus McLachlan 1871 in Neuroptera; apparently not replaced. •Synonym of Leptonotus Kaup 1853 -- (Fritzsche 1980:190 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1982:40 [ref. 6764], Dawson 1985:111 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Leptonotus Kaup 1853. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Acus Valmont de Bomare [J. C.] 1791 Fem. Original not seen. Not available, published in a rejected work on Official Index (Opinion 89, Direction 32). •In the synonymy of Syngnathus Linnaeus 1758. Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Acus (subgenus of Syngnathus) Swainson [W.] (ex Willoughby) 1839:195, 333 Fem. Syngnathus aequoreus Linnaeus 1758. Type by subsequent designation. Apparently not preoccupied by Acus Plumier in Lacepède 1803 in fishes (not available); not replaced. Type perhaps designated first by Jordan & Evermann 1896:774 [ref. 2443]. •Synonym of Entelurus Duméril 1870. Current status: Synonym of Entelurus Duméril 1870. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae.

Amphelikturus Parr [A. E.] 1930:31 Masc. Amphelikturus brachyrhynchus Parr 1930. Type by original designation. •Synonym of Acentronura Kaup 1853, but a valid subgenus Amphelikturus -- (Dawson 1984:159 [ref. 5276], Dawson 1986:447 [ref. 5650]). •Synonym of Acentronura Kaup 1853 -- (Dawson 1985:15 [ref. 6541]). •Valid as Amphelikturus Parr 1930 -- (Dawson 1982:10 [ref. 6764], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Teske et al. 2004:273 [ref. 31602], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Amphelikturus Parr 1930. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Anarchopterus Hubbs [C. L.] 1935:1 Masc. Siphostoma crinigerum Bean & Dresel 1884. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Anarchopterus Hubbs 1935 -- (Dawson 1982:33 [ref. 6764], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Kuiter 2009:240 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Anarchopterus Hubbs 1935. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Apterygocampus Weber [M.] 1913:115 Masc. Apterygocampus epinnulatus Weber 1913. Type by monotypy. •Valid as Apterygocampus Weber 1913 -- (Dawson & Allen 1978:402 [ref. 1073], Dawson 1985:19 [ref. 6541], Paulus 1999:2267 [ref. 24794], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Apterygocampus Weber 1913. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Atelurus Duméril [A. H. A.] 1870:584 Masc. Atelurus germani Duméril 1870. Type by monotypy. •Synonym of Acentronura Kaup 1853 -- (Dawson 1985:15 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Acentronura Kaup 1853. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Belonichthys Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1868:147 Masc. Syngnathus zambezensis Peters 1855. Type by monotypy. Also appeared in Peters 1868:108 [ref. 3440] [above apparently earliest but not researched]. •Synonym of Microphis Kaup 1853, but a valid subgenus Belonichthys -- (Dawson 1984:136 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:128 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:284 [ref. 6201]). •Synonym of Microphis Kaup 1853 -- (Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:591 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Belonichthys Peters 1868 -- (Kottelat 2013:301 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Belonichthys Peters 1868. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Bhanotia Hora [S. L.] 1926:463 Fem. Syngnathus corrugatus Weber 1913. Type by original designation. See Das 2003:368 [ref. 27706] with date as 1925. •Valid as Bhanotia Hora 1926 -- (Dawson 1978 [ref. 7025], Dawson 1985:20 [ref. 6541], Allen & Kuiter 1995:75 [ref. 21613], Paxton et al. 2006:812 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:230 [ref. 30404] with date as 1925, Satapoomin 2009:57 [ref. 30463], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2019:91 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Bhanotia Hora 1926. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Bhanotichthys Parr [A. E.] 1930:27, 29 Masc. Syngnathus fasciatus Gray 1830. Type by original designation. Type designated on p. 29. •Objective synonym of Corythoichthys Kaup 1853 -- (Dawson 1977:297 [ref. 7048], Dawson 1985:36 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Corythoichthys Kaup 1853. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Bombonia Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1927:274 Fem. Bombonia luzonica Herre 1927. Type by monotypy. •Synonym of Hippichthys Bleeker 1849 -- (Dawson 1978:133 [ref. 7026], Dawson 1985:96 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:282 [ref. 6201], Kottelat 2013:303 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hippichthys Bleeker 1849. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Bryx Herald [E. S.] 1940:52 Masc. Bryx veleronis Herald 1940. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Bryx Herald 1940 -- (Fritzsche 1980:192 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1982:111 [ref. 6764], Dawson 1985:22 [ref. 6541], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Kuiter 2009:284 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2018:121 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:48 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Bryx Herald 1940. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Bulbonaricus (subgenus of Ichthyocampus) Herald [E. S.] in Schultz et al. 1953:241 Masc. Ichthyocampus davaoensis Herald 1953. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Bulbonaricus Herald 1953 -- (Dawson 1984 [ref. 5275], Dawson 1985:24 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:413 [ref. 12442], Paulus 1999:2267 [ref. 24794], Suzuki et al. 2003:2 [ref. 26785], Paxton et al. 2006:812 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:290 [ref. 30404], Ho & Lin 2014:25 [ref. 33575], Koeda & Fujii 2015:33 [ref. 35368], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Bulbonaricus Herald 1953. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Campichthys (subgenus of Festucalex) Whitley [G. P.] 1931:313 Masc. Ichthyocampus tryoni Ogilby 1890. Type by original designation. •Valid as Campichthys Whitley 1931 -- (Dawson 1977:637 [ref. 1066], Dawson 1985:28 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:413 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:443 [ref. 22532], Paulus 1999:2267 [ref. 24794], Paxton et al. 2006:813 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:451 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:232 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Campichthys Whitley 1931. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Castelnauina (subgenus of Solegnathus) Fowler [H. W.] 1908:426 Fem. Solenognathus spinosissimus Günther 1870. Type by original designation (also monotypic). Misspelled Castelnauia by Jordan 1920:523 [ref. 4905]. •Synonym of Solegnathus Swainson 1839 -- (Dawson 1982:140 [ref. 5442], Dawson 1985:169 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Solegnathus Swainson 1839. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Choeroichthys Kaup [J. J.] 1856:55 Masc. Choeroichthys valencienni Kaup 1856. Type by original designation. Appeared first as name only in Kaup 1853:233 [ref. 2569]. Spelled Choeoroichthys by Weber 1913:681 [ref. 4602]. Species valenciennesi is a misspelling or unjustified emendation. •Valid as Choeroichthys Kaup 1856 -- (Dawson 1976 [ref. 7375], Dawson 1978:416 [ref. 8724], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:88 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:31 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:447 [ref. 5650], Paxton et al. 1989:413 [ref. 12442], Paulus 1999:2267 [ref. 24794], Paxton et al. 2006:814 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:228 [ref. 30404], Satapoomin 2009:57 [ref. 30463], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2018:121 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:48 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:92 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Choeroichthys Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae.

Coelonotus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1855:465 Masc. Syngnathus argulus Peters 1855. Type by monotypy. •See Hemimarsupium Kaup 1853. •Synonym of Microphis Kaup 1853 -- (Dawson 1986:284 [ref. 6201], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:591 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Microphis Kaup 1853, but a valid subgenus Coelonotus -- (Dawson 1984:124 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:127 [ref. 6541]). •Valid as Coelonotus Peters 1855 -- (Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:85 [ref. 6441], Kottelat 2013:302 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2018:121 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Coelonotus Peters 1855. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Corythoichthys Kaup [J. J.] 1853:231 Masc. Syngnathus fasciatus Gray 1830. Type by subsequent designation. Jordan & Evermann 1896:761 [ref. 2442] and Jordan 1919:253 [ref. 2410] give type as C. albirostris Heckel, but that species apparently not available; type above designated by Whitley 1948 according to Dawson 1985:36 [ref. 6541]. Misspelled Corythroichthys by Jordan and others. •Valid as Corythoichthys Kaup 1853 -- (Dawson 1977 [ref. 7048], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:87 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:36 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:414 [ref. 12442], Paulus 1999:2265 [ref. 24794], Paulus 1999:2268 [ref. 24794], Paxton et al. 2006:815 [ref. 29073], Allen & Erdmann 2008:122 [ref. 29478], Kuiter 2009:188 [ref. 30404], Satapoomin 2009:58 [ref. 30463], Lourie 2016:142 [ref. 34505], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2018:121 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:48 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:92 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Corythoichthys Kaup 1853. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Cosmocampus Dawson [C. E.] 1979:674 Masc. Corythoichthys albirostris Kaup 1856. Type by original designation. •Valid as Cosmocampus Dawson 1979 -- (Dawson 1982:120 [ref. 6764], Dawson 1982:135 [ref. 5440], Dawson 1985:47 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:447 [ref. 5650], Paxton et al. 1989:415 [ref. 12442], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:227 [ref. 24550], Paulus 1999:2268 [ref. 24794], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Paxton et al. 2006:817 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:235 [ref. 30404], Stewart 2015:1054 [ref. 34254], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2018:122 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:49 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:93 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Cosmocampus Dawson 1979. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Dentirostrum Herald [E. S.] & Randall [J. E.] 1972:123 Neut. Dentirostrum janssi Herald & Randall 1972. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Synonym of Doryrhamphus Kaup 1856 -- (Dawson 1981:2 [ref. 5511], Dawson 1985:58 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Doryrhamphus Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae.

Dermatostethus Gill [T. N.] 1862:283 Masc. Dermatostethus punctipinnis Gill 1862. Type by monotypy. •Synonym of Syngnathus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Fritzsche 1980:198 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1982:55 [ref. 6764], Dawson 1985:181 [ref. 6541], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:592 [ref. 27061], Kottelat 2013:307 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Doryichthys Kaup [J. J.] 1856:56 Masc. Doryichthys bilineatus Kaup 1856. Type by subsequent designation. First mentioned by Kaup 1853:233 [ref. 2569] as name only (all included species were not described). Dawson 1981:2 [ref. 5527] and 1985:55 [ref. 6541] dates to 1856. Type species Doryichthys bilineatus Kaup 1856 selected by Jordan & Evermann 1896:773 [ref. 2443]. Dawson 1981:3 [ref. 5527] mentions a designation of Syngnathus cuncalus Hamilton 1822 by Duncker 1912:230 [ref. 1156] for the genus Dorichthys [misspelled] by Duncker 1909. •Valid as Doryichthys Kaup 1856 -- (Dawson 1981:2 [ref. 5527], Dawson 1985:55 [ref. 6541], Roberts 1989:158 [ref. 6439], Ataur Rahman 1989:37 [ref. 24860], Paulus 1999:2268 [ref. 24794], Kuiter 2009:281 [ref. 30404], Kottelat 2013:302 [ref. 32989], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Doryichthys Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Doryichthys Duncker [G.] 1910:27 Masc. Syngnathus cuncalus Hamilton 1822 Type by subsequent designation. Probably not an original description, Doryichthys Kaup sensu Duncker. •Junior homonym of Doryichthys Kaup 1853 -- (Kottelat 2013:306 [ref. 32989] probably not an original description). Current status: Synonym of Microphis Kaup 1853. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae.

Doryrhamphinarum Kaup [J. J.] 1856:62 Neut. Syngnathus heterosoma Bleeker 1851. Type by original designation (also monotypic). Fowler (MS), treats as a lapsus for Doryichthys Kaup 1856 [= 1853]; Dawson 1981 treats as a nomen nudum. Kaup provides a description from Bleeker, and states (p. 63), "...leaves me in no doubt of this species being the type of a genus hitherto undescribed..." Kaup's heading "Genus novem, 5. Doryrhamphinarum" is regarded here as meaning of the family Doryrhamphidae, without proposal of a new genus. •Synonym of Doryichthys Kaup 1856 -- (Dawson 1981:2 [ref. 5511]). Current status: Synonym of Doryichthys Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Doryrhamphus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:54 Masc. Doryrhamphus excisus Kaup 1856. Type by monotypy. Apparently no available species included with genus in Kaup 1853:233 [ref. 2569]; genus as name only; apparently dates to 1856 as above. Doryramphus Bleeker 1860 is an incorrect subsequent spelling. •Valid as Doryrhamphus Kaup 1856 -- (Fritzsche 1980:187 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1981 [ref. 5511], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:85 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:58 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:448 [ref. 5650], Paxton et al. 1989:416 [ref. 12442], Paulus 1999:2269 [ref. 24794], Paxton et al. 2006:817 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:172 [ref. 30404], Satapoomin 2009:58 [ref. 30463], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2018:123 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:49 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:93 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Doryrhamphus Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae.

Dunckerocampus Whitley [G. P.] 1933:67 Masc. Syngnathus dactyliophorus Bleeker 1853. Type by being a replacement name. Replacement for Acanthognathus Duncker 1912, preoccupied by Acanthognathus Mayr 1887 in Hymenoptera. •Synonym of Doryrhamphus Kaup 1856, but a valid subgenus Dunckerocampus -- (Dawson 1985:58 [ref. 6541], Winterbottom 1987 [ref. 6776] but spelled Dunkerocampus). •Valid as Dunckerocampus Whitley 1933 -- (Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:86 [ref. 6441], Kuiter 1998:81 [ref. 23586], Kuiter 2009:178 [ref. 30404], Lourie 2016:141 [ref. 34505], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615], Golani & Fricke 2018:49 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:93 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Dunckerocampus Whitley 1933. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae.

Enchelyocampus Dawson [C. E.] & Allen [G. R.] 1978:405 Masc. Enchelyocampus brauni Dawson & Allen 1978. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Synonym of Bulbonaricus Herald 1953 -- (Dawson 1984 [ref. 5275], Dawson 1985:24 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Bulbonaricus Herald 1953. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Enneacampus Dawson [C. E.] 1981:466 Masc. Syngnathus ansorgii Boulenger 1910. Type by original designation. •Valid as Enneacampus Dawson 1981 -- (Dawson 1986:281 [ref. 6201], Lévêque et al. 1989:121 [ref. 26480], Lévêque in Lévêque et al. 1992:576 [ref. 21590], Snoeks & Vreven 2007:575 [ref. 30079], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Enneacampus Dawson 1981. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Entelurus Duméril [A. H. A.] 1870:605 Masc. Syngnathus aequoreus Linnaeus 1758. Type by subsequent designation. Earliest type designation not researched. See Acus Swainson (ex Willoughby) 1839. •Valid as Entelurus Duméril 1870 -- (Wheeler 1973:278 [ref. 7190], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:629 [ref. 13676], Kuiter 2009:258 [ref. 30404], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:121 [ref. 31212], Parin et al. 2014:207 [ref. 33547], Bañón et al. 2016:321 [ref. 34397], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Entelurus Duméril 1870. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae.

Farlapiscis Whitley [G. P.] 1931:313 Masc. Hippocampus breviceps Peters 1869. Type by original designation. •Synonym of Hippocampus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Ginsburg 1937:530 [ref. 1801], Fritzsche 1980:185 [ref. 1511] and Vari 1982:175 [ref. 6765] as Farlapiscus, Kuiter 2001:297 [ref. 25900], Kuiter 2009:17 [ref. 30404]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus Rafinesque 1810. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Festucalex Whitley [G. P.] 1931:312 Masc. Syngnathus cinctus Ramsay 1882. Type by original designation. •Valid as Festucalex Whitley 1931 -- (Dawson 1977:622 [ref. 1066], Dawson 1984 [ref. 5290], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:88 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:68 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:448 [ref. 5650], Paxton et al. 1989:417 [ref. 12442], Paulus 1999:2267 [ref. 24794], Paxton et al. 2006:819 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:206 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2015:47 [ref. 33644], Prokofiev 2016:622 [ref. 34850], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2019:94 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Festucalex Whitley 1931. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Filicampus Whitley [G. P.] 1948:75 Masc. Syngnathus superciliaris Günther 1880. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Filicampus Whitley 1948 -- (Dawson 1985:73 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:417 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:445 [ref. 22532], Paulus 1999:2268 [ref. 24794], Paxton et al. 2006:820 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:452 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:212 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Filicampus Whitley 1948. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Gasterotokeus Heckel [J. J.] in Kaup 1853:230 Masc. Syngnathus biaculeatus Bloch 1785. Type by monotypy. Misspelled Gastrotokeus by authors. •Synonym of Syngnathoides Bleeker 1851 -- (Dawson 1985:179 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathoides Bleeker 1851. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Halicampoides Fowler [H. W.] 1956:204 Masc. Halicampus macrorhynchus Bamber 1915. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Synonym of Halicampus Kaup 1856 -- (Dawson 1985:75 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Halicampus Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Halicampus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:22 Masc. Halicampus grayi Kaup 1856. Type by monotypy. Appeared first as name only in Kaup 1853:231 [ref. 2569] with unavailable species H. grayi Kaup. See Opinion 53 for action involving grayi Kaup. •Valid as Halicampus Kaup 1856 -- (Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:87 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:75 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:451 [ref. 5650], Paxton et al. 1989:418 [ref. 12442], Paulus 1999:2269 [ref. 24794], Paxton et al. 2006:820 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:260 [ref. 30404], Satapoomin 2009:59 [ref. 30463], Ohta & Motomura 2010:57 [ref. 31557], Matsunuma et al. 2013:158 [ref. 33260], Lourie 2016:143 [ref. 34505], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2018:123 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:50 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:94 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Halicampus Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Haliichthys Gray [J. E.] 1859:38 Masc. Haliichthys taeniophora Gray 1859. Type by monotypy. •Valid as Haliichthys Gray 1859 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:419 [ref. 12442], Paxton et al. 2006:822 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:156 [ref. 30404], Lourie 2016:144 [ref. 34505], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Haliichthys Gray 1859. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Hemimarsupium Kaup [J. J.] 1853:234 Neut. Hemimarsupium goudotii Kaup 1853. Type by monotypy. Treated as a nomen nudum by Dawson 1984:124 [ref. 5879], in synonymy of Microphis (Coelonotus). Type listed by Jordan 1919:272 [ref. 2410] as Typhlus gondotii [sic goudoti] but that name apparently never published in an available way and renamed Syngnathus leiaspis by Bleeker (in part). Hemithylacus Kaup 1856 is the same as Hemimarsupium. •In the synonymy of Coelonotus Peters 1855. Current status: Synonym of Coelonotus Peters 1855. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Hemithylacus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:61 Masc. Syngnathus leiaspis Bleeker 1854. Type by monotypy. Spelled Hemithylacum on p. 27. A substitute for Hemimarsupium according to Jordan 1919:272 [ref. 2410]; Dawson 1984:124 [ref. 5879] treats Hemimarsupium as a nomen nudum and in synonymy of Microphis (Coelonotus). See Hemimarsupium Kaup 1853. •Synonym of Microphis Kaup 1853 -- (Dawson 1985:126 [ref. 6541], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:591 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Coelonotus Peters 1855 -- (Kottelat 2013:302 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Coelonotus Peters 1855. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Heraldia Paxton [J. R.] 1975:441 Fem. Heraldia nocturna Paxton 1975. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Heraldia Paxton 1975 -- (Dawson 1985:95 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:419 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:446 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:822 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:453 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:186 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Heraldia Paxton 1975. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae.

Hippichthys (subgenus of Syngnathus) Bleeker [P.] 1849:15 Masc. Hippichthys heptagonus Bleeker 1849. Type by monotypy. Proposed as a section of Syngnathus. •Valid as Hippichthys Bleeker 1849 -- (Dawson 1978 [ref. 7026], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:86 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:97 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:282 [ref. 6201], Dawson 1986:451 [ref. 5650], Paxton et al. 1989:419 [ref. 12442], Kottelat 1989:16 [ref. 13605], Allen 1991:105 [ref. 21090], Paulus 1999:2268 [ref. 24794], Paxton et al. 2006:823 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:277 [ref. 30404], Satapoomin 2009:59 [ref. 30463], Jenkins & Mailautoka 2010:111 [ref. 30900], Kottelat 2013:303 [ref. 32989], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2018:123 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:50 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Hippichthys Bleeker 1849. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Hippocampus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:18 Masc. Hippocampus heptagonus Rafinesque 1810 (= Syngnathus hippocampus Linnaeus 1758). Type by monotypy. •Valid as Hippocampus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Ginsburg 1937:525 [ref. 1801], Wheeler 1973:278 [ref. 7190], Fritzsche 1980:185 [ref. 1511], Vari 1982:175 [ref. 6765], Fritzsche 1984 [ref. 13658], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:89 [ref. 6441], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:630 [ref. 13676], Dawson 1986:452 [ref. 5650], Paxton et al. 1989:420 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:447 [ref. 22532], Gomon 1997:245 [ref. 22842], Lourie et al. 1999:3 [ref. 23993], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:234 [ref. 24550], Paulus 1999:2265 [ref. 24794], Kuiter 2001:297 [ref. 25900], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Piacentino & Luzzatto 2004:339 [ref. 28610], Teske et al. 2004:273 [ref. 31602], Paxton et al. 2006:824 [ref. 29073], Lourie & Kuiter 2008:54 [ref. 29944], Kuiter 2008:453 [ref. 30642], Gomon & Kuiter 2009:37 [ref. 30036], Kuiter 2009:17 [ref. 30404], Randall & Lourie 2009:19 [ref. 30536], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:36 [ref. 36649], Oliveira et al. 2010:373 [ref. 30935], Jawad et al. 2011:147 [ref. 31521], Reijnen et al. 2011:1 [ref. 33436], Foster et al. 2012:55 [ref. 31765], Kottelat 2013:304 [ref. 32989], Silveira et al. 2014:317 [ref. 33493], Parin et al. 2014:207 [ref. 33547], Stewart 2015:1055 [ref. 34254], Lourie 2016:74 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34632], Zhang et al. 2016:384 [ref. 34762], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Han et al. 2017:113 [ref. 35660], Fricke et al. 2018:124 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:50 [ref. 36273], Short et al. 2018:27 [ref. 36055], Brown et al. 2019:171 [ref. 36444], Short et al. 2019:109 [ref. 36532], Fricke et al. 2019:94 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus Rafinesque 1810. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Hippocampus Leach [W. E.] (ex Plinius) in Leach & Nodder 1814:103 Masc. Hippocampus antiquorum Leach 1814 (= Syngnathus hippocampus Linnaeus 1758). Preoccupied. •In the synonymy of Hippocampus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Kottelat 2013:304 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus Rafinesque 1810. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Hippocampus Cuvier [G.] 1816:157 Masc. Syngnathus hippocampus Linnaeus 1758. Type by absolute tautonymy. Same as Hippocampus Rafinesque 1810; Cuvier does not cite Rafinesque. •Synonym of Hippocampus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Kottelat 2013:304 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus Rafinesque 1810. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Hippocampus Perry [G.] 1810:Pl. XVIII Masc. Syngnathus folilatus Perry 1810 Type by monotypy. Published in "Arcana 1810". Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Hippocampus Rafinesque 1810 which predates Hippocampus Perry by one month according to R. Petit (pers. comm. 9/19/2003). Published a second time in Perry 1810 in text to Pl. 18; said by Perry 1810 that it is not the same as Hippocampus •Declared a nomen protectum by Kottelat 2013:304 [ref. 32989]. Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus Rafinesque 1810. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Hippohystrix Whitley [G. P.] 1940:414 Fem. Hippocampus spinosissimus Weber 1913. Type by original designation (also monotypic). Treated by Whitley as masculine, but hystrix is feminine. •Synonym of Hippocampus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Fritzsche 1980:185 [ref. 1511], Vari 1982:175 [ref. 6765], Kuiter 2001:297 [ref. 25900], Kuiter 2009:17 [ref. 30404]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus Rafinesque 1810. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Histiogamphelus McCulloch [A. R.] 1914:30 Masc. Histiogamphelus briggsii McCulloch 1914. Type by original designation. •Valid as Histiogamphelus McCulloch 1914 -- (Dawson 1984:105 [ref. 21119], Dawson 1985:101 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:422 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:449 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:830 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:456 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:224 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Histiogamphelus McCulloch 1914. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Hymenolomus Duméril [A. H. A.] 1870:607 Masc. Hymenolomus richardsonii Duméril 1870 (= Syngnathus hymenolomus Richardson 1845). Type by monotypy. Duméril's S. richardsonii is an unneeded substitute for S. hymenolomus Richardson. Apparently predates Protocampus Günther 1870 [but months of publication not researched]. •Synonym of Entelurus Duméril 1870 -- (Wheeler 1973:278 [ref. 7190]). Current status: Synonym of Entelurus Duméril 1870. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae.

Hypselognathus Whitley [G. P.] 1948:76 Masc. Histiogamphelus rostratus Waite & Hale 1921. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Hypselognathus Whitley 1948 -- (Dawson & Glover 1982 [ref. 5444], Dawson 1985:104 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:423 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:451 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:831 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:458 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:227 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Hypselognathus Whitley 1948. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Ichthyocampus Kaup [J. J.] 1853:231 Masc. Syngnathus carce Hamilton 1822. Type by monotypy [not fully investigated] or designated by Duncker 1912 [ref. 1156]; not I. belcheri Kaup as cited by Jordan which was unavailable (name only) with original generic description. •Valid as Ichthyocampus Kaup 1853 -- (Dawson 1977:600 [ref. 1066], Dawson 1985:105 [ref. 6541], Kottelat 1989:16 [ref. 13605], Ataur Rahman 1989:35 [ref. 24860], Liang in Pan et al. 1991:343 [ref. 23876], Paulus 1999:2266 [ref. 24794], Ataur Rahman 2003:50 [ref. 31338], Kuiter 2009:280 [ref. 30404], Kottelat 2013:305 [ref. 32989], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Ichthyocampus Kaup 1853. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Idiotropiscis Whitley [G. P.] 1947:150 Masc. Acentronura australe Waite & Hale 1921. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Synonym of Acentronura Kaup 1853, but a valid subgenus Idiotropiscis -- (Dawson 1985:15 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1984 [ref. 5276], Dawson 1986:446 [ref. 5650]). •Valid as Idiotropiscis Whitley 1947 -- (Kuiter 2004:163 [ref. 27782], Teske et al. 2004:273 [ref. 31602], Paxton et al. 2006:831 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:460 [ref. 30642], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Idiotropiscis Whitley 1947. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Jamsus (subgenus of Hippocampus) Ginsburg [I.] 1937:584 Masc. Hippocampus regulus Ginsburg 1933. Type by original designation. •Synonym of Hippocampus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Vari 1982:175 [ref. 6765], Kuiter 2001:297 [ref. 25900], Kuiter 2009:17 [ref. 30404]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus Rafinesque 1810. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Kaupia Smith [J. L. B.] 1963:533 Fem. Syngnathus boaja Bleeker 1850. Type by original designation. •Synonym of Doryichthys Kaup 1856 -- (Dawson 1981:2 [ref. 5527], Dawson 1985:55 [ref. 6541], Roberts 1989:158 [ref. 6439], Kottelat 2013:302 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Doryichthys Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Kaupus (subgenus of Leptonotus) Whitley [G. P.] 1951:392 Masc. Leptonotus costatus Waite & Hale 1921. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Kaupus Whitley 1951 -- (Dawson 1984:98 [ref. 21119], Dawson 1985:107 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:423 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:453 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:832 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:461 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:221 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Kaupus Whitley 1951. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Kimblaeus Dawson [C. E.] 1980:518 Masc. Kimblaeus bassensis Dawson 1980. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Kimblaeus Dawson 1980 -- (Dawson 1985:108 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:423 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:454 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:832 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:462 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:226 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Kimblaeus Dawson 1980. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Kyonemichthys Gomon [M. F.] 2007:26 Masc. Kyonemichthys rumengani Gomon 2007. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Kyonemichthys Gomon 2007 -- (Bogorodsky et al. 2011:51 [ref. 31559], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Golani & Fricke 2018:51 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Kyonemichthys Gomon 2007. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Larvicampus Whitley [G. P.] 1948:75 Masc. Festucalex (Campichthys) runa Whitley 1931. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Synonym of Lissocampus Waite & Hale 1921 -- (Dawson 1977:600 [ref. 7047], Dawson 1985:114 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Lissocampus Waite & Hale 1921. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Leptoichthys Kaup [J. J.] 1853:233 Masc. Leptoichthys fistularius Kaup 1853. Type by monotypy. •Valid as Leptoichthys Kaup 1853 -- (Dawson 1985:110 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:423 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:454 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:832 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:463 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:226 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Leptoichthys Kaup 1853. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae.

Leptonotus Kaup [J. J.] 1853:232 Masc. Syngnathus blainvilleanus Eydoux & Gervais 1837. Type by monotypy, second included species as name only and not available; blainvillianus spelled blainvillei by Kaup. Also appeared in Kaup 1856:46 [ref. 2573]. •Valid as Leptonotus Kaup 1853 -- (Fritzsche 1980:190 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1982:40 [ref. 6764], Dawson 1985:111 [ref. 6541], Kuiter 2009:220 [ref. 30404], Stewart 2015:1056 [ref. 34254], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Luzzatto & Estalles 2019:[1] [ref. 36805]). Current status: Valid as Leptonotus Kaup 1853. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Lissocampus Waite [E. R.] & Hale [H. M.] 1921:306 Masc. Lissocampus caudalis Waite & Hale 1921. Type by monotypy. •Valid as Lissocampus Waite & Hale 1921 -- (Dawson 1977 [ref. 7047], Dawson 1985:114 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:424 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:456 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:833 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:463 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:217 [ref. 30404], Stewart 2015:1058 [ref. 34254], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Golani & Fricke 2018:51 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Lissocampus Waite & Hale 1921. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Lophocampus (subgenus of Microphis) Dawson [C. E.] 1984:166 Masc. Syngnathus retzii Bleeker 1856. Type by original designation. •Synonym of Microphis Kaup 1853, but a valid subgenus Lophocampus as described -- (Dawson 1985:126, 127 [ref. 6541]). •Synonym of Microphis Kaup 1853 -- (Dawson 1986:284 [ref. 6201], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:591 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Lophocampus Dawson 1984 -- (Kottelat 2013:305 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Lophocampus Dawson 1984. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Macleayina Fowler [H. W.] 1907:426 Fem. Hippocampus bleekeri Fowler 1907. Type by original designation. •Synonym of Hippocampus Rafinesque 1810, but a valid subgenus Macleayina -- (Ginsburg 1937:529 [ref. 1801]). •Synonym of Hippocampus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Vari 1982:175 [ref. 6765], Kuiter 2001:297 [ref. 25900], Kuiter 2009:17 [ref. 30404]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus Rafinesque 1810. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Mannarichthys Dawson [C. E.] 1977:606 Masc. Ichthyocampus pictus Duncker 1915. Type by original designation (also monotypic). Second species questionably included in genus. •Synonym of Nannocampus Günther 1870, but a valid subgenus Mannarichthys -- (Dawson 1986:456 [ref. 5650], Dawson 1985:148, 149 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Nannocampus Günther 1870. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Maroubra Whitley [G. P.] 1948:74 Fem. Maroubra perserrata Whitley 1948. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Maroubra Whitley 1948 -- (Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:86 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:119 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:424 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:458 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:834 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:466 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:184 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Maroubra Whitley 1948. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae.

Micrognathus Duncker [G.] 1912:235 Masc. Syngnathus brevirostris Rüppell 1838. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Micrognathus Duncker 1912 -- (Dawson 1982:25 [ref. 6764], Dawson 1982 [ref. 5441], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:87 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:121 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:454 [ref. 5650], Paxton et al. 1989:425 [ref. 12442], Paulus 1999:2269 [ref. 24794], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Paxton et al. 2006:834 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:233 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2018:124 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:51 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:95 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Micrognathus Duncker 1912. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Microphis Kaup [J. J.] 1853:234 Masc. Syngnathus cuncalus Hamilton 1822. Type by subsequent designation. Type designated by Jordan 1919:254 [ref. 2410] as above; Jordan & Evermann 1898:773 [ref. 2443] have "(cuneatus)" as type, but that is apparently a misspelling for cuncalus Hamilton. Duncker 1912 wrongly says type is Microphis brachyurus Bleeker 1853 (not an originally-included species). Kottelat (2013) says designated by Jordan & Evermann 1896:773 as cuncalus, deemed to be cited in the correct original form. •Valid as Microphis Kaup 1853 -- (Dawson 1984 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:126 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:454 [ref. 5650], Paxton et al. 1989:425 [ref. 12442], Kottelat 1989:16 [ref. 13605], Ataur Rahman 1989:36 [ref. 24860], Allen 1991:107 [ref. 21090], Lévêque in Lévêque et al. 1992:578 [ref. 21590], Paulus 1999:2268 [ref. 24794], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:591 [ref. 27061], Ataur Rahman 2003:51 [ref. 31338], Paxton et al. 2006:835 [ref. 29073], Snoeks & Vreven 2007:579 [ref. 30079], Scharpf 2007:36 [ref. 30398], Kuiter 2009:271 [ref. 30404], Marshall 2011:262 [ref. 31755], Kottelat 2013:305 [ref. 32989], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2018:124 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Microphis Kaup 1853. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae.

Microsyngnathus (subgenus of Syngnathus) Herald [E. S.] 1959:468 Masc. Syngnathus dunckeri Metzelaar 1919. Type by original designation. •Synonym of Bryx Herald 1940 -- (Fritzsche 1980:192 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1982:111 [ref. 6764], Dawson 1985:22 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Bryx Herald 1940. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Minyichthys (subgenus of Micrognathus) Herald [E. S.] & Randall [J. E.] 1972:137 Masc. Micrognathus brachyrhinus Herald 1953. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Minyichthys Herald & Randall 1972 -- (Dawson 1982:137 [ref. 5440], Dawson 1985:142 [ref. 6541], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:631 [ref. 13676], Paulus 1999:2268 [ref. 24794], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Kuiter 2009:231 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Minyichthys Herald & Randall 1972. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Mitotichthys Whitley [G. P.] 1948:75 Masc. Syngnathus tuckeri Scott 1942. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Mitotichthys Whitley 1948 -- (Dawson 1984:100 [ref. 21119], Dawson 1985:145 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:426 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:458 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:836 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:467 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:222 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Mitotichthys Whitley 1948. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Nannocampichthys Hora [S. L.] & Mukerji [D. D.] 1936:22 Masc. Nannocampichthys gigas Hora & Mukerji 1936. Type by original designation (also monotypic). See Das 2003:369 [ref. 27706]. •Synonym of Entelurus Duméril 1870 -- (Dawson 1978:419 [ref. 8724]) Current status: Synonym of Entelurus Duméril 1870. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae.

Nannocampus Günther [A.] 1870:178 Masc. Nannocampus subosseus Günther 1870. Type by monotypy. •Valid as Nannocampus Günther 1870 -- (Dawson 1979:488 [ref. 1068], Dawson 1985:148 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:456 [ref. 5650], Paxton et al. 1989:426 [ref. 12442], Paulus 1999:2267 [ref. 24794], Paxton et al. 2006:837 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:258 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Nannocampus Günther 1870. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Nematosoma Eichwald [C. E. von] 1831:60 Neut. Nematosoma ophidium Eichwald 1831 (= Scyphius teres Rathke 1837). Not based on Syngnathus ophidion Linnaeus. •Synonym of Nerophis Rafinesque 1810 -- (Wheeler 1973:277 [ref. 7190]). Current status: Synonym of Nerophis Rafinesque 1810. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae.

Nerophis Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:37, 57 Masc. Syngnathus ophidion Linnaeus 1758. Type by subsequent designation. Type sometimes given (e.g., as by Wheeler 1973:277) as Nerophis maculatus Rafinesque 1810; Rafinesque included both maculatus (on p. 37) and ophidion (on p. 57). Earliest designation found that of Jordan & Evermann 1896:774 [ref. 2443]. •Valid as Nerophis Rafinesque 1810 -- (Wheeler 1973:277 [ref. 7190], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:632 [ref. 13676], Savvaitova 1998:113 [ref. 23594], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:183 [ref. 28183], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:500 [ref. 29996], Kuiter 2009:242 [ref. 30404], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:37 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:208 [ref. 33547], Lourie 2016:140 [ref. 34505], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Nerophis Rafinesque 1810. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae.

Nigracus Whitley [G. P.] 1953:135 Masc. Stigmatophora nigra Kaup 1856. Type by being a replacement name. Replacement for Pipettella Whitley 1951, preoccupied by Pipettella Haeckel 1887 in Radiolaria. •Synonym of Stigmatopora Kaup 1853 -- (Dawson 1982:576 [ref. 5443], Dawson 1985:174 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Stigmatopora Kaup 1853. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Notiocampus Dawson [C. E.] 1979:482 Masc. Nannocampus ruber Ramsay & Ogilby 1886. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Notiocampus Dawson 1979 -- (Dawson 1985:152 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:427 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:461 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:837 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:469 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:216 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Notiocampus Dawson 1979. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Novacampus Whitley [G. P.] 1955:110 Masc. Syngnathus norae Waite 1910. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Synonym of Leptonotus Kaup 1853 -- (Fritzsche 1980:190 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1982:40 [ref. 6764], Dawson 1985:111 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Leptonotus Kaup 1853. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Oostethus Hubbs [C. L.] 1929:3 Masc. Doryichthys lineatus Kaup 1856. Type by original designation (also monotypic). Treated as masculine by author. •Synonym of Microphis Kaup 1853, but a valid subgenus Oostethus -- (Dawson 1984:151 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:126, 127 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:284 [ref. 6201]). •Valid as Oostethus Hubbs 1929 -- (Dawson 1982:36 [ref. 6764], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:86 [ref. 6441], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Kottelat 2013:306 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Microphis Kaup 1853 -- (Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Synonym of Microphis Kaup 1853. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae.

Osphyolax Cope [E. D.] 1876:450 Masc. Osphyolax pellucidus Cope 1876. Type by monotypy. Indicated as masculine by author. •Synonym of Nerophis Rafinesque 1810 or of Entelurus Duméril 1870. Current status: Synonym of Nerophis Rafinesque 1810. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae.

Oxleyana Whitley [G. P.] 1937:121 Fem. Syngnathus parviceps Ramsay & Ogilby 1886. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Synonym of Hippichthys Bleeker 1849 -- (Dawson 1985:96 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:282 [ref. 6201], Kottelat 2013:303 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hippichthys Bleeker 1849. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Parabelonichthys Fowler [H. W.] 1943:57 Masc. Parabelonichthys kellersi Fowler 1943. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Synonym of Microphis Kaup 1853, subgenus Belonichthys Peters 1868 -- (Dawson 1984:136 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:126, 128 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:282 [ref. 6201]). •Synonym of Microphis Kaup 1853-- (Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:591 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Belonichthys Peters 1868 -- (Kottelat 2013:301 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Belonichthys Peters 1868. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Paramicrophis Klausewitz [W.] 1955:325 Masc. Paramicrophis schmidti Klausewitz 1955. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Synonym of Microphis Kaup 1853, subgenus Microphis Kaup 1853 -- (Dawson 1984:143 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:126, 136 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:284 [ref. 6201]). •Synonym of Microphis Kaup 1853 -- (Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:591 [ref. 27061], Kottelat 2013:306 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Microphis Kaup 1853. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae.

Parasyngnathus (subgenus of Syngnathus) Duncker [G.] 1915:14, 29, 79 Masc. Syngnathus argyrostictus Kaup 1856. Type by original designation. •Synonym of Hippichthys Bleeker 1849, but a valid subgenus Parasyngnathus as described -- (Dawson 1985:96 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:451 [ref. 5650]). •Valid as Parasyngnathus Duncker 1915 -- (Dawson 1984:74 [ref. 21119], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:86 [ref. 6441]). •Synonym of Hippichthys Bleeker 1849 -- (Dawson 1978:133 [ref. 7026], Dawson 1986:282 [ref. 6201], Kottelat 2013:303 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hippichthys Bleeker 1849. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Penetopteryx Lunel [G.] 1881:275 Fem. Penetopteryx taeniocephalus Lunel 1881. Type by monotypy. •Valid as Penetopteryx Lunel 1881 -- (Dawson & Allen 1978:393 [ref. 1073], Dawson 1982:13 [ref. 6764], Dawson 1985:153 [ref. 6541], Paulus 1999:2267 [ref. 24794], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2018:126 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Penetopteryx Lunel 1881. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Peromere Duméril [A. M. C.] 1856:170 Syngnathus rondeletii Delaroche 1809. Appeared as Péromère; not available, French vernacular name only, apparently later made available. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Phanerotokeus Duncker [G.] 1940:84 Masc. Phanerotokeus gohari Duncker 1940. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Synonym of Halicampus Kaup 1856 -- (Dawson 1985:75 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Halicampus Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Phoxocampus Dawson [C. E.] 1977:612 Masc. Ichthyocampus belcheri Kaup 1856. Type by original designation. •Valid as Phoxocampus Dawson 1977 -- (Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:88 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:155 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:456 [ref. 5650], Paxton et al. 1989:427 [ref. 12442], Paulus 1999:2267 [ref. 24794], Paxton et al. 2006:838 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:268 [ref. 30404], Satapoomin 2009:59 [ref. 30463], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2018:126 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:51 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Phoxocampus Dawson 1977. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Phycodurus Gill [T. N.] 1896:159 Masc. Phyllopteryx eques Günther 1865. Type by monotypy. •Valid as Phycodurus Gill 1896 -- (Dawson 1985:157 [ref. 6541], Kuiter 1988 [ref. 6371], Paxton et al. 1989:427 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:462 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:838 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:470 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:164 [ref. 30404], Lourie 2016:150 [ref. 34505], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Phycodurus Gill 1896. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Phyllopteryx (subgenus of Hippocampus) Swainson [W.] 1839:332 Fem. Syngnathus foliatus Shaw 1804. Type by monotypy. Authorship of type is Shaw; Swainson's fig. 102 apparently a retracing of Shaw's pl. 180. •Valid as Phyllopteryx Swainson 1839 -- (Dawson 1985:158 [ref. 6541], Kuiter 1988 [ref. 6371], Paxton et al. 1989:428 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:463 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:839 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:471 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:158 [ref. 30404], Kottelat 2013:305 [ref. 32989], Orlando et al. 2015:1 [ref. 33686], Lourie 2016:152 [ref. 34505], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Phyllopteryx Swainson 1839. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Pipettella (subgenus of Stigmatopora) Whitley [G. P.] 1951:62 Fem. Stigmatophora nigra Kaup 1856. Type by original designation (also monotypic). Type species appeared first as a nomen nudum in Kaup 1853:233. Original genus of type species should have been Stigmatopora. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Pipettella Haeckel 1887 in Radiolaria, replaced by Nigracus Whitley 1953. •In the synonymy of Stigmatopora Kaup 1853 -- (Dawson 1982:576 [ref. 5443], Dawson 1985:174 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Stigmatopora Kaup 1853. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Pristidoryrhamphus Fowler [H. W.] 1944:158 Masc. Pristidoryrhamphus jacksoni Fowler 1944. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Synonym of Doryrhamphus Kaup 1856 -- (Fritzsche 1980:187 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1981:2 [ref. 5511]). Current status: Synonym of Doryrhamphus Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae.

Protocampus Günther [A.] 1870:193 Masc. Syngnathus hymenolomus Richardson 1845. Type by monotypy. Same as Hymenolomus Duméril 1870; relative dates of publication not researched. Apparently an objective synonym of Hymenolomus Duméril 1870 of earlier date. •Synonym of Entelurus Duméril 1870 -- (Wheeler 1973:278 [ref. 7190]). Current status: Synonym of Entelurus Duméril 1870. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae.

Pseudophallus Herald [E. S.] 1940:51 Masc. Siphostoma starksii Jordan & Culver 1895. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Pseudophallus Herald 1940 -- (Dawson 1982:44 [ref. 6764], Dawson 1985:161 [ref. 6541], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:234 [ref. 24550], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:591 [ref. 27061], Scharpf 2007:36 [ref. 30398], Kuiter 2009:241 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Pseudophallus Herald 1940. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Pterure Duméril [A. M. C.] 1856:169 Syngnathus aequoreus Linnaeus 1758. Appeared as Ptérure; not available, French vernacular. •In the synonymy of Entelurus Duméril 1870. Current status: Synonym of Entelurus Duméril 1870. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae.

Pugnaso Whitley [G. P.] 1948:75 Masc. Syngnathus curtirostris Castelnau 1872. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Pugnaso Whitley 1948 -- (Dawson 1984:95 [ref. 21119], Dawson 1985:162 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:428 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:464 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:839 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:472 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:213 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Pugnaso Whitley 1948. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Runcinatus Whitley [G. P.] 1929:356 Masc. Solegnathus dunckeri Whitley 1927. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Synonym of Solegnathus Swainson 1839 -- (Dawson 1982:140 [ref. 5442]). •Synonym of Solegnathus Swainson 1839, but a valid subgenus Runcinatus -- (Dawson 1985:169 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Solegnathus Swainson 1839. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Scyphius Risso [A.] 1827:185 Masc. Syngnathus fasciatus Risso 1810. Type by subsequent designation [details not researched], five included species. •Synonym of Nerophis Rafinesque 1810 -- (Wheeler 1973:277 [ref. 7190], Parin et al. 2014:208 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Nerophis Rafinesque 1810. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae.

Simocampus (subgenus of Bryx) Fritzsche [R. A.] 1980:193 Masc. Siphostoma arctum Jenkins & Evermann 1889. Type by original designation. •Synonym of Cosmocampus Dawson 1979 -- (Dawson 1982:120 [ref. 6764], Dawson 1985:47 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Cosmocampus Dawson 1979. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Simosyngnathus Fowler [H. W.] 1940:12 Masc. Siphostoma crinigerum Bean & Dresel 1884. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Objective synonym of Anarchopterus Hubbs 1935 -- (Dawson 1982:33 [ref. 6764]). Current status: Synonym of Anarchopterus Hubbs 1935. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Siokunichthys Herald [E. S.] in Schultz et al. 1953:254 Masc. Siokunichthys herrei Herald 1953. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Siokunichthys Herald 1953 -- (Dawson 1983 [ref. 5351], Dawson 1985:165 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:428 [ref. 12442], Paulus 1999:2267 [ref. 24794], Paxton et al. 2006:840 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:269 [ref. 30404], Lourie 2016:145 [ref. 34505], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Golani & Fricke 2018:51 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Siokunichthys Herald 1953. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Siphonostoma Agassiz [L.] 1846:342 Neut. Syngnathus pelagicus Linnaeus 1758. Type by being an unjustified emendation. Fowler (MS) treats as an emendation of Siphostoma Rafinesque, with different type. Agassiz 1846 used this spelling earlier; see Siphostoma Rafinesque. •Synonym of Syngnathus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:592 [ref. 27061], Kottelat 2013:307 [ref. 32989], Parin et al. 2014:208 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Siphostoma Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:18 Neut. Syngnathus pelagicus Linnaeus 1758. Type by subsequent designation. Apparently first type designation is by Jordan & Evermann 1896:761 [ref. 2443]. Spelled Siphonostomus and Siphonostoma by authors; Siphonostoma Agassiz 1846:342 [ref. 64] is an unjustified emendation. •Synonym of Syngnathus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Wheeler 1973:274 [ref. 7190], Fritzsche 1980:198 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1982:55 [ref. 6764], Dawson 1985:181 [ref. 6541], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:229 [ref. 24550], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:592 [ref. 27061], Kottelat 2013:307 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Solegnathus (subgenus of Syngnathus) Swainson [W.] 1839:195, 333 Masc. Syngnathus hardwickii Gray 1830. Type by monotypy. Solenognathus Agassiz 1846:343, 344 [ref. 64] is an unjustified emendation; this spelling also used by early authors (e.g., Bleeker). •Valid as Solegnathus Swainson 1839 -- (Dawson 1982 [ref. 5442], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:89 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:169 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:429 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:465 [ref. 22532], Paulus 1999:2266 [ref. 24794], Paxton et al. 2006:840 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:472 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:150 [ref. 30404], Stewart 2015:1059 [ref. 34254], Lourie 2016:152 [ref. 34505], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Solegnathus Swainson 1839. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Stigmatopora Kaup [J. J.] 1853:233 Fem. Syngnathus argus Richardson 1840. Type by monotypy, second species unavailable. Subsequent spellings include Stigmatophora (e.g., Kaup himself in 1856:52 [ref. 2575]) and Stigmatophota. •Valid as Stigmatopora Kaup 1853 -- (Dawson 1982 [ref. 5443], Dawson 1985:174 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:430 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:467 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:842 [ref. 29073], Browne & Smith 2007:1 [ref. 29428], Kuiter 2008:474 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:286 [ref. 30404], Stewart 2015:1060 [ref. 34254], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Stigmatopora Kaup 1853. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Stipecampus Whitley [G. P.] 1948:75 Masc. Ichthyocampus cristatus McCulloch & Waite 1918. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Stipecampus Whitley 1948 -- (Dawson 1977:646 [ref. 1066], Dawson 1985:178 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:430 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:470 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:843 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:476 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:225 [ref. 30404], Lourie 2016:146 [ref. 34505], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Stipecampus Whitley 1948. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Syngnathoides Bleeker [P.] 1851:231, 259 Masc. Syngnathoides blochii Bleeker 1851. Type by monotypy. •Valid as Syngnathoides Bleeker 1851 -- (Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:89 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:179 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:456 [ref. 5650], Paxton et al. 1989:431 [ref. 12442], Paulus 1999:2266 [ref. 24794], Paxton et al. 2006:843 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:155 [ref. 30404], Satapoomin 2009:59 [ref. 30463], Lourie 2016:154 [ref. 34505], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2018:126 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:52 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathoides Bleeker 1851. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Syngnathus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:336 Masc. Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758. Type by subsequent designation. Type designated by Fowler 1906:93 [ref. 1371], predating Jordan 1912:103 as given by ICZN; on Official List (Opinion 77, Direction 56); Syngnathus Rafinesque 1810 placed on Official Index (Direction 56). Name spelled Sygnatus by Wulff 1765:52 [ref. 17844], and Singnatus by Anonymous (Cabrera, Pérez & Haenseler) 1817:10 [ref. 17319], see Graells 1887:184 [ref. 30438]. Also appeared as new in Billberg 1833:52, 53 [ref. 34146] with reference to Artedi 1738:2 [ref. 30349], 1738:1 [ref. 30578]; see Kullander 2016:111 [ref. 34147]. •Valid as Syngnathus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Wheeler 1973:274 [ref. 7190], Fritzsche 1980:198 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1982:55 [ref. 6764], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:87 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:181 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Dawson 1986:457 [ref. 5650], Liang in Pan et al. 1991:340 [ref. 23876], Savvaitova 1998:113 [ref. 23594], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:228 [ref. 24550], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:335 [ref. 25968], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:592 [ref. 27061], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:183 [ref. 28183], Teske et al. 2004:274 [ref. 31602], Scharpf 2007:36 [ref. 30398], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:500 [ref. 29996], Kuiter 2009:244 [ref. 30404], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:37 [ref. 36649], Kottelat 2013:307 [ref. 32989], Parin et al. 2014:208 [ref. 33547], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:895 [ref. 34062], Pietsch & Orr 2015:29 [ref. 34694], Lourie 2016:147 [ref. 34505], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:59 [ref. 35138], Matsunuma 2017:385 [ref. 35141], Esmaeili et al. 2017:94 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:76 [ref. 36089], Golani & Fricke 2018:52 [ref. 36273], Oruç & Engin 2018:1 [ref. 35841]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Syrictes Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1927:504 Masc. Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839. Type by original designation (also monotypic). Described as a new genus of Syngnathidae, but they also state, "This subgenus includes..." •Synonym of Syngnathus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Fritzsche 1980:198 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1982:55 [ref. 6764], Dawson 1985:181 [ref. 6541], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:592 [ref. 27061], Kottelat 2013:307 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Tigricampus Whitley [G. P.] 1934 Masc. Syngnathus tigris Castelnau 1879. Considered by Dawson 1985 to be a nomen nudum, however Whitley indicated a type species and referred to treatment in McCulloch 1922. •Synonym of Syngnathus Linnaeus 1758. Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Tiphle Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:18 Fem. Tiphle hexagonus Rafinesque 1810 (= Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758). Type by subsequent designation. Apparently earliest type designation is by Jordan 1917:78 [ref. 2407]. Genus spelled Tiphle and Linnaeus' species misspelled tiphle instead of typhle, so no tautonymy. Not preoccupied by Typhle Lacepède 1800 in mammals. •Synonym of Syngnathus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Wheeler 1973:274 [ref. 7190], Dawson 1982:55 [ref. 6764], Dawson 1985:181 [ref. 6541], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:592 [ref. 27061], Kottelat 2013:307 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Trachyrhamphus Kaup [J. J.] 1853:231 Masc. Syngnathus serratus Temminck & Schlegel 1850. Type by monotypy - only one available species among three included. As Trachyrhynchus Kaup 1856:25 (name only). Spelled Trachyrrhamphus by Duncker 1902:232 [not researched]. •Valid as Trachyrhamphus Kaup 1853 -- (Dawson et al. 1979:248 [ref. 21118], Dawson 1984 [ref. 5291], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:88 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:190 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:457 [ref. 5650], Paxton et al. 1989:431 [ref. 12442], Paxton et al. 2006:844 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:209 [ref. 30404], Lourie 2016:148 [ref. 34505], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2018:127 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:52 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:97 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Trachyrhamphus Kaup 1853. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Typhlinus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1815:90 Masc. As "Typhlinus R. sp. do.," meaning a new name for a species formerly in the preceding genus Syngnathus. Not available, name only; perhaps intended for Typhle or Tiphle. Misspelled Tiphlinus in Jordan 1917:91 [ref. 2407]. Treated as a replacement name for Typhle by Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:592 [ref. 27061]. •In the synonymy of Syngnathus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:592 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Typhlus Duméril [A. H. A.] (ex Bibron) 1870:540 Masc. Not available, name from Bibron manuscript mentioned in synonymy under Ichthyocampus ponticerianus Kaup. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Urocampus Günther [A.] 1870:179 Masc. Urocampus nanus Günther 1870. Type by monotypy. •Valid as Urocampus Günther 1870 -- (Dawson 1980 [ref. 6909], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:88 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:194 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:431 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:470 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:845 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:476 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:282 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Urocampus Günther 1870. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Vanacampus (subgenus of Parasyngnathus) Whitley [G. P.] 1951:62 Masc. Syngnathus vercoi Waite & Hale 1921. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Vanacampus Whitley 1951 -- (Dawson 1984:80 [ref. 21119], Dawson 1985:197 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:432 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:472 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:845 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:477 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:214 [ref. 30404], Lourie 2016:149 [ref. 34505], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Vanacampus Whitley 1951. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

Yozia Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:8 Fem. Yozia wakanourae Jordan & Snyder 1901. Type by original designation. •Valid as Yozia Jordan & Snyder 1901 -- (Dawson et al. 1979 [ref. 21118]). •Synonym of Trachyrhamphus Kaup 1853 -- (Dawson 1984:165 [ref. 5291], Dawson 1985:190 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Trachyrhamphus Kaup 1853. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.