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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Crenuchidae: [ 107 ] records


alipioi, Characidium Travassos [H.] 1955:613, Figs. 1-12 [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 42; ref. 12232] Ilha dos Pombos, Rio Paraiba, Estado do Rio, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 5550. Paratypes: MNRJ 5551-54 (4), 5555 (1, allotype). •Valid as Characidium alipioi Travassos 1955 -- (Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Buckup et al. 2000:276 [ref. 25084], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:88 [ref. 27061], Lujan et al, 2013:456 [ref. 32922], Leitão & Buckup 2014:19 [ref. 33323], Zanata & Camelier 2014:340 [ref. 33380], Melo & Oyakawa 2015:287 [ref. 33788], Zanata & Ohara 2015:374 [ref. 33970], Zanata & Camelier 2015:496 [ref. 33983], Zanata et al. 2015:381 [ref. 34023], Zanata et al. 2018:84 [ref. 36279], Malanski et al. 2019:11 [ref. 36865]). Current status: Valid as Characidium alipioi Travassos 1955. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Paraíba do Sul River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

amaila, Characidium Lujan [N. K.], Agudelo-Zamora [H.], Taphorn [D. C.], Booth [P. N.] & López-Fernández [H.] 2013:455, Figs. 1A, 2, 4, 5 [Copeia 2013 (no. 3); ref. 32922] Region 8, Kuribrong River drainage, a tributary of the Potaro/Essequibo River system, confluence of the Amaila and Kuribrong rivers immediately above Amaila Falls (Rapids 1), 5°22'33"N, 59°33'01"W, Guyana., Holotype: CSBD 1655. Paratypes: many at ANSP, AUM, ROM. •Valid as Characidium amaila Lujan, Agudelo-Zamora, Taphorn, Booth & López-Fernández 2013 -- (Melo & Oyakawa 2015:287 [ref. 33788], Zanata & Ohara 2015:375 [ref. 33970]). Current status: Valid as Characidium amaila Lujan, Agudelo-Zamora, Taphorn, Booth & López-Fernández 2013. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Kuribrong watershed, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

aphanes, Klausewitzia Weitzman [S. H.] & Kanazawa [R. H.] 1977:151, Figs. 1-6 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 90 (no. 1); ref. 7296] Rio Negro, Amazonas State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 12978. Paratypes: MZUSP 12979-81 (3); USNM 213780-81 (2, 1). Additional specimens deposited at MZUSP (3 lots), USNM (2 lots). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:28-29 [ref. 19022], Oyakawa 1996:471 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Odontocharacidium aphanes (Weitzman & Kanazawa 1977) -- (Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Buckup 1993:326 [ref. 26741], Chang & Ortega 1995:3 [ref. 24302], Géry & Römer 1997:70 [ref. 23712], Presswell et al. 2000:190 [ref. 24440], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:93 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:106 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:35 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Odontocharacidium aphanes (Weitzman & Kanazawa 1977). Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

auroradiatum, Melanocharacidium Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Vicente [E. O.] 1994:68, Fig. 1 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 20 (no. 3) (1993); ref. 21307] Small tributary of Rio Verde, 1 kilometer south of São Miguel do Araguaia, Rio Araguaia basin, Goiás, Brazil, 13°22'S, 50°15'W. Holotype: MNRJ 12444. Paratypes: MNRJ 12445 (2); MZUSP 45769 (2); UFRJ 1568 (2), 1569 (3, c&s). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:478 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Melanocharacidium auroradiatum Costa & Vicente 1994 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:92 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Melanocharacidium auroradiatum Costa & Vicente 1994. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Araguaia River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

bahiensis, Characidium (Jobertina) Almeida [V. G.] 1971:112, Fig. 1 [Papéis Avulsos do Departamento de Zoologia, Secretaria da Agricultura, São Paulo v. 25 (no. 14); ref. 7674] Arembepe, Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 8940. Paratypes: MZUSP 8911-39 (29). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:454 [ref. 23140]. In combination with a neuter genus, the specific name becomes bahiense. •Valid as Characidium bahiensis Almeida 1971 -- (Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Buckup 1993:331 [ref. 26741]). •Valid as Characidium bahiense Almeida 1971 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:88 [ref. 27061], Peixoto & Wosiacki 2013:56 [ref. 32558], Netto-Ferreira et al. 2013:366 [ref. 32717], Zanata & Camelier 2014:340 [ref. 33380], Ramos et al. 2014:3 [ref. 35321] as cf. bahiense, Melo & Oyakawa 2015:287 [ref. 33788], Mendonça & Netto-Ferreira 2015:192 [ref. 33967], Zanata & Ohara 2015:374 [ref. 33970], Zanata & Camelier 2015:496 [ref. 33983], Zanata et al. 2015:381 [ref. 34023], Melo & Espíndola 2016:566 [ref. 34928], Zanata et al. 2018:84 [ref. 36279]). Current status: Valid as Characidium bahiense Almeida 1971. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Coastal rivers, Bahia State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

bimaculatum, Characidium Fowler [H. W.] 1941:179, Fig. 90 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 1437] Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 69523. Paratypes: ANSP 69524-27 (4), 69528 (1, c&s). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:43 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Characidium bimaculatum Fowler 1941 -- (Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:88 [ref. 27061], Leitão & Buckup 2014:15 [ref. 33323] not this species, =clistenesi, Zanata & Camelier 2014:340 [ref. 33380], Ramos et al. 2014:3 [ref. 35321], Melo & Oyakawa 2015:287 [ref. 33788], Zanata & Ohara 2015:374 [ref. 33970], Zanata & Camelier 2015:497 [ref. 33983], Zanata et al. 2015:381 [ref. 34023] and cf. bimaculatus, Melo & Espíndola 2016:559 [ref. 34928], Costa et al. 2017:44 [ref. 35684], Zanata et al. 2018:84 [ref. 36279]). Current status: Valid as Characidium bimaculatum Fowler 1941. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Coastal streams of northeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

blennioides, Characidium Eigenmann [C. H.] 1909:37 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 1222] Erukin River, tributary of Potaro River above Kangaruma, Mazaruni-Potaro District, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 71043 [Cex M 1144]. Paratypes: (39, CM and IU) BMNH 1911.10.31.165 (1), CAS 40923-27 [ex IU 40923-27] (2, 1, 2, 2, 4); CAS-SU 21911 (1); USNM 66129 (1); FMNH 7313 (1), 52757-59 (1, 4, 4), 69688 (1), 72629-31 (2, 1, 2), 75958 (3); MCZ 29932 (1); NMW 62674 (1); ZMA 100988 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:55 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:22 [ref. 12291], Nijssen et al. 1982:16 [ref. 19236], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:22 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:11 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Melanocharacidium blennioides (Eigenmann 1909) -- (Buckup 1993:113 [ref. 20831], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:92 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:186 [ref. 35004], Melo et al. 2016:132 [ref. 34701] as cf. blennioides). •See Planquette et al. 1996:348 [ref. 22818]. Current status: Valid as Melanocharacidium blennioides (Eigenmann 1909). Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Essequibo River basin, coastal streams of northern South America: Guyana, Suriname, Bolivia, French Guiana and Venezuela; ? Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

boavistae, Characidium fasciatum var. Steindachner [F.] 1915:30 [16], Pl. 3 (Fig. 4) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse. v. 93; ref. 4244] Rio Branco, northern Brazil. Syntypes: (several) NMW 62427 (24), 62431-32 (19, 6), 62426 (2). Originally spelled boa vistae and as a new variety. On p. 16 of separate; also described in Steindachner 1917 [ref. 15259]. Species not listed in earlier abstract [ref. 18909]. Check the spelling boavisae. •Valid as Characidium boavistae Steindachner 1915 -- (Buckup 1992:1068 [ref. 20321] as boaevistae, Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831] as boaevistae, Presswell et al. 2000:191 [ref. 24440], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:88 [ref. 27061] as boaevistae, Lujan et al, 2013:456 [ref. 32922], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:34 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:85 [ref. 35773] as "gr." boavistae). Current status: Valid as Characidium boavistae Steindachner 1915. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Tributary of Lake Maracaibo, Orinoco River basin and northern tributaries of Amazon basin: Brazil, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

boehlkei, Characidium Géry [J.] 1972:79, Pl. 7 (fig. 1) [Acta Humboldtiana (Series Geologica, Palaeontologica et Biologica Nr. 2) No. 2; ref. 1595] Río Curaray, Río Napo basin, Ecuador. Holotype: ZMH H1624. Paratypes: ZMH H1625 (10, now 7), H1869 (1). Type catalog: Wilkens 1977:156 [ref. 22013]. •Valid as Characidium boehlkei Géry 1972 -- (Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:88 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:106 [ref. 35745]). Current status: Valid as Characidium boehlkei Géry 1972. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Napa River basin, Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

bolivianum, Characidium Pearson [N. E.] 1924:31, Pl. 9 (fig. 3) [Indiana University Studies v. 11 (no. 64); ref. 3396] Río Popoi, Upper Río Beni system, Bolivia. Syntypes: CAS 60253 [ex IU 17301] (orig. 13, now 9), UMMZ 16488 (4), USNM 117523 [ex UMMZ 66488, orig. IU 17301] (1). Additional material: CAS 60255 [ex IU 17300, orig. 22] (13), CAS 60256 [ex IU 17302] (2), UMMZ 66474 [ex. IU 13700] (7). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:11 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Characidium bolivianum Pearson 1924 -- (Buckup 1992:1068 [ref. 20321], Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Chang & Ortega 1995:2 [ref. 24302], Zarske & Géry 2001:245 [ref. 25972], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:88 [ref. 27061], Lujan et al. 2013:456 [ref. 32922], Sarmiento et al. 2014:59, 185 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Characidium bolivianum Pearson 1924. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Upper Madeira River basin, Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

borellii, Nanognathus Boulenger [G. A.] 1895:3 [Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata della R. Università di Torino v. 10 (no. 196); ref. 536] San Pablo, Tucuman Province, Argentina. Holotype (unique): MZUT P 2563 [ex MZUT 1045]. Type catalog: Tortonese 1940:139 [ref. 21559]. •Valid as Characidium borellii (Boulenger 1895) -- (Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Britski et al. 1999:69 [ref. 24147], Géry et al. 2001:27 [ref. 25155], Zarske & Géry 2001:243 [ref. 25972], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:88 [ref. 27061], da Graça & Pavanelli 2008:55 [ref. 29583], Koerber 2011:1 [ref. 31122], Koerber 2014:5 [ref. 33621], Casciotta et al. 2015:1 [ref. 33697], Mirande & Koerber 2015:27 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Valid as Characidium borellii (Boulenger 1895). Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Andean tributaries of Paraná River basin, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

bovalii, Poecilocharax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1909:34 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 1222] Creek at Savannah Landing, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53544 [ex CM 1136]. Paratypes: (over 220) BMNH 1917.11.2.5-6 (2); FMNH 72626 (26), 75956 (100), 105929 [ex FMNH 53544] (1); MCZ 29950 (5); CAS-SU 21933 (7), 24657 (4); USNM 120430 (1); ZMA 110648 (5), 110649 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:57 [ref. 12305] as bovallii, Böhlke 1953:26 [ref. 12291], Nijssen et al. 1982:24 [ref. 19236], Böhlke 1984:44 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:68 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:34 [ref. 19022]. Two types (i.e. 2 holotypes) were listed in the original description; authors have interpreted one of them as holotype as recorded in the FMNH catalog. Ibarra & Stewart list 171 specimens from 4 localities as now present at FMNH. Appeared originally as bovalii, but named for the family Bovalius, i.e. Dr. Bovalius and his brother, Dr. Ed. Bovalius, therefore mandatory correction to bovaliorum. •Valid as Poecilocharax bovaliorum Eigenmann 1909 -- (Géry 1970:17 [ref. 34971] as bovallii, Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:93 [ref. 27061] as bovalii). Current status: Valid as Poecilocharax bovaliorum Eigenmann 1909. Crenuchidae: Crenuchinae. Distribution: Kaieteur Falls on Potaro River, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

brevirostre, Characidium Pellegrin [J.] 1909:345 [4] [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 1) v. 14 (no. 7)[1908]; ref. 3423] Carsevenne River, northern Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1898-0051. Type catalog: Bertin 1948:36 [ref. 19577]. On p. 4 of separate. •Valid as Characidium brevirostre Pellegrin 1909 -- (Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:89 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Characidium brevirostre Pellegrin 1909. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Coastal streams in Amapá State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

catenatum, Characidium Eigenmann [C. H.] 1909:40 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 1222] Warraputa, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 52761 [ex CM 1153]. Paratypes: (14, CM and IU) BMNH 1911.10.31.162 (1); CAS 41194-95 [ex IU 11681-82] (5, 1); FMNH 7315 (1), 52762-63 (4, 1); MCZ 29930 (1); CAS-SU 21908 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:55 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:23 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:22 [ref. 12367]. See Taphorn 1992:383 [ref. 23654]. •Synonym of Characidium steindachneri Cope 1878 -- (Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:91 [ref. 27061], Taphorn et al. 2006:5 [ref. 28733]). Current status: Synonym of Characidium steindachneri Cope 1878. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

caucanum, Characidium Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:25 [Indiana University Studies No. 16 [sic No. 8]; ref. 1228] Cali, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56057 [ex CM 4847]. Paratypes: (36, CM and IU) CAS 41275-77 [ex IU 12701-03] (10, 1, 1); FMNH 56058-60 (10, 1, 1), 69546 (8); USNM 79183 (2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:55 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:22 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:11 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Characidium caucanum Eigenmann 1912 -- (Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:89 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:34 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Characidium caucanum Eigenmann 1912. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Cauca River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

chicoi, Characidium da Graça [W. J.], Ota [R. R.] & Domingues [W. M.] 2019:2, Figs. 1-2 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 95 (no. 6); ref. 37061] Rio Comprido, tributary of the Rio Correntes, Rio Paraguay basin, Itiquira Municipality, Mato Grosso, Brazil, 17°32'4.4"S, 54°25'38.9"W. Holotype: MZUSP 87743. Paratypes: MCP, NUP. •Valid as Characidium chicoi da Graça, Ota & Domingues 2019. Current status: Valid as Characidium chicoi da Graça, Ota & Domingues 2019. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Rio Correntes drainage, upper Paraguay River basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

chupa, Characidium chupa Schultz [L. P.] 1944:283, Fig. 33 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 95 (no. 3181); ref. 3960] Río Chama at Estanques, Estado de Mérida, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121417. Paratypes: USNM 121418 (1), 121419 (orig. 80, now 44), 121420 (9); MCZ 37244 (3), MNHN 1980-1430 (1), MHNG through Géry (2), MNRJ (6), RMNH (4), UMMZ 145034 [ex USNM 121416] (1), 145036 [ex USNM 121419] (5), ZMA 110442 (3). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:16 [ref. 19236], Vari & Howe 1991:12 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Characidium chupa Schultz 1944 -- (Taphorn 1992:374 [ref. 23654], Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Zarske & Géry 2001:244 [ref. 25972], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:89 [ref. 27061], Taphorn et al. 2006:5 [ref. 28733], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:34 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:85 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Characidium chupa Schultz 1944. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo basin and Orinoco River basin, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

clistenesi, Characidium Melo [M. R. S.] & Espíndola [V. C.] 2016:553, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa 4196 (no. 4); ref. 34928] Rio Capivara, tributary of rio Paraguaçu, Chapada Diamantina, Lençóis, Bahia, Brazil, 12°27’27"S, 41°22’35.7"W. Holotype: MZUSP 120530. Paratypes: MNRJ, MZFS, MZUPS. •Valid as Characidium clistenesi Melo & Espíndola 2016. Current status: Valid as Characidium clistenesi Melo & Espíndola 2016. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Rio Paraguaçu, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

compressus, Melanocharacidium Buckup [P. A.] 1993:114, Fig. 5 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 20831] Backwater of Río Orinoco, 3°04'N, 66°28'W, about 1/2 hour upstream from Isla Temblador, Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype: ANSP 161666. Paratypes: ANSP 159790 (14, 2 c&s), 159796 (1). Once named compressum in original description (caption of Fig. 5). •Valid as Melanocharacidium compressum Buckup 1993 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:92 [ref. 27061] as compressus). Current status: Valid as Melanocharacidium compressum Buckup 1993. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Upper Orinoco River basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

crandellii, Characidium Steindachner [F.] 1915:32 [18] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse. v. 93; ref. 4244] Rio Miang, tributary Cotingo, Tacutu; Boa Vista, Rio Branco, Brazil. Syntypes: NMW 62673 (5), 69260 (2). On p. 18 of separate; also in Steindachner 1917 [ref. 15259]. Species not listed in earlier abstract [ref. 18909]. •Valid as Characidium crandellii Steindachner 1915 -- (Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:89 [ref. 27061], Peixoto & Wosiacki 2013:56 [ref. 32558], Lujan et al, 2013:456 [ref. 32922]). Current status: Valid as Characidium crandellii Steindachner 1915. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

cricarense, Characidium Malanski [E.], Sarmento-Soares [L. M.], Silva-Malanski [A. C. G.], Lopes [M. M.], Ingenito [L. F. S.] & Buckup [P. A.] 2019:4, Fig. 1 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 17 (no. 2): e180121; ref. 36865] Rio Cricaré at Cachoeira do Inferno rapids, São Mateus basin, São Mateus municipality, Espírito Santo, Brazil, 18°42'24.5"S, 40°16'7.2"W, elevation 18 meters. Holotype: MNRJ 51282. Paratypes: MBML, MNRJ. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Characidium cricarense Malanski, Sarmento-Soares, Silva-Malanski, Lopes, Ingenito & Buckup 2019. Current status: Valid as Characidium cricarense Malanski, Sarmento-Soares, Silva-Malanski, Lopes, Ingenito & Buckup 2019. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Coastal river basins, Atlantic Forest of eastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

declivirostre, Characidium Steindachner [F.] 1915:31 [17] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse. v. 93; ref. 4244] Río Coquenan, tributary of Río Caroni, Venezuela. Syntypes: NMW 62442 (4). On p. 17 of separate; also described in Steindachner 1917 [ref. 15259]. Species not listed in earlier abstract [ref. 18909]. •Valid as Characidium declivirostre Steindachner 1915 -- (Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:89 [ref. 27061], Peixoto & Wosiacki 2013:56 [ref. 32558], Lujan et al, 2013:456 [ref. 32922], Zanata & Camelier 2014:340 [ref. 33380] as cf. declivirostre, Zanata & Ohara 2015:375 [ref. 33970] as cf. declivirostre, Zanata & Camelier 2015:497 [ref. 33983] as cf. declivirostre, Zanata et al. 2015:381 [ref. 34023] as cf.decliviriostre). Current status: Valid as Characidium declivirostre Steindachner 1915. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin and Amazon River basin: Venezuela and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

deludens, Characidium Zanata [A. M.] & Camelier [P.] 2015:492, Figs. 2b, 5, 6 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 13 (no. 3); ref. 33983] Bahia, Piatã, rio Cochó, tributary of the upper rio Paraguaçu, Brazil, 13°00’37"S, 41°53’14"W, elevation 1231 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 115009. Paratypes: MNRJ, MZUSP, UFBA. •Valid as Characidium deludens Zanata & Camelier 2015. Current status: Valid as Characidium deludens Zanata & Camelier 2015. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Upper rio Paraguaçu basin, Bahia, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

depressum, Melanocharacidium Buckup [P. A.] 1993:117, Fig. 7 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 20831] Rio Uatuma, about 2°10'S, 59°30'W, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 1738. Paratypes: INPA 1734 (4, 1 c&s), MZUSP 43667 (2). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:478 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Melanocharacidium depressum Buckup 1993 -- (Buckup 1993:329 [ref. 26741], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:92 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[1] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Melanocharacidium depressum Buckup 1993. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Uatumã, Negro, and upper Orinoco River basins: Brazil and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

dispilomma, Melanocharacidium Buckup [P. A.] 1993:120, Fig. 8 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 20831] Cachoeira Morena, about 2°10'S, 59°30'W, Rio Uatuma, Estado do amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 6628. Paratypes: CAS (1 lot, 1); INPA (10 lots, 49); MNRJ (1 lot, 55); MZUSP 20185 (1), 43662-63 (1, 1), 43666 (3), 43673 (1); UMMZ (2 lots, 4); USNM 179517 (1), 283093 (1), 322080 (3, 2 c&s). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:479 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Melanocharacidium dispilomma Buckup 1993 -- (Chang & Ortega 1995:3 [ref. 24302], Planquette et al. 1996:350 [ref. 22818], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:92 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:186 [ref. 35004], Melo et al. 2016:132 [ref. 34701], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:35 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Melanocharacidium dispilomma Buckup 1993. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Northern South America: Brazil, Bolivia, French Guiana, Guyana (inferred), Suriname, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

dubia, Characidium (Jobertina) Travassos [H.] 1952:8, Pls. 1-2, 4, 6-9 [Boletim do Museu Nacional Rio de Janeiro Zoologia No. 109; ref. 12720] Estrada Velha de Petrópolis, Baixada Fluminense, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 5542. Paratypes: MNRJ 3618 (1), 4693 (1), 5425-37 (13), 5440-51 (12), 5452 (1, allotype), 5453-67 (15), 5531 (1), 5541 (1), 5544-47 (4). •Synonym of Characidium interruptum Pellegrin 1909 -- (Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:89 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Characidium interruptum Pellegrin 1909. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

elegans, Ammocryptocharax Weitzman [S. H.] & Kanazawa [R. H.] 1976:331, Figs. 1-4 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 89 (no. 26); ref. 4619] Caño Muco, about 15 kilometers west of Puerto Guitán, Río Vichada basin, Meta State, Colombia. Holotype: USNM 210692. Paratypes: FMNH 80401 (7), USNM 214364 (orig. 6, now 3 + 2 c&s). Additional specimens deposited at ANSP, BMNH, FMNH, MBUCV, MZUSP, USNM. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:7 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:4 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Ammocryptocharax elegans Weitzman & Kanazawa 1976 -- (Taphorn 1992:365 [ref. 23654], Buckup 1993:107 [ref. 20831], Buckup 1993:328 [ref. 26741], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:88 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:34 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Ammocryptocharax elegans Weitzman & Kanazawa 1976. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Amazon River and upper Orinoco River basins: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

eleotrioides, Jobertina Géry [J.] 1960:4, Figs. 2-3; photo p. 6 [Opuscula Zoologica. Herausgegeben von der Zoologischen Staatssammlung in München No. 47; ref. 10044] Little brook between St. Patawa and St. Grand Bacou, Middle-Mana, French Guiana, between 4°N-5°N, 53°W-54°W. Holotype: MNHG 2201.13 [ex Géry coll. Che. 08-14-02]. Paratypes: ANSP 139702 (1); Géry coll. Che. 08-14-01 to -13 (? now 11), Che.08-25-14 to -16 (3), Che. 08-32-17 to -18 (1, 1); MNHN 1980-1443 (1); SMF 5375 (1); USNM 179760 (orig. 2, now 1); UMMZ 216561 [from 179760] (1, c&s); ZMA 101044 (1); ZSM 19355-56 (1, 1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:21 [ref. 19236], Böhlke 1984:45 [ref. 13621], Vari & Howe 1991:28 [ref. 19022], Weber 1998:8 [ref. 23532], Neumann 2011:245 [ref. 31652]. •Valid as Microcharacidium eleotrioides (Géry 1960) -- (Buckup 1993:137 [ref. 20831], Buckup 1993:334 [ref. 26741], Planquette et al. 1996:352 [ref. 22818], Zarske 1997:171 [ref. 23714], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:93 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:106 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:186 [ref. 35004], Melo et al. 2016:132 [ref. 34701], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:35 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Microcharacidium eleotrioides (Géry 1960). Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Coastal streams of French Guiana, Suriname, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

etheostoma, Characidium Cope [E. D.] 1872:259, Pls. 8 (fig. 2), 13 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 23; ref. 921] Río Ambyiacu, Peru. Lectotype: ANSP 8152. Paralectotypes: ANSP 8153 (1, broken), 8157-62 (6) [8154-56 missing, 8163 discarded]. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:46 [ref. 13621] as holotype and paratypes. Lectotype selected by Fowler 1906:323, Fig. 17 [ref. 1373]. •Valid as Characidium etheostoma Cope 1872 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:7 [ref. 9708], Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:89 [ref. 27061], Peixoto & Wosiacki 2013:56 [ref. 32558], Barriga S. 2014:106 [ref. 35745], Leitão & Buckup 2014:21 [ref. 33323], Zanata & Ohara 2015:375 [ref. 33970], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:34 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Characidium etheostoma Cope 1872. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

etzeli, Characidium Zarske [A.] & Géry [J.] 2001:237, Figs. 6-8 [Zoologische Abhandlungen; Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden v. 51 (no. 16); ref. 25972] 4 kilometers from Bella Vista, about 50 kilometers northeast of Encarnaçion in the direction of Rio Paraná, Paraguay. Holotype: MTD F 22650. Paratypes: MTD F 22651-52 (2) Type catalog: Zarske 2003:20 [ref. 27474]. •Valid as Characidium etzeli Zarske & Géry 2001 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:89 [ref. 27061], da Graça & Pavanelli 2008:55 [ref. 29583], Koerber et al. 2017:43 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Characidium etzeli Zarske & Géry 2001. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Paraná River basin, Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

fasciadorsale, Characidium Fowler [H. W.] 1914:233, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 66; ref. 1390] Rupununi River, Guyana, 2°-3°N, 50°20'W. Holotype: ANSP 39317 [not 39307]. Paratypes: ANSP 39318 [not 39308] (1), 39319 [not 39309] (1, c&s). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:46 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Characidium fasciadorsale Fowler 1914 -- (Géry et al. 1991:8 [ref. 21021], Planquette et al. 1996:342 [ref. 22818]). •Synonym of Characidium zebra Eigenmann 1909 -- (Buckup 1992:1068 [ref. 20321], Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Buckup & Reis 1997:544 [ref. 22903], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:91 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Characidium zebra Eigenmann 1909. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Northern South America. Habitat: freshwater.

fasciatum, Characidium Reinhardt [J. T.] 1867:56, Pl. 2 (figs. 1-2) [Oversigt over det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Forhandlinger og dets Medlemmers Arbeider (Kjøbenhavn) 1866; ref. 3694] Near Lagoa Santa, Brazil. Lectotype: ZMUC P241103 [ex ZMUC 91]. Paralectotypes: ?BMNH 1868.7.8.5 (1); MNHN 0000-9592 [ex ZMUC] (2); NMW 62437 (2); ZMUC P241104-5 [ex 92-93] (2), P241106-8 [ex 99-101] (3), P241109-11 [ex 104-106] (3); ZMB 9188 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:36 [ref. 19577], Nielsen 1974:47 [ref. 9588]. Lectotype established by Buckup 1992:1066 [ref. 20321] not by Nielsen; but the lectotype is the described specimen and Nielsen's holotype; Buckup refers some paralectotypes to other species. •Valid as Characidium fasciatum Reinhardt 1867 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:7 [ref. 9708], Buckup 1992 [ref. 20321], see Malabarba 1989:131 [ref. 14217], Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Gómez & Chebez 1996:56 [ref. 23791], Sverlij et al. 1998:37 [ref. 27632] dated 1866, Buckup et al. 2000:276 [ref. 25084], Britski 2001:20 [ref. 26046], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:89 [ref. 27061] dated 1866, Menni 2004:79 [ref. 28131] as cf. fasciatum, Taphorn et al. 2006:5 [ref. 28733], da Graça & Pavanelli 2008:55 [ref. 29583], Silveira et al. 2008:169 [ref. 29706], Lujan et al, 2013:456 [ref. 32922], Barriga S. 2014:106 [ref. 35745], Zanata & Camelier 2014:340 [ref. 33380], Litz & Koerber 2014:16 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], Casciotta et al. 2015:1 [ref. 33697], Melo & Oyakawa 2015:287 [ref. 33788], Mendonça & Netto-Ferreira 2015:192 [ref. 33967], Zanata & Ohara 2015:375 [ref. 33970], Zanata & Camelier 2015:497 [ref. 33983], Zanata et al. 2015:381 [ref. 34023], Koerber & Litz 2016:3 [ref. 35098], Nión et al. 2016:27 [ref. 35565] with date 1866, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[1] [ref. 35679], Zanata et al. 2018:84 [ref. 36279]). Current status: Valid as Characidium fasciatum Reinhardt 1867. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Rio São Francisco basin. Brazil and ? Argentina, Ecuador, Bolivia and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

georgiae, Elachocharax Géry [J.] 1965:204, Pl. 18 (fig. 18); Figs. 8-9 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 46 (no. 3); ref. 1586] Igarapé Préto, along Upper Amazon, near Belem, about 60 kilometers below Leticia, Brazil. Holotype: SMF 7215. Paratypes: Géry coll. 0183 (3), SMF 7216-19 (4). Apparently not treated by Buckup in Reis et al. 2003 [ref. 27061]. •Synonym of Elachocharax pulcher Myers 1927 -- (Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831]). Current status: Synonym of Elachocharax pulcher Myers 1927. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

geryi, Elachocharax Weitzman [S. H.] & Kanazawa [R. H.] 1978:173, Figs. 9-14 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 91 (no. 1); ref. 8863] Lago Paricatuba, Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil, 3°07'S, 60°30'W. Holotype: MZUSP 13249. Paratypes: ANSP 138029 (1), MZUSP 13253-54 (2), USNM 216558 (2). Non-type specimens: FMNH 83830 (1), USNM 216288 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:47 [ref. 13621], Vari & Howe 1991:20 [ref. 19022], Oyakawa 1996:465 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Elachocharax geryi Weitzman & Kanazawa 1978 -- (Buckup 1993:146 [ref. 20831], Buckup 1993:330 [ref. 26741], Géry & Römer 1997:70 [ref. 23712], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:91 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:35 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Elachocharax geryi Weitzman & Kanazawa 1978. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Upper Orinoco and Negro River basins: Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

geryi, Microcharacidium Zarske [A.] 1997:163, Figs. 5-7 [Zoologische Abhandlungen; Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden v. 49 (no. 2); ref. 23714] Quebrada Manatai, about 8°35'S, 75°50'W, Loreto Dept., Peru. Holotype: MTD F 17355. Paratypes: Géry coll. 90,1-5 (5), 90,6-7 (2); MTD F 17672-73 (2), F 17334-54 (21), F 19883-900 (18), F 17441-68 (28), F 17255 (1). Type catalog: Zarske 2003:21 [ref. 27474]. •Valid as Microcharacidium geryi Zarske 1997 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:88 [ref. 27061] but incertae sedis in Crenuchidae, Barriga S. 2014:106 [ref. 35745]). •Valid as Characidium geryi (Zarske 1997) -- (Melo et al. 2016:[6] [ref. 34807]). Current status: Valid as Characidium geryi (Zarske 1997). Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Peru and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

gnomus, Microcharacidium Buckup [P. A.] 1993:137, Fig. 16 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 20831] Small stream (Río Orinoco drainage), 5°58'S, 67°36'W, about 25 kilometers from Puerto Ayacucho, Ature, Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-21790 [ex USNM 270155]. Paratypes: ANSP 169030 (20), 169032 (2, c&s); FMNH 101560 (6); UMMZ 220187 (11); USNM 270168 (185), 287985 (1, partly dissected), 288893 (1). Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:12 [ref. 24196]. •Valid as Microcharacidium gnomus Buckup 1993 -- (Buckup 1993:327 [ref. 26741], Zarske 1997:171 [ref. 23714], Costa & Le Bail 1999:1028 [ref. 24187], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:93 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:35 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Microcharacidium gnomus Buckup 1993. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Negro and Orinoco River basins: Brazil, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

gomesi, Characidium Travassos [H.] 1956:3, Figs. 1-4 [Boletim do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Zoologia, Nova Série No. 135; ref. 12233] Córrego da Lazica, Ouro Fino, Minas Gerais State, Bacia de Mogi-Guaçu, Pirassununga, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 8584. Paratypes: MNRJ 5788 (10), 5797 (15), 6089-91 (3), 6101-10 (10), 6116 (76), 6135 (10), 6138 (4), 8579 (1, allotype), 8580-83 (4), 8585 (1). •Valid as Characidium gomesi Travassos 1956 -- (Buckup 1992:1068 [ref. 20321], Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Castro & Casatti 1997:342 [ref. 23333], Casatti & Castro 1998:232 [ref. 23663], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:89 [ref. 27061], da Graça & Pavanelli 2008:55 [ref. 29583], da Graça et al. 2008:329 [ref. 29629] as aff. gomesi, Silveira et al. 2008:169 [ref. 29706], Lujan et al, 2013:456 [ref. 32922], Zanata & Camelier 2014:340 [ref. 33380], Melo & Oyakawa 2015:287 [ref. 33788], Zanata & Ohara 2015:375 [ref. 33970], Zanata & Camelier 2015:497 [ref. 33983], Zanata et al. 2015:381 [ref. 34023], Zanata et al. 2018:84 [ref. 36279], Azevedo-Santos et al. 2019:5 [ref. 36506]). Current status: Valid as Characidium gomesi Travassos 1956. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River basin and Rio Corumbataí, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

grajahuensis, Characidium Travassos [H.] 1944:2, Pls. 1-6 [Boletim do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Nova Série. Zoologia No. 30; ref. 10011] Grajaú, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 3855. Paratypes: MNRJ 3854 (1). Combined with a neuter genus, the specific names becomes grajahuense. •Valid as Characidium grajahuensis Travassos 1944 -- (Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:89 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Characidium grajahuense Travassos 1944 -- (Buckup et al. 2000:276 [ref. 25084], Lujan et al, 2013:456 [ref. 32922], Leitão & Buckup 2014:21 [ref. 33323], Zanata & Camelier 2014:340 [ref. 33380], Zanata & Ohara 2015:375 [ref. 33970], Zanata & Camelier 2015:497 [ref. 33983], Zanata et al. 2015:381 [ref. 34023], Zanata et al. 2018:84 [ref. 36279]). Current status: Valid as Characidium grajahuense Travassos 1944. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Coastal streams in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

hasemani, Characidium Steindachner [F.] 1915:201 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 52 (no. 17); ref. 15071] Rio Surumi at Serra do Melho and Rio Rupununi, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) NMW 69253-54 (3, 2). Species listed in above abstract only and not in subsequent works (Steindachner 1915 [ref. 4244], 1917 [ref. 15259]). •Valid as Characidium hasemani Steindachner 1915 -- (Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:89 [ref. 27061], Peixoto & Wosiacki 2013:56 [ref. 32558], Zanata & Camelier 2014:340 [ref. 33380], Melo & Oyakawa 2015:287 [ref. 33788], Mendonça & Netto-Ferreira 2015:192 [ref. 33967], Zanata & Ohara 2015:375 [ref. 33970], Zanata & Camelier 2015:497 [ref. 33983], Zanata et al. 2015:381 [ref. 34023], Zanata et al. 2018:84 [ref. 36279], Malanski et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36865]). Current status: Valid as Characidium hasemani Steindachner 1915. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Northern tributaries of Amazon River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

heinianum, Characidium Zarske [A.] & Géry [J.] 2001:231, Figs. 1-3 [Zoologische Abhandlungen; Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden v. 51 (no. 16); ref. 25972] Rio Ipurupuru, tributary of Rio Mamoré, near the cross of the river with the road to San Ramon, about 73 kilometers north of Trinidad, 14°12'538"S, 64°56'268"W, Depto. Beni, Bolivia. Holotype: MTD F 24825. Paratypes: CAZ 361 (5); CIRA-UTB 968 a-e (5); GÉRY coll. 1043.1-5.2001 (5); MHNG 24831-32 (2), 2618.90 (5); MTD F 24826-30 (5); ZFMK 39131-35 (5); ZMB 33236 (5); ZSM 29465-69 (1, 1, 1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Zarske 2003:20 [ref. 27474], Herder et al. 2010:116 [ref. 31087], Neumann 2011:243 [ref. 31652]. •Valid as Characidium heinianum Zarske & Géry 2001 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:89 [ref. 27061], Netto-Ferreira et al. 2013:366 [ref. 32717], Leitão & Buckup 2014:15 [ref. 33323], Sarmiento et al. 2014:59, 185 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Characidium heinianum Zarske & Géry 2001. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Upper Mamoré River basin, Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

heirmostigmata, Characidium da Graça [W. J.] & Pavanelli [C. S.] 2008:53, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 29583] Rio Barra Grande, tributary to left margin of rio Ivaí, approximately 24°40'S, 51°15'W, upper rio Paraná basin, Município de Prudentópolis, Paraná, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 97738. Paratypes: MZUSP 97739 (1), 97740 (5); MCP 41935 (3); MNRJ 31594 (8); NUP 1381 (8), 1393 (3), 1411 (4), 5333 (2, c&s), 5334 (1 c&s). •Valid as Characidium heirmostigmata da Graça & Pavanelli 2008 -- (Peixoto & Wosiacki 2013:56 [ref. 32558], Zanata & Camelier 2014:340 [ref. 33380], Casciotta et al. 2015:1 [ref. 33697], Zanata & Ohara 2015:375 [ref. 33970], Zanata & Camelier 2015:497 [ref. 33983], Zanata et al. 2015:381 [ref. 34023], Mirande & Koerber 2015:27 [ref. 35117], Zanata et al. 2018:84 [ref. 36279]). Current status: Valid as Characidium heirmostigmata da Graça & Pavanelli 2008. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River basin, Paraná State, Brazil and Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

helmeri, Characidium Zanata [A. M.], Sarmento-Soares [L. M.] & Martins-Pinheiro [R. F.] 2015:372, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa 4040 (no. 3); ref. 34023] Rio Ribeirão, on road between Cumuruxatiba and Corumbau, tributary of rio Cahi, Prado, Brazil, 17°00'45"S, 39°12'07"W, elevation 17 meters. Holotype: MNRJ 42610. Paratypes: MBML, MNRJ, MZUSP. •Valid as Characidium helmeri Zanata, Sarmento-Soares & Martins-Pinheiro 2015. Current status: Valid as Characidium helmeri Zanata, Sarmento-Soares & Martins-Pinheiro 2015. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Coastal rivers in southern Bahia, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

interruptum, Characidium (Jobertina) Pellegrin [J.] 1909:151 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 1) v. 15 (no. 4); ref. 3424] Serra d'Estrello, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1909-0309. Type catalog: Bertin 1948:36 [ref. 19577]. •Valid as Characidium interruptum Pellegrin 1909 -- (Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Buckup 1993:331 [ref. 26741], Melo & Buckup 2002:992 [ref. 26508], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:89 [ref. 27061], Netto-Ferreira et al. 2013:366 [ref. 32717], Leitão & Buckup 2014:15 [ref. 33323], Zanata & Camelier 2014:340 [ref. 33380], Melo & Oyakawa 2015:287 [ref. 33788], Mendonça & Netto-Ferreira 2015:192 [ref. 33967], Zanata & Ohara 2015:375 [ref. 33970], Zanata & Camelier 2015:497 [ref. 33983], Zanata et al. 2015:381 [ref. 34023], Zanata et al. 2018:84 [ref. 36279]). Current status: Valid as Characidium interruptum Pellegrin 1909. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Coastal lowland streams of southeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

japuhybensis, Characidium Travassos [H.] 1949:229, Figs. 1-4 [Revista Brasileira de Biologia v. 9 (no. 2); ref. 13031] Japuhyba [Japuíba], Angra dos Reis, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 5139. Paratypes: MRNJ 5191-92 (2), 5193 (1, allotype), 5195-5207 (13), 5609 (4); USNM 149945 [ex MNRJ] (3). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:12 [ref. 19022]. Combined with a neuter genus, the specific name becomes japuhybense. •Valid as Characidium japuhybensis Travassos 1949 -- (Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831]). •Valid as Characidium japuhybense Travassos 1949 -- (Buckup et al. 2000:276 [ref. 25084], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:89 [ref. 27061], Lujan et al, 2013:456 [ref. 32922], Leitão & Buckup 2014:21 [ref. 33323], Zanata & Camelier 2014:340 [ref. 33380], Melo & Oyakawa 2015:287 [ref. 33788], Zanata & Ohara 2015:375 [ref. 33970], Zanata & Camelier 2015:497 [ref. 33983], Zanata et al. 2015:381 [ref. 34023], Melo et al. 2016:[9] [ref. 34807], Zanata et al. 2018:84 [ref. 36279]). Current status: Valid as Characidium japuhybense Travassos 1949. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Coastal streams of southeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

junki, Geisleria Géry [J.] 1971:154, Fig. 2 [Vie et Milieu, Série C, Biologie Terrestre v. 22 (fasc. 1); ref. 1593] Rio Novo, Madeira basin, Territorio Guaporé, Brazil, 8°46'S, 63°30'W. Holotype (unique): MHNG 2229.07 [ex Géry coll. 0624]. Type catalog: Weber 1998:7 [ref. 23532]. •Valid as Elachocharax junki (Géry 1971) -- (Taphorn 1992:392 [ref. 23654] as cf junki, Buckup 1993:146 [ref. 20831], Buckup 1993:330 [ref. 26741], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:91 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Elachocharax junki (Géry 1971). Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Madeira and Negro River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

kamakan, Characidium Zanata [A. M.] & Camelier [P.] 2015:488, Figs. 1, 2a [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 13 (no. 3); ref. 33983] Bahia, Camacan, rio Panelão on the road between Camacan and Jacareci, rio Pardo basin, Brazil, 15°25’16"S, 39°31’48"W, elevation 162 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 115000. Paratypes: UFBA, MZUSP. •Valid as Characidium kamakan Zanata & Camelier 2015 -- (Malanski et al. 2019:11 [ref. 36865]). Current status: Valid as Characidium kamakan Zanata & Camelier 2015. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Rio Pardo basin, Bahia, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

ladigesi, Characidium Géry [J.] 1972:77, Pl. 6 (figs. 1-2) [Acta Humboldtiana (Series Geologica, Palaeontologica et Biologica Nr. 2) No. 2; ref. 1595] Río Villano, Ecuador. Holotype: ZMH H1864. Paratypes: ZMH H1865 (3, now 1). Type catalog: Wilkens 1977:156 [ref. 22013]. •Synonym of Characidium steindachneri Cope 1878 -- (Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:91 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Characidium steindachneri Cope 1878. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

lagosantensis, Characidium Travassos [H.] 1947:23, Pls. 6-9 [Summa Brasiliensis Biologiae. v. 1 (no. 14); ref. 13093] Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 4582. Paratypes: MNRJ 3582 (1), 3852 (1), 4581-82 (2), 4583 (1, allotype), 4584-88 (5). Combined with a neuter genus, the specific name becomes lagosantense. •Valid as Characidium lagosantense Travassos 1947 -- (Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:89 [ref. 27061], Netto-Ferreira et al. 2013:366 [ref. 32717], Zanata & Camelier 2014:340 [ref. 33380], Melo & Oyakawa 2015:287 [ref. 33788], Mendonça & Netto-Ferreira 2015:192 [ref. 33967], Zanata & Ohara 2015:375 [ref. 33970], Zanata & Camelier 2015:497 [ref. 33983], Zanata et al. 2015:381 [ref. 34023], Zanata et al. 2018:84 [ref. 36279]). Current status: Valid as Characidium lagosantense Travassos 1947. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Das Velhas River basin in São Francisco drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

lanei, Characidium Travassos [H.] 1967:45, Fig. 2 [Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo v. 20 (art. 4); ref. 22298] Fazenda Poço Grande, Juquiá, São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 6185. Paratypes: MNRJ 9766 (1). •Valid as Characidium lanei Travassos 1967 -- (Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Buckup 1993:331 [ref. 26741], Melo & Buckup 2002:992 [ref. 26508], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:90 [ref. 27061], da Graça & Pavanelli 2008:55 [ref. 29583], Netto-Ferreira et al. 2013:366 [ref. 32717], Zanata & Camelier 2014:340 [ref. 33380], Melo & Oyakawa 2015:287 [ref. 33788], Mendonça & Netto-Ferreira 2015:192 [ref. 33967], Zanata & Ohara 2015:375 [ref. 33970], Zanata & Camelier 2015:497 [ref. 33983], Zanata et al. 2015:381 [ref. 34023], Zanata et al. 2018:84 [ref. 36279]). Current status: Valid as Characidium lanei Travassos 1967. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Coastal basins of southeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

laterale, Characidium Eigenmann [C. H.] 1909:36 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 1222] Amatuk, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 72627 [ex CM 1141]. Paratypes: (3, IU) BMNH 1911.10.31.161 (1), CAS 27763 [ex IU 11673] (now 1, orig. 3). Type catalog: Henn 1928:55 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:22 [ref. 12367]. Not the same as Characidium laterale (Boulenger 1895). •Valid as Ammocryptocharax lateralis (Eigenmann 1909) -- (Buckup 1993:108 [ref. 20831], Buckup 1993:328 [ref. 26741], Géry & Zarske 2002:35 [ref. 26555], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:88 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Ammocryptocharax lateralis (Eigenmann 1909). Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Potaro and Mazaruni River basins, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

lateralis, Nanostomus Boulenger [G. A.] 1895:2 [Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata della R. Università di Torino v. 10 (no. 196); ref. 536] Colonia Risso, Paraguay. Syntypes: BMNH 1895.1.30.16-19 (4); MSNG 35133 (1); MZUT 1349 (2), 1044 (many), 1400 (1), 2565 (?). Type catalog: Tortonese 1940:139 [ref. 21559], Tortonese 1961:183 [ref. 10343]. Original genus is correctly Nannostomus. •Valid as Characidium lateralis (Boulenger 1895) -- (Britski et al. 1999:69 [ref. 24147]). •Valid as Characidium laterale (Boulenger 1895) -- (Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:90 [ref. 27061], da Graça & Pavanelli 2008:55 [ref. 29583], da Graça et al. 2008:329 [ref. 29629], Netto-Ferreira et al. 2013:366 [ref. 32717], Leitão & Buckup 2014:15 [ref. 33323], Zanata & Camelier 2014:340 [ref. 33380], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], Melo & Oyakawa 2015:287 [ref. 33788], Mendonça & Netto-Ferreira 2015:192 [ref. 33967], Zanata & Ohara 2015:375 [ref. 33970], Zanata & Camelier 2015:497 [ref. 33983], Zanata et al. 2015:381 [ref. 34023], Melo & Espíndola 2016:566 [ref. 34928], Koerber et al. 2017:43 [ref. 35267], Zanata et al. 2018:84 [ref. 36279], da Graça et al. 2019:5 [ref. 37061]). Current status: Valid as Characidium laterale (Boulenger 1895). Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Paraná River basin, Paraguay, Bolivia and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

lauroi, Characidium Travassos [H.] 1949:87, Figs. 1-10 [Revista Brasileira de Biologia v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 13032] Rio das Pedras, Fazenda Pendo, Agulhas Negras, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 5529. Paratypes: MNRJ 5530 (1, allotype). •Valid as Characidium lauroi Travassos 1949 -- (Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Buckup et al. 2000:276 [ref. 25084], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:90 [ref. 27061], Lujan et al, 2013:456 [ref. 32922], Leitão & Buckup 2014:21 [ref. 33323], Zanata & Camelier 2014:340 [ref. 33380], Melo & Oyakawa 2015:287 [ref. 33788], Zanata & Ohara 2015:375 [ref. 33970], Zanata & Camelier 2015:497 [ref. 33983], Zanata et al. 2015:381 [ref. 34023], Melo et al. 2016:[9] [ref. 34807], Zanata et al. 2018:84 [ref. 36279]). Current status: Valid as Characidium lauroi Travassos 1949. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Paraíba do Sul River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

litorale, Characidium Leitão [R. P.] & Buckup [P. A.] 2014:15, Fig. 1 [Copeia 2014 (no 1); ref. 33323] Rio de Janeiro, mun. Casimiro de Abreu, Córrego Aldeia Velha, tributary of São João, under the Aldeia Velha road bridge, near Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Bom Retiro, 22°28'03.0"S, 42°17'51.0"'W, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 38929. Paratypes: All from Rio de Janeiro: AMNH, INPA, MNRJ, MZUSP. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Characidium litorale Leitão & Buckup 2014 -- (Melo & Oyakawa 2015:287 [ref. 33788]). Current status: Valid as Characidium litorale Leitão & Buckup 2014. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Serra do Mar, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

longum, Characidium Taphorn [D. C.], Montaña [C. G.] & Buckup [P. A.] 2006:3, Fig. 1 [Zootaxa No. 1247; ref. 28733] Rio Capanaparo drainage, Caño La Guardia, 06.84000°N, 67.32500°W, Apure, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 53371. Paratypes: Many lots at ANSP, AUM, EBRG, FMNH, MBUCV, MCNG, MHNLS, MNRJ, NRM. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Characidium longum Taphorn, Montaña & Buckup 2006 -- (Peixoto & Wosiacki 2013:56 [ref. 32558], Leitão & Buckup 2014:15 [ref. 33323], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:34 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Characidium longum Taphorn, Montaña & Buckup 2006. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Orinoco River Basin: Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

macrolepidotus, Leporinus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1868:455 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1868; ref. 7935] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ZMB 6774. •Valid as Characidium macrolepidotum (Peters 1868) -- (Géry et al. 2001:24 [ref. 25155]). •Species inquirenda in Characidium -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:91 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Characidium macrolepidotum (Peters 1868). Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

marshi, Characidium Breder [C. M., Jr.] 1925:5, Fig. 5 [American Museum Novitates No. 180; ref. 15531] Río Sucubti, Darien, Panama. Holotype: AMNH 8405. Paratypes: (10) AMNH 22724-27 (4, 1, 1, 1); USNM 120234 [ex AMNH] (1), 120235 [ex AMNH] (1), 120236 (1). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:12 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Characidium marshi Breder 1925 -- (Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:90 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Characidium marshi Breder 1925. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Tuira River basin, Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

meizon, Skiotocharax Presswell [B.], Weitzman [S. H.] & Bergquist [T.] 2000:185, Figs. 1-6 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 11 (no. 2); ref. 24440] Tributary of the Mazaruni River, upstream of Aruwai Falls, about 6°18'46"N, 60°35'41"W, Guyana. Holotype: UG uncat. Paratypes: MNRJ 16231 (1); USNM 345324 (1), 345325 (8, 2 c&s), 345326-27 (1, 1), 345470 (1), 345965 (1). •Valid as Skiotocharax meizon Presswell, Weitzman & Bergquist 2000 -- (Géry & Zarske 2002:36 [ref. 26555], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:93 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Skiotocharax meizon Presswell, Weitzman & Bergquist 2000. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Mararuni and Berbice River basins, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

melanopteron, Melanocharacidium Buckup [P. A.] 1993:125, Fig. 10 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 20831] Río Caroni, below Guri dam, about 7°50'N, 63°W, Estado Bolivar, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 26957 [ex MCNG 18135]. Paratypes: ANSP 159794 (1), 161661 (1); MBUCV-V-16015 (1); MCNG 18135 (1). Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:12 [ref. 24196]. •Valid as Melanocharacidium melanopteron Buckup 1993 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:92 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Melanocharacidium melanopteron Buckup 1993. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

minutus, Ammocryptocharax Buckup [P. A.] 1993:109, Fig. 4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 20831] Rio Urubaxi, beach near confluence with Rio Negro, Amazonas State, Brazil, 0°35'S, 64°45'W. Holotype: MZUSP 43671. Paratypes: ANSP 161673 (6, 2 c&s), 161674-77 (2, 2, 1, 1); MBUCV-V-6364 (1), V-7947 (1), V-8066 (1); MCNG 12416 (2 of 4); MZUSP 43672 (1); UMMZ 219580 (1); USNM 290012 (1). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:450 [ref. 23140], Provenzano et al. 1998:3 [ref. 24196]. •Valid as Ammocryptocharax minutus Buckup 1993 -- (Costa & Le Bail 1999:1028 [ref. 24187], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:88 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:34 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Ammocryptocharax minutus Buckup 1993. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Upper Orinoco, Amazon, and upper Negro River basins: Brazil, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

mirim, Characidium Netto-Ferreira [A. L.], Birindelli [J. L. O.] & Buckup [P. A.] 2013:362, Fig. 1 [Zootaxa 3664 (no. 3); ref. 32717] Rio das Mortes, at bridge on road between Chapada dos Guimarães and Campo Verde, 15°30'20"S, 55°13'38"W, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 111123 [ex MCUZP 101393]. Paratypes: ANSP, MNRJ, MZUSP. •Valid as Characidium mirim Netto-Ferreira, Birindelli & Buckup 2013 -- (Melo & Oyakawa 2015:288 [ref. 33788], Mendonça & Netto-Ferreira 2015:192 [ref. 33967], Zanata & Ohara 2015:373 [ref. 33970], Melo & Espíndola 2016:566 [ref. 34928]). Current status: Valid as Characidium mirim Netto-Ferreira, Birindelli & Buckup 2013. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Upper portions of rio das Mortes and tributaries, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

mitopterus, Elachocharax Weitzman [S. H.] 1986:740, Figs. 1-3 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 99 (no. 4); ref. 5983] Caño Chola, Río Negro, Estado Amazonas, Venezuela, about 1°58'N, 67°00'W. Holotype: MBUCV-V-15270. Paratypes: MBUCV-V-15271 (1); MZUSP 29871 (3); USNM 270147 (2), 274100 (2), 274101 (1, c&s). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:20 [ref. 19022], Oyakawa 1996:466 [ref. 23140], Provenzano et al. 1998:8 [ref. 24196]. •Valid as Elachocharax mitopterus Weitzman 1986 -- (Buckup 1993:147 [ref. 20831], Buckup 1993:330 [ref. 26741], Géry & Römer 1997:70 [ref. 23712], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:92 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:35 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Elachocharax mitopterus Weitzman 1986. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Negro and Casiquiare River basins: Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

nana, Characidium Mendonça [M. B.] & Netto-Ferreira [A. L.] 2015:188, Fig. 1 [Zootaxa 4021 (no. 1); ref. 33967] Pará, Rio 13 de Maio, approximately 40 km from Castelo dos Sonhos, Brazil, 8°38'54.65"S, 55°01'45.04"W. Holotype: MPEG 31838. Paratypes: INPA, MNRJ, MPEG, MZUSP. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Characidium nana Mendonça & Netto-Ferreira 2015 -- (Melo & Espíndola 2016:566 [ref. 34928], Zanata et al. 2018:84 [ref. 36279]). Current status: Valid as Characidium nana Mendonça & Netto-Ferreira 2015. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Rio Xingu basin, Pará, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

nigrum, Melanocharacidium Buckup [P. A.] 1993:128, Fig. 12 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 20831] Rio Mucajaí, upstream of Ilha do Paredao, Território Federal de Roraima, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 1681. Paratypes: INPA 746 (2, 1 c&s), 1680 (1); MZUSP 27010 (1), 43699 (1). Apparently not treated in Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:92 [ref. 27061] •Valid as Melanocharacidium nigrum Buckup 1993 -- (DoNascimiento et al. 2017:35 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Melanocharacidium nigrum Buckup 1993. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Brazil and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

nupelia, Characidium da Graça [W. J.], Pavanelli [C. S.] & Buckup [P. A.] 2008:326, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 2008 (no. 2); ref. 29629] Rosário Oeste, Córrego Forquilha, tributary to Rio Manso, downstream from Manso Reservoir, upper Paraguay basin, 14°44'58"S, 56°07'39"W, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 87743. Paratypes: LIRP 5284 (10); MCP 23482 (6); MNRJ 29164 (20), 29165 (1, c&s), 29166 (1, c&s); NUP 982 (25), 1959 (21), 2155 (15), 2156 (14), 3331 (21), 3332 (1), 4016 (1, c&s). •Valid as Characidium nupelia da Graça, Pavanelli & Buckup 2008 -- (Peixoto & Wosiacki 2013:56 [ref. 32558], Netto-Ferreira et al. 2013:366 [ref. 32717], Zanata & Camelier 2014:341 [ref. 33380], Melo & Oyakawa 2015:288 [ref. 33788], Mendonça & Netto-Ferreira 2015:192 [ref. 33967], Zanata & Ohara 2015:373 [ref. 33970], Zanata & Camelier 2015:497 [ref. 33983], Zanata et al. 2015:381 [ref. 34023], Melo & Espíndola 2016:566 [ref. 34928], Zanata et al. 2018:84 [ref. 36279], da Graça et al. 2019:5 [ref. 37061]). Current status: Valid as Characidium nupelia da Graça, Pavanelli & Buckup 2008. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Upper Paraguay River basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

occidentale, Characidium Buckup [P. A.] & Reis [R. E.] 1997:532, Fig. 1A [Copeia 1997 (no. 3); ref. 22903] Arroio Canoin, about 28°07'S, 55°13'W, on road between Pirapó and São Nicolau, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 17585. Paratypes: MCN 5653 (6), 6796 (1), 6801 (1); MCP 11907 (1), 12534 (8, 1 c&s); MNRJ 13345 (5), 13365 (3). •Valid as Characidium occidentale Buckup & Reis 1997 -- (Buckup & Hahn 2000:151 [ref. 24257] once as yoccidentale, Zarske & Géry 2001:243 [ref. 25972], Melo & Buckup 2002:992 [ref. 26508], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:90 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:16 [ref. 27366], Netto-Ferreira et al. 2013:366 [ref. 32717], Casciotta et al. 2015:1 [ref. 33697], Mendonça & Netto-Ferreira 2015:192 [ref. 33967], Zanata & Ohara 2015:373 [ref. 33970], Mirande & Koerber 2015:27 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:414 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:27 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Characidium occidentale Buckup & Reis 1997. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

oiticicai, Characidium Travassos [H.] 1967:47, Fig. 1 [Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo v. 20 (art. 4); ref. 22298] Paranapiacaba, São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNRJ 9480. Paratypes: MNRJ 9796-97 (2). •Valid as Characidium oiticicai Travassos 1967 -- (Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Buckup et al. 2000:276 [ref. 25084], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:90 [ref. 27061], da Graça & Pavanelli 2008:55 [ref. 29583], Silveira et al. 2008:169 [ref. 29706], Zanata & Camelier 2014:341 [ref. 33380], Melo & Oyakawa 2015:288 [ref. 33788], Zanata & Ohara 2015:375 [ref. 33970], Zanata & Camelier 2015:497 [ref. 33983], Zanata et al. 2015:381 [ref. 34023], Melo et al. 2016:[9] [ref. 34807], Zanata et al. 2018:84 [ref. 36279]). Current status: Valid as Characidium oiticicai Travassos 1967. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Upper Tietê and Ribeira de Iguapé River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

omospilus, Leptocharacidium Buckup [P. A.] 1993:103, Fig. 2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 20831] Mouth of left bank tributary of Río Mawarinuma (= River Baria), Río Negro, Amazonas, Venezuela, 0°55'N, 66°10'W, elevation 120 meters. Holotype: AMNH 98287 [ex 78728]. Paratypes: AMNH 78717-18 (2, 2), 78721 (1), 78725 (2, 17), 78728 (orig. 41, 25, 2 c&s), 78729 (2); FMNH 101111 [ex AMNH 78728] (5); MBUCV-V-14926 (19), V-21752 [ex AMNH 78728] (5); UMMZ 219457 [ex AMNH 78728] (5). Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:12 [ref. 24196]. Species spelled omospilus and omospilum in original description; the spelling omospilus is given in the main species heading and as a noun in apposition in the etymology. The spelling omospilus is here (W.N.E.) regarded as the correct spelling. •Valid as Leptocharacidium omospilus Buckup 1993 -- (Buckup 1993:325 [ref. 26741], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:92 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:35 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Leptocharacidium omospilus Buckup 1993. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Negro and upper Orinoco River basins, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

orientale, Characidium Buckup [P. A.] & Reis [R. E.] 1997:535, Fig. 1B [Copeia 1997 (no. 3); ref. 22903] Arroio Chasqueiro on road (BR116) between Pelotas and Arroio Grande, Rio Grande do sul, Brazil, about 32°09'S, 53°03'W. Holotype: MCP 16847. Paratypes: MCN 8149 (3); MCP 9529 (1), 11408 (6), 14620 (2), 14659 (4), 17399-400 (7, 10), 17401-02 (5, 13), 17587 (6); MNRJ 13495 (2), 13497 (5); UFRGS 3810-12 (5, 10, 10). •Valid as Characidium orientale Buckup & Reis 1997 -- (Buckup & Hahn 2000:151 [ref. 24257], Zarske & Géry 2001:245 [ref. 25972], Melo & Buckup 2002:992 [ref. 26508], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:90 [ref. 27061], Netto-Ferreira et al. 2013:366 [ref. 32717], Litz & Koerber 2014:16 [ref. 33622], Mendonça & Netto-Ferreira 2015:192 [ref. 33967], Zanata & Ohara 2015:373 [ref. 33970], Bertaco et al. 2016:414 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:27 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Characidium orientale Buckup & Reis 1997. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Coastal basins of southern Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

papachibe, Characidium Peixoto [L. A. W.] & Wosiacki [W. O.] 2013:52, Fig. 1 [Copeia 2013 (no. 1); ref. 32558] Unnamed left tributary to Rio Aruã, left tributary to Rio Arapiuns, itself a left tributary to Rio Tapajós, 2°34"31.9"S, 55°54'16.1"W, Juruti, State of Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MPEG 19612. Paratypes: INPA 37630 (1); MCP 47003 (1); MPEG 13537 (2), 19416 (13, 3 c&s), 19609 (9, 4 c&s); NUP 14153 (1). •Valid as Characidium papachibe Peixoto & Wosiacki 2013. Current status: Valid as Characidium papachibe Peixoto & Wosiacki 2013. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Município de Juruti, State if Pará, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

pectorale, Melanocharacidium Buckup [P. A.] 1993:130, Fig. 13 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 20831] Cachoeira Morena, about 2°10'S, 59°30'W, Rio Uatuma, Estado do Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 6629. Paratypes: INPA 1736 (8, 1 c&s), 6630 (1); MZUSP 43668 (1); UMMZ 220185 (1 c&s). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:479 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Melanocharacidium pectorale Buckup 1993 -- (Buckup 1993:329 [ref. 26741], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:92 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:186 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:35 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Melanocharacidium pectorale Buckup 1993. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco River basins: Brazil, Bolivia, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

pellucidum, Characidium Eigenmann [C. H.] 1909:39 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 1222] Gluck Island, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 52764 [ex CM 1156]. Paratypes: CAS 60251 [ex IU 11683] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:56 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:22 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Characidium pellucidum Eigenmann 1909 -- (Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Buckup 1993:332 [ref. 26741], Planquette et al. 1996:344 [ref. 22818], Zarske & Géry 2001:241 [ref. 25972], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:90 [ref. 27061], Taphorn et al. 2006:6 [ref. 28733], Peixoto & Wosiacki 2013:56 [ref. 32558], Leitão & Buckup 2014:21 [ref. 33323], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:34 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Characidium pellucidum Eigenmann 1909. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Essequibo and Maroni River basins: Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

phoxocephalum, Characidium Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:26 [Indiana University Studies No. 16 [sic No. 8]; ref. 1228] Paila, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56061 [ex CM 4851]. Paratypes: CAS 60254 [ex IU 12704] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:56 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:22 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Characidium phoxocephalum Eigenmann 1912 -- (Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:90 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:34 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Characidium phoxocephalum Eigenmann 1912. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Cauca River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

pteroides, Characidium Eigenmann [C. H.] 1909:40 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 1222] Konawaruk, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53548 [ex CM 1157]. Paratypes: (4, CM and IU) CAS 60250 [ex IU 11684] (2), FMNH 52765 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:56 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:22 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Characidium pteroides Eigenmann 1909 -- (Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Buckup 1993:332 [ref. 26741], Zarske & Géry 2001:241 [ref. 25972], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:90 [ref. 27061], Taphorn et al. 2006:6 [ref. 28733], Peixoto & Wosiacki 2013:56 [ref. 32558], Leitão & Buckup 2014:15 [ref. 33323] as cf.pteroides, Zanata & Ohara 2015:375 [ref. 33970] as cf. pteroides, Zanata & Camelier 2015:497 [ref. 33983] as cf. pteroides, Zanata et al. 2015:381 [ref. 34023] as cf. pteroides, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:34 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:85 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Characidium pteroides Eigenmann 1909. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin and Orinoco River basin: Guyana, Brazil and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

pterostictum, Characidium Gomes [A. L.] 1947:18, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 67; ref. 1830] Rio Maquiné, tributary to Lagôa dos Quadros, Conceição do Arroio County, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: UMMZ 143289. Paratypes: UMMZ 143290 (orig. 8, now 7), USNM 143848 [ex UMMZ 143290] (1). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:12 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Characidium pterostictum Gomes 1947 -- (Malabarba 1989:132 [ref. 14217], Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Buckup & Reis 1997:538 [ref. 22903], Buckup & Hahn 2000:151 [ref. 24257], Buckup et al. 2000:276 [ref. 25084], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:90 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:16 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:79 [ref. 28131], da Graça & Pavanelli 2008:55 [ref. 29583], Zanata & Camelier 2014:341 [ref. 33380], Litz & Koerber 2014:16 [ref. 33622], Casciotta et al. 2015:1 [ref. 33697], Melo & Oyakawa 2015:288 [ref. 33788], Zanata & Ohara 2015:375 [ref. 33970], Zanata & Camelier 2015:497 [ref. 33983], Zanata et al. 2015:381 [ref. 34023], Mirande & Koerber 2015:27 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:414 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:27 [ref. 35565], Zanata et al. 2018:84 [ref. 36279]). Current status: Valid as Characidium pterostictum Gomes 1947. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Coastal basins from Ribeira de Iguapé River basin and Uruguay River basin: Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

pulcher, Elachocharax Myers [G. S.] 1927:115 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 68 (no. 3); ref. 3096] Caño de Quiribana, near Caicara, Venezuela. Holotype: CAS 44250 [ex IU 17676]. Paratypes: CAS-SU 18067 [ex IU 17677] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:24 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Elachocharax pulcher Myers 1927 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:8 [ref. 9708], Taphorn 1992:395 [ref. 23654], Buckup 1993:147 [ref. 20831], Buckup 1993:327 [ref. 26741], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:92 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:106 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:35 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Elachocharax pulcher Myers 1927. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Amazon and upper Orinoco River basins: Brazil, Ecuador, Bolivia, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

purpuratum, Characidium Steindachner [F.] 1882:142 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 19 (no. 16) (for 22 June 1882); ref. 20485] Canelos, eastern Ecuador. Syntypes: NMW 69264 (4). Species later described in more detail in Steindachner 1882:78 [p. 18 in separate] [ref. 4233]. •Valid as Characidium purpuratum Steindachner 1882 -- (Buckup 1992:1068 [ref. 20321], Buckup 1993:102 [ref. 20831], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:90 [ref. 27061], Lujan et al. 2013:456 [ref. 32922], Barriga S. 2014:106 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Characidium purpuratum Steindachner 1882. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Andean tributaries to margin of upper Amazon River: Bolivia and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

rachovii, Characidium (Jobertina) Regan [C. T.] 1913:231 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 11 (no. 62); ref. 14976] Probably Vila da Quinta, Município de Rio Grande, Brazil, 32°05'S, 52°17'W. Syntypes: BMNH 1913.1.1.15-17 (3). See Buckup & Malabarba 1990 [ref. 16740] for information on type locality. •Valid as Jobertina rachowi (Regan 1913) -- (Gómez & Chebez 1996:56 [ref. 23791]). •Valid as Characidium rachovii Regan 1913 -- (Buckup 1993:102 [ref. 20831], Buckup & Reis 1997:538 [ref. 22903], Buckup & Hahn 2000:150 [ref. 24257], Zarske & Géry 2001:245 [ref. 25972], Melo & Buckup 2002:992 [ref. 26508], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:90 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:16 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:82 [ref. 28130], Menni 2004:79 [ref. 28131], Netto-Ferreira et al. 2013:366 [ref. 32717], Leitão & Buckup 2014:15 [ref. 33323], Zanata & Camelier 2014:341 [ref. 33380], Litz & Koerber 2014:16 [ref. 33622], Casciotta et al. 2015:1 [ref. 33697], Melo & Oyakawa 2015:288 [ref. 33788], Mendonça & Netto-Ferreira 2015:192 [ref. 33967], Zanata & Ohara 2015:373 [ref. 33970], Zanata & Camelier 2015:497 [ref. 33983], Zanata et al. 2015:381 [ref. 34023], Mirande & Koerber 2015:27 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:414 [ref. 34561], Petry et al. 2016:301 [ref. 34966], Nión et al. 2016:27 [ref. 35565] as rachowi, Zanata et al. 2018:84 [ref. 36279], da Graça et al. 2019:6 [ref. 37061]). Current status: Valid as Characidium rachovii Regan 1913. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Southeast Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

rex, Characidium Böhlke [J. E.] 1958:92, Pl. 5 (fig. 7) [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 110; ref. 12050] Holotype (unique): ANSP 75949. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:53 [ref. 13621]. Near the mouth of Río Bobonaza, Chicherota, Province Pastaza, Ecuador. •Valid as Melanocharacidium rex (Böhlke 1958) -- (Buckup 1993:134 [ref. 20831], Chang & Ortega 1995:3 [ref. 24302], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:93 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:106 [ref. 35745]). Current status: Valid as Melanocharacidium rex (Böhlke 1958). Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Tigre and Pastaza River basins, Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

ritae, Klausewitzia Géry [J.] 1965:199, Pl. 18 (fig. 17); Figs. 5-6 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 46 (no. 3); ref. 1586] Igarapé Préto, along Upper Amazon, near Belem, about 60 kilometers below Leticia, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: SMF 7201 [not 7202]. Paratypes: MHNG 2201.23 [ex Géry coll. 0185] (2); SMF 7202 (1), 7203-06 (4). •Valid as Klausewitzia ritae Géry 1965 -- (Buckup 1993:102 [ref. 20831] apparently with wrong holotype, Buckup 1993:326 [ref. 26741], Chang & Ortega 1995:3 [ref. 24302], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:92 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:35 [ref. 35633] without species ritae). Current status: Valid as Klausewitzia ritae Géry 1965. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin at border area between Brazil and Peru, also Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

roesseli, Characidium Géry [J.] 1965:201, Pl. 18 (fig. 16); Fig. 7 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 46 (no. 3); ref. 1586] Igarapé Préto, collateéral de l'Amazone supérieure près de Belem, à environ 60 km en aval de Letícia, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: SMF 7213. Paratypes: Géry coll. 0184 (1), SMF 7214 (1). •Valid as Characidium roesseli Géry 1965 -- (Buckup 1993:102 [ref. 20831], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:90 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:35 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Characidium roesseli Géry 1965. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Brazil and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

samurai, Characidium Zanata [A. M.] & Camelier [P.] 2014:333, Fig. 1 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 12 (no. 2); ref. 33380] Bahia, Piraí do Norte, rio do Peixe, tributary of rio das Almas, 13°46’35”S 39°23’40”W, 177 m altitude, Brazil Holotype: MZUSP 108188. Paratypes: MNRJ 40727 (4); MZUSP 111239 (5, 1 C&S), 112385 (9, 1 mol.); UFBA 5726 (3), 5971 (9, 2 C&S), 7258 (5), 7259 (7). •Valid as Characidium samurai Zanata & Camelier 2014 -- (Zanata & Ohara 2015:374 [ref. 33970], Zanata & Camelier 2015:497 [ref. 33983], Zanata et al. 2015:381 [ref. 34023], Zanata et al. 2018:84 [ref. 36279]). Current status: Valid as Characidium samurai Zanata & Camelier 2014. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Rio das Almas basin, Bahia, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

sanctjohanni, Characidium Dahl [G.] 1960:477, Fig. [Caldasia v. 8 (no. 39); ref. 9310] Minas Gerais, Tres Marias, Córrego Curral das Éguas, tributary of Rio Abaete´, Rio São Francisco basin, 07°13" 00"S, 45°24'520"W, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ICNMHN 211. Type catalog: Mojica & Agudelo-Zamora 2018:22 [ref. 36127] as C. santcjohanni. •Valid as Characidium sanctjohanni Dahl 1960 -- (Buckup 1993:102 [ref. 20831], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:90 [ref. 27061], Agudelo-Zamora et al. 2014:196 [ref. 34883], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:35 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Characidium sanctjohanni Dahl 1960. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: San Juan River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

satoi, Characidium Melo [M. R. S.] & Oyakawa [O. T.] 2015:282, Figs. 2, 4 [Copeia v. 103 (no. 2); ref. 33788] Minas Gerais, Tres Marias, Córrego Curral das Éguas, tributary of Rio Abaeté, Rio São Francisco basin, 18°07'13"S, 45°24'52"W, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 114614. Paratypes: MZUSP, ROM, ZUEC. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Characidium satoi Melo & Oyakawa 2015. Current status: Valid as Characidium satoi Melo & Oyakawa 2015. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Rio São Francisco basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

schindleri, Characidium Zarske [A.] & Géry [J.] 2001:234, Figs. 4-5 [Zoologische Abhandlungen; Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden v. 51 (no. 16); ref. 25972] Left tributary of the Rio Palmar, near Palmar village, ca. 17°00'47.00"S, 65°18'25.00"W, Bolivia. Holotype: ZSM 29470. Paratypes: Géry coll. 1043.1-2.2001 (2); MTD F 25367-68 (2); ZSM 29471-72 (1, 1). Type catalog: Zarske 2003:20 [ref. 27474], Neumann 2011:244 [ref. 31652] Bolivia with question in Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:91 [ref. 27061]. •Valid as Characidium schindleri Zarske & Géry 2001 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:90 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:59, 185 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Characidium schindleri Zarske & Géry 2001. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

schubarti, Characidium Travassos [H.] 1955:365, Figs. 1-8 [Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciéncias v. 27 (no. 3); ref. 12533] Córrego entre Murtinhos e Jaguariaíva, Paraná, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 8853. Paratypes: MNRJ 8552 (1), 8554-57 (4). •Valid as Characidium schubarti Travassos 1955 -- (Buckup 1993:102 [ref. 20831], Buckup et al. 2000:276 [ref. 25084], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:91 [ref. 27061], da Graça & Pavanelli 2008:55 [ref. 29583], Silveira et al. 2008:169 [ref. 29706], Melo & Oyakawa 2015:288 [ref. 33788], Melo et al. 2016:[9] [ref. 34807]). Current status: Valid as Characidium schubarti Travassos 1955. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River basin and Ribeira de Iguapé River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

serrano, Characidium Buckup [P. A.] & Reis [R. E.] 1997:541, Fig. 4A [Copeia 1997 (no. 3); ref. 22903] Rio Jacutinga on road (BR283) between Seara and Concórdia, Santa Catarina, Brazil, about 27°10'S, 52°09'W. Holotype: MCP 12488. Paratypes: MCN 8704 (2), 8714 (1), 8924 (6), 9119 (1), 9192 (1), 9229 (9), 9488 (1), 9527 (1); MCP 12038 (1), 12778 (1), 13314 (2, 1 c&s); MNRJ 13346 (5). •Valid as Characidium serrano Buckup & Reis 1997 -- (Buckup & Hahn 2000:151 [ref. 24257], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:91 [ref. 27061], da Graça & Pavanelli 2008:54 [ref. 29583], Casciotta et al. 2015:2 [ref. 33697], Mirande & Koerber 2015:27 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:414 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Characidium serrano Buckup & Reis 1997. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Upper Uruguay River basin, Brazil and Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

spilurus, Crenuchus Günther [A.] 1863:443 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 3) v. 12 (no. 72); ref. 1973] Essequibo River, Guyana. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1864.1.21.92. •Valid as Crenuchus spilurus Günther 1863 -- (Géry 1970:17 [ref. 34971], Ortega & Vari 1986:8 [ref. 9708], Taphorn 1992:176 [ref. 23654], Planquette et al. 1996:184 [ref. 22818], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:91 [ref. 27061], Melo et al. 2016:132 [ref. 34701], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:34 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Crenuchus spilurus Günther 1863. Crenuchidae: Crenuchinae. Distribution: Orinoco and Amazon River basin, and coastal rivers in the Guianas: Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

steindachneri, Characidium Cope [E. D.] 1878:688 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 17 (no. 101); ref. 945] Amazon River, Peru. Holotype (unique): ANSP 21428. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:54 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Characidium steindachneri Cope 1878 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:8 [ref. 9708], Buckup 1993:102 [ref. 20831], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:91 [ref. 27061], Barriga S. 2014:106 [ref. 35745], Leitão & Buckup 2014:15 [ref. 33323], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], Mendonça & Netto-Ferreira 2015:192 [ref. 33967], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:35 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:85 [ref. 35773] as cf. steindachneri). Current status: Valid as Characidium steindachneri Cope 1878. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco River basins: Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

sterbai, Geryichthys Zarske [A.] 1997:159, Figs. 1-3 [Zoologische Abhandlungen; Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden v. 49 (no. 2); ref. 23714] Rio Huacamyao, nahe Aguaytia, about 9°00'S, 75°29'W, Loreto Dept., Peru. Holotype: MTD F 17561. Paratypes: Géry coll. 101,1-5 (5); MTD F 17105 (1), F 17562-70 (9), F 17795-846 (52), F 16604-06 (3); ZMH 8873 (1); plus non-type material. Type catalog: Zarske 2003:21 [ref. 27474]. •Valid as Geryichthys sterbai Zarske 1997 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:92 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Characidium sterbai (Zarske 1997) -- (Melo et al. 2016:[6] [ref. 34807]). Current status: Valid as Characidium sterbai (Zarske 1997). Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon basin at region of Iquitos and Ucayali River drainage: Brazil and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

stigmosum, Characidium Melo [M. R. S.] & Buckup [P. A.] 2002:988, Fig. 1 [Copeia 2002 (no. 4); ref. 26508] Small stream tributary of córrego Ave Maria, near Santo Antônio farm headquarters, 14 kilometers north of Cavalcante, mun. Cavalcante, Goiás, 13°47'S, 47°30'W, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 40804. Paratypes: MCP 21715 (15); MNRJ 21974 (4, 1 c&s), MZUSP 70221 (15, 1 c&s), 40797 (2), 40810 (11), 40813 (6); USNM 36832 (2). •Valid as Characidium stigmosum Melo & Buckup 2002 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:91 [ref. 27061], Peixoto & Wosiacki 2013:56 [ref. 32558], Netto-Ferreira et al. 2013:366 [ref. 32717], Zanata & Camelier 2014:341 [ref. 33380], Melo & Oyakawa 2015:288 [ref. 33788], Mendonça & Netto-Ferreira 2015:192 [ref. 33967], Zanata & Ohara 2015:373 [ref. 33970], Zanata & Camelier 2015:497 [ref. 33983], Zanata et al. 2015:381 [ref. 34023], Zanata et al. 2018:84 [ref. 36279]). Current status: Valid as Characidium stigmosum Melo & Buckup 2002. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Paranã River basin in upper Tocantins River drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

summus, Characidium Zanata [A. M.] & Ohara [W. M.] 2015:369, Figs. 1a, 2-3 [Zootaxa 4021 (no. 2); ref. 33970] Rondônia, Guajará-Mirim, upper rio Pacaás Novos, rio Madeira basin, Brazil, 10°50'46.29"S, 63°37'47.29"W. Holotype: MZUSP 116954. Paratypes: INPA, MNRJ, MZUSP, UFRO. •Valid as Characidium summum Zanata & Ohara 2015. Current status: Valid as Characidium summum Zanata & Ohara 2015. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Upper rio Pacaás Novos, rio Madeira basin, Rondônia, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

surumuense, Characidium Steindachner [F.] 1915:202 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 52 (no. 17); ref. 15071] Rio Surumú, tributary of Rio Branco, at Serra do Mello, Brazil. Syntypes: (3) NMW. Species illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1915:34 [p. 20 of separate], Pl. 3 (fig. 3) [ref. 4244]; also in Steindachner 1917 [ref. 15259]. •Synonym of Characidium hasemani Steindachner 1915 -- (Buckup 1993:102 [ref. 20831], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:89 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Characidium hasemani Steindachner 1915. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

tapuia, Characidium Zanata [A. M.], Ramos [T. P. A.] & Oliveira-Silva [L.] 2018:78, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa 4514 (no. 1); ref. 36279] Creek tributary of rio Balsas, at the road between Loreto and Buritirana, Fazenda Fogoso, Loreto, Maranhão, Brazil, 06°59'34"S, 45°11'07"W, elevation 275 meters. Holotype: UFPB 11604. Paratypes: MZUSP, UFBA, UFPB, UFRN. •Valid as Characidium tapuia Zanata, Ramos & Oliveira-Silva 2018. Current status: Valid as Characidium tapuia Zanata, Ramos & Oliveira-Silva 2018. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Upper and middle portions of the rio Parnaíba basin, Maranhão and Piauí states, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

tenuis, Chorimycterus Cope [E. D.] 1894:67 [American Naturalist v. 28 (no. 325); ref. 966] Upper Rio Jacuhy [Jacuí], Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 21576. Paratypes: ANSP 21577 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:55 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Characidium tenuis (Cope 1894) -- (Malabarba 1989:132 [ref. 14217]). •Valid as Characidium tenue (Cope 1894) -- (Buckup 1993:102 [ref. 20831], Buckup & Reis 1997:543 [ref. 22903], Buckup & Hahn 2000:151 [ref. 24257], Zarske & Géry 2001:242 [ref. 25972], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:91 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:16 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:79 [ref. 28131], Leitão & Buckup 2014:21 [ref. 33323], Zanata & Camelier 2014:341 [ref. 33380], Litz & Koerber 2014:16 [ref. 33622], Casciotta et al. 2015:1 [ref. 33697], Melo & Oyakawa 2015:288 [ref. 33788], Zanata & Ohara 2015:375 [ref. 33970], Zanata & Camelier 2015:497 [ref. 33983], Mirande & Koerber 2015:27 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:414 [ref. 34561], Petry et al. 2016:301 [ref. 34966], Nión et al. 2016:27 [ref. 35565] with date 1878, Zanata et al. 2018:84 [ref. 36279]). Current status: Valid as Characidium tenue (Cope 1894). Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Uruguay River basin and Laguna dos Patos basin: Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

theageri, Characidium (Jobertina) Travassos [H.] 1952:22, Pls. 1, 3, 6-9 [Boletim do Museu Nacional Rio de Janeiro Zoologia No. 109; ref. 12720] Paissandu, Uruguay. Holotype: MNRJ 4661. Paratypes: MNRJ 4662 (1, allotype). •Valid as Jobertina theageri (Travassos 1952) -- (Malabarba 1989:136 [ref. 14217]). •Synonym of Characidium rachovii Regan 1913 -- (Buckup & Malabarba 1990:106 [ref. 16740], Buckup 1993:102 [ref. 20831], Buckup & Reis 1997:538 [ref. 22903], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:90 [ref. 27061], Casciotta et al. 2003:82 [ref. 28130], Litz & Koerber 2014:16 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:27 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Synonym of Characidium rachovii Regan 1913. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

timbuiensis, Characidium Travassos [H.] 1946:3, Pls. 1-4 [Summa Brasiliensis Biologiae. v. 1 (no. 5); ref. 12364] Córrego Valsungana, tributary of Rio Timbui, near Santa Tereza, Estado do Espíritu Santo, Brazil, elevation 785 meters. Holotype: MNRJ 4285. Paratypes: CAS 41291 [ex MNRJ 4305, 4309] (2), 61344 [ex MNRJ 4295, 4332] (4), 61345 [ex MNRJ 4555] (20); MNRJ 3778-79 (2), 3781 (1), 4144 (1, allotype), 4194 (20), 4284-344 (61, now 54); 4555-57 (126, 17, 34); USNM 133901 [ex MNRJ 4555] (8), 133902 [ex MNRJ 4290] (1), 133903 [ex MNRJ 4327] (1). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:12 [ref. 19022]. Combined with a neuter genus, the specific name becomes timbuiense. •Valid as Characidium timbuiense Travassos 1946 -- (Buckup 1993:102 [ref. 20831], Buckup et al. 2000:273 [ref. 25084], Zarske & Géry 2001:243 [ref. 25972], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:91 [ref. 27061], Lujan et al, 2013:456 [ref. 32922], Leitão & Buckup 2014:22 [ref. 33323], Zanata & Camelier 2014:341 [ref. 33380], Zanata & Ohara 2015:374 [ref. 33970], Zanata & Camelier 2015:497 [ref. 33983], Zanata et al. 2015:381 [ref. 34023] as aff. timbuiense, Zanata et al. 2018:84 [ref. 36279]). Current status: Valid as Characidium timbuiense Travassos 1946. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Timbuí River basin in Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

torbesensis, Characidium chupa Schultz [L. P.] 1944:286, Fig. 34 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 95 (no. 3181); ref. 3960] Río Torbes, 1 kilometer above Táriba, Orinoco drainage, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121415. Paratypes: MCZ 37238 [ex USNM 121416] (1); UMMZ 145034 [ex USNM 121416] (1); USNM 121416 (orig. 7, now 5). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:12 [ref. 19022]. Apparently not treated by Buckup in Reis et al. 2003 [ref. 27061]. •Synonym of Characidium chupa Schultz 1944 -- (Taphorn 1992:374 [ref. 23654], Buckup 1993:102 [ref. 20831]). Current status: Synonym of Characidium chupa Schultz 1944. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

travassosi, Characidium Melo [M. R. S.], Buckup [P. A.] & Oyakawa [O. T.] 2016:[2], Figs. 1, 3a-c [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 14 (no. 3) e160014; ref. 34807] Reserva do Iguaçu, rio das Torres, a small tributary of rio Jordão, 38 km southeast of Pinhão, rio Iguaçu basin, Paraná, Brazil, 25°48'28"S, 51°59'01"W. Holotype: MZUSP 85940. Paratypes: MCP, MNRJ, MZUSP. •Valid as Characidium travassosi Melo, Buckup & Oyakawa 2016. Current status: Valid as Characidium travassosi Melo, Buckup & Oyakawa 2016. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Mata Atlântica, Paraná State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

vestigipinne, Characidium Buckup [P. A.] & Hahn [L.] 2000:151, Fig. 1 [Copeia 2000 (no. 1); ref. 24257] Headwaters of rio Caraguatá, about 28°09'S, 52°18'W, about 200 meters from RS-135 highway, at Fazenda Dückel, Coxilla, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 20317. Paratypes: MCP 19558 (5), 19870 (8); MNRJ 16573 (8, 2 c&s). •Valid as Characidium vestigipinne Buckup & Hahn 2000 -- (Zarske & Géry 2001:245 [ref. 25972], Melo & Buckup 2002:992 [ref. 26508], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:91 [ref. 27061], Netto-Ferreira et al. 2013:366 [ref. 32717], Casciotta et al. 2015:1 [ref. 33697], Mendonça & Netto-Ferreira 2015:192 [ref. 33967], Zanata & Ohara 2015:373 [ref. 33970], Bertaco et al. 2016:414 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Characidium vestigipinne Buckup & Hahn 2000. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Headwaters of Caraguatá River, upper Uruguay River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

vidali, Characidium Travassos [H.] 1967:49, Figs. 3-4 [Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo v. 20 (art. 4); ref. 22298] Rio Soberbo, Barreira (Parque Nacional da Serra dos Orgãos), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, elevation 400 meters. Holotype: MNRJ 9757. Paratypes: MNRJ 9754-58 (5), 9763 (1). •Valid as Characidium vidali Travassos 1967 -- (Buckup 1993:101 [ref. 20831], Buckup et al. 2000:276 [ref. 25084], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:91 [ref. 27061], Lujan et al, 2013:456 [ref. 32922], Leitão & Buckup 2014:19 [ref. 33323], Zanata & Camelier 2014:341 [ref. 33380], Melo & Oyakawa 2015:288 [ref. 33788], Zanata & Ohara 2015:375 [ref. 33970], Zanata & Camelier 2015:497 [ref. 33983], Zanata et al. 2015:381 [ref. 34023], Zanata et al. 2018:84 [ref. 36279]). Current status: Valid as Characidium vidali Travassos 1967. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Northeastern tributaries of Guanabara Bay in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

vintoni, Characidium Eigenmann [C. H.] 1909:36 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 1222] Shrimp Creek, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 52756 [ex CM 1142]. Paratypes: (52, CM and IU) BMNH 1911.10.31.163-164 (2); CAS 60249 [ex IU 11674] (9, now 7, 2 c&s); FMNH 7312 (2), 69541 (11), 72628 (10); MCZ 29934 (2); CAS-SU 21909 (2), 21779 (2); USNM 288086 (orig. 2, now 1, c&s); ZMA 100258 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:56 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:23 [ref. 12291], Nijssen et al. 1982:16 [ref. 19236], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:22 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:12 [ref. 19022]. Named after a woman so mandatory change to vintonae (ICZN Art. 31.1.2). •Valid as Ammocryptocharax vintonae (Eigenmann 1909) -- (Buckup 1993:112 [ref. 20831], Buckup 1993:327 [ref. 26741], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:88 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Ammocryptocharax vintonae (Eigenmann 1909). Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Potaro River, Mazaruni River, and Uiaren River: Guyana and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

voladorita, Characidium Schultz [L. P.] 1944:280, Fig. 32 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 95 (no. 3181); ref. 3960] Río Motatán, 4 kilometers above Motatán, Maracaibo basin, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121407. Paratypes: MCZ [ex USNM 121412] (5); MNRJ [ex USNM 121408] (2); UMMZ 145031 [ex USNM 121412] (5); USNM 121408 (orig. 40, now 32), 121409-11 (15, 27, 3), 121412 (orig. 10, now 5), 121413 (26), 121414 (now 95); ZMA 100363 (4), 102115 (3). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:16 [ref. 19236], Vari & Howe 1991:12-13 [ref. 19022]. See Presswell et al. 2000:190 [ref. 24440]. •Valid as Characidium voladorita Schultz 1944 -- (Taphorn 1992:389 [ref. 23654], Galvis et al. 1997:31 [ref. 23651]). •Synonym of Characidium boavistae Steindachner 1915 -- (Buckup 1992:1068 [ref. 20321] as boaevistae, Buckup 1993:102 [ref. 20831] as boaevistae, Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:88 [ref. 27061] as boaevistae). Current status: Synonym of Characidium boavistae Steindachner 1915. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

weitzmani, Microcharacidium Buckup [P. A.] 1993:141, Fig. 18 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 20831] Small `caño' (Río Orinoco drainage), 67°46'N, 5°25'W, 2 kilometers south of Mirabel, Ature, Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-21796 [ex USNM 270221]. Paratypes: ANSP (1 lot, 14); FMNH 101561 (1); MBUCV (4 lots, 27); MCNG (1 lot, 17); UMMZ (3 lots, 12); USNM 270159 (6), 270212-13 (24, 20), 270221 (68), 288894 (10), 289580 (2, c&s), 289582 (2, c&s), 29000 (17). Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:12-13 [ref. 24196]. •Valid as Microcharacidium weitzmani Buckup 1993 -- (Buckup 1993:334 [ref. 26741], Chang & Ortega 1995:3 [ref. 24302], Zarske 1997:171 [ref. 23714], Géry & Römer 1997:70 [ref. 23712], Costa & Le Bail 1999:1028 [ref. 24187], Sarmiento et al. 2014:186 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:35 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Microcharacidium weitzmani Buckup 1993. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Orinoco River system: Venezuela, Bolivia and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

weitzmani, Poecilocharax Géry [J.] 1965:207, Pl. 18 (fig. 19); Figs. 10-11 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 46 (no. 3); ref. 1586] Igarapé Préto, along Upper Amazon, near Belem, about 60 kilometers below Leticia, Brazil. Holotype (unique): SMF 7332. •Valid as Poecilocharax weitzmani Géry 1965 -- (Géry 1970:18 [ref. 34971], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:93 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:34 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Poecilocharax weitzmani Géry 1965. Crenuchidae: Crenuchinae. Distribution: Upper Solimões, upper Negro, and upper Orinoco River basins: Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

xanthopterum, Characidium Silveira [L. G. G.], Langeani [F.], da Graça [W. J.], Pavanelli [C. S.] & Buckup [P. A.] 2008:170, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 29706] Mun. Caldas Novas, riacho outside of Parque Estadual de Caldas Novas, 17°46'09"S, 48°39'19"W, Goiás, Brazil. Holotype: DZSJRP 10474. Paratypes: many at DZSJRP, MNRJ, NUP. Plus additional non-type specimens. Type catalog: Andrade et al. 2017:437 [ref. 35588]. •Valid as Characidium xanthopterum Silveira, Langeani, da Graça, Pavanelli & Buckup 2008 -- (Leitão & Buckup 2014:15 [ref. 33323], Melo & Oyakawa 2015:288 [ref. 33788], Zanata & Ohara 2015:375 [ref. 33970]). Current status: Valid as Characidium xanthopterum Silveira, Langeani, da Graça, Pavanelli & Buckup 2008. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River basin (types) and upper Tocantins River basin (additional specimens), Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

xavante, Characidium da Graça [W. J.], Pavanelli [C. S.] & Buckup [P. A.] 2008:329, Figs. 4-5 [Copeia 2008 (no. 2); ref. 29629] Primavera do Leste, Córrego Xavante, on road from MT-130 to Culuene dam, upper Rio Xingú basin, 14°38'14"S, 53°55'38"W, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: LIRP 5285. Paratypes: MZUSP 87745 (20). •Valid as Characidium xavante da Graça, Pavanelli & Buckup 2008 -- (Peixoto & Wosiacki 2013:56 [ref. 32558], Netto-Ferreira et al. 2013:366 [ref. 32717], Leitão & Buckup 2014:22 [ref. 33323], Zanata & Camelier 2014:341 [ref. 33380], Melo & Oyakawa 2015:288 [ref. 33788], Mendonça & Netto-Ferreira 2015:192 [ref. 33967], Zanata & Ohara 2015:373 [ref. 33970], Zanata & Camelier 2015:497 [ref. 33983], Zanata et al. 2015:381 [ref. 34023], Melo & Espíndola 2016:566 [ref. 34928], Zanata et al. 2018:84 [ref. 36279]). Current status: Valid as Characidium xavante da Graça, Pavanelli & Buckup 2008. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Upper Xingú River basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

zebra, Characidium Eigenmann [C. H.] 1909:38 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 1222] Maripicru Creek, a branch of the Ireng River, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53547 [ex CM 1151]. Paratypes: (20, CM and IU) BMNH 1911.10.31.160 (1); CAS 60247-48 (2, 1); FMNH 7314 (1), 52760 (2), 52766 (4); MCZ 29935 (1); NMW 69263 (1); CAS-SU 21775 (1), 21910 (1); ZMA 100255 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:56 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:23 [ref. 12291], Nijssen et al. 1982:16 [ref. 19236], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:22 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Characidium zebra Eigenmann 1909 -- (Taphorn 1992:368 [ref. 23654] as cf zebra, Buckup 1992:1071 [ref. 20321], Buckup 1993:102 [ref. 20831], Buckup 1993:332 [ref. 26741], Buckup & Reis 1997:544 [ref. 22903], Castro & Casatti 1997:342 [ref. 23333], Casatti & Castro 1998:232 [ref. 23663], Britski et al. 1999:69 [ref. 24147] as aff. zebra, Buckup & Hahn 2000:151 [ref. 24257] as cf. zebra, Zarske & Géry 2001:242 [ref. 25972], Miquelarena et al. 2002:77 [ref. 26517] as cf. zebra, Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:91 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:16 [ref. 27366] as cf. zebra, Casciotta et al. 2003:80 [ref. 28130] as cf. zebra, Menni 2004:79 [ref. 28131] as cf. zebra, Taphorn et al. 2006:5 [ref. 28733], da Graça et al. 2008:329 [ref. 29629], Peixoto & Wosiacki 2013:56 [ref. 32558] as cf. zebra, Leitão & Buckup 2014:15 [ref. 33323], Zanata & Camelier 2014:341 [ref. 33380] as cf. zebra, Koerber & Litz 2014:2 [ref. 34967], Sarmiento et al. 2014:185 [ref. 35004], Ramos et al. 2014:3 [ref. 35321], Casciotta et al. 2015:1 [ref. 33697] as cf. zebra, Melo & Oyakawa 2015:288 [ref. 33788] as zebra and aff. zebra, Zanata & Ohara 2015:375 [ref. 33970] as cf. zebra, Zanata & Camelier 2015:497 [ref. 33983] as cf. zebra, Zanata et al. 2015:381, 382 [ref. 34023] as cf. zebra, Mirande & Koerber 2015:27 [ref. 35117] as cf. zebra, Melo et al. 2016:132 [ref. 34701], DoNascimiento 2016:529 [ref. 34727], Bertaco et al. 2016:415 [ref. 34561] as aff. zebra, Petry et al. 2016:301 [ref. 34966] as aff. zebra, Koerber & Litz 2016:3 [ref. 35098], Melo et al. 2016:374 [ref. 35317] as cf. zebra, Nión et al. 2016:27 [ref. 35565] as aff. zebra, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:35 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:85 [ref. 35773] as "gr." zebra, Zanata et al. 2018:84 [ref. 36279] as cf. zebra, Azevedo-Santos et al. 2019:5 [ref. 36506]). Current status: Valid as Characidium zebra Eigenmann 1909. Crenuchidae: Characidiinae. Distribution: Amazon and Essequibo River basins and coastal basins of Guiana Shield: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, French Guiana, Guyana, Uruguay, Venezuela and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.