Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 5 August 2019

SEARCH RESULTS FROM

Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
Select the database to search:
GENERA   SPECIES   REFERENCES
Include unavailable names

         Comments: ,

    Please look in Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes for authorships of sections, Families of Fishes (all), and related information.

Species in the family or subfamily Cyprinodontidae: [ 152 ] records


affinis, Orestias agassizii Garman [S.] 1895:152 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 19 (pt 1); ref. 1538] Lake Umayo, Peru. Syntypes: MCZ 27698 (18, now 14), USNM 120280 [ex MCZ] (4). •Synonym of Orestias agassii Valenciennes 1846 -- (Parenti 1984:182 [ref. 5359], Lazara 2001:233 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:551 [ref. 27061], Cruz-Jofré et al. 2013:598 [ref. 33015]). Current status: Synonym of Orestias agassii Valenciennes 1846. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

agassii, Orestias Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:238 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Río Corocoro, Peru; San Antonio, Peru. Syntypes: MNHN A-9601 (2) Río Corocoro, A-9602 (6) San Antonio. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:25 [ref. 19576]. As agassizii on p. xv and on list of plates, agassisii on Pl. 536, and as agassii on p. 238 and on p. 61 of vol. 22 (1849); agassizii is correctly formed for "L'Orestias d'Agassiz." If agassii and agassisii are regarded as typesetting errors, then use agassizii; if not, technically the first reviser apparently is Garman 1895 selecting agassizii but not mentioning the third spelling agassisii. I suppose we should use agassii (selected by Parenti 1994) although it conflicts with has actual name. •Valid as Orestias agassii Valenciennes 1846 -- (Parenti 1984:181 [ref. 5359], Ortega & Vari 1986:18 [ref. 9708], Pequeño 1989:50 [ref. 14125] as agassizi, Dyer 2000:85 [ref. 26678], Lazara 2001:233 [ref. 25711] as agassizii, Costa in Reis et al. 2003:550 [ref. 27061] as agassizii, Lüssen et al. 2004:59 [ref. 29603] as agassi and agassii, Vila 2006:475 [ref. 28797], Vila et al. 2012:352 [ref. 31748] as cf. agassii, Cruz-Jofré et al. 2013:598 [ref. 33015], Sarmiento et al. 2014:99, 187 [ref. 35004], Arratia et al. 2017:S2 [ref. 35512], Esmaeili et al. 2018:17 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias agassii Valenciennes 1846. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Peruvian lakes, eastern Bolivia, northern Chile and upper Amazon River basin: Bolivia, Chile and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

albivelis, Cyprinodon Minckley [W. L.] & Miller [R. R.] in Minckley, Miller & Norris 2002:697, Fig. 4 [Copeia 2002 (no. 3); ref. 26222] Río Papigóchic at Yepomera, 28°32'W, 107°29'N, Chihuahua, Mexico, elevation 2048 meters. Holotype: UMMZ 235040. Paratypes: ASU 806 (76), 9524 (16), 9938 (121); UANL 15049 [ex UMMZ 211597] (30); UMMZ 211597 (225), 211628 (237); UNAM 12923 [ex UMMZ 211597] (30). •Valid as Cyprinodon albivelis Minckley & Miller 2002 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:108 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:295 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:30 [ref. 30398], Minckley & Marsh 2009:234 [ref. 31114], Page et al. 2013:106 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:14 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:10 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon albivelis Minckley & Miller 2002. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Río Papigóchic, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

albus, Orestias Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:242 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Tributaries of Lake Titicaca. Syntypes: MNHN A-9607 (2), ZMB 3491 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:26 [ref. 19576], Paepke & Seegers 1986:170 [ref. 19981]. Appeared first in Valenciennes 1839:118 [ref. 17870] without distinguishing features. •Valid as Orestias albus Valenciennes 1846 -- (Parenti 1984:179 [ref. 5359], Ortega & Vari 1986:18 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:234 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:551 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004], Esmaeili et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36738]). •Valid as Orestias alba Valenciennes 1846 -- (Cruz-Jofré et al. 2013:598 [ref. 33015]) Current status: Valid as Orestias alba Valenciennes 1846. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Titicaca: Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

alvarezi, Cyprinodon Miller [R. R.] 1976:72, Fig. 1D [Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences v. 75 (no. 2); ref. 7032] Spring-fed pond at El Potosí, Nuevo León, Mexico, 24°51'N, 100°19'W, elevation 1900 meters. Holotype: UMMZ 179638. Paratypes: ENCB P.890 (27); UMMZ 179639 (314, now 299), 189021 (217, 8 c&s); USNM 217526 (1). •Valid as Cyprinodon alvarezi Miller 1976 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:32 [ref. 22290], Lozano-Vilano & Contreras Balderas 1993:307 [ref. 21105], Contreras-Balderas & Lozano-Vilano 1996:34 [ref. 22301], Echelle & Echelle 1998:854 [ref. 23614], Lozano-Vilano & Contreras-Balderas 1999:382 [ref. 23796], Lazara 2001:81 [ref. 25711], Lozano-Vilano 2002:21 [ref. 27832], Nelson et al. 2004:108 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:96 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:30 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:106 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:15 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:10 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon alvarezi Miller 1976. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: El Potosí, Mexico [extinct in the wild]. Habitat: freshwater.

amargosae, Cyprinodon nevadensis Miller [R. R.] 1948:28, Pl. 3 [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 68; ref. 13064] Amargosa River near Acme, San Bernardino County, California, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 141777. Paratypes: UMMZ 139006 (930), 139011 (1128); USNM 112068 [ex UMMZ 139006] (176). •Synonym of Cyprinodon nevadensis Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889, but a valid subspecies amargosae Miller 1948 as described -- (Lee et al. 1980:498 [ref. 22416], Swift et al. 1993:121 [ref. 22379], Lazara 2001:89 [ref. 25711], Moyle 2002:332 [ref. 26449], Scharpf 2007:32 [ref. 30398], Page & Burr 2011:458 [ref. 31215]). Current status: Synonym of Cyprinodon nevadensis Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Amargosa River, California [this subspecies]. Habitat: freshwater.

aporus, Megupsilon Miller [R. R.] & Walters [V.] 1972:5, Fig. 3 [Contributions in Science (Los Angeles) No. 233; ref. 3020] El Potosí, Nuevo León, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 189018. Paratypes: AMNH 38405 (10, 2 c&s); LACM 32147-1 (25), UCLA W68-21 (124), UMMZ 189017 (1), 189019 (1, allotype), 189020 (510, now 500, 2 c&s). Extinct in the wild -- (Lazara 2001:205 [ref. 25711]). •Valid as Megupsilon aporus Miller & Walters 1972 -- (Parenti 1981:530 [ref. 7066], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:37 [ref. 22290], Contreras-Balderas & Lozano-Vilano 1996:34 [ref. 22301], Lazara 2001:205 [ref. 25711], Nelson et al. 2004:109 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:317 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:34 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:108 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:30 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:17 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Megupsilon aporus Miller & Walters 1972. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Springs and outflows at El Potosí, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

arcuatus, Cyprinodon Minckley [W. L.] & Miller [R. R.] in Minckley, Miller & Norris 2002:699, Fig. 5 [Copeia 2002 (no. 3); ref. 26222] Pond fed by Monkey Spring, tributary to Santa Cruz River, (Gila River basin), 12 kilometers north-northeast of Patagonia, Santa Cruz County, Arizona, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 162700. Paratypes: AMNH 232395 [ex UMMZ 125050] (20); ASU 600 (96), 729 (82), 4672 (7); CAS 18561 (2), 214579 [ex UMMZ 125050] (20); UMMZ 125050 (223), 162701 (41); USNM 21315 (2), 44096 (1), 45441 (2), 130002 (54). •Valid as Cyprinodon arcuatus Minckley & Miller 2002 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:108 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:296 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:30 [ref. 30398], Minckley & Marsh 2009:236 [ref. 31114], Page & Burr 2011:458 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:106 [ref. 32708], Esmaeili et al. 2018:10 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon arcuatus Minckley & Miller 2002. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Arizona (U.S.A.) and possibly northern Mexico [extinct in the wild]. Habitat: freshwater.

artatus, Cyprinodon Hubbs [C. L.] This unpublished Hubbs' manuscript/museum name is mentioned in Minckley et al. 2002:703 [ref. 26222]. It is an unavailable name and should be forgotten. •In the synonymy of Cyprinodon pisteri Miller & Minckley 2002. Current status: Synonym of Cyprinodon pisteri Miller & Minckley 2002. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae.

artifrons, Cyprinodon variegatus Hubbs [C. L.] 1936:223, Pl. 6 (figs. 1-5) [Carnegie Institution of Washington Publications No. 457 (art. 17); ref. 2247] Small streams surrounding Progreso, Yucatán, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 102082. Paratypes: UMMZ 102083 (4), 102150 (57), 102162 (1), 102168 (8); USNM 117513 (2); ZMA 101006 (5). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:70 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Cyprinodon artifrons Hubbs 1936 -- (Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:103 [ref. 22947], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:224 [ref. 24550], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:154 [ref. 27754], Lazara 2001:82 [ref. 25711], Strecker 2002:301 [ref. 26655], Wiley & Ghedotti 2003:1160 [ref. 27020], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:549, 550 [ref. 27061], Smith et al. 2003:16 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:108 [ref. 27807], Strecker 2005:107 [ref. 28252], Miller 2006:297 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:30 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:106 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:16 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:10 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon artifrons Hubbs 1936. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Coastal areas of Yucatán Peninsula: Belize and Mexico. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

ascotanensis, Orestias Parenti [L. R.] 1984:196, Fig. 58 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 178 (art. 2); ref. 5359] Lago Ascotán, Chile. Holotype: USNM 236790. Paratypes: CAS 46160 [ex IU 16060] (46), 51471 [ex CAS 46160] (2, c&s); USNM 167744 (15). Additional material: FMNH 77384 (160); MNHN 1905-0186 thru 0188 (3); MCZ 58680 (8). •Synonym of Orestias agassii Valenciennes 1846 -- (Lüssen et al. 2004:59 [ref. 29603]). •Valid as Orestias ascotanensis Parenti 1984 -- (Pequeño 1997:82 [ref. 23536], Dyer 2000:85 [ref. 26678], Lazara 2001:234 [ref. 25711] as endangered, Costa in Reis et al. 2003:551 [ref. 27061], Vila 2006:475 [ref. 28797], Vila et al. 2012:352 [ref. 31748], Cruz-Jofré et al. 2015:747 [ref. 35413], Reis et al. 2016:17 [ref. 34496], Arratia et al. 2017:S2 [ref. 35512], Esmaeili et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias ascotanensis Parenti 1984. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Ascotán salt pan, Chilean Altiplano. Habitat: freshwater.

atrorus, Cyprinodon Miller [R. R.] 1968:7, Fig. 2 [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 659; ref. 7905] South of Cuatro Ciénegas, Coahuila, Mexico (specific locality unkown). Holotype: UMMZ 130380. Paratypes: MCZ 38004 [ex UMMZ 130391] (6); UMMZ 130381 (575, 5 c&s), 130391 (368). •Valid as Cyprinodon atrorus Miller 1968 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:32 [ref. 22290], Lozano-Vilano & Contreras-Balderas 1993:307 [ref. 21105], Echelle & Echelle 1998:855 [ref. 23614], Lazara 2001:82 [ref. 25711], Lozano-Vilano 2002:21 [ref. 27832], Nelson et al. 2004:108 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:298 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:31 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:107 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:16 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:10 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon atrorus Miller 1968. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Coahuila, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

baconi, Cyprinodon Breder [C. M., Jr.] 1932:1, Fig. 1 [American Museum Novitates No. 551; ref. 16362] Lake Forsyth, Andros Island, Bahamas. Holotype: AMNH 10107. Paratypes: (46) AMNH 14233 (8, 1 c&s). •Synonym of Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepède 1803, but a valid subspecies -- (Lee et al. 1983:54 [ref. 22527], Lazara 2001:95 [ref. 25711], Wiley & Ghedotti 2003:1160 [ref. 27020]). Current status: Synonym of Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepède 1803. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Bahamas. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

bairdii, Orestias Cope [E. D.] 1876:185 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 8 (pt 2, art. 7); ref. 18032] Lake Titicaca, Bolivia. Holotype: ANSP 21554. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:95 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Orestias pentlandii Valenciennes 1846 -- (Parenti 1984:168 [ref. 5359], Lazara 2001:240 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:553 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Orestias pentlandii Valenciennes 1846. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

barbouri, Floridichthys carpio Hubbs [C. L.] 1936:216, Pl. 4 (figs. 1-8) [Carnegie Institution of Washington Publications No. 457 (art. 17); ref. 2247] Cienaga, 2 kilometers southwest of Progreso, 21°15'N, 89°39'W, Yucatán, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 102167. Paratypes: UMMZ 102156 (3), 102166 (52); USNM 117530 [ex UMMZ 102156] (2). •Synonym of Floridichthys carpio (Günther 1866), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Parenti 1981:530 [ref. 7066]). •Synonym of Floridichthys polyommus Hubbs 1936 -- (Wildekamp 1996:140 [ref. 23649], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:225 [ref. 24550], Lazara 2001:119 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:550 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Floridichthys polyommus Hubbs 1936. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

beltrani, Cyprinodon Álvarez [J.] 1949:236, Fig. 1 [Revista de la Sociedad Mexicana de Historia Natural v. 10 (nos 1-4); ref. 12995] Lake Chichancanab, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Holotype: whereabouts unknown. Paratypes: (64 or 65) BMNH 1951.12.3.1-4 (4), UMMZ 160743 (6 or 7). •Valid as Cyprinodon beltrani Álvarez 1949 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:33 [ref. 22290], Lazara 2001:82 [ref. 25711], Strecker 2002:302 [ref. 26655], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:549 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:108 [ref. 27807], Strecker 2005:107 [ref. 28252], Miller 2006:298 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:30 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:107 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:17 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:10 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon beltrani Álvarez 1949. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Atlantic slope, Lake Chichancanab, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

bifasciatus, Cyprinodon Miller [R. R.] 1968:1, Fig. 1 [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 659; ref. 7905] Río Puente Colorado, about 11 kilometers south of Cuatro Ciénegas, Río Mesquites system, Coahuila, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 179835. Paratypes: FMNH 69520 (20); UMMZ 179836 (149. now 132), 177863 (100), 179197 (128), 179204 (178), 179212 (16), 179222 (130), 179830 (581), 179857 (53), 179879 (226), 181068 (88), 186303 (176); USNM 203255 (147). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:31 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Cyprinodon bifasciatus Miller 1968 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:33 [ref. 22290], Echelle & Echelle 1998:854 [ref. 23614], Lozano-Vilano & Contreras-Balderas 1999:385 [ref. 23796], Lazara 2001:82 [ref. 25711], Nelson et al. 2004:108 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:299 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:31 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:107 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:17 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon bifasciatus Miller 1968. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Thermal springs in Bolsón de Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

bobmilleri, Cyprinodon Lozano-Vilano [M. de L.] & Contreras-Balderas [S.] 1999:383, Figs. 1 A-B, 2 [Copeia 1999 (no. 2); ref. 23796] Manantial Baño de San Ignacio, near Linares, San Fernando basin, Nuevo León, Mexico. Holotype: UANL 11143. Paratypes :IPN P4635 (2); TNHC 24987 (2); TUMNH 183237 (2); UANL 6189 (40), 9030 (234), 11145 (93); UMMZ 233239 (2); USNM 345506 (2). •Valid as Cyprinodon bobmilleri Lozano-Vilano & Contreras-Balderas 1999 -- (Lazara 2001:82 [ref. 25711], Nelson et al. 2004:108 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:300 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:31 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:107 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:18 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon bobmilleri Lozano-Vilano & Contreras-Balderas 1999. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Manantial Baño de San Ignacio, Atlantic Slope of Mexico. Habitat: brackish.

bondi, Cyprinodon Myers [G. S.] 1935:303 [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 10 (no. 3); ref. 3110] Étang Saumâtre, Haiti, West Indies. Holotype: USNM 100960 [ex NYZS]. Paratypes: USNM 100961 (10), and numerous other paratypes (no depository listed). Type catalog: Mead 1958:132 [ref. 20648]. •Valid as Cyprinodon bondi Myers 1935 -- (Lee et al. 1983:52 [ref. 22527], Smith 1989:7 [ref. 20182], Lazara 2001:83 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:549 [ref. 27061], Esmaeili et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon bondi Myers 1935. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: River basins of Hispanola: Dominican Republic and Haiti. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

bonelli, Lebias Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1845:358 [Atti della Settima Adunanza degli Scienziati Italiani Sesta Riunione, Milano Pt. 1 (for 1844); ref. 26450] Cyprinodontidae.

bovinus, Cyprinodon Baird [S. F.] & Girard [C. F.] 1853:389 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 6; ref. 15636] Leon Springs, about 7 kilometers north of Fort Stockton, Rio Grande del Norte, Texas, U.S.A. Syntypes: MCZ 1297 [ex USNM] (3), MNHN 0000-0448 [ex USNM] (1), USNM 154785 (1). •Valid as Cyprinodon bovinus Baird & Girard 1853 -- (Lee et al. 1980:493 [ref. 22416], Echelle et al. 1987:668 [ref. 22451], Page & Burr 1991:227 [ref. 18983], Lazara 2001:83 [ref. 25711], Nelson et al. 2004:108 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:31 [ref. 30398], Page & Burr 2011:455 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:107 [ref. 32708], Esmaeili et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon bovinus Baird & Girard 1853. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Texas, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

brontotheroides, Cyprinodon Martin [C. H.] & Wainwright [P. C.] 2013:237, Figs. 2B, 3B, 4B [Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History v. 54 (no. 2); ref. 32978] San Salvador Island, Cresent Pond, 1 km SE of the Gerace Research Center, 24°06'45"N, 74°27'28"W, Bahamas. Holotype: YBM ICH 025878. Paratypes: AMNH 258813, CAS 235268, UMMZ 249831, YPM ICH 025879. Additional cleared and stained specimens obtained. •Valid as Cyprinodon brontotheroides Martin & Wainwright 2013 -- (Esmaeili et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon brontotheroides Martin & Wainwright 2013. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: San Salvador Island, Bahamas. Habitat: freshwater.

browni, Lucania Jordan [D. S.] & Richardson [R. E.] 1907:319, Fig. [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 33 (no. 1572); ref. 10642] Hot spring, 40 miles south of Calexico, Baja California. Holotype: USNM 57838. Paratypes: CAS-SU 20176 [not 20171 as published] (5). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:53 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Cyprinodon macularius Baird & Girard 1853 -- (Lazara 2001:88 [ref. 25711], Minckley & Marsh 2009:241 [ref. 31114]). Current status: Synonym of Cyprinodon macularius Baird & Girard 1853. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Habitat: freshwater.

calidae, Cyprinodon nevadensis Miller [R. R.] 1948:36 [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 68; ref. 13064] Outlet ditch of South Tecopa Hot Spring, 1/4-1/2 miles below spring source, Inyo County, Nevada, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 141778. Paratypes: UMMZ 139014 (orig. 145, now 144), 139015 (34, now 0); USNM 112076 [ex UMMZ 139015] (34). Now extinct -- (Lazara 2001:89 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Cyprinodon nevadensis Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889, but a valid subspecies calidae Miller 1948 as described -- (Lee et al. 1980:498 [ref. 22416], Swift et al. 1993:122 [ref. 22379], Lazara 2001:89 [ref. 25711], Moyle 2002:332 [ref. 26449], Scharpf 2007:32 [ref. 30398], Page & Burr 2011:458 [ref. 31215]). Current status: Synonym of Cyprinodon nevadensis Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Tecopa Hot Springs, Inyo County, California, U.S.A. [extinct]. Habitat: freshwater.

californiensis, Cyprinodon Girard [C. F.] 1859:157 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 11 (nos. 60-77); ref. 18087] Neighborhood of San Diego, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: ANSP 7220 (1), MCZ 1314 (1), MNHN 0000-0447 [ex USNM 311] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:95 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Cyprinodon macularius Baird & Girard 1853 -- (Lazara 2001:88 [ref. 25711], Minckley & Marsh 2009:241 [ref. 31114]). Current status: Synonym of Cyprinodon macularius Baird & Girard 1853. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Habitat: freshwater.

carpio, Cyprinodon Günther [A.] 1866:306 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 6; ref. 1983] America [U.S.A.] (exact locality unknown). Syntypes: BMNH 1855.9.19.821-825 (5). •Valid as Floridichthys carpio (Günther 1866) -- (Parenti 1981:530 [ref. 7066], Robins & Ray 1986:108 [ref. 23100], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:35 [ref. 22290], Wildekamp 1996:138 [ref. 23649], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:897 [ref. 23897], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:225 [ref. 24550], Lazara 2001:119 [ref. 25711], Nelson et al. 2004:109 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:30 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:108 [ref. 32708], Esmaeili et al. 2018:17 [ref. 36738], Robins et al. 2018:435 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Floridichthys carpio (Günther 1866). Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida and Mexico. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

ceciliae, Cyprinodon Lozano-Vilano [M. de L.] & Contreras-Balderas [S.] 1993:305, Figs. 3d, 4c [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 4 (no. 4); ref. 21105] Ojo de Agua la Presa, at San Juan de Avilés, 24°11'87"N, 100°04'34"W, Aramberri, Nuevo León, Mexico. Holotype: UANL 8287. Paratypes: AMNH 47837 (2); IBUNAM-P 3237 (2); IPN P4434 (2); TNHC 17462 (2); TU 157270 (2); UAIC 9350.1 (2); UANL 8288-90 (24, 19, 4); UMMZ 215483 (2); USNM 308114 (2). Type catalog: Contreras-Balderas et al. 1998:4 [ref. 23752]. Now extinct -- (Lazara 2001:83 [ref. 25711]). •Valid as Cyprinodon ceciliae Lozano-Vilano & Contreras-Balderas 1993 [now extinct] -- (Contreras-Balderas & Lozano-Vilano 1996:36 [ref. 22301], Echelle & Echelle 1998:854 [ref. 23614], Lozano-Vilano & Contreras-Balderas 1999:382 [ref. 23796], Lazara 2001:83 [ref. 25711], Lozano-Vilano 2002:22 [ref. 27832], Nelson et al. 2004:108 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:300 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:31 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:107 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:18 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon ceciliae Lozano-Vilano & Contreras-Balderas 1993. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Ojo de Agua La Presa spring, Mexico [extinct in the wild]. Habitat: freshwater.

chungarensis, Orestias Vila [I.] & Pinto [M.] 1987:234, Figs. 3-6 [Revue d'Hydrobiologie Tropicale v. 19 (nos 3-4) (for 1986); ref. 9096] Western littoral region of Lake Chungará, Chile. Holotype: MNHNC 11210. Paratypes: MNHNC 11211 (20). •Synonym of Orestias agassii Valenciennes 1846 -- (Lüssen et al. 2004:59 [ref. 29603]). •Valid as Orestias chungarensis Vila & Pinto 1987 -- (Pequeño 1989:50 [ref. 14125], Dyer 2000:85 [ref. 26678] dated 1986, Lazara 2001:235 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:551 [ref. 27061], Vila 2006:475 [ref. 28797], Vila et al. 2012:352 [ref. 31748], Arratia et al. 2017:S2 [ref. 35512], Esmaeili et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias chungarensis Vila & Pinto 1987. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Chungará, Chilean Altiplano. Habitat: freshwater.

crawfordi, Orestias Tchernavin [V. V.] 1944:226, Fig. 25 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London v. 114 (pts 1-2); ref. 13185] Taman Bay, northeastern side of Capachica Peninsula, Lake Titicaca, depth 36-38 meters. Syntypes: (3) BMNH 1944.6.6.154-158 (? now 2). •Valid as Orestias crawfordi Tchernavin 1944 -- (Parenti 1984:173 [ref. 5359], Ortega & Vari 1986:18 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:235 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:551 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004], Esmaeili et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias crawfordi Tchernavin 1944. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Titicaca, Peru and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

crequii, Orestias agassizi Pellegrin [J.] 1904:94 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 29; ref. 15192] Lake Titicaca. Syntypes: (6) MNHN 1905-0181 to 0183 (3). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:27 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Orestias agassii Valenciennes 1846 -- (Parenti 1984:182 [ref. 5359], Lazara 2001:234 [ref. 25711] as agassizii, Costa in Reis et al. 2003:551 [ref. 27061] as agassizii). Current status: Synonym of Orestias agassii Valenciennes 1846. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

ctenolepis, Orestias Parenti [L. R.] 1984:194, Fig. 57 A-B [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 178 (art. 2); ref. 5359] Headwaters of the Río Zapatilla, Río Camellaque, Chucuito Province, Peru. Holotype: AMNH 52179. Paratypes: AMNH 52180 (8). •Valid as Orestias ctenolepis Parenti 1984 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:18 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:235 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:551 [ref. 27061], Esmaeili et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias ctenolepis Parenti 1984. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Titicaca basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

cubensis, Fundulus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1903:222, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 1217] Pinar del Rio, Cuba. Holotype: CAS [ex IU 9667] missing. Paratypes: FMNH 14418 (1), USNM 126668 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:36 [ref. 12367]; Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:2 [ref. 35177]. •Valid as Cubanichthys cubensis (Eigenmann 1903) -- (Parenti 1981:520 [ref. 7066], Lee et al. 1983:55 [ref. 22527], Lazara 2001:75 [ref. 25711], Wiley & Ghedotti 2003:1160 [ref. 27020], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:549 [ref. 27061], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:2 [ref. 35177], Esmaeili et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cubanichthys cubensis (Eigenmann 1903). Cyprinodontidae: Cubanichthyinae. Distribution: River basins in Cuba and Isle of Pines. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

cuvieri, Orestias Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:225, Pl. 532 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Lake Titicaca, Peru. Syntypes: MNHN A-9593 (1), ZMB 3487 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:24 [ref. 19576], Paepke & Seegers 1986:170 [ref. 19981]. Appeared first in Valenciennes 1839:118 [ref. 17870] without distinguishing features. Extinct -- (Lazara 2001:235 [ref. 25711]). •Valid as Orestias cuvieri Valenciennes 1846 -- (Parenti 1984:167 [ref. 5359], Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:235 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:551 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004], Esmaeili et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias cuvieri Valenciennes 1846. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Titicaca: Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

cyaneostriga, Cyprinodon Ahl [E.] 1938:58 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 124 (no. 3-4); ref. 17128] Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. Holotype (unique): ZMB 21152. Type catalog: Paepke & Seegers 1986:148 [ref. 19981]. Types mentioned: Paepke 1995:94 [ref. 21847]. •Synonym of Cyprinodon dearborni Meek 1909 -- (Lazara 2001:83 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:549 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Cyprinodon dearborni Meek 1909. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Habitat: freshwater.

cypho, Orestias Fowler [H. W.] 1916:427, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 68; ref. 1394] La Paz, Bolivia (from a snake). Holotype (unique): ANSP 21920. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:95 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Orestias luteus Valenciennes 1846 -- (Parenti 1984:175 [ref. 5359], Lazara 2001:238 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:552 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Orestias lutea Valenciennes 1846. Current status: Synonym of Orestias lutea Valenciennes 1846. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

cyprinutus, Orestias Valenciennes [A.] in Paepke & Seegers 1986:171 [Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin v. 62 (no. 1); ref. 19981] Not available; name in museum catalog included in type catalog by Paepke & Seegers 1986:171 [ref. 19981]. •Nomen nudum -- (Lazara 2001:242 [ref. 25711]). Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae.

dearborni, Cyprinodon Meek [S. E.] 1909:208 [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 7 (no. 7); ref. 14388] Willemstad, Curaçao, Dutch West Indies. Holotype: FMNH 6484. Paratypes: FMNH 6485 (13, 1 c&s). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:31 [ref. 12367]. •Status uncertain -- (Lee et al. 1983:54 [ref. 22527]). •Valid as Cyprinodon dearborni Meek 1909 -- (Cervigón 1991:206 [ref. 24472], Aguilera 1998:47 [ref. 24221], Marín 2000:70 [ref. 26252], Lazara 2001:83 [ref. 25711], Wiley & Ghedotti 2003:1160 [ref. 27020], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:550 [ref. 27061], Esmaeili et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon dearborni Meek 1909. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Coastal habitats of northern South America: Colombia, Netherland Antilles and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

desquamator, Cyprinodon Martin [H. C.] & Wainwright [P. C.] 2013:233, Figs. 3A, 4A, 5A. [Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History v. 54 (no. 2); ref. 32978] San Salvador Island, Cresent Pond, 1 km SE of the Gerace Research Center, 24°06'45"N, 74°27'28"W, Bahamas. Holotype: YPM ICH 025880. Paratypes: AMNH 258812, CAS 235267, UMMZ 249830, YPB ICH O25881. Plus additional cleared and stained material. Name is a noun in apposition. •Valid as Cyprinodon desquamator Martin & Wainwright 2013 -- (Esmaeili et al. 2018:12 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon desquamator Martin & Wainwright 2013. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: San Salvador Island, Bahamas. Habitat: freshwater.

diabolis, Cyprinodon Wales [J. H.] 1930:68 [Copeia 1930 (no. 3); ref. 16238] Devils Hole, Ash Meadows, Nevada, U.S.A. Holotype: CAS-SU 23928. Paratypes: CAS-SU 23929 (8), UMMZ 95025 (6), USNM 94266 (42). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:53 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Cyprinodon diabolis Wales 1930 -- (Lee et al. 1980:494 [ref. 22416], Page & Burr 1991:230 [ref. 18983], La Rivers 1994:507 [ref. 23389], Fuller et al. 1999:325 [ref. 25838], Lazara 2001:84 [ref. 25711], Minckley et al. 2002:691 [ref. 26222], Nelson et al. 2004:108 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:31 [ref. 30398], Page & Burr 2011:460 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:107 [ref. 32708], Esmaeili et al. 2018:12 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon diabolis Wales 1930. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Devils Hole, Ash Meadows, Nye County, Nevada, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

dimidiatus, Cyprinodon Poey [F.] 2000:722, Pl. 410 (fig. 6) [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1-3; ref. 26366] Not available; not explicitly proposed as new [see Art. 16.1 of the Code]. Posthumous publication. Figured specimen listed as type. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae.

elegans, Cyprinodon Baird [S. F.] & Girard [C. F.] 1853:389 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 6; ref. 15636] Camanche Springs, Rio Grande del Norte, Texas, U.S.A. Syntypes: ANSP 7222 (1); BMNH 1883.12.14.198 [ex USNM] (1); MCZ 1299 (3), 1473 (2), 36009 [ex USNM 21321] (1); MNHN 0000-0450 [ex USNM 686] (1); UMMZ 56903 [ex USNM 686, old UMMZ 4047] (1); USNM 21320 [orig. 686] (1), 21321 [orig. 687] (18). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:95 [ref. 13621]; type information: Suttkus & Williams 2008:20 [ref. 30361]. •Valid as Cyprinodon elegans Baird & Girard 1853 -- (Lee et al. 1980:495 [ref. 22416], Echelle et al. 1987:668 [ref. 22451], Page & Burr 1991:227 [ref. 18983], Echelle & Echelle 1998:854 [ref. 23614], Lazara 2001:84 [ref. 25711], Nelson et al. 2004:108 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:31 [ref. 30398], Page & Burr 2011:456 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:107 [ref. 32708], Esmaeili et al. 2018:12 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon elegans Baird & Girard 1853. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Texas, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

elegans, Orestias Garman [S.] 1895:149 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 19 (pt 1); ref. 1538] Small lakes among headwaters of Río Rimac, Peru. Syntypes: BMNH 1939.7.17.3 [ex MCZ 27694] (1), MCZ 27694 (10). •Valid as Orestias elegans Garman 1895 -- (Parenti 1984:188 [ref. 5359], Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:235 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:551 [ref. 27061], Reis et al. 2016:17 [ref. 34496], Esmaeili et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias elegans Garman 1895. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Santa Eulalia River, Pacific slope of Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

ellipsoidea, Lebia Lesueur [C. A.] 1821:6, Pl. 2 (figs. 1-3) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 2736] Eastern Florida, U.S.A. No types known. Lesueur specimens: MNHN B-0909 (6). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:15 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepède 1803 -- (Lazara 2001:94 [ref. 25711]). Current status: Synonym of Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepède 1803. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

empyraeus, Orestias Allen [W. R.] in Eigenmann & Allen 1942:367, Pl. 20 (fig. 2) [Fishes of western South America; ref. 1246] Lago Junin, Peru. Holotype: CAS 44195 [ex IU 15238]. Paratypes: [orig. IU 15232-46 and 15248, now CAS]. CAS 44196-02 (10, 6, 66, 83, 8, 48, 23), 46155 (17), 46163 (35), 46356 (54), 48248 (50); INHS 44914 [ex IU 15239] (18), 44915 [ex IU 15238] (7); UMMZ 179288 [ex IU 15232] (4), 179289 [ex IU 15236] (24). Type mentioned in text as 120 mm from Lake Chinchaycocha, IU 15238. •Valid as Orestias empyraeus Allen 1942 -- (Parenti 1984:185 [ref. 5359], Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:236 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:551 [ref. 27061], Esmaeili et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias empyraeus Allen 1942. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Junin and upper Amazon River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

eremus, Cyprinodon macularius Miller [R. R.] & Fuiman [L. A.] 1987:596, Figs. 3-4 [Copeia 1987 (no. 3); ref. 9180] Spring-fed pond, Quitobaquito, Organ Pipe Cactus Natl. Monument, Pima County, Arizona, U.S.A., elevation 332 meters. Holotype: UMMZ 162661. Paratypes: AMNH 57133 (10); ANSP 158520 (10); FMNH 97069 (10); SIO 59-43 (27); UMMZ 162662 (386), 211156 (4); USNM 279473 (10). •Synonym of Cyprinodon macularius Baird & Girard 1853 but a valid subspecies as described -- (Douglas et al. 2001:141 [ref. 25435]). •Valid as Cyprinodon eremus Miller & Fuiman 1987 -- (Lazara 2001:84 [ref. 25711], Minckley et al. 2002:691 [ref. 26222], Nelson et al. 2004:108 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:301 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:31 [ref. 30398], Minckley & Marsh 2009:234 [ref. 31114], Page & Burr 2011:458 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:107 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:19 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:12 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon eremus Miller & Fuiman 1987. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Border area between Arizona, U.S.A. and northern Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

esconditus, Cyprinodon Strecker [U.] 2002:302, Figs. 3-4 [Cybium v. 26 (no. 4); ref. 26655] Southern end of Laguna Chichancanab at its broadest part, 19°51'10"N, 88°45'58"W, Yucatan Peninsula, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Holotype: IBUNAM-9488. Paratypes: ECO-CH 4766-67 (1, 1); ZMH 23905-27 (1 ea.), 23929-41 (1 ea.); UMMZ 201752 (1). •Valid as Cyprinodon esconditus Strecker 2002 -- (Costa in Reis et al. 2003:550 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:108 [ref. 27807], Strecker 2005:107 [ref. 28252], Miller 2006:302 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:30 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:107 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:19 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:12 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon esconditus Strecker 2002. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Lake Chichancanab, Mexico. Habitat: marine.

eximius, Cyprinodon Girard [C. F.] 1859:158 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 11 (nos. 60-77); ref. 18087] Río Chihuahua [= Río Chuviscar at Chihuahua City], Mexico. Syntypes: ANSP 7223 (1), MCZ 1308 [ex USNM] (1), MNHN 0000-0452 [ex USNM] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:96 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Cyprinodon eximius Girard 1859 -- (Lee et al. 1980:496 [ref. 22416], Minckley & Minckley 1986:188 [ref. 8066], Page & Burr 1991:230 [ref. 18983], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:33 [ref. 22290], Lozano-Vilano & Contreras-Balderas 1993:307 [ref. 21105], Echelle & Echelle 1998:854 [ref. 23614], Lazara 2001:85 [ref. 25711], Lozano-Vilano 2002:21 [ref. 27832], Nelson et al. 2004:108 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:302 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:32 [ref. 30398], De la Maza-Benignos & Vela-Valladares 2009:185 [ref. 30539], Page & Burr 2011:460 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:107 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:20 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:12 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon eximius Girard 1859. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Texas (U.S.A.) and northern Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

farfani, Orestias Parenti [L. R.] 1984:178, Fig. 42 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 178 (art. 2); ref. 5359] Near the village of Vilurcuni, Lake Pequeño, Lake Titicaca, Peru, depth 1-2 meters. Holotype: AMNH 52143. Additional material: CAS-SU 9283 (1), 69066 (1). •Valid as Orestias farfani Parenti 1984 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:236 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Orestias luteus Valenciennes 1846 -- (Costa in Reis et al. 2003:552 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Orestias lutea (Valenciennes 1846). Current status: Synonym of Orestias lutea Valenciennes 1846. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

felicianus, Trifarcius Poey [F.] 1868:412 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 6402 (3), 6410 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:177 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepède 1803, subspecies riverendi (Poey 1860) -- (Lazara 2001:95 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Cyprinodon riverendi (Poey 1860) -- (Lee et al. 1983:54 [ref. 22527], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:550 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Cyprinodon riverendi (Poey 1860). Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Habitat: freshwater.

floridae, Jordanella Goode [G. B.] & Bean [B. A.] in Goode 1879:117 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 2 (no. 73); ref. 1836] Lake Monroe, Florida, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 18062 [= 22903] (3). •Valid as Jordanella floridae Goode & Bean 1879 -- (Lee et al. 1980:532 [ref. 22416], Parenti 1981:528 [ref. 7066], Page & Burr 1991:230 [ref. 18983], Murphy & Collier 1997:797 [ref. 25585], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:899 [ref. 23897], Fuller et al. 1999:331 [ref. 25838], Lazara 2001:173 [ref. 25711], Nelson et al. 2004:109 [ref. 27807], Hoese 2006:745 [ref. 28998], Scharpf 2007:34 [ref. 30398], Page & Burr 2011:460 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:108 [ref. 32708], Robins et al. 2018:224 [ref. 35886], Esmaeili et al. 2018:17 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Jordanella floridae Goode & Bean 1879. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Florida, U.S.A.; introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

fontinalis, Cyprinodon Smith [M. L.] & Miller [R. R.] 1980:405, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 93 (no. 2); ref. 8663] About 36 kilometers west of Villa Ahumada (30°35'N, 106°51'W), Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 204189. Paratypes: FMNH 83893 (15); UMMZ 203022 (613), 204190-94 (36, 28, 105, 53, 68); USNM 220601 (15). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:31 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Cyprinodon fontinalis Smith & Miller 1980 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:33 [ref. 22290], Lazara 2001:85 [ref. 25711], Minckley et al. 2002:691 [ref. 26222], Nelson et al. 2004:108 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:303 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:32 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:107 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:20 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:12 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon fontinalis Smith & Miller 1980. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Bolsón de los Muertos, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

forgeti, Orestias Lauzanne [L.] 1981:79, Fig. 5 [Cybium 3e série. Bulletin de la Société Française d'Ichtyologie v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 8579] Tiquina, Lake Titicaca, Bolivia. Holotype: MNHN 1981-0603. Paratypes: MNHN 1981-0604 (40). •Valid as Orestias forgeti Lauzanne 1981 -- (Parenti 1984:170 [ref. 5359], Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:236 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:551 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004], Esmaeili et al. 2018:19 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias forgeti Lauzanne 1981. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Titicaca: Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

frontosus, Orestias Cope [E. D.] 1876:187 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 8 (pt 2, art. 7); ref. 18032] Lake Titicaca, Bolivia. Syntypes: ANSP 21555-56 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:96 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Orestias frontosus Cope 1876 -- (Parenti 1984:186 [ref. 5359], Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:236 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:551 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004], Esmaeili et al. 2018:19 [ref. 36738]). •Valid as Orestias frontosa Cope 1876 -- (Cruz-Jofré et al. 2013:598 [ref. 33015]). Current status: Valid as Orestias frontosa Cope 1876. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Titicaca: Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

fuscus, Orestias pentlandii var. Garman [S.] 1895:148 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 19 (pt 1); ref. 1538] Cuzco Valley, Peru. No types known. No types found, for a variety found in the Cuzco Valley; no distinguishing features provided (Parenti 1984:209 [ref. 5359]). Two differentiating features in original description make name available (Lazara 2001:236 [ref. 25711]). •Perhaps valid as Orestias fuscus Garman 1895 -- (Lazara 2001:236 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Orestias pentlandii Valenciennes 1846 -- (Costa in Reis et al. 2003:553 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Orestias pentlandii Valenciennes 1846. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

gibbosus, Cyprinodon Baird [S. F.] & Girard [C. F.] 1853:390 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 6; ref. 15636] Indianola, Texas, U.S.A. Syntypes: ANSP 7221 (1), MCZ 1294 (4), MNHN 0000-0449 [ex USNM 684] (2). •Synonym of Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepède 1803 -- (Lazara 2001:94 [ref. 25711], Suttkus & Williams 2008:20 [ref. 30361]). Current status: Synonym of Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepède 1803. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

gilsoni, Orestias Tchernavin [V. V.] 1944:217, Figs. 20 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London v. 114 (pts 1-2); ref. 13185] Taquiri Island, Lago Pequeño, southeastern Lake Titicaca, Bolivia, depth 2.7-2.8 meters. Lectotype: BMNH 1944.6.6.524. Paralectotypes: (12) BMNH 1944.6.6.525 (1), 1944.6.6.526-530 (5), 1944.6.6.531 (1); USNM 133140 [ex BMNH 1944.6.6.526-530] (5). Lectotype established in Parenti 1984:201 [ref. 5389]. •Valid as Orestias gilsoni Tchernavin 1944 -- (Parenti 1984:201 [ref. 5359], Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:236 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:551 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004], Esmaeili et al. 2018:19 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias gilsoni Tchernavin 1944. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Titicaca basin, Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

gloriae, Orestias Vila [I.], Scott [S.], Mendez [M. A.], Valenzuela [F.], Iturra [P.] & Poulin [E.] 2012:347, Figs. 2-4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 22 (no. 4); ref. 31748] Springs of Carcote saltpan, 21°16'58.6"S, 68°19'28.4"W, Loa Province, Chile, elevation 3706 meters. Holotype: MNHNC 7424. Paratypes: LLFS-UCH 2006 (10 +7); MNHNC 7425 (1), 7426 (1). •Valid as Orestias gloriae Vila, Scott, Mendez, Valenzuela, Iturra & Poulin 2012 -- (Reis et al. 2016:17 [ref. 34496], Reis et al. 2016:17 [ref. 34496], Arratia et al. 2017:S2 [ref. 35512] dated 2011, Esmaeili et al. 2018:19 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias gloriae Vila, Scott, Mendez, Valenzuela, Iturra & Poulin 2012. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Carcote saltpan springs, Loa Province, Chilean Altiplano. Habitat: freshwater.

gracilis, Orestias Parenti [L. R.] 1984:172, Fig. 37 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 178 (art. 2); ref. 5359] Northeastern side of Lago Pequeño, village of Huatajata, Lake Titicaca, Bolivia. Holotype: AMNH 52120. Paratypes: AMNH 52121 (3, 1 c&s). Additional material: AMNH 52122-23 (5, 1). •Valid as Orestias gracilis Parenti 1984 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:237 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:551 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004], Esmaeili et al. 2018:19 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias gracilis Parenti 1984. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Titicaca: Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

gymnotus, Orestias Parenti [L. R.] 1984:192, Fig. 55 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 178 (art. 2); ref. 5359] Near Quishuarcancha, northwest of Cerro de Pasco, Pasco Province, northern Peru, elevation about 4062 meters. Holotype: CAS 40700 [ex IU 16102]. Paratypes: CAS 51309 (35, 3 c&s), 51472 [ex CAS 51309] (3, c&s). Additional material: CAS 40768 (37), 48257 (73), 51310 (3); FMNH 77905 (122). •Valid as Orestias gymnotus Parenti 1984 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:237 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:552 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Orestias gymnota Parenti 1944 -- (Cruz-Jofré et al. 2013:598 [ref. 33015], Esmaeili et al. 2018:19 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias gymnota Parenti 1984. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

hardini, Orestias Parenti [L. R.] 1984:193, Fig. 56 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 178 (art. 2); ref. 5359] Lago Yanacocha, about 10°S, 77°15'W, Peru. Holotype: AMNH 52178 [ex AMNH 38415]. Paratypes: AMNH 38411 (4), 38415 (4, 1 c&s). •Valid as Orestias hardini Parenti 1984 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:237 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:552 [ref. 27061], Esmaeili et al. 2018:19 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias hardini Parenti 1984. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Yancococha and Llacsha lakes, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

higuey, Cyprinodon Rodriguez [C. M.] & Smith [M. L.] in Smith, Rodriguez & Lydeard 1990:3, Figs. 2-4 [American Museum Novitates No. 2990; ref. 20085] Laguna de Bávaro at village of Cabeza de Toro, Altagracia Province, Dominican Republic. Holotype: AMNH 58623. Paratypes: AMNH 58624 (11 or 10, 4 c&s), 58625 (49), UF 80375 (10), UMMZ 216033 (10). •Valid as Cyprinodon higuey Rodriguez & Smith 1990 -- (Lazara 2001:85 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:550 [ref. 27061], Esmaeili et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon higuey Rodriguez & Smith 1990. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Coastal habitats in eastern Hispanola: Dominican Republic. Habitat: freshwater.

hubbsi, Cyprinodon Carr [A. F., Jr.] 1936:160 [Copeia 1936 (no. 3); ref. 17973] Southwestern shore, Lake Eustis, Lake County, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 137335. Paratypes: UMMZ 137336 (1, allotype), 13737-38 (15, 11), ?UMMZ (20); UF 177 (7), 543 (14), 1785 (16), UF [ex FSU 6934] (11). Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:112 [ref. 21035]. •Valid as Cyprinodon hubbsi Carr 1936 -- (Lazara 2001:86 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepède 1803, but a valid subspecies hubbsi Carr 1936 -- (Lee et al. 1980:504 [ref. 22416], Lee et al. 1983:54 [ref. 22527], Scharpf 2007:33 [ref. 30398], Page & Burr 2011:454 [ref. 31215] with comments, Martin & Wainwright 2013:231 [ref. 32978]). Current status: Synonym of Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepède 1803. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Florida, U.S.A. [subspecies hubbsi when treated as valid]. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

humboldti, Orestias Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:534 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Lake Titicaca. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2670 (3), 0000-5829 (11), A-9595 to 9598 (3, 2, 4, 1); ZMB 3489 (2). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:24-25 [ref. 19576], Paepke & Seegers 1986:170 [ref. 19981]. Appeared first as humboldtii in Valenciennes 1839:118 [ref. 17870] without distinguishing features. •Synonym of Orestias cuvieri Valenciennes 1846 -- (Parenti 1984:167 [ref. 5359], Lazara 2001:235 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:551 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Orestias cuvieri Valenciennes 1846. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

imarpe, Orestias Parenti [L. R.] 1984:205, Fig. 70 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 178 (art. 2); ref. 5359] Near village of Ojjerani, between Puno and Chucuito, Bahia de Puno, Lake Titicaca, Peru. Holotype: AMNH 52184. Paratypes: AMNH 52185 (5, 1 c&s). Additional material: AMNH 52186-87 (4, 1), BMNH 1982.12.6:35-36 (2). •Valid as Orestias imarpe Parenti 1984 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:237 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:552 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004], Esmaeili et al. 2018:20 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias imarpe Parenti 1984. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Titicaca: Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

incae, Orestias Garman [S.] 1895:155, Pl. 3 (fig. 9) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 19 (pt 1); ref. 1538] Bahía de Moho, Lake Titicaca, Peru. Syntypes: BMNH 1939.7.17.2 [ex MCZ 3948] (1), MCZ 3948 (17), USNM 120281 [ex MCZ 3948] (4). •Valid as Orestias incae Garman 1895 -- (Parenti 1984:174 [ref. 5359], Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:237 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:552 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004], Esmaeili et al. 2018:20 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias incae Garman 1895. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Titicaca: Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

inmemoriam, Cyprinodon Lozano-Vilano [M. de L.] & Contreras-Balderas [S.] 1993:299, Fig. 3b [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 4 (no. 4); ref. 21105] Ojo la Trinidad, 24°06.3'N, 100°03.3'W, interior basin of Llanos de Salas, Aramberri, Nuevo León, Mexico. Holotype (unique): UANL 8279. Type catalog: Contreras-Balderas et al. 1998:4 [ref. 23752]. Now extinct -- (Contreras-Balderas & Lozano-Vilano 1996:34 [ref. 22301], Lazara 2001:86 [ref. 25711]). •Valid as Cyprinodon inmemoriam Lozano-Vilano & Contreras-Balderas 1993 -- (Lozano-Vilano & Contreras-Balderas 1999:382 [ref. 23796], Lazara 2001:86 [ref. 25711], Lozano-Vilano 2002:21 [ref. 27832], Nelson et al. 2004:108 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:303 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:32 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:107 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:21 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon inmemoriam Lozano-Vilano & Contreras-Balderas 1993. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Ojo de Agua La Trinidad, Mexico [extinct]. Habitat: freshwater.

inornata, Orestias agassizi var. Pellegrin [J.] 1904:93 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 29; ref. 15192] South America. Syntypes: (14) MNHN 1905-0166 to 0168 (3) Lake Titicaca, 1905-0169 and 0170 (2) Lake Poopo, Bolivia. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:26 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Orestias agassii Valenciennes 1846 -- (Parenti 1984:182 [ref. 5359], Lazara 2001:234 [ref. 25711] as agassizii, Costa in Reis et al. 2003:551 [ref. 27061] as agassizii). Current status: Synonym of Orestias agassii Valenciennes 1846. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

integer, Cyprinodon Poey [F.] 2000:722, Pl. 410 (fig. 5) [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1-3; ref. 26366] Not available; not explicitly proposed as new [see Art. 16.1 of the Code]. Posthumous publication. Figured specimen listed as type. Cyprinodontidae.

ispi, Orestias Lauzanne [L.] 1981:73, Fig. 3 [Cybium 3e série. Bulletin de la Société Française d'Ichtyologie v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 8579] Tiquina, Lake Titicaca, Bolivia. Holotype: MNHN 1981-0605. Paratypes: MNHN 1981-0606 (40). •Valid as Orestias ispi Lauzanne 1981 -- (Parenti 1984:169 [ref. 5359], Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:237 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:552 [ref. 27061], Lüssen et al. 2004:59 [ref. 29603], Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004], Esmaeili et al. 2018:20 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias ispi Lauzanne 1981. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Titicaca: Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

ispia, Orestias Valenciennes [A.] in Paepke & Seegers 1986:171 [Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin v. 62 (no. 1); ref. 19981] Not available; name in museum catalog included in type catalog by Paepke & Seegers as above. •Nomen nudum -- (Lazara 2001:242 [ref. 25711]). Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae.

jamaicensis, Cyprinodon Fowler [H. W.] 1939:1, Figs. 1-2 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 35; ref. 1431] Jamaica. Holotype: ANSP 68630. Paratypes: ANSP 68631 (1, missing). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:96 [ref. 13621]. •Status uncertain -- (Lee et al. 1983:54 [ref. 22527]). •Synonym of Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepède 1803, subspecies riverendi (Poey 1860) -- (Lazara 2001:95 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Cyprinodon riverendi (Poey 1860) -- (Costa in Reis et al. 2003:550 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Cyprinodon riverendi (Poey 1860). Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Habitat: freshwater.

julimes, Cyprinodon De la Maza-Benignos [M.] & Vela-Valladares [L.] in De la Maza-Benignos 2009:185 [Apéndice D] [Los Peces del Río Conchos; ref. 30589] Thermal Spring, "El Pandeño de los Pando", Rio Conchos Basin, Municipality of Julimes, Chihuahua, Mexico. Holotype: UANL 18721. Paratypes: TNHC 18210 (39), UMMZ 248729 (2), UTA 39729 (2), USNM 391634 (2). Dean Hendrickson (email 12/12/09) is researching if copies of the book were actually available in 2009 and if TNHC specimenns are paratypes. •Valid as Cyprinodon julimes De la Maza-Benignos & Vela-Valladares 2009 -- (Page et al. 2013:107 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:21 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon julimes De la Maza-Benignos & Vela-Valladares 2009. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Thermal spring, Rio Conchos Basin, Chihuahua, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

jussiei, Orestias Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:235, Pl. 535 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Lake Titicaca; Río Guaracona; Lake Chinchoro, near Cuzco, Peru. Syntypes: MNHN A-9599 (3), A-9600 (3). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:25 [ref. 19576]. •Valid as Orestias jussiei Valenciennes 1846 -- (Parenti 1984:189 [ref. 5359], Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:237 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:552 [ref. 27061], Esmaeili et al. 2018:20 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias jussiei Valenciennes 1846. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

labiosus, Cyprinodon Humphries [J. M.] & Miller [R. R.] 1981:55, Figs. 3C, 4A, 5C [Copeia 1981 (no. 1); ref. 8587] Laguna Chichancanab, in lagoon at southern end on northern side of highway 184, Yucatán, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 203907. Paratypes: TU 111575 (6); UMMZ 196546 (64, 5 c&s), 201734 (3), 201749 (77), 201755 (16), 201760 (37, 5 c&s), 203815 (1), 203908 (1, allotype); USNM 220012 (4); plus 3 sent to Mexican Government. Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:51 [ref. 20906]. Also appeared in Humphries & Miller 1981:134 [ref. 8588]. •Valid as Cyprinodon labiosus Humphries & Miller 1981 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:33 [ref. 22290], Lazara 2001:86 [ref. 25711], Strecker 2002:302 [ref. 26655], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:550 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:108 [ref. 27807], Strecker 2005:107 [ref. 28252], Miller 2006:304 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:30 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:107 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:22 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon labiosus Humphries & Miller 1981. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Lake Chichancanab, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

laciniatus, Cyprinodon Hubbs [C. L.] & Miller [R. R.] 1942:5, Figs. 1A, C, E; Pl. 1 [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 458; ref. 10893] Lake Cunningham, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Holotype: UMMZ 134565. Paratypes: BMNH 1954.3.27.1-4 [ex UMMZ 72185] (4); UMMZ 72185 (4, now 0), 135464 (24), 134566 (17). •Valid as Cyprinodon laciniatus Hubbs & Miller 1942 -- (Lee et al. 1983:53 [ref. 22527], Smith 1989:6 [ref. 20182], Lazara 2001:86 [ref. 25711], Wiley & Ghedotti 2003:1160 [ref. 27020], Esmaeili et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon laciniatus Hubbs & Miller 1942. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Bahamas. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

langui, Orestias Tchernavin [V. V.] 1944:192, Figs. 13a-c [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London v. 114 (pts 1-2); ref. 13185] Vila de Langiu, Río Urubamba streams, Peru. Syntypes: BMNH 1944.6.6.152-156 (5). •Synonym of Orestias agassii Valenciennes 1846 -- (Parenti 1984:182 [ref. 5359], Lazara 2001:234 [ref. 25711] as agassizii, Costa in Reis et al. 2003:551 [ref. 27061] as agassizii). Current status: Synonym of Orestias agassii Valenciennes 1846. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

lastarriae, Oriastes Philippi [R. A.] 1876:261 [Anales de la Universidad de Chile 48 (sec. 1); ref. 12724] Lakes east of Lima, Peru, depth 4500 meters. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. Original genus should have been Orestias; named for a man so specific name should be changed to lastarriai. •Senior synonym of Orestias elegans Garman 1895 and probably a junior synonym of Orestias agassizii Valenciennes 1846 -- (Huber 2000:49 [ref. 24475] retaining the spelling lastarriae). •Valid as Orestias lastarriae Philippi 1876 -- (Lazara 2001:238 [ref. 25711], Esmaeili et al. 2018:20 [ref. 36738]). •Species inquirenda in Orestias -- (Costa in Reis et al. 2003:550 [ref. 27061]). Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

latifasciatus, Cyprinodon Garman [S.] 1881:92 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 1530] Spring near Parras, Coahuila, Mexico. Lectotype: MCZ 37995 [ex MCZ 24884]. Paralectotypes: MCZ 24883 (2), 24884 (now 9), 37995 (1); SMNS 3035 (1); UMMZ 163091 [ex MCZ 24884] (2); USNM 120254 [ex MCZ 24884] (4), 163091 [ex MCZ 24884] (2). Type catalog: Fricke 1995:12 [ref. 28100], Fricke 2005:34 [ref. 29864] Lectotype designation not researched, not designated here. Now extinct -- (Lazara 2001:86 [ref. 25711]). •Valid as Cyprinodon latifasciatus Garman 1881 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:33 [ref. 22290], Lozano-Vilano & Contreras-Balderas 1993:307 [ref. 21105], Lazara 2001:86 [ref. 25711], Lozano-Vilano 2002:21 [ref. 27832], Nelson et al. 2004:108 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:304 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:32 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:107 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:23 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon latifasciatus Garman 1881. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Parras, Coahuila, Mexico [extinct]. Habitat: freshwater.

laucaensis, Orestias Arratia [G.] 1982:103, Fig. 5B [Peces del Altiplano de Chile v. 1; ref. 22500] Río Lauca, Parinacota, Chile, elevation about 4300 meters. Holotype: DBCUCH 160879. Paratypes: DBCUCH 160879 and 170480 (?); MNHNC P.6026 (1). Type catalog: Meléndez C. et al. 1993:110 [ref. 24124] as tipo [could be holotype]. •Synonym of Orestias agassii Valenciennes 1846 -- (Lüssen et al. 2004:59 [ref. 29603]). •Valid as Orestias laucaensis Arratia 1982 -- (Parenti 1984:190 [ref. 5359], Pequeño 1989:50 [ref. 14125], Dyer 2000:85 [ref. 26678], Lazara 2001:238 [ref. 25711], Vila 2006:475 [ref. 28797], Vila et al. 2012:352 [ref. 31748], Arratia et al. 2017:S2 [ref. 35512], Esmaeili et al. 2018:20 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias laucaensis Arratia 1982. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lauca River basin, Chilean Altiplano. Habitat: freshwater.

lirimensis, Pseudorestias Arratia [G.], Vila [I.], Lam [N.], Guerrero [C. J.] & Quezada-Romegialli [C.] 2017:8, Figs.3-18 [PLoS ONE v. 12 (no. 8): e0181989; ref. 35512] Charvinto Creek near to the thermal pond Baños San Andrés, about 6 km E of Lirima village, in an affluent of the Chancacolla River, Tarapacá Region, northern Chile, 19°51'13.08"S, 68°54'27.52"W, elevation 4,000 meters. Holotype: MNHNC ICT-7533. Paratypes: KU, MHNV, MNHNC. Plus additional non-type material. . •Valid as Pseudorestias lirimensis Arratia, Vila, Lam, Guerrero & Quezada-Romegialli 2017. Current status: Valid as Pseudorestias lirimensis Arratia, Vila, Lam, Guerrero & Quezada-Romegialli 2017. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Chancacolla River and Charvinto Creek, Tarapacá basin, Western Cordillera of the southern Central Andes, Chilean Altiplano. Habitat: freshwater.

longidorsalis, Cyprinodon Lozano-Vilano [M. de L.] & Contreras-Balderas [S.] 1993:297, Figs. 3a, 4a [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 4 (no. 4); ref. 21105] Charco la Palma, 24°04'N, 100°05.3'W, interior basin of Llanos de Salas, Aramberri, Nuevo León, Mexico. Holotype: UANL 8281. Paratypes: IBUNAM-P 3235 (2); IPN P4437 (2); UANL 8282-86 (1, 4, 5, 1, 2), 8317 (1), 9027 (3); UMMZ 215481 (2); USNM 308116 (2). Type catalog: Contreras-Balderas et al. 1998:4 [ref. 23752] but not UANL 8293. Now extinct -- (Contreras-Balderas & Lozano-Vilano 1996:34 [ref. 22301]). •Valid as Cyprinodon longidorsalis Lozano-Vilano & Contreras-Balderas 1993 -- (Lozano-Vilano & Contreras-Balderas 1999:382 [ref. 23796], Lazara 2001:87 [ref. 25711], Lozano-Vilano 2002:21 [ref. 27832], Nelson et al. 2004:108 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:304 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:32 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:107 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:23 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon longidorsalis Lozano-Vilano & Contreras-Balderas 1993. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Charco la Palma, Mexico [extinct in wild]. Habitat: freshwater.

luteus, Orestias Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:243 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Lake Titicaca. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9608. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:26 [ref. 19576]. Appeared first in Valenciennes 1839:118 [ref. 17870] without distinguishing features. •Valid as Orestias luteus Valenciennes 1846 -- (Parenti 1984:175 [ref. 5359], Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:238 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:552 [ref. 27061], Lüssen et al. 2004:59 [ref. 29603], Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004]). •Valid as Orestias lutea Valenciennes 1846 -- (Cruz-Jofré et al. 2013:598 [ref. 33015], Esmaeili et al. 2018:20 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias lutea Valenciennes 1846. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Titicaca basin: Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

macrolepis, Cyprinodon Miller [R. R.] 1976:74, Fig. 1F [Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences v. 75 (no. 2); ref. 7032] El Ojo de la Hacienda Dolores, a hot spring 12.5 kilometers south southwest of Jiménez, Chihuahua, Mexico, elevation 1405 meters. Holotype: UMMZ 168982. Paratypes: UMMZ 168981 (40), 168983 (135), 196736 (789, 6 c&s). •Valid as Cyprinodon macrolepis Miller 1976 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:33 [ref. 22290], Lozano-Vilano & Contreras-Balderas 1993:307 [ref. 21105], Echelle & Echelle 1998:854 [ref. 23614], Lazara 2001:87 [ref. 25711], Lozano-Vilano 2002:21 [ref. 27832], Nelson et al. 2004:108 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:305 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:32 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:107 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:24 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon macrolepis Miller 1976. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: El Ojo de la Hacienda Dolores and outlet, Atlantic Slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

macularius, Cyprinodon Baird [S. F.] & Girard [C. F.] 1853:389 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 6; ref. 15636] Rio San Pedro, tributary to Gila River, Arizona, U.S.A. Syntypes: ANSP 7219 [ex USNM] (1); ?MCZ 1313 (3), MCZ 1472 (2); USNM 992 (8, missing). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:96 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Cyprinodon macularius Baird & Girard 1853 -- (Lee et al. 1980:497 [ref. 22416], Hendrickson & Romero 1989:478 [ref. 22444], Page & Burr 1991:228 [ref. 18983], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:33 [ref. 22290], Swift et al. 1993:121 [ref. 22379], Swinney 1996:73 [ref. 25513], Echelle & Echelle 1998:854 [ref. 23614], Fuller et al. 1999:326 [ref. 25838], Echelle et al. 2000:353 [ref. 24453], Lazara 2001:87 [ref. 25711], Minckley et al. 2002:691 [ref. 26222], Moyle 2002:326 [ref. 26449], Nelson et al. 2004:108 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:305 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:32 [ref. 30398], Minckley & Marsh 2009:239 [ref. 31114], Page & Burr 2011:457 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:107 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:24 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon macularius Baird & Girard 1853. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Southwestern U.S.A. (Arizona and California) and northern Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

martae, Cyprinodon Steindachner [F.] 1876:610 [60] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.); ref. 18772] Santa Marta near the mouth of the Río Magdalena, Colombia. Holotype (unique): NMW 76519. On p. 60 of separate. •Status uncertain -- (Lee et al. 1983:54 [ref. 22527]). •Perhaps valid with uncertain genus -- (Huber 2000:48, 50 [ref. 24475]). •Possibly valid as Cubanichthys marthae (Steindachner 1876) -- (Costa 2015:29 [ref. 34457]). •Valid as Cubanichthys marthae (Steindachner 1876) -- (Esmaeili et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36738]). •Valid as Yssolebias martae (Steindachner 1876) -- (Huber 2012:27 [ref. 32370], Huber 2015:4, 13 [ref. 34041] in tribe Yssolebiini, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:102 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Yssolebias martae (Steindachner 1876). Cyprinodontidae: Cubanichthyinae. Distribution: Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

maya, Cyprinodon Humphries [J. M.] & Miller [R. R.] 1981:55, Figs. 2B, 3B, 5B [Copeia 1981 (no. 1); ref. 8587] Laguna Chichancanab, in lagoon at southern end on northern side of highway 184, Yucatán, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 203903. Paratypes: TU 111576 (5); UMMZ 196547 (65), 201735 (32, now 25), 201748 (108, now 105, 1 skel., 5 c&s), 201756 (18), 201761 (99, 5 c&s), 203904 (1, allotype); USNM 220013 (5); plus 3 sent to Mexican Government. Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:51 [ref. 20906]. Also appeared in Humphries & Miller 1981:133 [ref. 8588]. •Valid as Cyprinodon maya Humphries & Miller 1981 -- (Smith 1989:6 [ref. 20182], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:34 [ref. 22290], Lazara 2001:88 [ref. 25711], Strecker 2002:301 [ref. 26655], Nelson et al. 2004:108 [ref. 27807], Strecker 2005:107 [ref. 28252], Miller 2006:306 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:30 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:107 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:24 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon maya Humphries & Miller 1981. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Lake Chichancanab, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

meeki, Cyprinodon Miller [R. R.] 1976:73, Fig. 1E [Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences v. 75 (no. 2); ref. 7032] Pond fed by hot springs, tributary to Río del Tunal, about 9 kilometers east of Durango City, Durango, Mexico, elevation about 1880 meters. Holotype: UMMZ 197420. Paratypes: CAS 33901 (169), 33899 (27); FMNH 4388 (68), 9076 (9); UMMZ 166709 (89, 3 c&s), 167727 (13), 179649 (1), 192458 (96), 196789 (4). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:31 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Cyprinodon meeki Miller 1976 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:34 [ref. 22290], Lozano-Vilano & Contreras-Balderas 1993:307 [ref. 21105], Echelle & Echelle 1998:855 [ref. 23614], Lazara 2001:88 [ref. 25711], Lozano-Vilano 2002:21 [ref. 27832], Nelson et al. 2004:108 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:32 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:107 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:25 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon meeki Miller 1976. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Headwaters of Mezquital River, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

microdon, Orestias Cuvier [G.] & Valenciennes [A.] in Paepke & Seegers 1986:171 [Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin v. 62 (no. 1); ref. 19981] Not available; name in museum catalog included in type catalog by Paepke & Seegers as above. •Nomen nudum - (Lazara 2001:242 [ref. 25711]). Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae.

milleri, Cyprinodon LaBounty [J. F.] & Deacon [J. E.] 1972:769 [Copeia 1972 (no. 4); ref. 7623] Cottonball Marsh, Death Valley National Monument, Inyo County, California, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 188995. Paratypes: UMMZ 188996 (155). •Synonym of Cyprinodon salinus Miller 1943, but a valid subspecies milleri LaBounty & Deacon 1972 -- (Swift et al. 1993:122 [ref. 22379], Lazara 2001:92 [ref. 25711], Moyle 2002:336 [ref. 26449], Scharpf 2007:33 [ref. 30398], Page & Burr 2011:458 [ref. 31215] as species or subspecies). Current status: Synonym of Cyprinodon salinus Miller 1943. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Cottonball Marsh, Death Valley National Monument, Inyo County, California, U.S.A. [subspecies milleri]. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

minimus, Orestias Tchernavin [V. V.] 1944:216, Fig. 19 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London v. 114 (pts 1-2); ref. 13185] Molinopampa, east of Juli, southeastern coast of Lake Titicaca, Bolivia. Holotype: BMNH 1944.6.6.532. Paratypes: BMNH 1944.6.6.533 (1). •Valid as Orestias minimus Tchernavin 1944 -- (Parenti 1984:203 [ref. 5359], Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:239 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:552 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004]). •Valid as Orestias minima Tchernavin 1944 -- (Cruz-Jofré et al. 2013:598 [ref. 33015], Esmaeili et al. 2018:20 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias minima Tchernavin 1944. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Titicaca basin: Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

minutus, Orestias Tchernavin [V. V.] 1944:215, Fig. 18 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London v. 114 (pts 1-2); ref. 13185] Uruni Bay, north side of Capachica Peninsula, Lake Titicaca. Syntypes: BMNH 1944.6.6.159-160 (2). •Valid as Orestias minutus Tchernavin 1944 -- (Parenti 1984:204 [ref. 5359], Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:239 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:552 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Orestias minuta Tchernavin 1944 -- (Cruz-Jofré et al. 2013:598 [ref. 33015], Esmaeili et al. 2018:21 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias minuta Tchernavin 1944. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Titicaca, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

mionectes, Cyprinodon nevadensis Miller [R. R.] 1948:44, Pl. 5 [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 68; ref. 13064] Big Spring, north-central Ash Meadows, Nye County, Nevada, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 141775. Paratypes: UMMZ 132900 (17), 140460 (422); USNM 112069 [ex UMMZ 14060] (10). •Synonym of Cyprinodon nevadensis Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889, but a valid subspecies mionectes Miller 1948 as described -- (Lee et al. 1980:498 [ref. 22416], Baugh et al. 1986:544 [ref. 9759], La Rivers 1994:504 [ref. 23389], Lazara 2001:90 [ref. 25711], Moyle 2002:333 [ref. 26449], Scharpf 2007:33 [ref. 30398], Page & Burr 2011:458 [ref. 31215]). Current status: Synonym of Cyprinodon nevadensis Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Lower Ash Meadows, Nevada, U.S.A. [subspecies mionectes]. Habitat: freshwater.

mooni, Orestias Tchernavin [V. V.] 1944:228, Fig. 26 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London v. 114 (pts 1-2); ref. 13185] Cota Bay in Puno Bay, Lake Titicaca, Peru, depth 23 meters. Holotype: BMNH 1944.6.6.503. Paratypes: (35) BMNH 1944.6.6.504-520 (18), 1944.6.6.522 (1); USNM 133139 (1). Holotype established in caption to Fig. 26 (see Parenti 1984:202 [ref. 5359]). •Valid as Orestias mooni Tchernavin 1944 -- (Parenti 1984:202 [ref. 5359], Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:239 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:552 [ref. 27061], Esmaeili et al. 2018:21 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias mooni Tchernavin 1944. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Titicaca, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

mulleri, Orestias Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:240 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Lake Titicaca near Guaichu, Peru, 15°32'S, 71°37'W. Syntypes: MNHN A-9605 (2). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:25 [ref. 19576]. •Valid as Orestias mulleri Valenciennes 1846 -- (Parenti 1984:171 [ref. 5359], Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:239 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:552 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004], Esmaeili et al. 2018:21 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias mulleri Valenciennes 1846. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Titicaca, Peru and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

multiporis, Orestias Parenti [L. R.] 1984:198, Fig. 60 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 178 (art. 2); ref. 5359] Maravillas, near Río de Lampa, tributary to Lake Titicaca, Peru. Holotype: CAS 46166 [ex IU 16121]. Paratypes: CAS 51311 [ex IU 16121] (37). •Valid as Orestias multiporis Parenti 1984 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:239 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:552 [ref. 27061], Esmaeili et al. 2018:21 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias multiporis Parenti 1984. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Titicaca basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

mundus, Orestias Parenti [L. R.] 1984:199, Fig. 61 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 178 (art. 2); ref. 5359] Cuzco, Peru. Holotype: FMNH 41135. Paratypes: FMNH 41130-34 (5), 41136-39 (4), 41140 (101, 1 c&s). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:63 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Orestias mundus Parenti 1984 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:239 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:552 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Orestias munda Parenti 1984 -- (Cruz-Jofré et al. 2013:598 [ref. 33015], Esmaeili et al. 2018:21 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias munda Parenti 1984. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

mydrus, Cyprinodon Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1882:433 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 297); ref. 1840] Pensacola, Florida, 30°25'N, 87°11'W, U.S.A. Neotype: USNM 211280. Neotype designated by Miller 1974:981 [ref. 20801]. •Synonym of Floridichthys carpio (Günther 1866) -- (Wildekamp 1996:138 [ref. 23649], Lazara 2001:119 [ref. 25711], Suttkus & Williams 2008:20 [ref. 30361]). Current status: Synonym of Floridichthys carpio (Günther 1866). Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nazas, Cyprinodon Miller [R. R.] 1976:72, Fig. 1C [Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences v. 75 (no. 2); ref. 7032] Río Nazas near its mouth at San Miguel, near edge of Laguna Mayrán, Coahuila, Mexico, elevation 1092 meters. Holotype: UMMZ 197419. Paratypes: CAS 33902-03 (394, 6); TU 30616 (26); UMMZ 161674 (124), 166707 (175, 2 c&s), 196712 (207, ? now 842, 16 c&s); USNM 132618 (5). Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:51 [ref. 20906]. •Valid as Cyprinodon nazas Miller 1976 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:34 [ref. 22290], Lozano-Vilano & Contreras-Balderas 1993:307 [ref. 21105], Echelle & Echelle 1998:855 [ref. 23614], Lazara 2001:88 [ref. 25711], Lozano-Vilano 2002:21 [ref. 27832], Nelson et al. 2004:108 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:307 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:32 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:107 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:26 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon nazas Miller 1976. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

nevadensis, Cyprinodon Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1889:270 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 1; ref. 19653] Saratoga Spring, south arm of Death Valley, Inyo County, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: CAS 580 (3, lost in 1906). •Valid as Cyprinodon nevadensis Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889 -- (Lee et al. 1980:498 [ref. 22416], Baugh et al. 1986:544 [ref. 9757], Page & Burr 1991:228 [ref. 18983], Swift et al. 1993:121 [ref. 22379], La Rivers 1994:500 [ref. 23389], Echelle & Echelle 1998:854 [ref. 23614], Fuller et al. 1999:327 [ref. 25838], Minckley et al. 2002:691 [ref. 26222], Nelson et al. 2004:108 [ref. 27807], Page & Burr 2011:458 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:107 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Cyprinodon nevadensis Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889, subspecies nevadensis Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889 -- (Lazara 2001:88 [ref. 25711], Moyle 2002:332 [ref. 26449], Scharpf 2007:32 [ref. 30398], Esmaeili et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon nevadensis Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Nevada and California, U.S.A.; Saratoga Spring and adjoining lakes, California [subspecies nevadensis]. Habitat: freshwater.

neveui, Orestias Pellegrin [J.] 1904:95 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 29; ref. 15192] Lake Titicaca. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1905-0189. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:27 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Orestias albus Valenciennes 1846 -- (Parenti 1984:179 [ref. 5359], Lazara 2001:234 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:551 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Orestias alba Valenciennes 1846. Current status: Synonym of Orestias alba Valenciennes 1846. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

nichollsi, Cyprinodon Smith [M. L.] 1989:3, Fig. 1 [American Museum Novitates No. 2953; ref. 20182] Sandy beach at Laguna de Oviedo, 4 kilometerseast of Oviedo on hyw 44, Jaragua Natl. park, Dominican Republic. Holotype: AMNH 58278. Paratypes: AMNH 58279 (135, 10 c&s), 58280 (10); UF 79181 (10); UMMZ 214865 (107); USNM 300935 (10). •Valid as Cyprinodon nichollsi Smith 1989 -- (Lazara 2001:91 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:550 [ref. 27061], Esmaeili et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon nichollsi Smith 1989. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Coastal habitats in southern Hispanola: Dominican Republic. Habitat: freshwater.

olivaceus, Orestias Garman [S.] 1895:152 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 19 (pt 1); ref. 1538] Lake Umayo, 9 miles northwest of and 400 feet higher than Lake Titicaca, Peru. Syntypes: BMNH 1939.7.17.1 [ex MCZ 3946] (1), MCZ 3946 (now 5). •Valid as Orestias olivaceus Garman 1895 -- (Parenti 1984:180 [ref. 5359], Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:240 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:552 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Orestias olivacea Gramnn 1895 -- (Cruz-Jofré et al. 2013:598 [ref. 33015], Esmaeili et al. 2018:21 [ref. 36738] as olivaca). Current status: Valid as Orestias olivacea Garman 1895. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Titicaca basin: Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

ortonii, Orestias Cope [E. D.] 1876:186 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 8 (pt 2, art. 7); ref. 18032] Lake Titicaca, Bolivia. Holotype: ANSP 21557. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:97 [ref. 13621] and as ortoni. •Synonym of Orestias agassii Valenciennes 1846 -- (Parenti 1984:182 [ref. 5359], Lazara 2001:233 [ref. 25711] as agassizii, Costa in Reis et al. 2003:551 [ref. 27061] as agassizii). Current status: Synonym of Orestias agassii Valenciennes 1846. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

ovinus, Esox Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:441, Pl. 4 (fig. 7) [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. Apparently misprinted oviceps in Lee et al. 1983 [ref. 22527] or else the species oviceps is unknown to us. •Synonym of Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepède 1803 -- (Lee et al. 1980:504 [ref. 22416], Smith 1986:411 [ref. 22186]). •Synonym of Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepède 1803, but a valid subspecies ovinus (Mitchill 1815) -- (Lazara 2001:95 [ref. 25711], Scharpf 2007:33 [ref. 30398]). •Questionably a synonym of Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepède 1803 - (Ross et al. 2001:374 [ref. 25978]). Current status: Synonym of Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepède 1803. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Coastal warters from Massachussets to South Carolina, U.S.A. [this subspecies]. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

owenii, Orestias Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:241 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Lake Urcos, south of Cusco, Peru. Syntypes: MNHN A-9606 (5), ZMB 3490 (1), ?ZMB 6075 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:25 [ref. 19576], Paepke & Seegers 1986:170 [ref. 19981]. •Synonym of Orestias jussiei Valenciennes 1846 -- (Parenti 1984:189 [ref. 5359], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:552 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Orestias jussiei Valenciennes 1846. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

pachycephalus, Cyprinodon Minckley [W. L.] & Minckley [C. O.] 1986:184, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 1986 (no. 1); ref. 8066] Baños de San Diego, east of Chihuahua, Mexico, 28°35.5'N, 105°32.5'W, elevation about 1140 meters. Holotype: UMMZ 213401. Paratypes: ASU 6415 (100), UMMZ 213402 (25). Additional material: UMMZ 203016, 207704, 207705, and other UMMZ uncat. lots. •Valid as Cyprinodon pachycephalus Minckley & Minckley 1986 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:34 [ref. 22290], Echelle & Echelle 1998:855 [ref. 23614], Lazara 2001:91 [ref. 25711], Lozano-Vilano 2002:20 [ref. 27832], Nelson et al. 2004:109 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:308 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:33 [ref. 30398], De la Maza-Benignos & Vela-Valladares 2009:185 [ref. 30539], Page et al. 2013:107 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:26 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:15 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon pachycephalus Minckley & Minckley 1986. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: San Diego de Alcalá, Atlantic Slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

parinacotensis, Orestias Arratia [G.] 1982:100, Fig. 5A [Peces del Altiplano de Chile v. 1; ref. 22500] Bofedales de Parinacota, Chile, about elevation 4300 meters. Holotype: DBCUCH 190579. Paratypes: DBCUCH 190579 and 190879 (?); MNHNC P.6027 (1). Type catalog: Meléndez C. et al. 1993:110 [ref. 24124] as tipo [? could be holotype]. •Synonym of Orestias agassii Valenciennes 1846 -- (Lüssen et al. 2004:59 [ref. 29603]). •Valid as Orestias parinacotensis Arratia 1982 -- (Parenti 1984:190 [ref. 5359], Pequeño 1989:50 [ref. 14125], Dyer 2000:85 [ref. 26678], Lazara 2001:240 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:552 [ref. 27061], Vila 2006:475 [ref. 28797], Vila et al. 2012:352 [ref. 31748], Reis et al. 2016:17 [ref. 34496], Arratia et al. 2017:S2 [ref. 35512], Esmaeili et al. 2018:21 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias parinacotensis Arratia 1982. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Parinocota River and Andean basin of Pacific slope of Chilean Altiplano. Habitat: freshwater.

pecosensis, Cyprinodon Echelle [A. A.] & Echelle [A. F.] 1978:573, Figs. 2-3 [Copeia 1978 (no. 4); ref. 8937] Oxbow of Pecos River at Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Chaves County, New Mexico, U.S.A. Holotype: TU 97127. Paratypes: BU 1904 (31), 1905 (45); TNHC 4805 (43), 4812 (45), 4816 (64), 4820 (71), 4847 (73), 4854 (91); TU 97026 (19 lots). Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:51-52 [ref. 20906]. •Valid as Cyprinodon pecosensis Echelle & Echelle 1978 -- (Lee et al. 1980:499 [ref. 22416], Echelle et al. 1987:668 [ref. 22451], Tomelleri & Eberle 1990:145 [ref. 24089], Page & Burr 1991:227 [ref. 18983], Lazara 2001:91 [ref. 25711], Nelson et al. 2004:109 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:33 [ref. 30398], Page & Burr 2011:455 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:107 [ref. 32708], Esmaeili et al. 2018:15 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon pecosensis Echelle & Echelle 1978. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Texas and New Mexico (reduced range), U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

pectoralis, Cyprinodon nevadensis Miller [R. R.] 1948:58, Pl. 6 [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 68; ref. 13064] Concrete pool just below Lovell's Spring, Ash Meadows, Nye County, Nevada, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 141779. Paratypes: UMMZ 132908 (255, now 245), USNM 112070 [ex UMMZ 132908] (10). •Synonym of Cyprinodon nevadensis Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889, but a valid subspecies pectoralis Miller 1948 as described -- (Lee et al. 1980:498 [ref. 22416], La Rivers 1994:505 [ref. 23389], Lazara 2001:90 [ref. 25711], Moyle 2002:333 [ref. 26449], Scharpf 2007:33 [ref. 30398], Page & Burr 2011:458 [ref. 31215]). Current status: Synonym of Cyprinodon nevadensis Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Springs around Devils Hole, upper Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

pengelleyi, Chriopeoides Fowler [H. W.] 1939:5, Figs. 3-4 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 35; ref. 1431] Jamaica. Holotype: ANSP 68632. Paratypes: ANSP 68633 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:97 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Cubanichthys pengelleyi (Fowler 1939) -- (Lee et al. 1983:56 [ref. 22527], Lazara 2001:75 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:549 [ref. 27061], Esmaeili et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cubanichthys pengelleyi (Fowler 1939). Cyprinodontidae: Cubanichthyinae. Distribution: River basins in western Jamaica. Habitat: freshwater.

pentlandii, Orestias Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:230, Pl. 533 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Lake Titicaca. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4415 (1), A-9594 (2); ZMB 3488 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:24 [ref. 19576], Paepke & Seegers 1986:170 [ref. 19981]. Appeared first in Valenciennes 1839:118 [ref. 17870] without distinguishing features. •Valid as Orestias pentlandii Valenciennes 1846 -- (Parenti 1984:168 [ref. 5359], Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:240 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:553 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004], Esmaeili et al. 2018:21 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias pentlandii Valenciennes 1846. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Titicaca and upper Amazon River basin: Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

pequeni, Orestias agassii infra. Tchernavin [V. V.] 1944:185, Fig. 8 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London v. 114 (pts 1-2); ref. 13185] Lago Pequeño, eastern part of Lake Titicaca, Bolivia. Syntypes: (6) BMNH 1944.6.6.79-83 (5). Described as an infraspecies. •Synonym of Orestias frontosus Cope 1876 -- (Parenti 1984:187 [ref. 5359], Lazara 2001:236 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:551 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Orestias frontosa Cope 1876. Current status: Synonym of Orestias frontosa Cope 1876. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

piacotensis, Orestias Vila [I.] 2006:473, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 2006 (no. 3); ref. 28797] Eastern littoral zone of Laguna Piacota, 18°11'49.8"S, 69°15'56.9"W, Arica County, Chile. elevation 4400 meters. Holotype: MNHNC P7222. Paratypes: MNHNC P7223 (1), P7224 (20+, number not given). •Valid as Orestias piacotensis Vila 2006 -- (Vila et al. 2012:352 [ref. 31748], Arratia et al. 2017:S2 [ref. 35512], Esmaeili et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias piacotensis Vila 2006. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Piacota at the Altiplano, Parinacota Province, Chilean Altiplano. Habitat: freshwater.

pisteri, Cyprinodon Miller [R. R.] & Minckley [W. L.] in Minckley, Miller & Norris 2002:687, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 2002 (no. 3); ref. 26222] Ojo de Palomas Viejo (now dry), 5.2 kilometers south of Las Palomas, 31°45'N, 107°40'W, Chihuahua, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 162629. Paratypes: ASU 9258 (88); UANL 15048 [ex UMMZ 203024] (?); UMMZ 136126 (50), 162616 (181), 162630 (103, 15 c&s, 2 dry skeletons), 181124 (17), 182395 (305, 10 c&s), 182399 (2), 203017 (206), 203024 (306, 6 c&s), 208225 (2), 208230 (7), 208235 (1), 208241 (21), 209217 (57), 209021 (99), 211147 (51), 211153 (102), 211625 (104), 212314 (45); UNAM 12922 [ex UMMZ 203024] (?). •Valid as Cyprinodon pisteri Miller & Minckley 2002 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:109 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:308 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:33 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:107 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:27 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:15 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon pisteri Miller & Minckley 2002. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Northern Chihuahua, Mexico and southwestern New Mexico (U.S.A.) [introduction]. Habitat: freshwater.

planiaster, Orestias Valenciennes [A.] in Paepke & Seegers 1986:171 [Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin v. 62 (no. 1); ref. 19981] Not available; name in museum catalog included in type catalog by Paepke & Seegers as above. •Nomen nudum -- (Lazara 2001:242 [ref. 25711]). Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae.

polonorum, Orestias Tchernavin [V. V.] 1944:195, Fig. 12 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London v. 114 (pts 1-2); ref. 13185] Lake Junin, Peru. Holotype: BMNH 1944.6.6.223. Paratypes: (5) BMNH 1875.10.5.4-7 (4). Holotype established in caption to Fig. 12 (see Parenti 1984:188 [ref. 5359]). •Valid as Orestias polonorum Tchernavin 1944 -- (Parenti 1984:188 [ref. 5359], Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:240 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:553 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004], Esmaeili et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias polonorum Tchernavin 1944. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Junin, Peru and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

polyommus, Floridichthys carpio Hubbs [C. L.] 1936:214, Pl. 3 (figs. 1-3) [Carnegie Institution of Washington Publications No. 457 (art. 17); ref. 2247] Ocean beach near Champoton, Campeche, Yucatán, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 102186. Paratypes: UMMZ 102185 (18), USNM 117529 (2). •Synonym of Floridichthys carpio (Günther 1866), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Parenti 1981:530 [ref. 7066]). •Valid as Floridichthys polyommus Hubbs 1936 -- (Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:104 [ref. 22947], Wildekamp 1996:140 [ref. 23649], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:225 [ref. 24550], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:154 [ref. 27754], Lazara 2001:119 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:550 [ref. 27061], Smith et al. 2003:16 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:109 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:311 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:30 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:108 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:30 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:17 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Floridichthys polyommus Hubbs 1936. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Coastal habitats of Yucatán Peninsula: Belize, Honduras and Mexico. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

pulchra, Garmanella Hubbs [C. L.] 1936:219, Pl. 5 (figs. 1-10) [Carnegie Institution of Washington Publications No. 457 (art. 17); ref. 2247] 5 kilometers east of Progreso, Yucatán, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 102148. Paratypes: MCZ 33179 (26); UMMZ 102149 (orig. 36, now 34); USNM 117542 (2); ZMA 102215 (10); plus additional material at UMMZ. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:70 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Jordanella pulchra (Hubbs 1936) -- (Parenti 1981:516 [ref. 7066], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:105 [ref. 22947], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:900 [ref. 23897], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:223 [ref. 24550], Smith et al. 2003:16 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:109 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:108 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:30 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:17 [ref. 36738]). •Valid as Garmanella pulchra Hubbs 1936 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:36 [ref. 22290], Lazara 2001:165 [ref. 25711], Wiley & Ghedotti 2003:1160 [ref. 27020], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:550 [ref. 27061], Miller 2006:315 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:30 [ref. 30398]). Current status: Valid as Garmanella pulchra Hubbs 1936. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Yucatán Peninsula: Belize and Mexico. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

puni, Orestias jussiei Tchernavin [V. V.] 1944:194, Figs. 11a-b [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London v. 114 (pts 1-2); ref. 13185] Bahia de Puno, Lake Titicaca, Peru. Syntypes: BMNH 1944.6.6.179-182 (4). •Valid as Orestias puni Tchernavin 1944 -- (Parenti 1984:189 [ref. 5359], Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:240 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:553 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004], Esmaeili et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias puni Tchernavin 1944. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Titicaca basin, Peru and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

radiosus, Cyprinodon Miller [R. R.] 1948:87, Pl. 9 [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 68; ref. 13064] Northwestern spring-feeder of Fish Slough, about 10 miles north of Bishop, Mono County, California, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 146653. Paratypes: UMMZ ?65691 (61), 124843 (123), 133155 (34), 138137 (35), 133007 (28 or 378). •Valid as Cyprinodon radiosus Miller 1948 -- (Lee et al. 1980:500 [ref. 22416], Page & Burr 1991:228 [ref. 18983], Fuller et al. 1999:328 [ref. 25838], Lazara 2001:91 [ref. 25711], Minckley et al. 2002:691 [ref. 26222], Moyle 2002:329 [ref. 26449], Nelson et al. 2004:109 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:33 [ref. 30398], Page & Burr 2011:458 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:108 [ref. 32708], Esmaeili et al. 2018:15 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon radiosus Miller 1948. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Owens Valley, California, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

rhomboidalis, Lebias Valenciennes [A.] in Humboldt & Valenciennes 1821:160, Pl. 51 (figs. 3, 7) [Voyage de Humboldt et Bonpland v. 2 (Title page 1833); ref. 5612] No locality [Lake Ponchatrain, Louisiana, U.S.A.]. •Synonym of Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepède 1803 -- (Lazara 2001:94 [ref. 25711]). Current status: Synonym of Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepède 1803. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

richersoni, Orestias Parenti [L. R.] 1984:197, Fig. 59 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 178 (art. 2); ref. 5359] Río Coata upstream from Coata, Lake Titicaca drainage, Peru. Holotype: AMNH 52181. Paratypes: AMNH 52182 (4). •Valid as Orestias richersoni Parenti 1984 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:241 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:553 [ref. 27061], Esmaeili et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias richersoni Parenti 1984. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Titicaca basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

riverendi, Trifarcius Poey [F.] 1860:306 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. No types known. •Status uncertain -- (Lee et al. 1983:54 [ref. 22527]). •Synonym of Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepède 1803, but a valid subspecies -- (Lazara 2001:95 [ref. 25711], Wiley & Ghedotti 2003:1160 [ref. 27020]). •Valid as Cyprinodon riverendi (Poey 1860) -- (Costa in Reis et al. 2003:550 [ref. 27061], Scharpf 2007:30 [ref. 30398], Esmaeili et al. 2018:15 [ref. 36738]). •Mention -- (Miller 2006:310 [ref. 28615]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon riverendi (Poey 1860). Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Coastal habitats of Cuba and Hispanola and adjacent small islands, Grand Cayman Island and Florida Keys. Habitat: freshwater.

robustus, Orestias Parenti [L. R.] 1984:207, Fig. 72 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 178 (art. 2); ref. 5359] Near village of Ojjerani, between Puno and Chucuito, Bahia de Puno, Lake Titicaca, Peru. Holotype: AMNH 52191. Paratypes: AMNH 52192 (3), 52193 (8, 1 c&s), 52194 (2); BMNH 1982.12.6:122-123 (2). Additional material: AMNH 52195-96 (1, 4). •Valid as Orestias robustus Parenti 1984 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:241 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:553 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004]). •Valif as Orestias robusta Parenti 1974 -- (Cruz-Jofré et al. 2013:598 [ref. 33015], Esmaeili et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias robusta Parenti 1984. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Titicaca basin, Peru and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

rospigliosii, Orestias Eigenmann [C. H.] & Allen [W. R.] 1942:381 [Fishes of western South America; ref. 1246] Río Langui, Peru, above elevation of 12000 feet. Holotype: CAS [ex IU 12290] (largest specimen). Paratypes: CAS [ex IU 12290] (4). Specimens not in IU 12290; perhaps unidentifiable and in poor condition in IU 16075. See also Huber 2006:21 [ref. 28935]. •Status unidentifiable -- (Parenti 1984:209 [ref. 5359]). •Valid as Orestias rospigliosii Eigenmann & Allen 1942 -- (Lazara 2001:241 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Orestias agassii Valenciennes 1846 -- (Costa in Reis et al. 2003:551 [ref. 27061] as agassizii). Current status: Synonym of Orestias agassii Valenciennes 1846. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

rotundipinnis, Orestias Parenti [L. R.] 1984:176, Fig. 41 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 178 (art. 2); ref. 5359] Northeast of Isla Esteves, Bahia de Puno, Lake Titicaca, Peru. Holotype: AMNH 52138. Paratypes: AMNH 52139 (1). Additional material: AMNH 38426 (1), 52140-42 (3), 52199 (1); BMNH 1944.6.6.434 (2), 1944.6.6.443 (4). •Synonym of Orestias luteus Valenciennes 1846 -- (Costa in Reis et al. 2003:552 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Orestias rotundipinnis Parenti 1984 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:241 [ref. 25711], Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Orestias rotundipinnis Parenti 1984. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Peru and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

rubrofluviatilis, Cyprinodon bovinus Fowler [H. W.] 1916:430, Fig. 4 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 68; ref. 1394] Rio Brazos, between Seymour and Authon, Texas, U.S.A. Holotype: ANSP 20266 (missing). Paratypes: ANSP 20267-324 (58, missing). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:97 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Cyprinodon rubrofluviatilis Fowler 1916 -- (Lee et al. 1980:501 [ref. 22416], Tomelleri & Eberle 1990:145 [ref. 24089], Page & Burr 1991:226 [ref. 18983], Fuller et al. 1999:328 [ref. 25838], Lazara 2001:92 [ref. 25711], Nelson et al. 2004:109 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:264 [ref. 27931], Scharpf 2007:33 [ref. 30398], Page & Burr 2011:455 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:108 [ref. 32708], Esmaeili et al. 2018:15 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon rubrofluviatilis Fowler 1916. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Oklahoma and Texas, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

salinus, Cyprinodon Miller [R. R.] 1943:69, Fig. 1; Pl. 1 [Copeia 1943 (no. 2); ref. 11761] Salt Creek, Death Valley, Inyo County, California, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 132940. Paratypes: ANSP 77462 [ex UMMZ] (12); MNHN 1953-0034 [ex UMMZ 94444] (9); CAS-SU 23045 (147, now 141); UMMZ 65962 (36), 94444 (9, now 0), 140482 (488), 132941 (orig. 1642, now 1595); ZMA 102216 [ex UMMZ] (35). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:69 [ref. 19236], Böhlke 1984:97 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Cyprinodon salinus Miller 1943 -- (Lee et al. 1980:502 [ref. 22416], Page & Burr 1991:229 [ref. 18983], Swift et al. 1993:122 [ref. 22379], Fuller et al. 1999:329 [ref. 25838], Minckley et al. 2002:691 [ref. 26222], Nelson et al. 2004:109 [ref. 27807], Page & Burr 2011:458 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:108 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Cyprinodon salinus Miller 1943, subspecies salinus Miller 1943 -- (Lazara 2001:92 [ref. 25711], Moyle 2002:336 [ref. 26449], Scharpf 2007:33 [ref. 30398], Page & Burr 2011:459 [ref. 31215], Esmaeili et al. 2018:15 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon salinus Miller 1943. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Salt Creek, Death Valley, Inyo County, California, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

salvadori, Cyprinodon Lozano-Vilano [M. de L.] 2002:17, Figs. 2 A-B [Libro jubilar en honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas 2002; ref. 27832] Rio Santa Rosa (Bocochic), "a 15.3 kilometers antes de llegar a Carichic" (San Juanito) Chihuahua, Mexico, 27°55'35"N, 107°11'01"W. Holotype: UANL 6999. Paratypes: UANL 14215 (50, now at IPN P4688 (2), TNHC 25026 (2), TU 185675 (2), UMMZ 234193 (2); USNM 357727 (now 1)). The holotype is listed as both UANL 6999 and 14215 on p. 17. •Valid as Cyprinodon salvadori Lozano-Vilano 2002 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:109 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:309 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:33 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:108 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:27 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:16 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon salvadori Lozano-Vilano 2002. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Río Santa Rosa, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

senechali, Orestias agassizi var. Pellegrin [J.] 1904:94 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 29; ref. 15192] Lake Titicaca. Syntypes: (16) MNHN 1905-0174 to 0178 (5) Lake Titicaca, MNHN 1905-0179 and 0180 (2) Rio Pazña, Peru. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:27 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Orestias agassii Valenciennes 1846 -- (Parenti 1984:182 [ref. 5359], Lazara 2001:234 [ref. 25711] as agassizii, Costa in Reis et al. 2003:551 [ref. 27061] as agassizii). Current status: Synonym of Orestias agassii Valenciennes 1846. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

shoshone, Cyprinodon nevadensis Miller [R. R.] 1948:39, Pl. 4 [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 68; ref. 13064] Outlet of Shoshone Spring, near Shoshone, Inyo County, California, U.S.A. Holotype: UMMZ 141780. Paratypes: UMMZ 132936 (656). •Synonym of Cyprinodon nevadensis Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889, but a valid subspecies shoshone Miller 1948 as described -- (Lee et al. 1980:498 [ref. 22416], Swift et al. 1993:122 [ref. 22379], Lazara 2001:90 [ref. 25711], Moyle 2002:333 [ref. 26449], Scharpf 2007:33 [ref. 30398], Page & Burr 2011:458 [ref. 31215]). Current status: Synonym of Cyprinodon nevadensis Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Outlet of Shoshone Spring, Inyo County, California, U.S.A. [subspecies shoshone]. Habitat: freshwater.

silustani, Orestias Allen [W. R.] in Eigenmann & Allen 1942:366, Pl. 19 (fig. 1) [Fishes of western South America; ref. 1246] Lago Umayo, Peru. Holotype (?): CAS 44205 [ex IU 16097] (5). Paratypes or syntypes: CAS 44206 [ex IU 16097] (17). Perhaps a holotype can be established based on information presented in the original description. •Valid as Orestias silustani Allen 1942 -- (Parenti 1984:181 [ref. 5359], Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:241 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:553 [ref. 27061], Esmaeili et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias silustani Allen 1942. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Titicaca basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

simus, Cyprinodon Humphries [J. M.] & Miller [R. R.] 1981:60, Figs. 3D, 4B, 5D [Copeia 1981 (no. 1); ref. 8587] Chichancanab Lagoon, in lagoon at southern end on northern side of highway 184, Yucatán, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 203905. Paratypes: TU 111577 (1); UMMZ 196545 (17), 201736 (2), 201750 (5), 201757 (1), 201762 (18, 5 c&s), 203906 (1, allotype); USNM 220014 (1). Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:52 [ref. 20906]. Also appeared in Humphries & Miller 1981:136 [ref. 8588]. •Valid as Cyprinodon simus Humphries & Miller 1981 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:34 [ref. 22290], Lazara 2001:93 [ref. 25711], Strecker 2002:301 [ref. 26655], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:550 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:109 [ref. 27807], Strecker 2005:107 [ref. 28252], Miller 2006:309 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:30 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:108 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:28 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:16 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon simus Humphries & Miller 1981. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Laguna Chichancanab, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

sonoytae, Cyprinodon macularius Peterson [J. S.] 1993:6, Fig. [Arizona Wildlife News Jan. 1993; ref. 20579] Sonoytae River watershed, Arizona, U.S.A. No types. Not intended as a new taxon but perhaps is available for this subspecies [the name sonoytae being a manuscript one given to this subspecies by R. R. Miller]. The only distinguishing features provided are, "The Quitobaquito pupfish differs from the other subspecies by having smaller pelvic fins and fewer fin rays." •Nomen nudum in the synonymy of Cyprinodon eremus Miller & Fuiman 1987 -- (Lazara 2001:85 [ref. 25711] dating to earlier publications, Minckley & Marsh 2009:239 [ref. 31114]). Current status: Synonym of Cyprinodon eremus Miller & Fuiman 1987. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae.

suavium, Cyprinodon Strecker [U.] 2005:109, Figs. 2-3 [Hydrobiologia No. 541; ref. 28252] Dead end of road from Rancho Santa Cruz, 19°56'46"N, 88°45'52"W, Laguna Chichancanab, Yucatan Peninsula, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Holotype: IBUNAM-P13985. Paratypes: ECO-CH 5404 -5405 (1, 1); ZMH 24811-41 (1 ea. lot). •Valid as Cyprinodon suavium Strecker 2005 -- (Scharpf 2007:30 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:108 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:28 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:16 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon suavium Strecker 2005. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Laguna Chichancanab, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

taeniatus, Orestias Valenciennes [A.] in Paepke & Seegers 1986:171 [Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin v. 62 (no. 1); ref. 19981] Not available; name in museum catalog included in type catalog by Paepke & Seegers as above. •Nomen nudum -- (Lazara 2001:242 [ref. 25711], Huber 2006:14 [ref. 28935]). Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

taquiri, Orestias Tchernavin [V. V.] 1944:221, Fig. 22 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London v. 114 (pts 1-2); ref. 13185] Taquiri Island, Lago Pequeño, southeastern Lake Titicaca, Bolivia, depth 2.7-2.8 meters. Holotype: BMNH 1944.6.6.534. Paratypes: (11) BMNH 1944.6.6.535 (1), 536-542 (7?); USNM 133141 (1?). Holotype established in caption to Fig. 22 (see Parenti 1984:201 [ref. 5359]). •Valid as Orestias taquiri Tchernavin 1944 -- (Parenti 1984:201 [ref. 5359], Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:241 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:553 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004], Esmaeili et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias taquiri Tchernavin 1944. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Titicaca, Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

tchernavini, Orestias Lauzanne [L.] 1981:84, Fig. 6 [Cybium 3e série. Bulletin de la Société Française d'Ichtyologie v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 8579] Tiquina, Lake Titicaca, Bolivia. Holotype: MNHN 1981-0770. Paratypes: MNHN 1981-0771 (36). •Valid as Orestias tchernavini Lauzanne 1981 -- (Parenti 1984:204 [ref. 5359], Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:241 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:553 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004], Esmaeili et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias tchernavini Lauzanne 1981. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Titicaca, Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

tessellatus, Cualac Miller [R. R.] 1956:9, Pl. 1 [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 581; ref. 3018] Outlet ditch of La Media Luna, San Luis Potosí, Mexico, about 21°52'N, 100°02'W. Holotype: UMMZ 171135. Paratypes: CAS-SU 50213 [ex UMMZ 171136] (5), CAS-SU 68750 [ex UMMZ 171136] (1, c&s); TU 6557 (32); UMMZ 170947-48 (14, 9), 171136 (45, now 34); USNM 171352 (4). Type catalog: Suttkus 1970:125 [ref. 20861], Bart & Taylor 1993:50 [ref. 20906]. •Valid as Cualac tessellatus Miller 1956 -- (Parenti 1981:529 [ref. 7066], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:32 [ref. 22290], Lazara 2001:73 [ref. 25711], Nelson et al. 2004:108 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:294 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:30 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:106 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:14 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:10 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cualac tessellatus Miller 1956. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Pánuco River basin, Atlantic Slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

tirapatae, Orestias Boulenger [G. A.] 1902:153 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 10 (no. 56) (art. 20); ref. 14849] Tirapata, eastern Peru, elevation 13000 feet. Syntypes: (several) BMNH 1902.7.29.129-133 (5). •Synonym of Orestias agassii Valenciennes 1846 -- (Parenti 1984:182 [ref. 5359], Lazara 2001:233 [ref. 25711] as agassizii, Costa in Reis et al. 2003:551 [ref. 27061] as agassizii). Current status: Synonym of Orestias agassii Valenciennes 1846. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

tomcooni, Orestias Parenti [L. R.] 1984:206, Figs. 4B, 18A, 71 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 178 (art. 2); ref. 5359] Near the village of Huatayata, northern side of Lago Pequeño of Lake Titicaca, Bolivia. Holotype: AMNH 52188. Paratypes: AMNH 52189 (5, 2 c&s), 52190 (9). •Valid as Orestias tomcooni Parenti 1984 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:242 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:553 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004], Esmaeili et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias tomcooni Parenti 1984. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Titicaca: Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

tschudii, Orestias Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:51, Pl. 27 (fig. 1) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Lake Titicaca. Syntypes: MNHN A-9604 (3). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:26 [ref. 19576]. •Valid as Orestias tschudii Castelnau 1855 -- (Parenti 1984:191 [ref. 5359], Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:242 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:553 [ref. 27061], Lüssen et al. 2004:59 [ref. 29603] as questionably valid, Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004], Esmaeili et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias tschudii Castelnau 1855. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Titicaca: Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

tularosa, Cyprinodon Miller [R. R.] & Echelle [A. A.] 1975:366, Fig. 1 [Southwestern Naturalist v. 19 (no. 4); ref. 6887] Malpais Spring, about 26 kilometers west-southwest of Three Rivers, Otero County, Tularosa basin, New Mexico, elevation about 1275 meters. Holotype: UMMZ 162610. Paratypes: UMMZ 89492 (241), 121621-22 (85), 155884 (6), 162611 (565, 10 c&s), 162612-13 (308 or 307), 193380 (87). •Valid as Cyprinodon tularosa Miller & Echelle 1975 -- (Lee et al. 1980:503 [ref. 22416], Echelle et al. 1987:668 [ref. 22451], Page & Burr 1991:227 [ref. 18983], Lazara 2001:93 [ref. 25711], Nelson et al. 2004:109 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2007:33 [ref. 30398], Page & Burr 2011:456 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:108 [ref. 32708], Esmaeili et al. 2018:16 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon tularosa Miller & Echelle 1975. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Tularosa Valley, New Mexico, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

tutini, Orestias Tchernavin [V. V.] 1944:219, Fig. 21 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London v. 114 (pts 1-2); ref. 13185] Taquiri Island, Lago Pequeño, southeastern Lake Titicaca, Bolivia, depth 2.7-2.8 meters. Holotype: BMNH 1944.6.6.544. Paratypes: BMNH 1944.6.6.545-547 (3). Holotype established in caption to Fig. 21 (see PArenti 1984:174 [ref. 5359]). •Valid as Orestias tutini Tchernavin 1944 -- (Parenti 1984:174 [ref. 5359], Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:242 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:553 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004], Esmaeili et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias tutini Tchernavin 1944. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Titicaca, Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

typica, Orestias agassizi var. Pellegrin [J.] 1904:93 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 29; ref. 15192] South America. Syntypes: (14) MNHN 1905-0171 to 0173 (3) Lake Titicaca. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:26 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Orestias agassii Valenciennes 1846 -- (Parenti 1984:182 [ref. 5359], Lazara 2001:234 [ref. 25711] as agassizii, Costa in Reis et al. 2003:551 [ref. 27061] as agassizii). Current status: Synonym of Orestias agassii Valenciennes 1846. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

uruni, Orestias Tchernavin [V. V.] 1944:213, Fig. 17 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London v. 114 (pts 1-2); ref. 13185] Uruni Bay, north side of Capachica Peninsula, Lake Titicaca, Peru. Lectotype: BMNH 1944.6.6.173. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1944.6.6.174-177 (4). Lectotype established in Parenti 1984:203 [ref. 5389]. •Valid as Orestias uruni Tchernavin 1944 -- (Parenti 1984:203 [ref. 5359], Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:242 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:553 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004], Esmaeili et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias uruni Tchernavin 1944. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Lake Titicaca, Peru and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

ututo, Orestias Parenti [L. R.] 1984:200, Fig. 62 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 178 (art. 2); ref. 5359] Lago Ututo, Peru, about 9°50'S, 77°30'W. Holotype: AMNH 52183. Paratypes: AMNH 38416 (5). Additional material: FMNH 70367 (11). •Valid as Orestias ututo Parenti 1984 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Lazara 2001:242 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:553 [ref. 27061], Esmaeili et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Orestias ututo Parenti 1984. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

uyunius, Orestias Fowler [H. W.] 1940:63, Figs. 18-20 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 92; ref. 1436] Llica, Potosi Dept., Bolivia, elevation 12000 feet. Holotype: ANSP 68866. Paratypes: ANSP 68867-91 (25). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:98 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Orestias agassii Valenciennes 1846 -- (Parenti 1984:182 [ref. 5359], Lazara 2001:234 [ref. 25711] as agassizii, Costa in Reis et al. 2003:551 [ref. 27061] as agassizii). Current status: Synonym of Orestias agassii Valenciennes 1846. Cyprinodontidae: Orestiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

variegatus, Cyprinodon Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:486, 487, Pl. 15 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Carolinas, U.S.A. No types known. •Valid as Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepède 1803 , subspecies variegatus Lacepède 1803 -- (Lazara 2001:93 [ref. 25711], Scharpf 2007:33 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:108 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepède 1803 -- (Lee et al. 1980:504 [ref. 22416], Smith 1986:411 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:108 [ref. 23100], Smith 1989:6 [ref. 20182], Page & Burr 1991:226 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:85 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:306 [ref. 23827], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:34 [ref. 22290], Murdy et al. 1997:122 [ref. 23144], Lozano-Vilano & Contreras-Balderas 1999:382 [ref. 23796], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:895 [ref. 23897], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:224 [ref. 24550], Fuller et al. 1999:330 [ref. 25838], Ross et al. 2001:373 [ref. 25978], Wiley & Ghedotti 2003:1160 [ref. 27020], Nelson et al. 2004:109 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:415 [ref. 27995], Miller 2006:310 [ref. 28615], Page & Burr 2011:454 [ref. 31215], Martin & Wainwright 2013:232 [ref. 32978], Pietsch & Orr 2015:29 [ref. 34694], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:28 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:16 [ref. 36738], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:222 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepède 1803. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Massachusetts (U.S.A.) to northeastern Mexico; also Antilles. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

variegatus, Cyprinus Bosc [L. A. G.] in Lacepède 1803:486, 487 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Not available, name in footnote in account of Cyprinodon variegatus. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae.

verecundus, Cyprinodon Humphries [J. M.] 1984:62, Fig. 2 [Copeia 1984 (no. 1); ref. 17432] Chichancanab Lagoon, main body of water, about 3.6 kilometers from northern end of basin, Yucatán, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 207694. Paratypes: UMMZ 207691 (11), 207695 (12), 207692-93 (1, 7), 207696 (1, allotype); UNO 3413. •Valid as Cyprinodon verecundus Humphries 1984 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:34 [ref. 22290], Lazara 2001:96 [ref. 25711], Strecker 2002:302 [ref. 26655], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:550 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:109 [ref. 27807], Strecker 2005:107 [ref. 28252], Miller 2006:311 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:30 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:108 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:29 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:16 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon verecundus Humphries 1984. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Laguna Chichancanab, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

veronicae, Cyprinodon Lozano-Vilano [M. de L.] & Contreras-Balderas [S.] 1993:303, Figs. 3c, 4b [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 4 (no. 4); ref. 21105] Ojo de Agua Charco Azul (= Barreno), 24°09.8'N, 100°03.7'W, Aramberri, Nuevo León, Mexico. Holotype: UANL 8291. Paratypes: AMNH 47838 (2), IBUNAM-P 3236 (2), IPN P4435 (2), TNHC 17463 (2), TU 157271 (2), UAIC 9349.01 (2), UMMZ 215483 (2), UANL 8292-96 (163, 8, 23, 35, 5), USNM 308115 (2). Type catalog: Contreras-Balderas et al. 1998:4 [ref. 23752]. •Valid as Cyprinodon veronicae Lozano-Vilano & Contreras-Balderas 1993 -- (Contreras-Balderas & Lozano-Vilano 1996:35 [ref. 22301], Lozano-Vilano & Contreras-Balderas 1999:382 [ref. 23796], Lazara 2001:96 [ref. 25711], Lozano-Vilano 2002:22 [ref. 27832], Nelson et al. 2004:109 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:311 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:34 [ref. 30398], Page et al. 2013:108 [ref. 32708], Lozano-Vilano & De la Maza-Benignos 2016:29 [ref. 35401], Esmaeili et al. 2018:16 [ref. 36738]). Current status: Valid as Cyprinodon veronicae Lozano-Vilano & Contreras-Balderas 1993. Cyprinodontidae: Cyprinodontinae. Distribution: Ojo de Agua Charco Azul, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.