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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Anostomidae: [ 202 ] records


acutidens, Curimatus Valenciennes [A.] 1837:Pl. 8 (fig. 1) [Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale; ref. 20720] South America. No types known. Name available from plate, description in Valenciennes 1847:9 [ref. 5010] as Curimates acutidens. Pl. 8 was published in 1837. •Synonym of Leporinus friderici (Bloch 1794), but a valid subspecies acutidens -- (Géry et al. 1991:8 [ref. 21021], Planquette et al. 1996:158 [ref. 22818], Nión et al. 2016:27 [ref. 35565] with date 1847). •Synonym of Leporinus friderici (Bloch 1794) -- (Taphorn 1992:42 [ref. 23654]). •Valid as Leporinus acutidens (Valenciennes 1837) -- (see Miquelarena et al. 1997:68 [ref. 23469] on Braga 1993, Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:14 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:72 [ref. 28131], Mirande & Koerber 2015:13 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:17 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus acutidens (Valenciennes 1837). Anostomidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin and Guiana rivers: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

affinis, Leporinus Steindachner [F.] 1875:228 [18], Pl. 3 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 71 (no. 3); ref. 18773] Rio Arassuahy, tributary of Rio Jequitinhomha, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW 68405. On p. 18 of separate. Clearly labeled a new species. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Leporinus affinis Günther 1864. •In the synonymy of Leporinus steindachneri Eigenmann 1907 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:78 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Uncertain as Leporinus steindachneri Eigenmann 1907. Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

affinis, Leporinus Günther [A.] 1864:308 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Rio Capin [= Capim], Pará State, Brazil. Syntypes: (at least 4) BMNH 1849.11.8.52-53 (2). •Synonym of Leporinus fasciatus (Bloch 1794), but a valid subspecies -- (Gómez & Chebez 1996:53 [ref. 23791]). •Valid as Leporinus affinis Günther 1864 -- (Mahnert et al. 1997:842 [ref. 23282], Santos & Jégu 1990:164 [ref. 20180], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:74 [ref. 27061], Britski & Birindelli 2016:36 [ref. 34393], Burns et al. 2017:18 [ref. 35416], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus affinis Günther 1864. Anostomidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

agassizii, Leporinus Steindachner [F.] 1876:107 [59], Pl. 9 (fig. 4) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] Amazon River at Tabatinga and Teffe; River Iça, Brazil. Lectotype: MMW 90680.1. Paralectotypes: (5) NMW 68416-17 (2, 2). On p. 59 of separate. •Valid as Leporinus agassizii Steindachner 1876 -- (Chang & Ortega 1995:3 [ref. 24302] as agassizi, Santos & Jégu 1996:164 [ref. 23717] as agassizi, Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:74 [ref. 27061] as agassizi, Birindelli et al. 2013:238 [ref. 32781], Barriga Salazar 2014:105 [ref. 35745] as agassizi, Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus agassizii Steindachner 1876. Anostomidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

aguapeiensis, Leporinus Amaral Campos [A.] 1945:154, Fig. [Papéis Avulsos do Departamento de Zoologia, Secretaria da Agricultura, São Paulo v. 5 (no. 16); ref. 13117] Rio Aguapeí, Estado de São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MZUSP [ex DZSASP] 3040. Type catalog: Britski 1969:204 [ref. 12401], Oyakawa 1996:472 [ref. 23140]. •Synonym of Leporinus silvestrii Boulenger 1902 -- (Johannes 1999:16 [ref. 24121]). •Valid as Leporinus aguapeiensis Amaral Campos 1945 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:74 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Leporinus obtusidens (Valenciennes 1837) -- (Britski et al. 2012:451 [ref. 32317], Litz & Koerber 2014:8 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:13 [ref. 35117]). •Synonym of Megaleporinus obtusidens (Valenciennes 1837) -- (Koerber et al. 2017:18 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Megaleporinus obtusidens (Valenciennes 1837). Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

alternus, Leporinus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:307 [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Tukeit, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53361 [ex CM 1827]. Paratypes: (14) BMNH 1911.10.31.466 (1); CAS 61863-64 [ex IU 12117-18] (1, 3); FMNH 7324 (1), 53360 (1), 53362 (3); MCZ 29924 [ex CM/IUM] (1); CAS-SU 21900 (1); USNM 66219 [ex CM] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:57 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:25 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:51 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:29 [ref. 19022]. •Synonym of Leporinus pellegrini Steindachner 1910 -- (Johannes 1999:15 [ref. 24121]). •Valid as Leporinus alternus Eigenmann 1912 -- (Garavello 2000:199 [ref. 24492], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:74 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Leporinus maculatus Müller & Troschel 1844 -- (Géry et al. 1988:704 [ref. 27759], Mol et al. 2012:286 [ref. 32607]). Current status: Synonym of Leporinus maculatus Müller & Troschel 1844. Anostomidae. Distribution: Coastal rivers of Guianas and upper Amazon River basin: Brazil, Guyana and Venezuela (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

altipinnis, Leporinus faciatus Borodin [N. A.] 1929:280, Pl. 8 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 50 (no. 3); ref. 527] Jatuarana, creek or small lake near Barreirinha, Parintins, Amazonas, Brazil. Syntypes: MCZ 20487 (2). •Status uncertain -- (Mahnert et al. 1997:843 [ref. 23282]). •Synonym of Leporinus fasciatus (Bloch 1794) -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Leporinus altipinnis Borodin 1929 -- (Britski & Birindelli 2016:27 [ref. 34393], Burns et al. 2017:18 [ref. 35416]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus altipinnis Borodin 1929. Anostomidae. Distribution: Rio Tapajós, rio Negro and río Orinoco, Brazil and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

altoparanae, Schizodon Garavello [J. C.] & Britski [H. A.] 1990:158, Fig. 1A [Naturalia (Rio Claro) v. 15; ref. 23182] Rio Paraná, em frente a Jupiá, MT, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 41102. Paratypes: MZUSP 4018 (1), 41104-20 (26), 41121 (2), 41122 (3). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:494 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Schizodon altoparanae Garavello & Britski 1990 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Schizodon altoparanae Garavello & Britski 1990. Anostomidae. Distribution: Paraná River basin, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

amae, Leporinus Godoy [M. P. de] 1980:23, Fig. 14 [Poluiçao -- peixes e pesca; ref. 19214] Rio Apuaê, Brazil. Holotype: MHNP. Paratypes: MHNP (1), AMA-Electrosul (1). •Valid as Leporinus amae Godoy 1980 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:74 [ref. 27061], Feitosa et al. 2011:59 [ref. 31661], Serra et al. 2013:1577 [ref. 33003], Koerber 2014:2 [ref. 33621], Litz & Koerber 2014:8 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:13 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:411 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:27 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus amae Godoy 1980. Anostomidae. Distribution: Brazil to Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

amazonicus, Leporinus Santos [G. M. dos] & Zuanon [J.] 2008:36, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa No. 1815; ref. 29701] Lago Catalão, 3°10'08"S, 59°55'01"W, Rio Amazonas at the confluenmce of rios Negro and Salimões, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 22861. Paratypes: INPA 22125 (1), 22860 (1), 22863 (1), 22864 (1), 24734 (1), 26059 (1), 26060 (1), 26061 (1), 26062 (1), 26063 (1); MZUSP 95190 [ex. INPA 22862] (1). •Valid as Leporinus amazonicus Santos & Zuanon 2008 -- (Sidlauskas & Mol 2011:[12] [ref. 31287] with major range extension, Burns et al. 2014:213 [ref. 33354], Garavello et al. 2014:325 [ref. 33378], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus amazonicus Santos & Zuanon 2008. Anostomidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

amblyrhynchus, Leporinus Garavello [J. C.] & Britski [H. A.] 1987:154, Fig. 1a [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRS No. 44; ref. 6851] Rio Tietê, Itu, São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 14411. Paratypes: MHNP (1); MZUSP 3523 (1), 4009 (1), 14412 (8), 14414-18 (2, 1, 5, 4, 1), 37402-03 (5, 14), 37404-05 (1, 2). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:472 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Leporinus amblyrhynchus Garavello & Britski 1987 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:74 [ref. 27061], Britski & Garavello 2005:81 [ref. 28950], Birindelli & Britski 2009:8 [ref. 30144], Feitosa et al. 2011:56 [ref. 31661], Britski et al. 2012:458 [ref. 32317], Britski & Birindelli 2019:190 [ref. 36700]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus amblyrhynchus Garavello & Britski 1987. Anostomidae. Distribution: Paraná River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

anostomus, Anostomus Meuschen [F. C.] 1778:37 [Museum Gronovianum; ref. 17682] Not available, published in a rejected work (Opinion 260). Not an independent species description, but a new genus assigned for Salmo anostomus Linnaeus 1758. •In the synonymy of Anostomus anostomus (Linnaeus 1758). Anostomidae.

anostomus, Salmo Linnaeus [C.] 1758:312 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] South America. Holotype (unique): ZMUC 89. Type information: Wheeler 1989:212, Fig. 3A [ref. 21873]. •Valid as Anostomus anostomus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27061], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27061], Sidlauskas & Santos 2005:121 [ref. 28904], Sidlauskas & Vari 2008:74 [ref. 29786], Barriga Salazar 2014:105 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Anostomus anostomus (Linnaeus 1758). Anostomidae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco River basins: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Guyana, Peru and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

apollo, Leporinus Sidlauskas [B. L.], Mol [J. H. A.] & Vari [R. P.] 2011:[11], Figs. 3-4 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 162 (no. 1); ref. 31287] Sidonkrutu, sand island and channel, 4°31'51"N, 56°30'56"W, Coppername River, Saramacca, Suriname. Holotype: FMNH 116827. Paratypes: MHNG 2672.085 (1), 2673.002 (3), 2673-083 (1), 2673-098 (1); NCZS F-7067 [ex USNM 225993] (1), 7068 [ex MHNG 2672.085] (1); USNM 225993 (7) •Valid as Leporinus apollo Sidlauskas, Mol & Vari 2011. Current status: Valid as Leporinus apollo Sidlauskas, Mol & Vari 2011. Anostomidae. Distribution: Suriname, Corantijn and Coppername rivers, Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

arcus, Leporinus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:300, Pl. 42 (fig. 3) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Tukeit, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53366 [ex CM 1832]. Paratypes: CAS 18544 [ex IU 12122] (1); FMNH 53795 [ex CM 2296] (1). Additional original material: BMNH 1912.1.31.3 (1); CAS 61865-67 [ex IU 12119-21] (1, 1, 1); FMNH 53363-65 (1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:57 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:51 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Leporinus arcus Eigenmann 1912 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:74 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento 2016:527 [ref. 34727], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[3] [ref. 35679], Birindelli et al. 2019:5 [ref. 36868]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus arcus Eigenmann 1912. Anostomidae. Distribution: French Guiana, Suriname, Guyana and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

argenteofuscus, Rhytiodus Kner [R.] 1858:79 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 30 (no. 13); ref. 13404] Rio Negro, Brazil. No types known. Originally as argenteo-fuscus. Appeared in more detail in Kner 1859:166, Pl. 7 (fig. 16) [ref. 2631]. •Valid as Rhytiodus argenteofuscus Kner 1858 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:79 [ref. 27061], Barriga Salazar 2014:105 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:40, 183 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Rhytiodus argenteofuscus Kner 1858. Anostomidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

arimaspi, Leporinus Burns [M. D.], Frable [B. W.] & Sidlauskas [B. L.] 2014:207, Figs. 1-6 [Copeia 2014 (no. 2); ref. 33354] Amazonas, Río Casiquiare, 152.92 km NE of San Carlos de Río Negro, 2°47'56"N, 66°00'23"W, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-35695. Paratypes: many from ANSP, AUM, CAS, MBUCV, OS. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Leporinus arimaspi Burns, Frable & Sidlauskas 2014. Current status: Valid as Leporinus arimaspi Burns, Frable & Sidlauskas 2014. Anostomidae. Distribution: Amazonas, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

aripuanaensis, Leporinus Garavello [J. C.] & Santos [G. M. dos] 1992:112, Fig. 1B [Bulletin Zoölogisch Museum, Universiteit van Amsterdam v. 13 (no. 12); ref. 20885] Igarapé do Aeroporto, tributary of Rio Aripuanã, Humboldt, Aripuanã, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 14495. Paratypes: INPA 1532-34 (8, 4, 1), MZUSP 14496 (2). Appeared first in Garavello & Santos 1981 [ref. 19202] with brief diagnoses -- apparently available from 1981-- see that account. •See Leporinus aripuanaensis Garavello & Santos 1981. Current status: Synonym of Leporinus aripuanaensis Garavello & Santos 1981. Anostomidae. Distribution: Aripuanã River basin, Brazil.

aripuanaensis, Leporinus Garavello [J. C.] & Santos [G. M. dos] 1981:188 [Anais do III Encontro de Zoologia do Nordeste. v. 13 (no. 12); ref. 19202] Igarapé, do Aeroporto, tributary of Rio Aripuanã, Humboldt, Aripuaná, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 14495. Paratypes: INPA 1532-34 (8, 4, 1), MZUSP 14496 (2). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:473 [ref. 23140]. Appeared first as above with a brief diagnosis; apparently available from 1981. Described in more detail in Garavello & Santos 1992:112, Fig. 1B [ref. 20885]. •Wrongly as a nomen nudum is in the synonymy of Leporinus aripuanaensis Garavello & Santos 1992 -- (dos Santos & Jégu 1996:167 [ref. 23717]). •Valid as Leporinus aripuanaensis Garavello & Santos 1981 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:74 [ref. 27061] dated to 1992, Burns et al. 2014:213 [ref. 33354], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus aripuanaensis Garavello & Santos 1981. Anostomidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

atrianalis, Anostomoides Pellegrin [J.] 1909:346 [5] [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 1) v. 14 (no. 7)[1908]; ref. 3423] Río Orinoco, Venezuela. Lectotype: MNHN 1887-0761. Paralectotypes: MNHN 1887-0798 and 0799 (2). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:32 [ref. 19577]. On p. 5 of separate. Lectotype designated by Assega & Birindelli 2019:132 [ref. 36847]. •Valid as Anostomoides atrianalis Pellegrin 1909 -- (Santos & Jégu 1990:165 [ref. 20180], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27061], Santos & Zuanon 2006:59 [ref. 28618], Assega & Birindelli 2019:129 [ref. 36847]). Current status: Valid as Anostomoides atrianalis Pellegrin 1909. Anostomidae. Distribution: South America: Orinoco River basin, Venezuela; Essequibo River basin, Guyana; Amazonas River basin, Bolovia, Brazil, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

australis, Schizodon Garavello [J. C.] 1994:182, Fig. 1a [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRS, Série Zoologia v. 7; ref. 22129] Rio Uruguai, Porto de Santo Izidro, Munic. São Nicolau, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 12931. Paratypes: MCP 12929 (2), 12936 (3) 12973 (1), 13279 (1); MZUSP 47445-46 (1, 1). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:494 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Schizodon australis Garavello 1994 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27061], Bertaco et al. 2016:411 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Schizodon australis Garavello 1994. Anostomidae. Distribution: Uruguay River basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

badueli, Leporinus Puyo [J.] 1948:81 [4], Fig. 2 [Bulletin de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Toulouse v. 83 (nos 1-2); ref. 13029] Creek near the "mountain" at Baduel and creek on the left bank of the Mana River, French Guiana. Syntypes: (2) lost. On p. 4 of separate. •Valid as Leporinus badueli Puyo 1948 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:74 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Leporinus granti Eigenmann 1912 -- (Géry et al. 1991:9 [ref. 21021], Britski & Birindelli 2013:30 [ref. 32699]). Current status: Synonym of Leporinus granti Eigenmann 1912. Anostomidae. Distribution: South America: Mana River (French Guiana) (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

bahiensis, Leporinus Steindachner [F.] 1875:231 [21], Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 71 (no. 3); ref. 18773] Bahia, Brazil. Syntypes: (10) not yet found at NMW. On p. 21 of separate. •Valid as Leporinus bahiensis Steindachner 1875 -- (Taphorn 1992:43 [ref. 23654], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:74 [ref. 27061], Vita et al. 2020:[5] [ref. 37506]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus bahiensis Steindachner 1875. Anostomidae. Distribution: South America: Bahia (Brazil) endemic. Habitat: freshwater.

bidens, Gnathodolus Myers [G. S.] 1927:108 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 68 (no. 3); ref. 3096] Chemoni, Río Cassiquiare, Venezuela. Holotype: CAS 20087 [ex IU 17670]. Paratypes: CAS 27651 [ex IU 17671] (1), MCZ 31566 (1, missing). •Valid as Gnathodolus bidens Myers 1927 -- (Santos & Jégu 1996:160 [ref. 23717], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27061], Sidlauskas & Santos 2005:121 [ref. 28904], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Gnathodolus bidens Myers 1927. Anostomidae. Distribution: Orinoco and Casquiare rivers, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

bimaculatus, Leporinus Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:58, Pl. 29 (fig. 1) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Rio Vermelho, Goiás; San Juâo das duas Barras, Tocantins, Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN A-8620 (1), ?A-9797 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:33 [ref. 19577] with a holotype. •Valid as Leporinus bimaculatus Castelnau 1855 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:74 [ref. 27061], Britski et al. 2012:470 [ref. 32317], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus bimaculatus Castelnau 1855. Anostomidae. Distribution: Tocantins River basin, Brazil and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

biribiri, Salmo Natterer [J.] in Kner 1859:170 [34] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 17; ref. 2631] Manaus, Brazil; Rio Branco, South America. On p. 34 of separate. Not available, name mentioned in passing with locality. •Treated as species inquirenda in Leporinus -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:79 [ref. 27061]). Anostomidae.

bistriatus, Leporinus Britski [H. A.] 1997:28, Fig. 1 [Communicações do Museu de Ciêcias da PUCRS v. 10; ref. 24113] Rio Itacaiunas, Igarapé Ãguas Claras, Caldeirão, Serra dos Carajás, PA, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 31477. Paratypes: MZUSP 51072 (2), 51211 (1). •Valid as Leporinus bistriatus Britski 1997 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:74 [ref. 27061], Feitosa et al. 2011:59 [ref. 31661]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus bistriatus Britski 1997. Anostomidae. Distribution: Tocantins River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

bleheri, Leporinus Géry [J.] 1999:108, Figs. 5-8 [aqua, Journal of Ichthyology and Aquatic Biology v. 3 (no. 3); ref. 24139] Rio Verde, tributary of the Iténez (Guaporé), Bolivia, at the border with Brazil, about 30 kilometers from mouth, about 14°08'S, 60°30'W. Holotype: MHNG 2599.60. Paratypes: Géry coll. 1007-1998-1 (1), MNHN no. pending (1), MZUSP 58375 (1). •Valid as Leporinus bleheri Géry 1999 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:74 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], Britski & Birindelli 2016:37 [ref. 34393], Burns et al. 2017:19 [ref. 35416]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus bleheri Géry 1999. Anostomidae. Distribution: Iténez-Guapore River basin: Bolivia and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

boehlkei, Leporinus Garavello [J. C.] 1988:144, Fig. 1A [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 140 (no. 2); ref. 14272] Stream into Lago Mozambique, Río Meta system, Colombia, about 3°58'N, 73°04'W. Holotype: ANSP 136487. Paratypes: ANSP 135432-33 (16, 10), 136489 (2), 138803 (3), 140316 (2); MZUSP 28061 (6, not 1). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:473 [ref. 23140]; DoNascimiento et al. 2016:405 [ref. 34787]. •Valid as Leporinus boehlkei Garavello 1988 -- (Garavello 2000:198 [ref. 24492], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:74 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus boehlkei Garavello 1988. Anostomidae. Distribution: Meta River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

boops, Salmo Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:377 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. Corresponds to Salmo 11-radiatus on p. 387. Appeared as Salmo boops vel 11-radiatus in Devincenzi 1925:312, 322 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Leporinus obtusidens Valenciennes 1847. •Species inquirenda in Leporinus -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:79 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Leporinus obtusidens (Valenciennes 1837) -- (Litz & Koerber 2014:8 [ref. 33622] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:13 [ref. 35117] with question). •Synonym of Megaleporinus obtusidens (Valenciennes 1837) -- (Koerber et al. 2017:18 [ref. 35267] with question). Current status: Synonym of Megaleporinus obtusidens (Valenciennes 1837). Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

borellii, Anostomus Boulenger [G. A.] 1900:2 [Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata della R. Università di Torino v. 15 (no. 370); ref. 14722] Carandasiñho [Carandazinho] near Corumba, Rio Paraguay, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype (unique): BMNH. •Valid as Schizodon borellii (Boulenger 1900) -- (Garavello 1994:186 [ref. 22129] as borelli, Garavello & Britski 1990:161 [ref. 23182] as borelli, Sverlij et al. 1998:27 [ref. 27632] as borelli, Britski et al. 1999:80 [ref. 24147], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:15 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:72 [ref. 28131], Litz & Koerber 2014:8 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:41, 183 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:13 [ref. 35117], Nión et al. 2016:27 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:18 [ref. 35267], Garavello & Britski 2019:[6] [ref. 37011]). Current status: Valid as Schizodon borellii (Boulenger 1900). Anostomidae. Distribution: South America: Paraguay River basin: Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Brazil and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

breviceps, Leporinus crassilabris Borodin [N. A.] 1929:275 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 50 (no. 3); ref. 527] Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 20419. •Synonym of Leporinus crassilabris Borodin 1929 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Leporinus elongatus Valenciennes 1850 -- (Britski et al. 2012:443 [ref. 32317]). •Synonym of Megaleporinus elongatus (Valenciennes 1850). Current status: Synonym of Megaleporinus elongatus (Valenciennes 1850). Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

brevior, Anostomus Géry [J.] 1961:499, Fig. 1 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 32 (no. 6) (1960); ref. 9350] Camopi River, a tributary of Oyapok, French Guaina. Holotype: MNHN 1901-0405. Paratypes: MNHN 1901-0406 to 0409 (4); SMF 5372 (1); ZMA 114304 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:13 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Anostomus brevior Géry 1961 -- (Géry et al. 1991:19 [ref. 21021], Planquette et al. 1996:144 [ref. 22818], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27061], Sidlauskas & Santos 2005:121 [ref. 28904], Sidlauskas & Vari 2008:74 [ref. 29786]). Current status: Valid as Anostomus brevior Géry 1961. Anostomidae. Distribution: Oyapock River basin, French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

brinco, Leporinus Birindelli [J. L. O.], Britski [H. A.] & Garavello [J. C.] 2013:16, Figs. 10-12 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 11 (no. 1); ref. 32698] Itajibá, rio Gongogi, tributary of rio de Contas, 14°21'16.5"S, 39°46'23.9"W, Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 105166. Paratypes: Many at ANSP, UFBA, MZUSP. •Valid as Megaleporinus brinco (Birindelli, Britski & Garavello 2013) -- (Ramirez et al. 2017:312 [ref. 34945], Birindelli et al. 2020:8 [ref. 37400]). Current status: Valid as Megaleporinus brinco (Birindelli, Britski & Garavello 2013). Anostomidae. Distribution: Rio de Contas drainage, Bahia, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

britskii, Leporinus Feitosa [F. da S.], Santos [G. M. dos] & Birindelli [J. L. O.] 2011:56, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa No. 3120; ref. 31661] Rio Jamanxim, near Vila Mil, 7°43'51"S, 55°16'36"W, Novo Progresso, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 109771. Paratypes: ANSP 192112 (5); INPA 6648 (2), 6702 (5), 6809 (4), 33711 (5); MZUSP 97279 (13), 97374 (19). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Leporinus britskii Feitosa, Santos & Birindelli 2011 -- (Britski & Birindelli 2019:190 [ref. 36700]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus britskii Feitosa, Santos & Birindelli 2011. Anostomidae. Distribution: Tapajós and Jari river drainages, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

brunneus, Leporinus Myers [G. S.] 1950:195 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 3 (no. 4); ref. 3124] Rio Negro at Cachoeira Camanaos, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: CAS-SU 16125. Paratypes: CAS 20137-38 (1, 1); FMNH 71313 (1); CAS-SU 16292-95 (1, 1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:25 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:51 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Leporinus brunneus Myers 1950 -- (Chernoff et al. 1991 [ref. 19790], Santos & Jégu 1996:163 [ref. 23717], Garavello 2000:199 [ref. 24492], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:74 [ref. 27061], Britski & Garavello 2005:81 [ref. 28950], Santos & Zuanon 2008:41 [ref. 29701], Burns et al. 2014:213 [ref. 33354], Garavello et al. 2014:325 [ref. 33378], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus brunneus Myers 1950. Anostomidae. Distribution: Orinoco and Negro River basins: Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

cagoara, Salmo Natterer [J.] in Kner 1859:172 [36] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 17; ref. 2631] On p. 36 of separate. Not available, no distinguishing features; from Irisanga ( = Orissanga), Brazil. •In the synonymy of Leporellus vittatus (Valenciennes 1850) -- (Taphorn 1992:36 [ref. 23654]). •In the synonymy of Leporellus vittatus (Valenciennes 1850) -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Leporellus vittatus (Valenciennes 1850). Anostomidae.

cartledgei, Leporellus Fowler [H. W.] 1941:177, Fig. 89 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 1437] Penedo, Rio São Francisco, Pernambuco, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ANSP 69522. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:18 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Leporellus cartledgei Fowler 1941 -- (Menni 2004:72 [ref. 28131]). •Synonym of Leporellus pictus (Kner 1858) -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:13 [ref. 27366], Mirande & Koerber 2015:13 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:17 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Leporellus pictus (Kner 1858). Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

cingulatus, Synaptolaemus Myers [G. S.] & Fernández-Yépez [A.] in Myers 1950:190 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 3 (no. 4); ref. 3124] Laja Supira, upper Orinoco River, Venezuela. Holotype: CAS-SU 16122. Paratypes: CAS 20114 (3); CAS-SU 16123-24 (2, 2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:27 [ref. 12291]. Second author is A. Fernández-Yépez. •Valid as Synaptolaemus cingulatus Myers & Fernández-Yépez 1950 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:81 [ref. 27061], Sidlauskas & Santos 2005:121 [ref. 28904], DoNascimiento 2016:537 [ref. 34727]). •Synonym of Synaptolaemus latofasciatus (Steindachner 1910) -- (Britski et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31499], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[5] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Synonym of Synaptolaemus latofasciatus (Steindachner 1910). Anostomidae. Distribution: Upper Orinoco River, Casiquiare, and upper Xingu River basins: Brazil and Venezuela [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

conirostris, Leporinus Steindachner [F.] 1875:233 [23], Pl. 4 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 71 (no. 3); ref. 18773] Rio Parahyba at Mendez, Juiz de Fora and Palmeira; Rio Doce; Rio Mucuri; Parahyba Valley, Brazil. Syntypes: (many) MCZ 20371-73 (4, 19, 33), 20407 (8), 20411-13 (1, 2, 7), 25690 (1), 31599 (1); MNHN 1913-0131 (1); NMW 68199 (1), 68395-97 (2, 1, 1), 68399-400 (2, 2), 68693-98 (2, 1, 2, 2, 1); USNM 120275 [ex MCZ 20413] (2), ZMUC 970 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:33 [ref. 19577], Nielsen 1974:47 [ref. 9588], Vari & Howe 1991:29 [ref. 19022]. On p. 23 of separate. •Valid as Leporinus conirostris Steindachner 1875 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:74 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:15 [ref. 27366], Britski et al. 2012:458 [ref. 32317]). •Valid as Megaleporinus conirostris (Steindachner 1875) -- (Ramirez et al. 2017:312 [ref. 34945], Birindelli et al. 2020:8 [ref. 37400]). Current status: Valid as Megaleporinus conirostris (Steindachner 1875). Anostomidae. Distribution: Paraíba do Sul River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

copelandii, Leporinus Steindachner [F.] 1875:236 [26], Pl. 5 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 71 (no. 3); ref. 18773] Rio Parahyba and tributaries at Mendez; Juiz de Fora; River Doce; River São Matheos; Rio Jequitinhonha; Rio Quenda at Santa Cruz. Syntypes: (many) MCZ 19773 (1), 19775 (1), 20359 (1), 20408-410 (3, 1, 4), 20420 (3), 20460 (1), 20490-91 (9, 1); MNHN 1913-0134 [ex NMW] (1); NMW 68379-87 (2, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 3), 68391-94 (2, 1, 1, 3), 69592 (2); ZMUC 969 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:33 [ref. 19577], Nielsen 1974:47 [ref. 9588]. On p. 26 of separate. Spelled copelandii in main heading and as copelandi on p. 237 and twice on p. 245. •Valid as Leporinus copelandii Steindachner 1875 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:74 [ref. 27061], Catelani et al. 2014:931 [ref. 37496]). •Valid as Hypomasticus copelandii (Steindachner 1875) -- (Birindelli et al. 2020:423 [ref. 37635]). Current status: Valid as Hypomasticus copelandii (Steindachner 1875). Anostomidae. Distribution: Coastal drainages, Paraíba do Sul to Mucuri River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

corti, Schizodon fasciatum Schultz [L. P.] 1944:269, Figs. 30-31a [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 95 (no. 3181); ref. 3960] Río Palmar near Totuma, about 100 kilometers southwest of Maracaibo, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121300. Paratypes: MCZ 37224 [ex USNM 121307] (2); MHNG [ex USNM 121301] (1); UMMZ 145024 [ex USNM 121307] (5); USNM 121301 (orig. 4, now 3), 121302 (orig. 4, now 3), 121303-06 (1, 2, 5, 10), USNM 121307 (orig. 15, now 8); ZMA 102118 [ex USNM 121302] (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:24 [ref. 19236], Vari & Howe 1991:39 [ref. 19022]. Schizodon is masculine, so fasciatus is correct. •Synonym of Schizodon fasciatum Spix & Agassiz 1829, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Galvis et al. 1997:33 [ref. 23651]). •Valid as Schizodon corti Schultz 1944 -- (Vari & Raredon 1991:13 [ref. 19023], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Schizodon corti Schultz 1944. Anostomidae. Distribution: Rivers draining into Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

crassilabris, Leporinus Borodin [N. A.] 1929:274, Pl. 4 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 50 (no. 3); ref. 527] Rio Jequitinhonha, Brazil. Holotype: MCZ 20423. Paratypes: MCZ 20422 (1). •Valid as Leporinus crassilabris Borodin 1929 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Leporinus elongatus Valenciennes 1850 -- (Britski et al. 2012:443 [ref. 32317]). •Synonym of Megaleporinus elongatus (Valenciennes 1850). Current status: Synonym of Megaleporinus elongatus (Valenciennes 1850). Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

cylindriformis, Leporinus Borodin [N. A.] 1929:288, Pl. 10 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 50 (no. 3); ref. 527] Porto de Moz, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 20430. •Valid as Leporinus cylindriformis Borodin 1929 -- (Santos & Jégu 1996:167 [ref. 23717], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27061], Britski & Garavello 2005:81 [ref. 28950] as cylindriformes, Santos & Zuanon 2008:41 [ref. 29701], Sidlauskas & Mol 2011:[12] [ref. 31287] with remarks, Burns et al. 2014:213 [ref. 33354], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus cylindriformis Borodin 1929. Anostomidae. Distribution: Lower Amazon River basin, Brazil and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

desmotes, Leporinus Fowler [H. W.] 1914:239, Fig. 5 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 66; ref. 1390] Rupununi River, Guyana, about 2°-3°N, 50°20'W. Holotype: ANSP 39324. Paratypes: ANSP 39325-27 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:19 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Leporinus desmotes Fowler 1914 -- (Santos & Jégu 1990:169 [ref. 20180], Santos & Jégu 1996:163 [ref. 23717], Britski 1997:37 [ref. 24113], Géry 1999:105 [ref. 24139], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27061], Birindelli & Britski 2009:8 [ref. 30144], Britski et al. 2012:458 [ref. 32317], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], Britski & Birindelli 2016:37 [ref. 34393], Burns et al. 2017:19 [ref. 35416], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[3] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus desmotes Fowler 1914. Anostomidae. Distribution: Essequibo and Tocantins River basins: Guyana and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

despaxi, Leporinus Puyo [J.] 1943:141 [1], Fig. 1 [Bulletin de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de Toulouse v. 78 (no. 3); ref. 13072] Creek at left bank of upper Marouni River, French Guiana. Marouni River, French Guyana. On p. 1 of separate. •Valid as Leporinus despaxi Puyo 1943 -- (Géry et al. 1991:18 [ref. 21021], Planquette et al. 1996:146 [ref. 22818], Britski 1997:29 [ref. 24113], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27061], Britski et al. 2012:458 [ref. 32317]). •Valid as Hypomasticus despaxi (Puyo 1943) -- (Sidlauskas & Vari 2008:74 [ref. 29786], Birindelli et al. 2013:460 [ref. 32924]). Current status: Valid as Hypomasticus despaxi (Puyo 1943). Anostomidae. Distribution: Coastal rivers of French Guiana to northern Brazil: Brazil and French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

dissimilis, Anostomus Garman [S.] 1890:22 [Bulletin of the Essex Institute v. 22 (nos 1-3); ref. 1535] Rio Puty [Poti], Brazil. Lectotype: MCZ 19383. Paralectotypes: MCZ 19381 (orig. 12, now 5), 19382 (2), 19384 (1); USNM 120238 [ex MCZ 19381] (3). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:4 [ref. 19022], Garavello & Britski 2019:[6] [ref. 37011]. Lectotype designation by Garavello & Britski 2019:[6] [ref. 37011]. See Gómez & Chebez 1996:53 [ref. 23791]. •Valid as Schizodon dissimilis (Garman 1890) -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:41, 183 [ref. 35004], Ramos et al. 2014:3 [ref. 35321], Melo et al. 2016:375 [ref. 35317] as aff. dissimilis, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[4] [ref. 35679], Garavello & Britski 2019:[3] [ref. 37011]). Current status: Valid as Schizodon dissimilis (Garman 1890). Anostomidae. Distribution: South America: Poti and Parnaíba river basins, northeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

ecuadorensis, Leporinus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Henn [A. W.] 1916:88 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 10 (nos 1/2) (art. 7); ref. 12361] Río Barranca, near Naranjito, western Ecuador. Holotype: CAS 18396 [ex IU 13116]. Paratypes: ?BMNH 1920.12.20.86-87 (2), CAS 61721 [ex IU 13116] (4), FMNH 56612 (2), MCZ 30929 (4), ?UMMZ 185287 (2), ?197554 (4); USNM 76968-69 (1, 8). Additional material: CAS 11633 [ex IU 13114] (8), 61419 [ex IU 13113] (14); FMNH 10280-83 (1, 1, 1, 1), 56610-11 (10, 2); CAS-SU 22777 (4); IU 13115 not found. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:25 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:51 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Leporinus ecuadorensis Eigenmann & Henn 1916 -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:31 [ref. 37559], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27061], Barriga Salazar 2014:105 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:90 [ref. 34894] with authorship as Rendahl 1937). Current status: Valid as Leporinus ecuadorensis Eigenmann & Henn 1916. Anostomidae. Distribution: South America: Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

elongatus, Anostomus Steindachner [F.] 1908:62 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 45 (no. 6) (for 13 Feb. 1908); ref. 13415] Rio Puris, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW 62612. •Valid as Rhytiodus elongatus (Steindachner 1908) -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:79 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:40, 183 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Rhytiodus elongatus (Steindachner 1908). Anostomidae. Distribution: Purus River basin, Brazil, Bolivia and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

elongatus, Leporinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1850:37 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 22; ref. 1014] Rio São Francisco, Brazil (in error); Rio de la Plata at Buenos Aires, Argentina (?). Syntypes: MNHN A-8624 (1, dry, poor condition) Brazil, A-9800 (1) Argentina. •Synonym of Leporinus obtusidens Valenciennes 1836 -- (Johannes 1999:16 [ref. 24121], Britski 2001:20 [ref. 26046]). •Valid as Leporinus elongatus Valenciennes 1850 -- (Britski et al. 1999:78 [ref. 24147], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27061], Britski et al. 2012:443 [ref. 32317]). •Valid as Megaleporinus elongatus (Valenciennes 1850) -- (Ramirez et al. 2017:312 [ref. 34945], Birindelli et al. 2020:8 [ref. 37400]). Current status: Valid as Megaleporinus elongatus (Valenciennes 1850). Anostomidae. Distribution: Jequitinhonha and Pardo River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

elongatus, Sartor Santos [G. M. dos] & Jégu [M.] 1987:183, Fig. 1 [Amazoniana v. 10 (no. 2); ref. 16262] Rio Trombetas, Cachoeira Porteira, foz do rio Mapuera, Pará, Brazil, 1°06'S, 57°00'W. Holotype: INPA 1167. Paratypes: INPA 1168 (4), MNHN 1987-1476 (2), MZUSP 38578 (2). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:493 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Sartor elongatus Santos & Jégu 1987 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:79 [ref. 27061], Sidlauskas & Santos 2005:121 [ref. 28904]). Current status: Valid as Sartor elongatus Santos & Jégu 1987. Anostomidae. Distribution: Trombetas and Mapuera River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

enyae, Leporinus Burns [M. D.], Chatfield [M.], Birindelli [J. L. O.] & Sidlauskas [B. L.] 2017:13, Fig. 10 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 15 (no. 2) e160166; ref. 35416] Río Iguapo, circa 1 hour above the mouth, Amazonas, Venezuela, 03°08'59"N, 65°28'00"W. Holotype: MCNG 56681 (ex ANSP 200287). Paratypes: ANSP, AUM, CAS, INPA, MZUEL, MZUSP, OS, ROM. •Valid as Leporinus enyae Burns, Chatfield, Birindelli & Sidlauskas 2017 -- (DoNascimiento et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus enyae Burns, Chatfield, Birindelli & Sidlauskas 2017. Anostomidae. Distribution: Orinoco river drainage, Casiquiare canal and upper Negro river: Venezuela, Brazil and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

eques, Leporinus Steindachner [F.] 1878:90 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 15 (no. 12) (for 9 May 1878); ref. 20476] Río Magdalena, Colombia. Lectotype: NMW 69549. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1895.5.17.155 and 156 (2); NMW 69548 (2), 69550 (1). Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1879:56 [p. 40 of separate], Pl. 10 (figs. 2-2a) [ref. 4227]. Lectotype selected by Vari & Williams 1987:101 [ref. 5980]. •Valid as Abramites eques (Steindachner 1878) -- (Vari & Williams 1987:99 [ref. 5980], Santos & Jégu 1990:164 [ref. 20180], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:71 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Abramites eques (Steindachner 1878). Anostomidae. Distribution: Magdalena River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

falcipinnis, Leporinus Mahnert [V.], Géry [J.] & Muller [S.] 1997:838, Fig. 1 [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 104 (no. 4); ref. 23282] Rio Arapiuns, 1 hr. by boat downstream of mouth of rio Arua, lower Tapajos basin, Para, Brazil, 2°04'S, 55°38'W. Holotype (unique): MZUSP 51827. •Valid as Leporinus falcipinnis Mahnert, Géry & Muller 1997 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Leporinus altipinnis Borodin 1929 -- (Britski & Birindelli 2016:27 [ref. 34393], Burns et al. 2017:19 [ref. 35416]). Current status: Synonym of Leporinus altipinnis Borodin 1929. Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

fasciata, Laemolyta Pearson [N. E.] 1924:29, Pl. 10 (fig. 1) [Indiana University Studies v. 11 (no. 64); ref. 3396] Lagoons, Lake Rogoagua, Amazon system, Bolivia. Syntypes: (2) CAS 61846 [ex IU 17355] (1). •Valid as Laemolyta fasciata Pearson 1924 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:37, 183 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Laemolyta fasciata Pearson 1924. Anostomidae. Distribution: Bolivia (needs confirmation). Habitat: freshwater.

fasciatus, Salmo Bloch [M. E.] 1794:96, Pl. 379 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 8; ref. 463] Unknown locality [Suriname]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 3543. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:67 [ref. 24282]. On p. 77 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 11 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Leporinus fasciatus (Bloch 1794) -- (see Mahnert et al. 1997:842 [ref. 23282], Santos & Jégu 1996:162 [ref. 23717], Fuller et al. 1999:178 [ref. 25838], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27061], Birindelli & Britski 2009:8 [ref. 30144], Barriga Salazar 2014:105 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], Britski & Birindelli 2016:37 [ref. 34393], Nión et al. 2016:27 [ref. 35565], Burns et al. 2017:19 [ref. 35416], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus fasciatus (Bloch 1794). Anostomidae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Venezuela, Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Peru, Guyana, French Guiana, Suriname and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

fasciatus, Schizodon Spix [J. B. von] & Agassiz [L.] 1829:66, Pl. 36 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Rivers of Brazil. Syntypes: MHNN 781 (1). Type catalog: Kottelat 1984:146 [ref. 21784]. As Curimata fasciatus on plate. See also Vari & Raredon 1991 [ref. 19023]. Schizodon is masculine, so fasciatus is correct. •Valid as Schizodon fasciatus Spix & Agassiz 1829 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Planquette et al. 1996:160 [ref. 22818] as fasciatum, Santos & Jégu 1996:161 [ref. 23717], as fasciatum, Keith et al. 2000:13 [ref. 24547] as fasciatum, Lasso et al. 2001:95 [ref. 25928] as fasciatum, Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27061], Barriga Salazar 2014:105 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:41, 183 [ref. 35004], Melo et al. 2016:132 [ref. 34701], Nión et al. 2016:27 [ref. 35565], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35633], Garavello & Britski 2019:[6] [ref. 37011]). Current status: Valid as Schizodon fasciatus Spix & Agassiz 1829. Anostomidae. Distribution: South America: Guianas and Amazon River basin in Brazil, Peru and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

fernandezi, Laemolyta Myers [G. S.] 1950:197 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 3 (no. 4); ref. 3124] Upper Río Orinoco River, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 16126. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:25 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Laemolyta fernandezi Myers 1950 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27061], Mautari & Menezes 2006:31 [ref. 28621], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Laemolyta fernandezi Myers 1950. Anostomidae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

friderici, Salmo Bloch [M. E.] 1794:94, Pl. 378 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 8; ref. 463] Suriname. Holotype (unique): ZMB 3552. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:67 [ref. 24282]. On p. 75 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 11 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Leporinus friderici (Bloch 1794) -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:31 [ref. 37559], Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Garavello & Britski 1987:158 [ref. 6851], Garavello 1988:143 [ref. 14272], Santos & Jégu 1990:169 [ref. 20180], Taphorn 1992:42 [ref. 23654], Planquette et al. 1996:158 [ref. 22818], Santos & Jégu 1996:168 [ref. 23717], Miquelarena et al. 1997:68 [ref. 23469], Gómez & Chebez 1996:53 [ref. 23791], Britski et al. 1999:78 [ref. 24147], Lasso et al. 2001:94 [ref. 25928], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27061], Birindelli & Britski 2009:8 [ref. 30144], Sidlauskas & Mol 2011:[7] [ref. 31287], Phillip et al. 2013:14 [ref. 32896], Barriga Salazar 2014:105 [ref. 35745] as cf. friderici, Ramos et al. 2014:3 [ref. 35321], Sarmiento et al. 2014:38, 183 [ref. 35004], Melo et al. 2016:132 [ref. 34701], Melo et al. 2016:374 [ref. 35317], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:85 [ref. 35773] as "gr." friderici). Current status: Valid as Leporinus friderici (Bloch 1794). Anostomidae. Distribution: South America: Amazon and Orinoco River basins: Bolivia, Brazil, ?Ecuador, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago. Habitat: freshwater.

gaiero, Megaleporinus Birindelli [J. L. O.], Britski [H. A.] & Ramirez [J. L.] 2020:3, Figs. 1-4, 9a [Journal of Fish Biology v. 96 (no. 6); ref. 37400] Rio Gongogi, tributary of the Rio de Contas, Itagibá, Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 112112. Paratypes: MZUEL, MZUSP. •Valid as Megaleporinus gaiero Birindelli, Britski & Ramirez 2020. Current status: Valid as Megaleporinus gaiero Birindelli, Britski & Ramirez 2020. Anostomidae. Distribution: Rio de Contas drainage, Bahia, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

garmani, Anostomus (Schizodontopsis) Borodin [N. A.] 1931:47, Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 72 (no. 2); ref. 16261] Lake Saracá at Silves, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: MCZ 19371[or 19370]. Paratypes: MCZ 19346 (14), 19366 (7, now 5), 32099 (2), 94491 [ex MCZ 19370] (1); USNM 120397 [ex MCZ 19366] (1). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:5 [ref. 19022]. For information on types see Petry et al. 2007:80 [ref. 29175]. •Valid as Laemolyta garmani (Borodin 1931) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27061], Mautari & Menezes 2006:34 [ref. 28621], Barriga Salazar 2014:105 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Laemolyta garmani (Borodin 1931). Anostomidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

garmani, Leporinus Borodin [N. A.] 1929:272, Pl. 3 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 50 (no. 3); ref. 527] Arassuachy, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 20420. •Valid as Leporinus garmani Borodin 1929 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27061], Britski & Garavello 2005:81 [ref. 28950], Feitosa et al. 2011:59 [ref. 31661]). •Valid as Hypomasticus garmani (Borodin 1929) -- (Sidlauskas & Vari 2008:74 [ref. 29786], Birindelli et al. 2013:464 [ref. 32924]). •Valid as Megaleporinus garmani (Borodin 1929) -- (Ramirez et al. 2017:312 [ref. 34945], Birindelli et al. 2020:8 [ref. 37400]). Current status: Valid as Megaleporinus garmani (Borodin 1929). Anostomidae. Distribution: Jequitinhonha River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

geminis, Leporinus Garavello [J. C.] & Santos [G. M. dos] 2009:111, Figs. 2, 4 [Brazilian Journal of Biology v. 69 (no. 1); ref. 30137] Marabá, Rio Tocantins, Pará State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 14422. Paratypes: INPA 1590 (2); LISDEBA 1512 (1); MZUSP 14425 (2), 14426 (1); plus many more paratypes at INPA. •Valid as Leporinus geminis Garavello & Santos 2009 -- (Feitosa et al. 2011:56 [ref. 31661], Britski & Birindelli 2019:190 [ref. 36700]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus geminis Garavello & Santos 2009. Anostomidae. Distribution: Rio Tocantins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

gomesi, Leporinus Garavello [J. C.] & Santos [G. M. dos] in Garavello 1990:165, Figs. 2, 4 [Bulletin Zoölogisch Museum, Universiteit van Amsterdam v. 12 (no. 11); ref. 14314] Rio Aripuana above the Cachoeira de Dardanelos, Humboldt, Aripuana, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 14436. Paratypes: MZUSP: 14437-41 (1, 15, 6, 12, 5). Appeared first as a nomen nudum in Garavello & Santos 1981 in an abstract of a meeting. Then in an available way in Garavello & Santos 1981[ref. 19202]. •Synonym and homonym of Leporinus gomesi Garavello & Santos 1981. •See second account of Leporinus gomesi. Current status: Synonym of Leporinus gomesi Garavello & Santos 1981. Anostomidae. Distribution: Aripuanã River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

gomesi, Leporinus Garavello [J. C.] & Santos [G. M. dos] 1981:188 [Anais do III Encontro de Zoologia do Nordeste. v. 13 (no. 12); ref. 19202] Rio Aripuana above the Cachoeira de Dardanelos, Humboldt, Aripuana, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Holotype. Paratypes: MZUSP: 14437-41 (1, 15, 6, 12, 5). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:473-474 [ref. 23140]. Dates to 1981 as above with a brief diagnosis. Also appeared Garavello 1990:165, figs. 2 and 4 [ref. 14314]. Types from ref. 14314 assumed to apply to ref. 19202. •Valid as Leporinus gomesi Garavello 1981 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27061] dated 1990, Britski & Birindella 2013:25 [ref. 32699]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus gomesi Garavello & Santos 1981. Anostomidae. Distribution: Aripuanã River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

gossei, Leporinus Géry [J.], Planquette [P.] & Le Bail [P.-Y.] 1991:15, Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [Cybium v. 15 (no. 1, suppl.); ref. 21021] Balaté creek, lower Maroni basin, French Guiana. Holotype: IRSNB 797. Paratypes: (29) IRSNB 776-779 (1, 2, 2, now 10); MTD F 27521 [ex Géry coll.] (1), Géry coll. [ex IRSNB] (1). Type catalog: Zarske 2003:22 [ref. 27474]. •Valid as Leporinus gossei Géry, Planquette & Le Bail 1991 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27061], Melo et al. 2016:132 [ref. 34701]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus gossei Géry, Planquette & Le Bail 1991. Anostomidae. Distribution: Maroni River basin: French Guiana, Brazil and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

gracilis, Schizodon Kner [R.] 1858:78 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 30 (no. 13); ref. 13404] Rio Guaporé, Amazon system, Brazil. No types known. Appeared in more detail in Kner 1859:160, Pl. 5 [not 6] [ref. 2631]. •Valid as Pseudanos gracilis (Kner 1858) -- (Taphorn 1992:57 [ref. 23654], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:79 [ref. 27061], Sidlauskas & Santos 2005:121 [ref. 28904], Birindelli et al. 2012:55 [ref. 32125], Barriga Salazar 2014:105 [ref. 35745] as cf. gracilis, Sarmiento et al. 2014:39, 183 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento 2016:528 [ref. 34727]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanos gracilis (Kner 1858). Anostomidae. Distribution: Central Amazon basin, including Rio Negro, Rio Branco, Rio Uatumã and Rio Madeira basins: Brazil, Ecuador?, Bolivia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

granti, Leporinus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:307, Pl. 43 (fig. 3) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Maripicru Creek, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53383 [ex CM 1851]. Paratypes: (7) CAS 61649 [ex IU 12129] (3); FMNH 7323 (1), 53383 (1); MCZ 29929 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:57 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:51 [ref. 12367]. BMNH 1911.10.31.465 (1) is not this species (see Britski & Birindella 2013:30 [ref. 32699]). •Valid as Leporinus granti Eigenmann 1912 -- (Garavello 1990:167 [ref. 14314], Santos & Jégu 1990:170 [ref. 20180], Géry et al. 1991:9 [ref. 21021], Planquette et al. 1996:154 [ref. 22818], Santos & Jégu 1996:166 [ref. 23717], Britski 1997:37 [ref. 24113], Garavello 2000:199 [ref. 24492], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27061], Britski & Birindella 2013:25 [ref. 32699], Barriga Salazar 2014:105 [ref. 35745] as cf. granti, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus granti Eigenmann 1912. Anostomidae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Ecuador?, French Guiana, Guyana and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

gronoveii, Mormyrynchus Swainson [W.] 1839:291 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] South America [Suriname]. Syntypes: ZMUC 89 (1). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:48 [ref. 9588] as gronovi. Type information: Wheeler 1989:212-214, Fig. 3A [ref. 21873]. Based on Gronov. Zooph. pl. 7, f. 2 -- which is Gronovius 1763:Pl. 7 (fig. 2) [ref. 1910]. •Objective synonym of Anostomus anostomus (Linnaeus 1758). •Synonym of Anostomus anostomus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Anostomus anostomus (Linnaeus 1758). Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

gronovii, Anostomus Schinz [H. R.] 1822:279 [Das Thierreich v. 2; ref. 3926] South America. Possibly different from Anostomus gronovii Müller & Troschel 1844. Unneeded replacement name for and objective synonym of Salmo anostomus Linnaeus 1758 (see Daget 1968:1058 [ref. 26392]). Not treated by Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27061]. •Objective synonym of Anostomus anostomus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Daget 1968:1058 [ref. 26392]). Current status: Synonym of Anostomus anostomus (Linnaeus 1758). Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

gronovii, Anostomus Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] 1844:87 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 10 (pt 1); ref. 3070] No locality. No types known. Based on Gronow, Mus. Ichth. II, p. 13, Pl. 7 (fig. 2), and description of Anostomus of Gronow by Müller & Troschel. Might be independent of Anostomus gronovii Schinz 1822. Not treated by Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27061]. •Synonym of Anostomus anostomus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Anostomus anostomus (Linnaeus 1758). Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

guttatus, Leporinus Birindelli [J. L. O.] & Britski [H. A.] 2009:2, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 30144] Brazil, Altamira, rio Curuá, Iriri drainage (rio Xingu basin), upstream from PCH (=small hydroeletric dam) Buriti, 08°46'28''S 54°57'12''W. Holotype: MZUSP 97100. Paratypes: ANSP 189166 (1); INPA 30761 (1); MZUSP 99741 (5), 96865 (11), 101300 (11). •Valid as Leporinus guttatus Birindelli & Britski 2009 -- (Feitosa et al. 2011:59 [ref. 31661]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus guttatus Birindelli & Britski 2009. Anostomidae. Distribution: South America: Rio Xingu basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

holostictus, Leporinus Cope [E. D.] 1878:690 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 17 (no. 101); ref. 945] Peruvian Amazon. Lectotype: ANSP 21467. Paralectotypes: ANSP 21468 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:19 [ref. 13621] as holotype and paratype. Lectotype established by Fowler 1906:330, Fig. 20 [ref. 13763]. •Valid as Leporinus holostictus Cope 1878 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27061], Barriga Salazar 2014:105 [ref. 35745]). •Status uncertain -- (Mahnert et al. 1997:843 [ref. 23282]). •Synonym of Leporinus fasciatus (Bloch 1794) -- (Britski & Birindelli 2016:33 [ref. 34393], Burns et al. 2017:19 [ref. 35416]). Current status: Synonym of Leporinus fasciatus (Bloch 1794). Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

hypselonotus, Leporinus Günther [A.] 1868:480 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 1 (no. 6) (art. 56); ref. 1992] Xeberos, upper Amazon, Peru. Lectotype: BMNH 1867.6.13.40. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1867.6.13.41-42 (2). Also published in Günther (Sept.) 1868:244, Pl. 22 [ref. 5756]. Lectotype selected by Vari & Williams 1987:97 [ref. 5980]. •Valid as Abramites hypselonotus (Günther 1868) -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:31 [ref. 37559], Ortega & Vari 1986:11 [ref. 9708], Vari & Williams 1987:92 [ref. 5980], Santos & Jégu 1990:164 [ref. 20180], Taphorn 1992:30 [ref. 23654], Britski et al. 1999:80 [ref. 24147], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:71 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:13 [ref. 27366], Barriga Salazar 2014:105 [ref. 35745], Litz & Koerber 2014:8 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:12 [ref. 35117], Nión et al. 2016:27 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:17 [ref. 35267], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Abramites hypselonotus (Günther 1868). Anostomidae. Distribution: South America: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

intermedius, Anostomus Winterbottom [R.] 1980:14, Fig. 11 [Royal Ontario Museum Life Science Contributions No. 123; ref. 4755] Below the cataracts near Suya-Missu or Paranajuba, upper Rio Xingu, Amazon River system, Brazil. Holotype: SMF 10651. Paratypes: BMNH 1977.1.17.1 (1), SMF 13618 (14), USNM 216593 (1). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:5 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Anostomus intermedius Winterbottom 1980 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27061], Sidlauskas & Santos 2005:121 [ref. 28904]). •Valid as Petulanos intermedius (Winterbottom 1980) -- (Barriga Salazar 2014:105 [ref. 35745]). Current status: Valid as Petulanos intermedius (Winterbottom 1980). Anostomidae. Distribution: Southern tributaries of Amazon River, Brazil and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

intermedius, Schizodon Garavello [J. C.] & Britski [H. A.] 1990:159, Fig. 1B [Naturalia (Rio Claro) v. 15; ref. 23182] Robeorão afluente do Rio Itaqueri, trib to Rio Piracicaba, Aguas de São Pedro, SP, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 41123. Paratypes: MZUSP 1530 (1), 41124 (1), 41125-37 (12, not 13), 41138-41 (2, 2, 7, 10); UFSCar s/n° (6, 2, 3, 2 18). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:495 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Schizodon intermedius Garavello & Britski 1990 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27061], Garavello & Britski 2019:[6] [ref. 37011]). Current status: Valid as Schizodon intermedius Garavello & Britski 1990. Anostomidae. Distribution: South America: upper Paraná River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

irinae, Pseudanos Winterbottom [R.] 1980:27, Figs. 7c, 21, 45b [Royal Ontario Museum Life Science Contributions No. 123; ref. 4755] Río Orinoco at bifurcation with Río Casiquiare, Laja Tama Tama, Venezuela. Holotype: CAS-SU 58809. Paratypes: AMNH 14359 (1), 17612 (24, 6 c&s); BMNH 1911.10.31.463 (1), 1972.7.27.126-26 (2); CAS 15771 (1), 15787 (1), 20097-98 (10, 6), 20100 (1); FMNH 53390-92 (1, 1, 1); CAS-SU 16281-82 (9, 1), 68303 (2). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:70 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Pseudanos irinae Winterbottom 1980 -- (Taphorn 1992:60 [ref. 23654], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:79 [ref. 27061], Sidlauskas & Santos 2005:121 [ref. 28904], Birindelli et al. 2012:56 [ref. 32125]). •Synonym of Pseudanos trimaculatus (Kner 1858) -- (Birindelli et al. 2012:55 [ref. 32125], Mirande & Koerber 2015:13 [ref. 35117], DoNascimiento 2016:528 [ref. 34727], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[4] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudanos trimaculatus (Kner 1858). Anostomidae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Venezuela east to Guyana [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

isognathus, Schizodon Kner [R.] 1858:78 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 30 (no. 13); ref. 13404] Rio Cuiabá, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 58855. Paralectotypes: (1) not found. Appeared in more detail in Kner 1859:163, Pl. 13 [ref. 2631]. See also Vari & Raredon 1991:19 [ref. 19023]. Lectotype selected by Sidlauskas et al. 2007:720 [ref. 29265]. •Valid as Schizodon isognathus Kner 1858 -- (Taphorn 1992:63 [ref. 23654], Gómez & Chebez 1996:53 [ref. 23791], Britski et al. 1999:80 [ref. 24147], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:15 [ref. 27366], Sidlauskas et al. 2007:717 [ref. 29265], Sarmiento et al. 2014:41, 183 [ref. 35004], Koerber et al. 2017:19 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Schizodon isognathus Kner 1858. Anostomidae. Distribution: Paraguay River basin: Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

jacuiensis, Schizodon Bergmann [L. A. C.] 1988:15, Figs. 1, 4, 6, 7, 9 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRS, Série Zoologia v. 1 (nos 1-5); ref. 21062] Rio Guaíba, Ilha Balceira, Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. Holotype: MCZ 5889. Paratypes: MAPA 1002 (1), 2326 (2), 2965-66 (1, 1); MCP 5891 (1), 9704 (1), 10512 (1), 10551-52 (2, 1), 10728 (3), 10825 (1), 11899 (9), 12324-25 (4, 10); MCZ 76343-44 (1); MZUSP 38864-65 (1, 1); NMW 62840 (1), 88043-44 (1, 1); UFRGS 2965-66 (1, 1), 3228 (5), 3581 (5). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:495 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Schizodon jacuiensis Bergmann 1988 -- (Malabarba 1989:126 [ref. 14217], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27061], Bertaco et al. 2016:411 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Schizodon jacuiensis Bergmann 1988. Anostomidae. Distribution: Laguna dos Patos drainage, southeast Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

jamesi, Leporinus Garman [S.] in Borodin 1929:281, Pl. 9 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 50 (no. 3); ref. 527] Manacapuru, Brazil. Holotype: ?MCZ 20439. Author is S. Garman. Based on manuscript and drawing. •Valid as Leporinus jamesi Garman 1929 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27061], Garavello et al. 2014:318 [ref. 33378], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus jamesi Garman 1929. Anostomidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

jatuncochi, Leporinus Ovchynnyk [M. M.] 1971:100, Figs. 8-9 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 187 (nos 1/2); ref. 7699] Lake Jatun Cocha, about 1°00'S, 75°27'W, Province Napo, Ecuador. Holotype (unique): MUSM 5868. •Valid as Leporinus jatuncochi Ovchynnyk 1971 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27061], Britski et al. 2012:458 [ref. 32317], Barriga Salazar 2014:105 [ref. 35745], Britski & Birindelli 2016:38 [ref. 34393]). •Possible synonym of Leporinus desmotes Fowler 1914 -- ( Burns et al. 2017:18 [ref. 35416]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus jatuncochi Ovchynnyk 1971. Anostomidae. Distribution: Upper Amazon basin, Ecuador, Peru and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

julii, Leporinus Santos [G. M. dos], Jégu [M.] & Lima [A. C.] 1996:273, Fig. [Acta Amazonica v. 26 (no. 4); ref. 23716] Rio Xingu, Cachoeira Kaituka, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 10987 [ex INPA 9503]. Paratypes: INPA 3948 (2), 9496-98 (2, 3, 2), 9502-03 (5, 10), 10252 (3); MNHN 1996-1308 [ex INPA 9503] (2); MZUSP 48956 [ex INPA 9498] (1), 48957 [ex INPA 9497] (1), 48958 (1). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Leporinus julii Santos, Jégu & Lima 1996 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27061], Birindelli & Britski 2009:8 [ref. 30144]). •Valid as Hypomasticus julii (Santos, Jégu & Lima 1996) -- (Sidlauskas & Vari 2008:74 [ref. 29786], Birindelli et al. 2013:464 [ref. 32924], Birindelli et al. 2016:113 [ref. 34843]). Current status: Valid as Hypomasticus julii (Santos, Jégu & Lima 1996). Anostomidae. Distribution: Xingu River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

klausewitzi, Leporinus Géry [J.] 1960:279, Pl. 40 (fig. 2) [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 41 (nos 5/6); ref. 11912] Mundurucú, Rio Manacapuru, Amazon basin, near Manaos [Manaus], Brazil. Holotype (unique): SMF 5090. •Valid as Leporinus klausewitzi Géry 1960 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27061], Sidlauskas & Mol 2011:[7] [ref. 31287], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus klausewitzi Géry 1960. Anostomidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

knerii, Anostomus Steindachner [F.] 1875:211 [1], Pl. 1 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 71 (no. 3); ref. 18773] Rio São Francisco, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 62840:2 [not 26840:2]. Paralectotypes: NMW 62840:1 (1). On p. 1 of separate. Lectotype selected by Bergmann 1988:18 [ref. 21062]; the second specimen in 62840 is also a paratype of Schizodon jacuiensis. •Valid as Anostomus knerii Steindachner 1875 -- (Bergmann 1988:18 [ref. 21062]). •Valid as Schizodon knerii (Steindachner 1875) -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27061], Sidlauskas et al. 2007:720 [ref. 29265], Ramos et al. 2014:3 [ref. 35321]). Current status: Valid as Schizodon knerii (Steindachner 1875). Anostomidae. Distribution: São Francisco and Parnaíba river basins, northeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

lacustris, Leporinus Amaral Campos [A.] 1945:155, Fig. [Papéis Avulsos do Departamento de Zoologia, Secretaria da Agricultura, São Paulo v. 5 (no. 16); ref. 13117] Pirassununga, Estado de São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP [ex DZSASP] 3458. Paratypes: MZUSP [ex DZSASP] 1449 (1), MZUSP [ex DZSASP] 5253-5258 (6). Type catalog: Britski 1969:204 [ref. 12401], Oyakawa 1996:473-474 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Leporinus lacustris Amaral Campos 1945 -- (Garavello 1989:500 [ref. 14273], Garavello & Santos 1992:113 [ref. 20885], Britski et al. 1999:78 [ref. 24147], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:14 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:80 [ref. 28130], Menni 2004:72 [ref. 28131], Britski & Birindelli 2008:49 [ref. 29578], Zarucki et al. 2010:191 [ref. 34811], Litz & Koerber 2014:8 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:13 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:411 [ref. 34561] with author as Campos, Koerber et al. 2017:18 [ref. 35267], Dickens 2019:161 [ref. 37135]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus lacustris Amaral Campos 1945. Anostomidae. Distribution: South America: Paraná River basin (Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay). Habitat: freshwater.

laticeps, Schizodontopsis Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:299, Pl. 41 (fig. 4) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Crab Falls, Essequibo River, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53359 [ex CM 1825]. Paratypes: IU 12116 (2, missing). Type catalog: Henn 1928:57 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:78 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Anostomoides laticeps (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Santos & Jégu 1990:164 [ref. 20180], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27061], Santos & Zuanon 2006:59 [ref. 28618], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35633]). •Synonym of Anostomoides atrianalis Pellegrin 1909 -- (Assega & Birindelli 2019:129 [ref. 36847]). Current status: Synonym of Anostomoides atrianalis Pellegrin 1909. Anostomidae. Distribution: Essequibo, Orinoco, and Solimões River basins: Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Guyana and Venezuela [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

latofasciatus, Leporinus Steindachner [F.] 1910:268 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse v. 47 (no. 17) (for 30 June 1910); ref. 14874] Orinoco River, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): NMW 68187. •Valid as Leporinus latofasciatus Steindachner 1910 -- (Mahnert et al. 1997:841 [ref. 23282], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Synaptolaemus latofasciatus (Steindachner 1910) -- (Britski et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31499], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Synaptolaemus latofasciatus (Steindachner 1910). Anostomidae. Distribution: Eastern Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

lauzannei, Rhytiodus Géry [J.] 1987:367, Figs. 1-2, 4 (upper) [Cybium v. 11 (no. 4); ref. 6739] Flood zone of Río Tijamuchi near Trinidad, River Mamoré basin, Bolivia. Holotype: MNHN 1987-1063. Paratypes: MNHN 1987-1064 (9), 1987-1065 (1), 1987-1066 (4); MHNG 2367-93 (8). •Valid as Rhytiodus lauzannei Géry 1987 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:79 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:40, 183 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Rhytiodus lauzannei Géry 1987. Anostomidae. Distribution: Tijamuchi and Mamoré River basins, Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

lebaili, Leporinus Géry [J.] & Planquette [P.] 1983:66, Figs. 1, 2, 5a [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 10 (no. 3); ref. 8340] Midstream of Maroni River at Laissé-Dédé Falls, French Guiana. Holotype: MHNG 2152.48. Paratypes: Lab. Hydrobiol. INRA (Guiana) (1), MHNG 215249-50 (1, 1), MHNG uncat. (2), MNHN 1984-0353 (2), RMNH 80 (6), RMNH uncat. (1). Type catalog: Weber 1998:8 [ref. 23532]. •Valid as Leporinus lebaili Géry & Planquette 1983 -- (Planquette et al. 1996:152 [ref. 22818], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27061], Sidlauskas & Mol 2011:[7] [ref. 31287], Birindelli et al. 2019:5 [ref. 36868]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus lebaili Géry & Planquette 1983. Anostomidae. Distribution: Maroni River basin: French Guiana and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

leschenaulti, Leporinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1850:30, Pl. 635 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 22; ref. 1014] La Mana River, French Guiana. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-1694. Type catalog: Bertin 1948:32 [ref. 19577]. •Synonym of Leporinus friderici (Bloch 1794) -- (Taphorn 1992:42 [ref. 23654]). •Valid as Leporinus leschenaulti Valenciennes 1850 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[3] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus leschenaulti Valenciennes 1850. Anostomidae. Distribution: Coastal rivers of French Guiana and northern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

lineomaculatus, Hypomasticus Birindelli [J. L. O.], Peixoto [L. A. W.], Wosiacki [W. B.] & Britski [H. A.] 2013:464, Figs. 1, 3, 4 [Copeia 2013 (no. 3); ref. 32924] Pará, Almeirim, creek tributary of Rio Paru, 0°51'13.8"N, 53°57'05.8"W, Brazil. Holotype: MPEG 15573. Paratypes: many at ANSP, LPB, MPEG, MZUSP. •Valid as Hypomasticus lineomaculatus Birindelli, Peixoto, Wosiacki & Britski 2013. Current status: Valid as Hypomasticus lineomaculatus Birindelli, Peixoto, Wosiacki & Britski 2013. Anostomidae. Distribution: Rio Jari basin, Pará, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

longus, Anostomus anostomus Géry [J.] 1961:502, Fig. 1 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 32 (no. 6) (1960); ref. 9350] Río Nucuray, Peruvian Amazon, near its tributary to Río Marañon, vicinity of Concordia. Holotype: MHNG 2197.04 [ex Géry coll. M.98]. Paratypes: (61) ANSP 112491 (1), 139707 (2); MNHN 1961-1128 (2); SMF 5373 (1); ZMA 114305 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:13 [ref. 19236], Böhlke 1984:19 [ref. 13621], Weber 1998:6 [ref. 23532]. •Valid as Anostomus longus Géry 1961 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27061], Sidlauskas & Vari 2008:74 [ref. 29786]). Current status: Valid as Anostomus longus Géry 1961. Anostomidae. Distribution: Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

macra, Laemolyta garmani Géry [J.] 1974:153, Fig. 2 [Vie et Milieu, Série C, Biologie Terrestre v. 23 (no. 1); ref. 33] Vicinity of Concordia, Río Nucuray, tributary of Río Marañón, Peru. Holotype: MHNG 2197.38 [ex Géry coll. 0642]. Paratypes: (6) MNHN 1982-0553 (1). Type catalog: Weber 1998:8 [ref. 23532]. •Valid as Laemolyta macra Géry 1974 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27061]). •Possible synonym of Laemolyta garmani (Borodin 1931) -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Laemolyta garmani (Borodin 1931) -- (Mautari & Menezes 2006:34 [ref. 28621]). Current status: Synonym of Laemolyta garmani (Borodin 1931). Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

macrocephalus, Leporinus Garavello [J. C.] & Britski [H. A.] 1988:68, Fig. 1A [Naturalia (São Paulo) v. 13; ref. 11864] Rio Cuiabá, Barao de Melgaço, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 36586. Paratypes: MZUSP 4393 (1), 13417-18 (2), 14513-14 (2), 14612 (1), 14838-43 (6), 27191 (1), 35281 (1). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:474-475 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Leporinus macrocephalus Garavello & Britski 1988 -- (Britski et al. 1999:78 [ref. 24147], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:14 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:72 [ref. 28131], Birindelli & Britski 2009:8 [ref. 30144], Britski et al. 2012:458 [ref. 32317], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:13 [ref. 35117]). •Valid as Megaleporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski 1988) -- (Ramirez et al. 2017:313 [ref. 34945], Koerber et al. 2017:2 [ref. 35083], Koerber et al. 2017:2 [ref. 35632], Koerber et al. 2019:2 [ref. 36736], Birindelli et al. 2020:8 [ref. 37400], Mirande & Koerber 2020:2 [ref. 37594]). Current status: Valid as Megaleporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski 1988). Anostomidae. Distribution: South America: Paraguay River basin (Paraguay, Argentina, Brazil and Bolivia). Habitat: freshwater.

maculatus, Leporinus Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] 1844:86 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 10 (pt 1); ref. 3070] Guyana. Syntypes or holotype: ZMB 3546 (1). Also appeared in Müller & Troschel 1845:11 [ref. 3071]. Lectotype of 92 mm SL selected by Géry et al. 1988:709 [ref. 27759] but catalog number not given. •Valid as Leporinus maculatus Müller & Troschel 1844 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Géry et al. 1988:704 [ref. 27759], Taphorn 1992:39 [ref. 23654] with question, Planquette et al. 1996:148 [ref. 22818], Gómez & Chebez 1996:53 [ref. 23791], Britski 1997:36 [ref. 24113], Garavello 2000:198 [ref. 24492], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27061], Mol et al. 2012:287 [ref. 32867], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[3] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus maculatus Müller & Troschel 1844. Anostomidae. Distribution: Coastal rivers of the Guianas and São Francisco River basins: Brazil, Bolivia, French Guiana, Guyana and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

maculifrons, Leporinus Lütken [C. F.] (ex Reinhardt) 1875:204 [84] [Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Skrifter. Naturvidenskabelig og Mathematisk Afdeling (Ser. 5) v. 12 (no. 2); ref. 19674] On p. 84 of separate. Not available, name in the synonymy of Leporellus pictus (Kner 1858). •In the synonymy of Leporellus vittatus (Valenciennes 1850) -- (Taphorn 1992:36 [ref. 23654], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27061]). •In the synonymy of Leporellus pictus (Kner 1858) -- (Mirande & Koerber 2015:13 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:17 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Leporellus pictus (Kner 1858). Anostomidae.

marcgravii, Leporinus Lütken [C. F.] (ex Reinhardt) 1875:130 [4] [Oversigt over det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Forhandlinger og dets Medlemmers Arbeider (Kjøbenhavn) 1874 (no. 3); ref. 2856] Rio das Velhas and affluents, Brazil. Syntypes: USNM 44951 (1); ZMB 9191 (1); ZMUC 151 (1), 155-156 (2) Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:47 [ref. 9588], Vari & Howe 1991:29 [ref. 19022]. On p. 11 of separate. Also described in Lütken 1875:202 (and p. XII of summary), Pl. 4 (fig. 9) [ref. 19674]. Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27061] also include this species as a questionably synonym of Leporinus maculatus with same types but dating to a different reference. •Synonym of Leporinus maculatus Müller & Troschel 1844 -- (Taphorn 1992:39 [ref. 23654], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Leporinus marcgravii Lütken 1875 -- (Garavello 2000:199 [ref. 24492], Britski 2001:20 [ref. 26046], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27061], Birindelli & Britski 2009:8 [ref. 30144], Feitosa et al. 2011:59 [ref. 31661]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus marcgravii Lütken 1875. Anostomidae. Distribution: São Francisco River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

margaritaceus, Leporinus Günther [A.] 1864:309 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Guyana. Holotype (unique): BMNH 2011.4.19.3. •Synonym of Leporinus nigrataeniatus (Jardin 1841) -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:77 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Leporinus nigrotaeniatus (Jardine 1841). Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

megalepis, Leporinus Günther [A.] 1863:443 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 3) v. 12 (no. 72); ref. 1973] Essequibo River, Guyana. Lectotype: BMNH 1864.1.21.45. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1864.1.21.43-44 (2). Lectotype selected by Géry et al. 1988:709 [ref. 27759]. One species in BMNH 1864.1.21.44 is not this species (granti) and the other is friderici. •Synonym of Leporinus maculatus Müller & Troschel 1844 -- (Taphorn 1992:39 [ref. 23654]). •Valid as Leporinus megalepis Günther 1863 -- (Géry et al. 1988:704 [ref. 27759], Santos & Jégu 1996:166 [ref. 23717], Garavello 2000:199 [ref. 24492], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Hypomasticus megalepis (Günther 1863) -- (Sidlauskas & Vari 2008:74 [ref. 29786], Britski & Birindelli 2013:25 [ref. 32699], Birindelli et al. 2013:464 [ref. 32924], Birindelli et al. 2016:113 [ref. 34843]). Current status: Valid as Hypomasticus megalepis (Günther 1863). Anostomidae. Distribution: Guyana, Suriname and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

melanopleura, Leporinus Günther [A.] 1864:310 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Rio Una, Bahia, Brazil. Lectotype: BMNH 1863:3.27.6. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1863.3.27.7 (1) Bahia, 1861.5.16.14 (1, skin) Cipo. Lectotype selected by Birindelli et al 2013:10 [ref. 32698]; lectotype 1861.5.16.14 is not this species. •Valid as Leporinus melanopleura Günther 1864 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27061], Britski & Garavello 2005:81 [ref. 28950], Birindelli et al. 2013:10 [ref. 32698], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[3] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus melanopleura Günther 1864. Anostomidae. Distribution: Bahia State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

melanopleurodes, Leporinus Birindelli [J. L. O.], Britski [H. A.] & Garavello [J. C.] 2013:15, Figs. 6-8 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 11 (no. 1); ref. 32698] Nilo Peçanha, rio das Almas, approximately 10 km from Nilo Peçanha on road Corredeiras do ro das Alams, 13°36'27.8'S, 39°08'38.8"W, Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 100987. Paratypes: Many from ANSP. MCP, MZUSP. •Valid as Leporinus melanopleurodes Birindelli, Britski & Garavello 2013. Current status: Valid as Leporinus melanopleurodes Birindelli, Britski & Garavello 2013. Anostomidae. Distribution: Bahia, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

melanostictus, Leporinus Norman [J. R.] 1926:94 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9) v. 18 (no. 103); ref. 15602] Approuague River and Oyapock River, French Guiana. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 1926.3.2.566-567 (2), 1926.3.2.568-569 (2). •Valid as Leporinus melanostictus Norman 1926 -- (Géry et al. 1991:9 [ref. 21021], Planquette et al. 1996:150 [ref. 22818], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[3] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus melanostictus Norman 1926. Anostomidae. Distribution: Approuague River and Oyapock River basins: Brazil and French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

microcephalus, Abramites Norman [J. R.] 1926:92 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9) v. 18 (no. 103); ref. 15602] Near the mouth of the Amazon River, Brazil. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1926.3.2.571. •Synonym of Abramites hypselonotus (Günther 1868) -- (Vari & Williams 1987:93 [ref. 5980], Taphorn 1992:30 [ref. 23654], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:8 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:13 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:17 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Abramites hypselonotus (Günther 1868). Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

microlepis, Rhytiodus Kner [R.] 1858:79 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 30 (no. 13); ref. 13404] Manaus, Brazil. Syntypes: NMW 56881 (2). Appeared in more detail in Kner 1859:165, Pl. 4 (fig. 15) [ref. 2631]. •Valid as Rhytiodus microlepis Kner 1858 -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:31 [ref. 37559], Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Géry 1987:365 [ref. 6739], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:79 [ref. 27061], Barriga Salazar 2014:105 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:40, 183 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Rhytiodus microlepis Kner 1858. Anostomidae. Distribution: South America: Amazon River basin (Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia and Peru). Habitat: freshwater.

microphthalmus, Leporinus Garavello [J. C.] 1989:498, Fig. 1 [Revista Brasileira de Biologia v. 49 (no. 2); ref. 14273] Rio Araguari, salto de Nova Ponte, Nova Ponte, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 38535. Paratypes: MZUSP 14457-58 (2), 38536 (1). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:475 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Leporinus microphthalmus Garavello 1989 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27061], Birindelli & Britski 2009:8 [ref. 30144], Feitosa et al. 2011:59 [ref. 31661]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus microphthalmus Garavello 1989. Anostomidae. Distribution: Paraná River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

microphysus, Leporinus Birindelli [J. L. O.] & Britski [H. A.] 2013:1130, Fig. 1-3 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 83 (no. 5); ref. 33171] Brazil, Amapá, Laranjal do Jari, Rio Iratapuru,tributary of Rio Jari, at Cachoeira São Raimundo, 0°33'59"S; 52°34'40"W. Holotype: MZUSP 111001. Paratypes: ANSP 199207 (2); INPA 37892 (2); MZUSP 103487 (8), 97351 (8), 98274 (1), 101749 (1), 104503 (2). •Valid as Leporinus microphysus Birindelli & Britski 2013 -- (Britski & Birindelli 2019:190 [ref. 36700]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus microphysus Birindelli & Britski 2013. Anostomidae. Distribution: Rio Iratapuru, a tributary of the Rio Jari, above Cachoeira do Santo Antonio and tributaries of the Rio Tapajos, including the Rio Teles Pires and the Rio Jamanxim, in the states of Mato Grosso and Para, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

moralesi, Leporinus Fowler [H. W.] 1942:218, Fig. 42 [Boletim Museum del Historia Natural, Javier Prado, Lima, University San Marcos ano 6 (no. 21); ref. 19671] Amazon River at Rio Iça, Lago Alexo, Brazil. Syntypes: NMW 68348 (1), 77721 (1), 90608 [or 90680] (2). Original not seen. Also described as new in Fowler 1945:128 [ref. 20664]. Replacement name for Leporinus muelleri Steindachner 1876, preoccupied by Leporinus muelleri Günther 1859. •Valid as Leporinus moralesi Fowler 1942 -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:31 [ref. 37559] as moralesis, Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27061], Birindelli et al. 2013:238 [ref. 32781], Barriga Salazar 2014:105 [ref. 35745] and cf. moralesi, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus moralesi Fowler 1942. Anostomidae. Distribution: South America: Amazon River basin (Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia and Peru). Habitat: freshwater.

mormyrops, Leporinus Steindachner [F.] 1875:240 [30], Pl. 6 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 71 (no. 3); ref. 18773] Río Parahyba and Río Piabanha, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) MCZ 20366 (5), 20369 (1); ?MNHN 1913-0132 and 0133 [ex NMW] (2) Río Doce; NMW 68350-54 (3, 1, 2, 2, 1); USNM 120420 [ex MCZ 20366] (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:33 [ref. 19577], Vari & Howe 1991:29 [ref. 19022]. On p. 30 of separate. •Valid as Leporinus mormyrops Steindachner 1875 -- (Johannes 1999:16 [ref. 24121], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:77 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Hypomasticus mormyrops (Steindachner 1875) -- (Sidlauskas & Vari 2008:74 [ref. 29786], Birindelli et al. 2013:464 [ref. 32924], Birindelli et al. 2020:423 [ref. 37635]). Current status: Valid as Hypomasticus mormyrops (Steindachner 1875). Anostomidae. Distribution: Coastal drainages, Paraíba do Sul to Mucuri River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

muelleri, Leporinus Steindachner [F.] 1876:105 [57], Pl. 9 (fig. 5) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] Amazon River at Tabatinga; Jose Fernandez; Rio Iça; Lago Alexo, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 90680.1. Paralectotypes: NMW 68348 (1), 77721 (1), 90680 (1). Originally mülleri, change mandatory. On p. 57 of separate. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Leporinus muelleri Günther 1859, replaced by Leporinus moralesi Fowler 1942. •In the synonymy of Leporinus moralesi Fowler 1942 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27061], Birindelli et al. 2013:238 [ref. 32781]). Current status: Synonym of Leporinus moralesi Fowler 1942. Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

multifasciatus, Leporinus Cope [E. D.] 1878:690 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 17 (no. 101); ref. 945] Peruvian Amazon. Lectotype: ANSP 21448. Paralectotypes: ANSP 21449-50 (1, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:19 [ref. 13621] as holotype and paratypes. Lectotype established by Fowler 1906:329, Fig. 19 [ref. 1373]. •Status uncertain -- (Mahnert et al. 1997:842 [ref. 23282]). •Valid as Leporinus multifasciatus Cope 1878 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:77 [ref. 27061], Barriga Salazar 2014:105 [ref. 35745]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus multifasciatus Cope 1878. Anostomidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Peru and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

multimaculatus, Leporinus Birindelli [J. L. O.], Teixeira [T. F.] & Britski [H. A.] 2016:98, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa 4178 (no. 1); ref. 34843] Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, Araguaia-Tocantins basin, Córrego Grande, tributary of rio das Mortes, approximately 30 km from the city, Brazil, 15°35'43"S 52°22'39"W. Holotype: MZUSP 119000. Paratypes: LIA, MCNIP, MCP, MNRJ, MZUEL, MZUSP. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Leporinus multimaculatus Birindelli, Teixeira & Britski 2016. Current status: Valid as Leporinus multimaculatus Birindelli, Teixeira & Britski 2016. Anostomidae. Distribution: Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

muyscorum, Leporinus Steindachner [F.] 1900:206 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 37 (no. 18) (for 12 July 1900); ref. 14771] Río Labrija, eastern tributary of the Río Magdalena at Santander, Colombia. Holotype (unique): ZSM [old collection] destroyed in WWII. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:265 [ref. 28925]. Species illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1902:142, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [ref. 10435]. •Valid as Leporinus muyscorum Steindachner 1900 -- (Garavello 1988:143 [ref. 14272], Garavello 2000:197 [ref. 24492], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:77 [ref. 27061] dated 1901, Britski et al. 2012:458 [ref. 32317]). •Valid as Megaleporinus muyscorum (Steindachner 1900) -- (Ramirez et al. 2017:313 [ref. 34945], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35633], Birindelli et al. 2020:8 [ref. 37400]). Current status: Valid as Megaleporinus muyscorum (Steindachner 1900). Anostomidae. Distribution: Magdalena, Atrato, Sinú and Orinoco River basins, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

nasutus, Schizodon Kner [R.] 1858:78 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 30 (no. 13); ref. 13404] Irisanga, São Paulo, Brazil. Appeared in more detail in Kner 1859:164, Pl. 6 [ref. 2631]. •Valid as Schizodon nasutus Kner 1858 -- (Garavello & Britski 1990:156 [ref. 23182], Gómez & Chebez 1996:53 [ref. 23791], Miquelarena et al. 1997:69 [ref. 23469], Sverlij et al. 1998:28 [ref. 27632] dated 1859, Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:15 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:72 [ref. 28131], Sidlauskas et al. 2007:723 [ref. 29265], Litz & Koerber 2014:8 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:13 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:411 [ref. 34561], Koerber et al. 2017:19 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Schizodon nasutus Kner 1858. Anostomidae. Distribution: Paraná, Paraguay and Uruguay River basins: Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

nattereri, Leporinus Steindachner [F.] 1876:114 [66], Pl. 12 (fig. 1) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] Rio Negro mouth; Tefé; Lago do Alexo, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 68346. Paralectottypes: (several) MCZ 20384 (3) Teffe; NMW 68344-45, 48346b (3, 4, 1). On p. 66 of separate. Lectotype designated by Assega & Birindelli 2019:138 [ref. 36847]. •Valid as Leporinus nattereri Steindachner 1876 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:77 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35633]). •Valid as Anostomoides nattereri (Steindachner 1876) -- (Assega & Birindelli 2019:136 [ref. 36847]). Current status: Valid as Anostomoides nattereri (Steindachner 1876). Anostomidae. Distribution: South America: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

niceforoi, Leporinus Fowler [H. W.] 1943:227, Figs. 7-9 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 95; ref. 1443] Río Orteguasa, Florencia, Caquetá Dept., Colombia. Holotype: ANSP 70491. Paratypes: ANSP 70492 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:19 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Leporinus niceforoi Fowler 1943 -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:31 [ref. 37559], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:77 [ref. 27061], Sidlauskas & Mol 2011:[12] [ref. 31287] as perhaps two species, Barriga Salazar 2014:105 [ref. 35745], Burns et al. 2014:213 [ref. 33354] as niceforoi and cf. niceforoi from Ecuador, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus niceforoi Fowler 1943. Anostomidae. Distribution: South America: Orteguasa River basin (Colombia and Ecuador). Habitat: freshwater.

nigripinnis, Leporinus Meinken [H.] 1935:193, Fig. 1 [Blätter für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde v. 46 (no. 9); ref. 13902] Río Paraná, near Corrientes, Argentina. Syntypes: ?ZMB 21916 (3). •Synonym of Abramites hypselonotus (Günther 1868) -- (Vari & Williams 1987:93 [ref. 5980], Taphorn 1992:30 [ref. 23654], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:8 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:13 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:17 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Abramites hypselonotus (Günther 1868). Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

nigrotaeniatus, Chalceus Jardine [W.] in Schomburgk 1841:213, Pl. 13 (fig. 2) [The Natural history of fishes of Guiana; ref. 18707] Pedrero, Rio Negro. No types known. Appeared as Chalceus ? nigro-taeniatus originally. Family placement uncertain. •Valid as Leporinus nigrotaeniatus (Jardine 1841) -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:77 [ref. 27061], Birindelli et al. 2013:238 [ref. 32781]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus nigrotaeniatus (Jardine 1841). Anostomidae. Distribution: Negro River basin and Guyana coastal drainages, Brazil and Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

nijsseni, Leporinus Garavello [J. C.] 1990:163, Fig. 1 [Bulletin Zoölogisch Museum, Universiteit van Amsterdam v. 12 (no. 11); ref. 14314] About 27 kilometers south of Village Dam, Sara Creek, Brokopondo District, Suriname. Holotype: ZMA 107562. Paratypes: ZMA 105213 (17), 105597 (6), 105617 (3), 105770 (50), 107025 (3), 107033 (9), 107044 (2), 107616 (16); MNHG uncat. [ex ZMA 105770] (5); MZUSP 14442 [ex ZMA 107033] (2). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:475 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Leporinus nijsseni Garavello 1990 -- (Géry et al. 1991:11 [ref. 21021], Planquette et al. 1996:156 [ref. 22818], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:77 [ref. 27061], Britski & Birindella 2013:25 [ref. 32699], Melo et al. 2016:132 [ref. 34701]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus nijsseni Garavello 1990. Anostomidae. Distribution: Saramacca creek and Suriname River: Brazil, French Guiana and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

nitens, Anostomus varius var. Garman [S.] 1890:20 [Bulletin of the Essex Institute v. 22 (nos 1-3); ref. 1535] Iça, Amazon River, Brazil. Syntypes: MCZ 19367 (now 8); USNM 120242 [ex MCZ 19367] (3). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:5 [ref. 19022]. Appeared as Anostomus nitens, A. varius, var. n."; herein regarded as a subspecies description; Garman also described A. varius on the preceeding page. For remarks on types see Petry et al. 2007:79 [ref. 29175]. •Valid as Laemolyta nitens (Garman 1890) -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Laemolyta proxima (Garman 1890) -- (Mautari & Menezes 2006:38 [ref. 28621]). Current status: Synonym of Laemolyta proxima (Garman 1890). Anostomidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

novemfasciatus, Leporinus Spix [J. B. von] & Agassiz [L.] 1829:65, Pl. 37 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Rivers of equatorial Brazil [= lower Amazon basin]. No types known. As Leporinus 9-fasciatus on plate. •Considered by most as a synonym of Leporinus fasciatus (Bloch 1794) -- (Mahnert et al. 1997:841 [ref. 23282]). •Synonym of Leporinus fasciatus (Bloch 1794) -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Leporinus fasciatus (Bloch 1794). Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

obtusidens, Curimatus Valenciennes [A.] 1837:Pl. 8 (fig. 2) [Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale; ref. 20720] Buenos Aires, Argentina. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-1693. Type catalog: Bertin 1948:32 [ref. 19577] (as syntype). Name available from plate, description in Valenciennes 1847:9 [ref. 5010]. Pl. 8 was published in 1837. •Valid as Leporinus obtusidens (Valenciennes 1837) -- (Malabarba 1989:126 [ref. 14217], Gómez & Chebez 1996:54 [ref. 23791], Britski 1997:36 [ref. 24113], Sverlij et al. 1998:29 [ref. 27632] dated 1847, Johannes 1999:16 [ref. 24121], Britski et al. 1999:78 [ref. 24147], Butí & Cancino 1999:71 [ref. 25277], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:77 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:14 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:79 [ref. 28130] dated 1847, Menni 2004:72 [ref. 28131], Britski & Garavello 2005:82 [ref. 28950], Birindelli & Britski 2009:8 [ref. 30144], Britski et al. 2012:449 [ref. 32317], Litz & Koerber 2014:8 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], Ramos et al. 2014:3 [ref. 35321] dated 1836, Mirande & Koerber 2015:13 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:411 [ref. 34561] dated 1836, Petry et al. 2016:301 [ref. 34966], Melo et al. 2016:374 [ref. 35317] with author as Vallenciennes, Nión et al. 2016:27 [ref. 35565] with date 1836). •Valid as Megaleporinus obtusidens (Valenciennes 1837) -- (Ramirez et al. 2017:313 [ref. 34945], Koerber et al. 2017:2 [ref. 35083], Koerber et al. 2017:18 [ref. 35267], Koerber et al. 2017:2 [ref. 35632], Koerber et al. 2019:2 [ref. 36736], Birindelli et al. 2020:8 [ref. 37400], Koerber et al. 2020:2 [ref. 37480], Mirande & Koerber 2020:2 [ref. 37594]). Current status: Valid as Megaleporinus obtusidens (Valenciennes 1837). Anostomidae. Distribution: South America: Upper Paraná, Uruguay and Jacuí River basins, and São Francisco and Paraguay River basins (Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay). Habitat: freshwater.

octofasciatus, Leporinus Steindachner [F.] 1915:28 [14], Pl. 3 (figs. 1-2) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse. v. 93; ref. 4244] Joinville, Santa Catharina, Brazil. Syntypes: (2) NMW. On p. 14 of separate; also described in Steindachner 1917 [ref. 15259]. Species not listed in earlier abstract [ref. 18909]. •Valid as Leporinus octofasciatus Steindachner 1915 -- (Mahnert et al. 1997:842 [ref. 23282], Gómez & Chebez 1996:54 [ref. 23791], Britski 1997:35 [ref. 24113], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:77 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:14 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:72 [ref. 28131], Feitosa et al. 2011:59 [ref. 31661], Mirande & Koerber 2015:13 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:18 [ref. 35267], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[3] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus octofasciatus Steindachner 1915. Anostomidae. Distribution: Cubatã River and upper Paraná River basins: Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

octomaculatus, Leporinus Britski [H. A.] & Garavello [J. C.] 1993:33, Figs. 3-4 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRS, Série Zoologia v. 6; ref. 21111] Headwaters of Rio Arinos, Rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 44794. Paratypes: MZUSP 44795-96 (1, 1); USNM 324959 (1). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:476 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Leporinus octomaculatus Britski & Garavello 1993 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:77 [ref. 27061], Birindelli & Britski 2009:8 [ref. 30144]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus octomaculatus Britski & Garavello 1993. Anostomidae. Distribution: Arinos River basin in Tapajós River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

orinocensis, Anostomus Steindachner [F.] 1879:150 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 15) (for 19 June 1879); ref. 20478] Bolivar, Venezuela. Lectotype: NMW 62595. Paralectotypes (several) NMW 62595 (now 1), 62820 (2). Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1879:154 [p. 6 in separate], Pl. 2 (figs. 7-7a) [ref. 18782]. ectotype designated by Mautari & Menezes 2006:36 [ref. 28621]. •Valid as Laemolyta orinocensis (Steindachner 1879) -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27061], Mautari & Menezes 2006:36 [ref. 28621]). Current status: Valid as Laemolyta orinocensis (Steindachner 1879). Anostomidae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

ortomaculatus, Leporinus Garavello [J. C.] 2000:196, 1b [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 150; ref. 24492] Surumu, 3°35'N, 60°25'W, Rio Surumu, Roraima, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 5160. Paratypes: AMNH 91084-87 (?1, 2, 1, 1), 91113 (14); ANSP 135787 (3), 135914 (2), 159335 (1), 149455 (1); MZUSP 14443-45 (1, 3, 7). •Valid as Leporinus ortomaculatus Garavello 2000 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:77 [ref. 27061], Sidlauskas & Mol 2011:[7] [ref. 31287], Burns et al. 2014:213 [ref. 33354], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus ortomaculatus Garavello 2000. Anostomidae. Distribution: Negro and Orinoco River basins: Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

pachycheilus, Leporinus Britski [H. A.] 1976:87, Figs. 1-2 [Acta Amazonica v. 6 (no. 4) (Supl.); ref. 7365] Rio Aripuana, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 13074. Paratypes: MZUSP 13075-87 (13). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:476 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Leporinus pachycheilus Britski 1976 -- (Santos & Jégu 1990:171 [ref. 20180], Santos & Jégu 1996:162 [ref. 23717], Santos et al. 1996:267 [ref. 23716], Britski 1997:37 [ref. 24113], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:77 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Hypomasticus pachycheilus (Britski 1976) -- (Sidlauskas & Vari 2008:74 [ref. 29786], Birindelli et al. 2013:464 [ref. 32924]). Current status: Valid as Hypomasticus pachycheilus (Britski 1976). Anostomidae. Distribution: Aripuanã River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

pachyurus, Leporinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1850:36 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 22; ref. 1014] Amazon River. No types known. •Valid as Leporinus pachyurus Valenciennes 1850 -- (Britski 1997:36 [ref. 24113], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:77 [ref. 27061]). •Possible synonym of Leporinus trifasciatus Steindachner 1876 -- Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:77 [ref. 27061]. •Status uncertain -- (Britski et al. 2012:472 [ref. 32317]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus pachyurus Valenciennes 1850. Anostomidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

parae, Leporinus Eigenmann [C. H.] in Eigenmann & Ogle 1907:8, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 33 (no. 1556); ref. 1266] Pará, Brazil. Holotype: USNM 34613. Paratypes: USNM 34575 (2), 306340 [ex USNM 34613a] (1). Also treated as a synonym of Leporinus leschenaulti Valenciennes 1850 by Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27061]. •Also treated as a synonym of Leporinus leschenaulti Valenciennes 1850 by Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27061]. •Valid as Leporinus parae Eigenmann 1907 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:77 [ref. 27061], Britski & Birindelli 2008:49 [ref. 29578], Melo et al. 2016:132 [ref. 34701] dated 1908, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus parae Eigenmann 1907. Anostomidae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Brazil and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

paralternus, Leporinus Fowler [H. W.] 1914:237, Fig. 4 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 66; ref. 1390] Rupununi River, Guyana, 2°-3°N, 50°20'W. Holotype: ANSP 39320. Paratypes: ANSP 39321-22 (1, 1), 39323 (missing). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:19 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Leporinus pellegrini Steindachner 1910 -- (Johannes 1999:15 [ref. 24121]). •Valid as Leporinus paralternus Fowler 1914 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:77 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Leporinus maculatus Müller & Troschel 1844 -- (Géry et al. 1988:704 [ref. 27759], Mol et al. 2012:287 [ref. 32867]). Current status: Synonym of Leporinus maculatus Müller & Troschel 1844. Anostomidae. Distribution: Guyana and Suriname rivers and upper Amazon River basin: Brazil and Guyana (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

paranensis, Leporinus Garavello [J. C.] & Britski [H. A.] 1987:156, Fig. 1b [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRS No. 44; ref. 6851] Marimbondo, Rio Grande, São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 14453. Paratypes: MZUSP 14454-56 (2, 4, 16), 37406-11 (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:476-477 [ref. 23140] with MZUSP 14456 and 37410 not found. •Valid as Leporinus paranensis Garavello & Britski 1987 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:77 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus paranensis Garavello & Britski 1987. Anostomidae. Distribution: Paraná River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

parvulus, Leporinus Birindelli [J. L. O.], Britski [H. A.] & Lima [F. C. T.] 2013:242, Fig. 4 [Copeia 2013 (no. 2); ref. 32781] Pará, Ara, Itaituba, Rio Tapajós, São Luiz, approximately 4°309'S, 56°59'W, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 110800. Paratypes: ANSP, INPA, MZUSP, SUEC. •Valid as Leporinus parvulus Birindelli, Britski & Lima 2013 -- (Britski & Birindelli 2019:190 [ref. 36700]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus parvulus Birindelli, Britski & Lima 2013. Anostomidae. Distribution: Pará, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

passionis, Anostomoides Santos [G. M. dos] & Zuanon [J.] 2006:60, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa No. 1168; ref. 28618] Rio Xingu, Viracebo do Arros, 3°25'15.7"S, 51°55'08.3"W, State of Pará, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 13182. Paratypes: INPA 4042 (1), 4043 (2), 13196 (1), 14876 (1); MZUSP 86083 [ex INPA 4043] (1); ZUEC 3386 (1). •Synonym of Anostomoides nattereri (Steindachner 1876) -- (Assega & Birindelli 2019:136 [ref. 36847]). Current status: Synonym of Anostomoides nattereri (Steindachner 1876). Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

pearsoni, Anostomus Ahl [E.] 1937:136 [Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1937 (nos 1-3); ref. 15264] Replacement name for Laemolyta fasciata Pearson 1924, secondarily preoccupied by Anostomus fasciatus (Spix and Agassiz 1829) when both are in Anostomus. •Synonym of Laemolyta fasciata Pearson 1924 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Laemolyta fasciata Pearson 1924. Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

pearsoni, Leporinus Fowler [H. W.] 1940:84, Figs. 44-45 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 92; ref. 1436] Boca Chapare, Río Chimore, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 69069. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:19 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Leporinus pearsoni Fowler 1940 -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:31 [ref. 37559], Johannes 1999:15 [ref. 24121], Géry 1999:106 [ref. 24139], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:78 [ref. 27061], Barriga Salazar 2014:105 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], Britski & Birindelli 2016:39 [ref. 34393], Burns et al. 2017:21 [ref. 35416]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus pearsoni Fowler 1940. Anostomidae. Distribution: South America. upper Amazon basin (Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador). Habitat: freshwater.

pellegrinii, Leporinus Steindachner [F.] 1910:269 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse v. 47 (no. 17) (for 30 June 1910); ref. 14874] Suriname. Lectotype: NMW 68174:2. Paralectotypes: NMW 68174 (2 of 3), 72624 (5). Lectotype selected by Géry et al. 1988:704 [ref. 27759]. •Valid as Leporinus pellegrinii Steindachner 1910 -- (Johannes 1999:15 [ref. 24121], Garavello 2000:199 [ref. 24492] as pellegrini, Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:78 [ref. 27061], Menni 2004:72 [ref. 28131] as pellegrini, Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004]). •Synonym of Leporinus maculatus Müller & Troschel 1844 -- (Géry et al. 1988:704 [ref. 27759], Mol et al. 2012:287 [ref. 32867]). Current status: Synonym of Leporinus maculatus Müller & Troschel 1844. Anostomidae. Distribution: Coastal rivers of Guianas and upper Amazon River basin: Brazil, Bolivia, French Guiana, Guyana and Surinne (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

petiti, Laemolyta Géry [J.] 1964:464, Pl. 4b [Vie et Milieu Suppl. No. 17; ref. 1583] Ilha do Bananal, upper River Araguaia, Brazil. Holotype: MHNG 2229.01 [ex Géry coll. M195,1]. Type catalog: Weber 1998:8 [ref. 23532]. •Valid as Anostomoides petiti (Géry 1964) -- (Santos & Jégu 1990:166 [ref. 20180]). •Valid as Laemolyta petiti Géry 1964 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Laemolyta ferrnandezi Myers 1950 -- (Mautari & Menezes 2006:31 [ref. 28621]). Current status: Synonym of Laemolyta fernandezi Myers 1950. Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

piau, Leporinus Fowler [H. W.] 1941:176, Fig. 87 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 1437] Rio Salgade, Icó, Ceará, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 69502. Paratypes: ANSP 69503-07 (5), 69509 (1); Géry (1) [ex ANSP 69508]. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:19 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Leporinus piau Fowler 1941 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:78 [ref. 27061], Ramos et al. 2014:3 [ref. 35321] with authorship as Lutken 1875, Petry et al. 2016:301 [ref. 34966], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[4] [ref. 35679], Costa et al. 2017:44 [ref. 35684]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus piau Fowler 1941. Anostomidae. Distribution: Salgado River, Ceará State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

piavussu, Leporinus Britski [H. A.], Birindelli [J. L. O.] & Garavello [J. C.] 2012:462, Fig. 12-13 [Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo v. 52 (no. 37); ref. 32317] Rio Mogi Gauçu, at Cachoeira de Emas (21°55'35"S, 47°21'59"W), Pirassununga, São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 109999. Paratypes: many at ANSP, MCP, MNRJ, MZUSP. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Megaleporinus piavussu (Britski, Birindelli & Garavello 2012) -- (Ramirez et al. 2017:313 [ref. 34945], Birindelli et al. 2020:8 [ref. 37400], Mirande & Koerber 2020:2 [ref. 37594]). Current status: Valid as Megaleporinus piavussu (Britski, Birindelli & Garavello 2012). Anostomidae. Distribution: South America: upper Paraná River basin (Brazil and Argentina). Habitat: freshwater.

pictus, Leporinus Kner [R.] 1858:79 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 30 (no. 13); ref. 13404] Irisanga [Orissanga], São Paulo State, Brazil. Syntypes: NMW 81315 (1). Appeared in more detail in Kner 1859:172, Pl. 8 [ref. 2631]. •Synonym of Leporellus vittatus (Valenciennes 1850) -- (Taphorn 1992:36 [ref. 23654], Britski 2001:20 [ref. 26046]). •Valid as Leporellus pictus (Kner 1858) -- (Gómez & Chebez 1996:52 [ref. 23791], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:13 [ref. 27366], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:13 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:17 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Leporellus pictus (Kner 1858). Anostomidae. Distribution: Paraná and São Francisco River basins: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

pitingai, Leporinus Santos [G. M. dos] & Jégu [M.] 1996:168, Fig. [Acta Amazonica v. 26 (no. 3); ref. 23717] Rio Pitinga, Cachoeira 40 Ilhas, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 10126. Paratypes: INPA 10127 (1), MZUSP 48960 [ex INPA 10125] (1). •Valid as Leporinus pitingai Santos & Jégu 1996 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:78 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus pitingai Santos & Jégu 1996. Anostomidae. Distribution: Pitinga River, Amazonas State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

platae, Anostomus Garman [S.] 1890:23 [Bulletin of the Essex Institute v. 22 (nos 1-3); ref. 1535] Rosario, La Plata system, Argentina. Holotype (unique): MCZ 833 [not 1833 or 2833]. See Gómez & Chebez 1996:53 [ref. 23791]. Unjustifiably emended to platai by Berg [C.] 1897:281 [ref. 14623]. •Valid as Schizodon platae (Garman 1890) -- (Bergmann 1988:20 [ref. 21062], Garavello 1994:186 [ref. 22129], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:15 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:72 [ref. 28131], Litz & Koerber 2014:8 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:14 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:411 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:27 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:19 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Schizodon platae (Garman 1890). Anostomidae. Distribution: La Plata and Uruguay River basins: Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

platycephalus, Leporinus Meinken [H.] 1935:196, Fig. 3 [Blätter für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde v. 46 (no. 9); ref. 13902] Río Paraná, near Corrientes, Argentina. Syntypes: (several) whereabouts unknown. •Species inquirenda in Schizodon and possibly a synonym of Schizodon borellii (Boulenger 1900) -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Leporinus platycephalus Meinken 1935 -- (Menni 2004:72 [ref. 28131]). •Synonym of Schizodon borellii (Boulenger 1900) -- (Litz & Koerber 2014:8 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:13 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:18 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Schizodon borellii (Boulenger 1900). Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

plicatus, Anostomus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:296, Pl. 41 (fig. 3) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Crab Falls, Essequibo River, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53393 [ex CM 1861]. Paratypes: BMNH 1911.10.31.464 (1); CAS 27647-50 [ex IU 12148-51] (1, 1, 1, 1), FMNH 53394-96 (1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:57 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:9 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Anostomus plicatus Eigenmann 1912 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27061], Sidlauskas & Santos 2005:121 [ref. 28904]). •Valid as Petulanos plicatus (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Sidlauskas & Vari 2008:74 [ref. 29786], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Petulanos plicatus (Eigenmann 1912). Anostomidae. Distribution: Guyana, Bolivia and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

proximus, Anostomus Garman [S.] 1890:19 [Bulletin of the Essex Institute v. 22 (nos 1-3); ref. 1535] Villa Bella and Ueranduba, Brazil. Lectotype: MCZ 19331. Paralectotypes: MCZ 19339 (1), 19379 (4). Lectotype selected by Mautari & Menezes 2006:38 [ref. 28621]. For information on types see Petry et al. 2007:80 [ref. 29175]. •Valid as Laemolyta proxima (Garman 1890) -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27061], Mautari & Menezes 2006:38 [ref. 28621], Sarmiento et al. 2014:37, 183 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Laemolyta proxima (Garman 1890). Anostomidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

punctatus, Leporinus Garavello [J. C.] 2000:194, Fig. 1a [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 150; ref. 24492] Small caño tributary to Río do Mato (left bank), Río Orinoco system, 7°08'N, 65°10"W, Bolivar, Venezuela. Holotype: ANSP 174805. Paratypes: ANSP 139898 (22). •Valid as Leporinus punctatus Garavello 2000 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:78 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus punctatus Garavello 2000. Anostomidae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

reinhardti, Leporinus Lütken [C. F.] 1875:129 [3] [Oversigt over det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Forhandlinger og dets Medlemmers Arbeider (Kjøbenhavn) 1874 (no. 3); ref. 2856] Rio das Velhas, near Lagao Santa, 19°38'S, 43°53'W, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-9590 [ex ZMUC] (1); NMW 68196 (1); SMNS 2040 (1); ZMB 9189 (1); ZMUC 123 (1), 126 (1), 128 (1), 131 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:33 [ref. 19577], Nielsen 1974:47 [ref. 9588], Fricke 1995:4 [ref. 28100], Fricke 2005:12 [ref. 29864]. On p. 3 of separate. Also described in Lütken 1875:197 (and p. XI of summary), Pl. 4 (fig. 10) [ref. 19674]. •Valid as Leporinus reinhardti Lütken 1875 -- (Britski 2001:20 [ref. 26046], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:78 [ref. 27061], Britski et al. 2012:458 [ref. 32317], Ramos et al. 2014:3 [ref. 35321]). •Valid as Megaleporinus reinhardti (Lütken 1875) -- (Ramirez et al. 2017:313 [ref. 34945], Birindelli et al. 2020:8 [ref. 37400]). Current status: Valid as Megaleporinus reinhardti (Lütken 1875). Anostomidae. Distribution: São Francisco and Itapicuru River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

respectus, Sartor Myers [G. S.] & Carvalho [A. L. de] 1959:149, Figs. 1-3 [Copeia 1959 (no. 2); ref. 3130] Rio Kuluene (Culuene) at Jacaré at junction with Rio Tamitatoala, about 12°S, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNRJ. •Valid as Sartor respectus Myers & Carvalho 1959 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:79 [ref. 27061], Sidlauskas & Santos 2005:121 [ref. 28904]). Current status: Valid as Sartor respectus Myers & Carvalho 1959. Anostomidae. Distribution: Upper Xingu River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

reticulatus, Leporinus Britski [H. A.] & Garavello [J. C.] 1993:30, Figs. 1-2 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRS, Série Zoologia v. 6; ref. 21111] Headwaters of the Rio Arinos, Rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil, 14°25'S, 55°50'W. Holotype: MZUSP 44781. Paratypes: MZUSP 44782-83 (2), USNM 324958 (12). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:477 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Leporinus reticulatus Britski & Garavello 1993 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:78 [ref. 27061], Birindelli & Britski 2009:6 [ref. 30144]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus reticulatus Britski & Garavello 1993. Anostomidae. Distribution: Arinos and Tapajós River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

retropinnis, Leporinodus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1922:116 [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 1243] Rio Piracicaba, Brazil. Holotype (unique): FMNH 55174 [ex CM 3875]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:57 [ref. 12305]. •Valid as Leporellus retropinnis (Eigenmann 1922) -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27061]) Current status: Valid as Leporellus retropinnis (Eigenmann 1922). Anostomidae. Distribution: Paraná River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

rostratus, Anostomus Borodin [N. A.] 1931:50, Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 72 (no. 2); ref. 16261] Rio Puty at Teresina [Rio Poti], Brazil. Holotype: MCZ 19380. Paratypes: MCZ 69542 [ex MCZ 19380] (orig. 11, now 8), USNM 120237 [ex MCZ 19380] (3). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:5 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Schizodon rostratus (Borodin 1931) -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27061], Ramos et al. 2014:3 [ref. 35321]). Current status: Valid as Schizodon rostratus (Borodin 1931). Anostomidae. Distribution: Parnaíba River basin, north Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

sagittarius, Schizodon Cope [E. D.] 1878:689 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 17 (no. 101); ref. 945] Peruvian Amazon. Holotype (unique): ANSP 21474. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:19 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Rhytiodus argenteofuscus Kner 1858 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:79 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Rhytiodus argenteofuscus Kner 1858. Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

salmoneus, Anostomus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:153 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] South America. No types known. Type information: Wheeler 1989:212, Fig. 3A [ref. 21873]. •Objective synonym of Anostomus anostomus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Anostomus anostomus (Linnaeus 1758). Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

santanai, Hypomasticus Birindelli [J. L. O.] & Melo [B. F.] in Birindelli, Melo, Ribeiro-Silva, Diniz & Oliveira 2020:417, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia v. 108 (no. 2); ref. 37635] Rio Gongogi, tributary of Rio de Contas, approximately 2 km above city of Dario Meira, Bahia, Brazil, 14°27'44.2"S, 39°55'01.4"W. Holotype: MZUEL 18604. Paratypes: LBP, MZUEL. •Valid as Hypomasticus santanai Birindelli & Melo 2020. Current status: Valid as Hypomasticus santanai Birindelli & Melo 2020. Anostomidae. Distribution: Rio de Contas basin, Bahia, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

santosi, Leporinus Britski [H. A.] & Birindelli [J. L. O.] 2013:26, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 11 (no. 1); ref. 32699] Parauapebas, igarapé de Pojuca, tributary of rio Itacaiúnas, at Caldeirão, approximately 5°52'S, 50°32'W, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 110000. Paratypes: Many ANSP, INPA, MZUSP. •Valid as Leporinus santosi Britski & Birindelli 2013. Current status: Valid as Leporinus santosi Britski & Birindelli 2013. Anostomidae. Distribution: Rio Itacaiunas, large tributary of lower rio Tocantins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

schizodon, Piabuca Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1850:112 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 22; ref. 1014] Amazon, Essequibo, Lake Maracaibo, Suriname. Syntypes: MNHN A-8643 (1, dry) Maracaibo, A-9839 (2) Amazon, A-9840 (1) Essequibo; RMNH (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:31 [ref. 19577]. Schizodon is masculine, so fasciatus is correct. •Syntype from Lago Maracaibo is a specimen of Schizodon corti Schultz 1944 -- (Vari & Raredon 1991:13 [ref. 19023]). •Synonym of Schizodon fasciatum Spix & Agassiz 1829, subspecies corti Schultz 1944 -- (Galvis et al. 1997:33 [ref. 23651]). •Synonym of Schizodon fasciatus Spix & Agassiz 1829 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Schizodon fasciatus Spix & Agassiz 1829. Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

scotorhabdotus, Schizodon Sidlauskas [B. L.], Garavello [J. C.] & Jellen [J.] 2007:712, Figs. 1-3 [Copeia 2007 (no. 3); ref. 29265] Río Aguaro north of Cabruta on cattle ranch on east side of Río Guarico, 7°50'28"N, 66°30'28"W, Guárico, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-32950. Paratypes: Many at ANSP, FMNH, INHS, MBUCV, MZUSP, UMMZ, USNM. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Schizodon scotorhabdotus Sidlauskas, Garavello & Jellen 2007 -- (DoNascimiento et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:84 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Schizodon scotorhabdotus Sidlauskas, Garavello & Jellen 2007. Anostomidae. Distribution: Orinoco River drainage: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

semivittatus, Leporinus Boulenger [G. A.] 1895:449 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 15 (no. 89) (art. 51); ref. 14577] Manaus, Rio Negro, Brazil. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1893.4.24.39. •Synonym of Leporinus agassizii Steindachner 1876 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:74 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Leporinus agassizii Steindachner 1876. Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

sexdentatus, Leporinodus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1922:117 [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 1243] Cauca near Cáceres, Brazil. No types found. •Based on Leporinus vittatus of Steindachner 1880:71 (not Valenciennes 1850). •Synonym of Leporellus vittatus (Valenciennes 1850) -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Leporellus vittatus (Valenciennes 1850). Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

sexstriatus, Leporinus Britski [H. A.] & Garavello [J. C.] 1980:254, Figs. 1-2 [Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia (São Paulo) v. 33 (no. 15); ref. 8733] Rio Papagaio, acima de Utiariti, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 9232. Paratypes: MZUSP 5180 (1), 9233-37 (5). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:477 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Leporinus sexstriatus Britski & Garavello 1980 -- (Britski 1997:29 [ref. 24113], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:78 [ref. 27061], Feitosa et al. 2011:59 [ref. 31661]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus sexstriatus Britski & Garavello 1980. Anostomidae. Distribution: Papagaiio and Tapajós River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

sidlauskasi, Leporinus Britski [H. A.] & Birindelli [J. L. O.] 2019:184, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa 4603 (no. 1); ref. 36700] Creek tributary of the rio Teles Pires, at the margin of the road, Itaúba, Mato Grosso, Brazil, 11°08'42"S, 55°35'21"W. Holotype: MZUSP 123539. Paratypes: MCP, MNRJ, MZUEL, MZUSP. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Leporinus sidlauskasi Britski & Birindelli 2019. Current status: Valid as Leporinus sidlauskasi Britski & Birindelli 2019. Anostomidae. Distribution: Rio Teles Pires drainage, upper Rio Tapajós, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

silvestrii, Leporinus Boulenger [G. A.] 1902:284 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 9 (no. 52) (art. 47); ref. 14846] Rio Coxipo, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) BMNH 1902.2.10.32 (1), MSNG 14866 (3). Type catalog: Tortonese 1961:184 [ref. 10343]. •Valid as Leporinus silvestrii Boulenger 1902 -- (Johannes 1999:16 [ref. 24121], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:78 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Leporinus obtusidens (Valenciennes 1837) -- (Britski et al. 1999:78 [ref. 24147], Britski et al. 2012:450 [ref. 32317], Litz & Koerber 2014:8 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:13 [ref. 35117]). •Synonym of Megaleporinus obtusidens (Valenciennes 1837) -- (Koerber et al. 2017:18 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Megaleporinus obtusidens (Valenciennes 1837). Anostomidae. Distribution: Upper Paraguay River basin, Brazil (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

solarii, Leporinus Holmberg [E. L.] 1891:187 [Revista Argentina de Historia Natural (Buenos Aires) v. 1; ref. 2192] Misiones, Río Alto Paraná, Argentina. No types known. Abramites salarii is a misspelling. •Valid as Abramites solarii (Holmberg 1891) -- (Gómez & Chebez 1996:53 [ref. 23791], Menni 2004:72 [ref. 28131]). •Synonym of Abramites hypselonotus (Günther 1868) -- (Vari & Williams 1987:92 [ref. 5980], Taphorn 1992:30 [ref. 23654], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:8 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:13 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:17 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Abramites hypselonotus (Günther 1868). Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

spiloclistron, Anostomus Winterbottom [R.] 1974:154, Figs. 1, 5a-b, 6 [Beaufortia v. 21 (no. 283); ref. 7548] Fallawatra River at rapids, 5 kilometers south-southwest of Stondansie Falls, Nickerie River system, Suriname. Holotype: ZMA 112685. Paratypes: ANSP 124334 (1), CAS 27725 (1), USNM 209432 (1), ZMA 105776-77 (6, 4). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:13 [ref. 19236], Böhlke 1984:19 [ref. 13621], Vari & Howe 1991:5 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Anostomus spiloclistron Winterbottom 1974 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27061], Sidlauskas & Santos 2005:121 [ref. 28904]). •Valid as Petulanos spiloclistron (Winterbottom 1974) -- (Sidlauskas & Vari 2008:74 [ref. 29786], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[4] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Petulanos spiloclistron (Winterbottom 1974). Anostomidae. Distribution: Nickerie River basin, Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

spilopleura, Leporinus Norman [J. R.] 1926:94 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9) v. 18 (no. 103); ref. 15602] Oyapock River, French Guiana. Syntypes: BMNH 1926.3.2.564-565 (2). •Synonym of Leporinus friderici Bloch 1794 -- (Géry et al. 1991:8 [ref. 21021]). •Valid as Leporinus spilopleura Norman 1926 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:78 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus spilopleura Norman 1926. Anostomidae. Distribution: Oyapock River basin: Brazil and French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

steindachneri, Leporinus Eigenmann [C. H.] in Eigenmann & Ogle 1907:9 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 33 (no. 1556); ref. 1266] Arassuahy, tributary of Rio Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Syntypes: (at least 4) BMNH 1849.11.8.52-53 (2). Replacement name for Leporinus affinis Steindachner 1875, preoccupied by Leporinus affinis Günther 1864. •Valid as Leporinus steindachneri Eigenmann 1907 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:78 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Hypomasticus steindachneri (Eigenmann 1907) -- (Birindelli et al. 2020:423 [ref. 37635]). Current status: Valid as Hypomasticus steindachneri (Eigenmann 1907). Anostomidae. Distribution: Jequitinhonha River basin and some southern drainages, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

steyermarki, Leporinus Inger [R. F.] 1956:431, Fig. 93 [Fieldiana Zoology v. 34 (no. 37); ref. 12201] Río Abácapa, west side of Chimantá-tepui, Venezuela, elevation 1300 feet. Holotype: FMNH 45701. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:52 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Leporinus steyermarki Inger 1956 -- (Garavello 2000:199 [ref. 24492], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:78 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[4] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus steyermarki Inger 1956. Anostomidae. Distribution: Abácapa River basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

striatus, Leporinus Kner [R.] 1858:79 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 30 (no. 13); ref. 13404] Irisanga and Caicara, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Syntypes: NMW 68048 (7). Appeared in more detail in Kner 1859:171, Pl. 8 [ref. 2631]. •Valid as Leporinus striatus Kner 1858 -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:31 [ref. 37559], Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Taphorn 1992:51 [ref. 23654] with question, Gómez & Chebez 1996:54 [ref. 23791], Britski 1997:29 [ref. 24113], Sverlij et al. 1998:30 [ref. 27632] dated 1859, Britski et al. 1999:77 [ref. 24147], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:78 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:14 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:72 [ref. 28131], Birindelli & Britski 2009:9 [ref. 30144], Birindelli & Britski 2013:1128 [ref. 33171], Barriga Salazar 2014:105 [ref. 35745] as cf. striatus, Litz & Koerber 2014:8 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:13 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:411 [ref. 34561], DoNascimiento 2016:528 [ref. 34727] as cf. striatus, Nión et al. 2016:27 [ref. 35565], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35633], Koerber et al. 2017:18 [ref. 35267], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:85 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus striatus Kner 1858. Anostomidae. Distribution: South America: Orissanfa, Paraná, and Paraguay River basins (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador?, Colombia, Uruguay and Paraguay). Habitat: freshwater.

subniger, Leporinus Fowler [H. W.] 1943:228, Figs. 10-12 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 95; ref. 1443] Río Orteguasa, Florencia, Caquetá Dept., Colombia. Holotype: ANSP 70493. Paratypes: ANSP 70494 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:19 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Leporinus subniger Fowler 1943 -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:31 [ref. 37559], Taphorn 1992:43 [ref. 23654], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:78 [ref. 27061], Britski & Birindelli 2008:51 [ref. 29578], Barriga Salazar 2014:105 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus subniger Fowler 1943. Anostomidae. Distribution: South America: upper Amazon River basin (Colombia and Ecuador). Habitat: freshwater.

succinctus, Schizodon Burmeister [H. K.] 1861:535 [Reise durch die La Plata-Staaten v. 2; ref. 23859] Río Paraná, near Rosario, Argentina. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. For English and Spanish translation see Koerber & Litz 2008:4 [ref. 29451]. •See Koerber & Litz 2008:4 [ref. 29451]. •Valid as Schizodon succinctus Burmeister 1861 -- (Koerber 2011:4 [ref. 31122], Koerber 2014:2 [ref. 33621], Mirande & Koerber 2015:14 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Valid as Schizodon succinctus Burmeister 1861. Anostomidae. Distribution: Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

taeniatus, Leporinus Lütken [C. F.] (ex Reinhardt) 1875:129 [3] [Oversigt over det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Forhandlinger og dets Medlemmers Arbeider (Kjøbenhavn) 1874 (no. 3); ref. 2856] Rio das Velhas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-9591 [ex ZMUC] (2); SMNS 2041 (1), ZMB 9190 (?1); ZMUC 132-133 (2), 139 (1), 143 (1), 150 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:33 [ref. 19577], Nielsen 1974:47 [ref. 9588], Fricke 1995:4 [ref. 28100], Fricke 2005:12 [ref. 29864]. On p. 3 of separate. Also described in Lütken 1875:199 (and p. XII of summary), Pl. 4 (fig. 11) [ref. 19674]. Author sometimes seen as Reinhardt in Lütken, •Valid as Leporinus taeniatus Lütken 1875 [author sometimes as Reinhardt] -- (Britski 2001:20 [ref. 26046], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:78 [ref. 27061], Britski & Garavello 2005:81 [ref. 28950], Garavello & Santos 2009:115 [ref. 30137], Feitosa et al. 2011:56 [ref. 31661], Britski & Birindelli 2019:190 [ref. 36700]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus taeniatus Lütken 1875. Anostomidae. Distribution: Das Velhas and São Francisco River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

taeniatus, Schizodon Kner [R.] 1858:78 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 30 (no. 13); ref. 13404] Rio Guaporé, Manaus, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Syntypes: NMW 56988 (2), ?58851 (1, dry), 62875 (1), 81379 (2). Appeared in more detail in Kner 1859:159, Pl. 5 (fig. 10) [ref. 2631]. •Valid as Laemolyta taeniata (Kner 1858) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Santos & Jégu 1990:167 [ref. 20180], Santos & Jégu 1996:161 [ref. 23717], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27061] dated 1859, Mautari & Menezes 2006:41 [ref. 28621] Sarmiento et al. 2014:37, 183 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Laemolyta taeniata (Kner 1858). Anostomidae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco River basins: Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

taeniofasciatus, Leporinus Britski [H. A.] 1997:32, Fig. 3 [Communicações do Museu de Ciêcias da PUCRS v. 10; ref. 24113] Rio Maranhão, near Cachoeira do Machadinho, border of Barro Alto and Niquelândia, Goias, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 51073. Paratypes: MZUSP 51074 (1), 51212-19 (1, 1, 3, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1). •Valid as Leporinus taeniofasciatus Britski 1997 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:78 [ref. 27061], Britski & Garavello 2005:81 [ref. 28950], Feitosa et al. 2011:56 [ref. 31661], Britski & Birindelli 2019:190 [ref. 36700]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus taeniofasciatus Britski 1997. Anostomidae. Distribution: Tocantins River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

tepui, Leporinus Birindelli [J. L. O.], Britski [H. A.] & Provenzano [F.] 2019:2, Fig. 1 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 17 (no. 2): e190022; ref. 36868] Chimantá-tepuí, río Orinoco basin, Bolivár, Venezuela, about. 5°18'N, 62°10'W. Holotype: FMNH 45711. Paratypes: FMNH, MBUCV, MZUEL, MZUSP, •Valid as Leporinus tepui Birindelli, Britski & Provenzano 2019. Current status: Valid as Leporinus tepui Birindelli, Britski & Provenzano 2019. Anostomidae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, highlands of the Guyana Shield, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

ternetzi, Abramites Norman [J. R.] 1926:93 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9) v. 18 (no. 103); ref. 15602] São Luis, Mato Grosso, southeastern Brazil. Lectotype: BMNH 1895.5.17.156. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1895.5.17.155 (1) Descalvados. Lectotype selected by Vari & Williams 1988:97-98 [ref. 5980]. The lectotype of this species also is a paralectotype of Leporinus eques Steindachner 1878. •Synonym of Abramites hypselonotus (Günther 1868) -- (Vari & Williams 1987:93 [ref. 5980], Taphorn 1992:30 [ref. 23654], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:8 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:13 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:17 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Abramites hypselonotus (Günther 1868). Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

ternetzi, Anostomus Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1949:293, Fig. [Boletín de la Sociedad Venezolana de Ciencias Naturales v. 11 (no. 74); ref. 12355] Palital, Estado Guárico, Venezuela. Holotype: MHNLS 427 [ex AFY 46001]. Paratypes: MHNLS 430 [ex AFY 46002]. Other material: CAS 20093-94 (1, 1), 20095 (4, 1 c&s), 20096 (1). Type catalog: Lasso et al. 1998:41 [ref. 23639]. •Valid as Anostomus ternetzi Fernández-Yépez 1949 -- (Santos & Jégu 1990:165 [ref. 20180], Taphorn 1992:33 [ref. 23654], Planquette et al. 1996:142 [ref. 22818], Keith et al. 2000:13 [ref. 24547], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27061], Sidlauskas & Santos 2005:121 [ref. 28904], Sidlauskas & Vari 2008:74 [ref. 29786], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Anostomus ternetzi Fernández-Yépez 1949. Anostomidae. Distribution: Widespread in South America: Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

thayeri, Leporinus Borodin [N. A.] 1929:273, Pl. 2 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 50 (no. 3); ref. 527] Rio Parahyba, Brazil. Holotype: MCZ 20364. Paratypes: MCZ 94492 [ex MCZ 20364a] (1), 20367 (5), 20414 (1). •Synonym of Leporinus mormyrops Steindachner 1875 -- (Johannes 1999:16 [ref. 24121]). •Valid as Leporinus thayeri Borodin 1929 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:78 [ref. 27061]). Valid as Hypomasticus thayeri (Borodin 1929) -- (Sidlauskas & Vari 2008:74 [ref. 29786], Birindelli et al. 2013:464 [ref. 32924], Birindelli et al. 2020:423 [ref. 37635]). Current status: Valid as Hypomasticus thayeri (Borodin 1929). Anostomidae. Distribution: Coastal drainages, Paraíba do Sul to Mucuri River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

tigrinus, Leporinus fasciatus Borodin [N. A.] 1929:280 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 50 (no. 3); ref. 527] Goiás, Brazil. Syntypes: MCZ 20446 (2). •Valid as Leporinus tigrinus Borodin 1929 -- (Santos & Jégu 1990:171 [ref. 20180], Mahnert et al. 1997:842 [ref. 23282], Géry 1999:105 [ref. 24139], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:79 [ref. 27061], Britski & Birindelli 2016:39 [ref. 34393], Burns et al. 2017:21 [ref. 35416]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus tigrinus Borodin 1929. Anostomidae. Distribution: Lower Amazon river basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

timbore, Leporellus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1922:117 [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 1243] Pirapora, Rio das Velhas, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 55175 [ex CM 3876]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:57 [ref. 12305]. Based on Leporellus pictus (non Leporinus pictus Kner) of Lütken from Rio das Velhas. •Synonym of Leporellus vittatus (Valenciennes 1850) -- (Taphorn 1992:36 [ref. 23654], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Leporellus pictus (Kner 1858) -- (Mirande & Koerber 2015:13 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Synonym of Leporellus pictus (Kner 1858). Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

timbure, Salmo Natterer [J.] in Kner 1859:171 [35] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 17; ref. 2631] Irisanga, Brazil. No types known. On p. 35 of separate. •Species inquirenda in Leporellus -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27061]). Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

tiririca, Salmo Natterer [J.] in Kner 1859:172 [36] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 17; ref. 2631] Irisanga and Caiçara, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Syntypes: NMW 68048 (7). On p. 36 of separate. •Objective synonym of Leporinus striatus Kner 1858 -- (Taphorn 1992:51 [ref. 23654], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:78 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:8 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:13 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:18 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Leporinus striatus Kner 1858. Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

torrenticola, Leporinus Birindelli [J. L. O.], Teixeira [T. F.] & Britski [H. A.] 2016:106, Figs. 5-8 [Zootaxa 4178 (no. 1); ref. 34843] Pará, Altamira, Xingu basin, rio Curuá, tributary of rio Iriri, at Castelo dos Sonhos, Brazil, 8°19'06"S 55°05'24"W. Holotype: MNRJ 34071. Paratypes: ANSP, MNRJ, MZUEL, MZUSP. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Leporinus torrenticola Birindelli, Teixeira & Britski 2016. Current status: Valid as Leporinus torrenticola Birindelli, Teixeira & Britski 2016. Anostomidae. Distribution: Pará, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

trifasciatus, Leporinus Steindachner [F.] 1876:112 [64] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] Amazon River at Tefé, Amazonas state, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW ?. On p. 64 of separate. •Valid as Leporinus trifasciatus Steindachner 1876 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Garavello & Britski 1988:70 [ref. 11864], Santos & Jégu 1990:172 [ref. 20180], Gómez & Chebez 1996:54 [ref. 23791], Britski 1997:37 [ref. 24113], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:79 [ref. 27061], Menni 2004:72 [ref. 28131], Birindelli & Britski 2009:9 [ref. 30144], Britski et al. 2012:458 [ref. 32317], Barriga Salazar 2014:105 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004]). •Valid as Megaleporinus trifasciatus (Steindachner 1876) -- (Ramirez et al. 2017:313 [ref. 34945], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35633], Birindelli et al. 2020:8 [ref. 37400]). Current status: Valid as Megaleporinus trifasciatus (Steindachner 1876). Anostomidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin and Tocantins-Araguaia system: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

trimaculatus, Leporinus Garavello [J. C.] & Santos [G. M. dos] 1992:111, Fig. 1a [Bulletin Zoölogisch Museum, Universiteit van Amsterdam v. 13 (no. 12); ref. 20885] Rio Aripuanã, Humboldt, Aripuana, Mato Grosso State, Amazonia, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 14459. Paratypes: INPA 4857 (3), 4858 (6); MZUSP 14460-61 (15, 1); ZMA 120760 (2). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:478 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Leporinus trimaculatus Garavello & Santos 1992 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:79 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus trimaculatus Garavello & Santos 1992. Anostomidae. Distribution: Aripuanã River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

trimaculatus, Schizodon Kner [R.] 1858:78 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 30 (no. 13); ref. 13404] Brazil. Syntypes: NMW 62692 (1). •Valid as Anostomus trimaculatus (Kner 1858) -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:31 [ref. 37559]). •Valid as Pseudanos trimaculatus (Kner 1858) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Lasso et al. 2001:94 [ref. 25928], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:79 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:15 [ref. 27366], Sidlauskas & Santos 2005:121 [ref. 28094], Menni 2004:72 [ref. 28131], Birindelli et al. 2012:55 [ref. 32125], Barriga Salazar 2014:105 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:39, 183 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:13 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanos trimaculatus (Kner 1858). Anostomidae. Distribution: South America: Amazon River basin, Essequibo River basin, and Río Orinoco basin (Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, Bolivia, Guyana and Peru). Habitat: freshwater.

tristriatus, Leporinus Birindelli [J. L. O.] & Britski [H. A.] 2013:1135, Figs. 7-9 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 83 (no. 5); ref. 33171] Brazil, Mato Grosso, Peixoto de Azevedo, tributary of Rio Peixoto de Azevedo, at Cachoeira da Neblina, Rio Teles Pires basin, 10° 23′ 10″ S; 54° 18′ 22″ W. Holotype: MZUSP 96800. Paratypes: MZUSP 110987 (7), 61121 (5), 61125 (1), 95937 (1), 96589 (1), 97278 (1), 99099 (1), 99493 (7), 108011 (1), 108012 (13). Only from abstract. •Valid as Leporinus tristriatus Birindelli & Britski 2013. Current status: Valid as Leporinus tristriatus Birindelli & Britski 2013. Anostomidae. Distribution: Tributaries of the upper Rio Tocantins, upper Rio Xingu and the Rio Tapajós, including the Rio Arinos, the Rio Teles Pires and the Rio Jamanxim, in the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso and Pará, Brazil Habitat: freshwater.

tucuruiense, Sartor Santos [G. M. dos] & Jégu [M.] 1987:184, Fig. 3 [Amazoniana v. 10 (no. 2); ref. 16262] Rio Tocantins, Tucuruí, Pará, Brazil, 3°45'S, 49°12'W. Holotype: INPA 1165. Paratypes: INPA 1166 (1), MZUSP 38579 (2). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:493 [ref. 23140]. Sartor is masculine, therefore mandatory correction to tucuruiensis. •Valid as Sartor tucuruiense Santos & Jégu 1987 -- (Santos & Jégu 1990:175 [ref. 20180], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27061], Sidlauskas & Santos 2005:121 [ref. 28904]). •Valid as Sartor tucuruiensis Santos & Jégu 1987. Current status: Valid as Sartor tucuruiensis Santos & Jégu 1987. Anostomidae. Distribution: Tocantins River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

uatumaensis, Leporinus Santos [G. M. dos] & Jégu [M.] 1996:164, Fig. [Acta Amazonica v. 26 (no. 3); ref. 23717] Rio Uatumã, Cachoeira do Miriti, abaixo da cachoeira Balbina, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 10087. Paratypes: INPA 10111 (1), 10113-14 (1, 4), 10118-24 (3, 1, 2, 2, 1, 1, 3). •Valid as Leporinus uatumaensis Santos & Jégu 1996 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:79 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Leporinus moralesi Fowler 1942 -- (Birindelli et al. 2013:238 [ref. 32781]). Current status: Synonym of Leporinus moralesi Fowler 1942. Anostomidae. Distribution: Uatumã River basin, Brazil (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

ucalayensis, Anostomus Kochetov [A. M.] 1989:95 [ ref. 34351] •Possibly a synonym of Laemolyta garmani (Borodin 1931). Anostomidae.

ucayalensis, Pithecocharax Fowler [H. W.] 1906:320, Fig. 16 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 58; ref. 1373] Río Ucayali or Peruvian Amazon, Peru. Holotype: ANSP 21997. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:19 [ref. 13621]. •Species inquirenda, and possible synonym of a Leporinus species -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27061]). Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

undecimradiatus, Salmo Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:387 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. Also appeared as Salmo boops vel 11-radiatus in Devincenzi 1925:312, 322 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Leporinus obtusidens (Valenciennes 1836). •Species inquirenda in Leporinus -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:79 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Leporinus obtusidens (Valenciennes 1837) -- (Litz & Koerber 2014:8 [ref. 33622] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:13 [ref. 35117] with question). •Synonym of Megaleporinus obtusidens (Valenciennes 1837) -- (Koerber et al. 2017:18 [ref. 35267] with question). Current status: Synonym of Megaleporinus obtusidens (Valenciennes 1837). Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

unifasciatus, Rhytiodus argenteofuscus var. Steindachner [F.] 1915:24 [10] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse. v. 93; ref. 4244] Mouth of River Negro, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW. On p. 10 of separate; also described in Steindachner 1917 [ref. 15259]. Species not listed in earlier abstract [ref. 18909]. •Synonym of Rhytiodus argenteofuscus Kner 1858 -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:79 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Rhytiodus argenteofuscus Kner 1858. Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

unitaeniatus, Leporinus Garavello [J. C.] & Santos [G. M. dos] 2009:110, Figs. 1, 3 [Brazilian Journal of Biology v. 69 (no. 1); ref. 30137] Santa Terezinha, Rio Araguaia, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 14427. Paratypes: MZUSP 14429 (5), 14430 (1), 14431 (2); LISDEBE 1513 (3). Specimens from "Para State" are apparently not types based on style of paragraph headings. •Valid as Leporinus unitaeniatus Garavello & Santos 2009 -- (Feitosa et al. 2011:56 [ref. 31661], Britski & Birindelli 2019:190 [ref. 36700]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus unitaeniatus Garavello & Santos 2009. Anostomidae. Distribution: Rios Araguaia and Tocantins, Brazil (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

vanzoi, Leporinus Britski [H. A.] & Garavello [J. C.] 2005:77 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia da PUCRS, Sér. Zoologia. v. 18 (no. 2); ref. 28950] Rio Tapajós, Cascade Maranhãozinho, near São Luis, Pará State, Brazil, 4°26'S, 56°14'W. Holotype: MZUSP 21833. Paratypes: (24) MCP 30062 (2), 32315 (3); MZUSP 14427 (1), 14428 (1), 62545 (2), 87254 (15). •Valid as Leporinus vanzoi Britski & Garavello 2005 -- (Garavello & Santos 2009:115 [ref. 30137], Feitosa et al. 2011:56 [ref. 31661], Britski & Birindelli 2019:189 [ref. 36700]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus vanzoi Britski & Garavello 2005. Anostomidae. Distribution: Rio Tapajós, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

varii, Pseudanos Birindelli [J. L. O.], Lima [F. C. T.] & Britski [H. A.] 2012:56, Figs. 1-2, 3a-b [Zootaxa No. 3425; ref. 32125] Igarapé Sirinau, tributary of Rio Cuieiras (tributary of Rio Negro), c. 2°42’S 60°20’W, Manaus, Amazonaas, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 109800. Paratypes: many at INPA, MZUSP •Valid as Pseudanos varii Birindelli, Lima & Britski 2012. Current status: Valid as Pseudanos varii Birindelli, Lima & Britski 2012. Anostomidae. Distribution: Rio Negro basin in Brazil, and Río Síapa and Río Atabapo in Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

varius, Anostomus Garman [S.] 1890:19 [Bulletin of the Essex Institute v. 22 (nos 1-3); ref. 1535] Gurupa; Jose Fernandez; Lake Hyanuary; Manaos [Manaus]; Obydos; Porto de Moz; and Rio Negro, Brazil. Syntypes: MCZ 809 (1), 19335 (orig. 8, now 6), 19340-41 (3, 1), 19348 (orig. 3, now 2), 19378 (orig. 7, now 5), 19532 (1); USNM 120398 [ex MCZ 19378] (1). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:5 [ref. 19022]. For information on types see Petry et al. 2007:80 [ref. 29175]. •Valid as Laemolyta varia (Garman 1890) -- (Santos & Jégu 1996:161 [ref. 23717], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Laemolyta proxima (Garman 1890) -- (Mautari & Menezes 2006:38 [ref. 28621]). Current status: Synonym of Laemolyta proxima (Garman 1890). Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

venerei, Leporinus Britski [H. A.] & Birindelli [J. L. O.] 2008:46, Fig. 1a [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 29578] Lake in Fazenda Entre-Rios, ca. 11°35'S, 50°40'W, São Felix, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 93124. Paratypes: MZUSP 93123 (8)l 92027 (3), 93122 (6), 93125 (3) •Valid as Leporinus venerei Britski & Birindelli 2008. Current status: Valid as Leporinus venerei Britski & Birindelli 2008. Anostomidae. Distribution: Araguaia River basin, central Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

villasboasorum, Leporinus Burns [M. D.], Chatfield [M.], Birindelli [J. L. O.] & Sidlauskas [B. L.] 2017:8, Fig. 2, 6 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 15 (no. 2) e160166; ref. 35416] Rio Culuene, tributary of rio Xingu, at cofferdam of PCH Paranatinga 2, Campinápolis, Mato Grosso, Brazil, 13°51'01"S, 53°15'33"W. Holotype: MZUSP 116530. Paratypes: ANSP, INPA, MZUEL, MZUSP, OS. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Leporinus villasboasorum Burns, Chatfield, Birindelli & Sidlauskas 2017. Current status: Valid as Leporinus villasboasorum Burns, Chatfield, Birindelli & Sidlauskas 2017. Anostomidae. Distribution: Middle and upper Rio Xingu drainage, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

vittata, Piabuca Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1850:115 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 22; ref. 1014] Rio Araguay, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-1067 (dry). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:31 [ref. 19577]. •Valid as Schizodon vittatus (Valenciennes 1850) -- (Santos & Jégu 1990:176 [ref. 20180], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:80 [ref. 27061], Menni 2004:72 [ref. 28131] as vitatum). Current status: Valid as Schizodon vittatus (Valenciennes 1850). Anostomidae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

vittatus, Leporinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1850:33 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 22; ref. 1014] Amazon River, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9802 (dry, poor condition). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:34 [ref. 19577]. •Valid as Leporellus vittatus (Valenciennes 1850) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Santos & Jégu 1990:167 [ref. 20180], Taphorn 1992:36 [ref. 23654], Casatti & Castro 1998:232 [ref. 23663], Britski et al. 1999:77 [ref. 24147], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27061], Menni 2004:72 [ref. 28131], Barriga Salazar 2014:105 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], Bertaco et al. 2016:411 [ref. 34561], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:84 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Leporellus vittatus (Valenciennes 1850). Anostomidae. Distribution: Amazon, Paraná-Paraguay and São Francisco River basins: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia, Paraguay and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

winterbottomi, Pseudanos Sidlauskas [B. L.] & Santos [G. M. dos] 2005:110, Figs. 1, 2B, 3-4, 5B [Copeia 2005 (no. 1); ref. 28094] Río Ventuari, pool behind beach on south side of river, about 12 kilometers above mouth of Río Orinoco, Laguna Pavon (4°04'N, 66°56'W), Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV 32210 [ex FMNH 104020]. Paratypes: ANSP 161693-96 (31, 1, 2, 1); CAS 20108 (2), 20111 (1); FMNH 85515 (3), 103453 (1), 103447 (7), 104020 (32); INHS 62568 (1); INPA 21971 (5); MBUCV 25372 (20); CAS-SU 16275-76 (1, 2); plus additional paratypes at ANSP, FMNH, INHS. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Pseudanos winterbottomi Sidlauskas & Santos 2005 -- (DoNascimiento et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanos winterbottomi Sidlauskas & Santos 2005. Anostomidae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Venezuela and Colombia, Tapajós River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

wolfei, Leporinus Fowler [H. W.] 1940:261, Fig. 58 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 91 (for 1939); ref. 1432] Boca Chica, Río Ucayali basin, Peru. Holotype: ANSP 68674. Paratypes: ANSP 68675 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:19 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Leporinus wolfei Fowler 1940 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708], Johannes 1999:15 [ref. 24121], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:79 [ref. 27061], Britski et al. 2012:458 [ref. 32317], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35633]). •Synonym of Megaleporinus trifasciatus (Steindachner 1876) -- (Ramirez et al. 2017:312 [ref. 34945]). Current status: Synonym of Megaleporinus trifasciatus (Steindachner 1876). Anostomidae. Distribution: Ucayali and Amazon River basins, Peru and Colombia [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

y-ophorus, Leporinus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1922:233, Pl. 20 (fig. 4) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 1243] Barrigón, Río Meta, Orinoco System, Colombia. Holotype (unique): CAS 61680 [ex IU 15025]. Also appeared at same time in Eigenmann 1922:165 [ref. 12408]. Spelling y-ophorus apparently is not to be emended. •Valid as Leporinus y-ophorus Eigenmann 1922 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:12 [ref. 9708] as yophorus, Taphorn 1992:54 [ref. 23654] as yophorus, Johannes 1999:15 [ref. 24121], Géry 1999:105 [ref. 24139], Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:79 [ref. 27061] as yophorus, Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], Britski & Birindelli 2016:39 [ref. 34393] as yophorus, Burns et al. 2017:21 [ref. 35416] as yophorus, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:84 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Leporinus y-ophorus Eigenmann 1922. Anostomidae. Distribution: Meta and Orinoco River basins: Colombia, Bolivia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.