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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Doradidae: [ 152 ] records


acipenserinus, Oxydoras Günther [A.] 1868:475 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 1 (no. 6) (art. 56); ref. 1992] Xeberos [Jeberos] near río Aipana, Upper Amazon River, Loreto, Peru. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.6.13.32. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:172 [ref. 29155]. Also appeared in Günther 1868:230, Pl. 20 [ref. 5756]. •Valid as Leptodoras acipenserinus (Günther 1868) -- (Böhlke 1970:59 [ref. 7150], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:461 [ref. 27061], Sabaj 2005:658 [ref. 28527], Ferraris 2007:172 [ref. 29155], Birindelli et al. 2008:478 [ref. 29858], Birindelli & Sousa 2010:292 [ref. 30833], Hablützel & Baldiviezo 2012:11 [ref. 34463], Barriga S. 2014:115 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:153, 190 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento 2016:539 [ref. 34727], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:88 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Leptodoras acipenserinus (Günther 1868). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru and ?Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

affinis, Doras Kner [R.] 1855:121 [32], Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 17; ref. 2629] Rio Branco, Rio Guaporé. Syntypes: NMW 46822-23 (2, 2), 46826 (3); ?RMNH 2973 (1). Type information: Van der Stigchel 1947:85 [ref. 13094]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:168 [ref. 29155]. On p. 32 of separate. •Synonym of Amblydoras hancockii (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860] as hancocki). •Valid as Amblydoras affinis (Kner 1855) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:459 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:168 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:115 [ref. 35745], Birindelli 2014:xx [ref. 33501] in Astrodoradinae, Sarmiento et al. 2014:190 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:87 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:77 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Amblydoras affinis (Kner 1855). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia and Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

affinis, Oxydoras Steindachner [F.] 1881:107 [7], Pl. 1 (figs. 1-1a) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 43; ref. 14290] Rio Puty [= rio Poti, Piaui], Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW 45394. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:171 [ref. 29155]. On p. 7 of separate. •Valid as Hassar affinis (Steindachner 1881) -- (Burgess 1989:222 [ref. 12860], de Pinna 1998:307 [ref. 23847], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:461 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:171 [ref. 29155], Birindelli et al. 2011:517 [ref. 31519], Sabaj Pérez & Birindelli 2013:149 [ref. 32562], Birindelli 2014:538 [ref. 33501], Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321], Reis et al. 2016:17 [ref. 34496], Melo et al. 2016:376 [ref. 35317]). Current status: Valid as Hassar affinis (Steindachner 1881). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: River basins in northeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

albomaculatus, Doras Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1877:470 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1877; ref. 18538] Calabozo, Venezuela. Syntypes: ZMB 10043 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:168 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Agamyxis albomaculatus (Peters 1877) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:13 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:458 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:168 [ref. 29155], Birindelli 2014:536 [ref. 33501], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:87 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Agamyxis albomaculatus (Peters 1877). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

amazonum, Rhinodoras Steindachner [F.] 1875:141 [4], Pl. 2 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 71 (no. 1); ref. 15634] Tefé River, Amazonas state, Brazil. Holotype (unique): not yet found at NMW or MCZ. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:170 [ref. 29155]. On p. 4 of separate. The correct spelling of this species is amazonum, a noun that does not decline (see note under Curimatus amazonum). •Synonym of Centrodoras brachiatus (Cope 1872) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:460 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:170 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Centrodoras brachiatus (Cope 1872). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

americanus, Cataphractus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:124, 127 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] America, especially the Carolinas [U.S.A.] [in error]. Lectotype: BMNH 1853.11.12.193. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:167 [ref. 29155]. An unneeded new name for and objective synonym of Silurus cataphractus Linnaeus 1758 (to avoid Strickland tautonomy). Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Cataphractus americanus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Also was based on previous authors (Linnaeus, etc.), but apparently independent of Cataphractus americanus Bloch & Schneider 1801 as no reference was made to Bloch & Schneider. Lectotype selected by Sabaj Pérez 2014:127 [ref. 33305]. •Synonym of Acanthodoras cataphractus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Sabaj Pérez 2014:119 [ref. 33305]) Current status: Synonym of Acanthodoras cataphractus (Linnaeus 1758). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

americanus, Cataphractus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:107, Pl. 28 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] South America. Lectotype: BMNH 1853.11.12.193. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:167 [ref. 29155]. An unneeded new name for and objective synonym of Silurus cataphractus Linnaeus 1758 (to avoid Strickland tautonomy). See Cataphractus americanus Lacepède 1803. Lectotype selected by Sabaj Pérez 2014:119, 126 [ref. 33305]. •Synonym of Acanthodoras cataphractus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:458 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:167 [ref. 29155], Sabaj Pérez 2014:119, 124 [ref. 33305]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthodoras cataphractus (Linnaeus 1758). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

ananas, Physopyxis Sousa [L. M. de] & Rapp Py-Daniel [L. H.] 2005:630, Figs. 5, 8c [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 4); ref. 28463] Rio Jutai, rio Solimões basin, 2°45'40"S, 66°47'59"W, Amazonas State, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 24324. Paratypes: 563 spec. in many lots at ANSP, AUM, INPA, MPEG, MZUSP, and UNAP. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:176 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Physopyxis ananas Sousa & Rapp Py-Daniel 2005 -- (Ferraris 2007:176 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:88 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Physopyxis ananas Sousa & Rapp Py-Daniel 2005. Doradidae: Astrodoradinae. Distribution: Lowlands in entire Amazon River basin and Essequibo River basin. Habitat: freshwater.

angeli, Pterodoras Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1968:65, Fig. 32 [Boletin del Instituto Oceanografico Universidad de Oriente Cumana v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 1325] Río Arauca, Apure, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): AFY 66803 (missing). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:178 [ref. 29155]. Genus misspelled Ptedoras and species angelis in description heading. •Valid as Pterodoras angeli Fernández-Yépez 1968 -- (Burgess 1989:224 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Pterodoras rivasi (Fernández-Yépez 1950) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:465 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:177 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Pterodoras rivasi (Fernández-Yépez 1950). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

apurensis, Sachsdoras Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1968:66, Figs. 33-34 [Boletin del Instituto Oceanografico Universidad de Oriente Cumana v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 1325] Río Orinoco, near mouth of Río Apure, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): AFY 66802 (missing). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:178 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Sachsdoras apurensis Fernández-Yépez 1968 -- (Burgess 1989:224 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Pterodoras rivasi (Fernández-Yépez 1950) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:465 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:178 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Pterodoras rivasi (Fernández-Yépez 1950). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

arleoi, Anduzedoras Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1968:28, Fig. 9 [Boletin del Instituto Oceanografico Universidad de Oriente Cumana v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 1325] Río Autana, east of Puerto Ayacucho, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): FMNH 84068. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:8 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:169 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Anduzedoras arleoi Fernández-Yépez 1968 -- (Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Anduzedoras oxyrhynchus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:459 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:169 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Anduzedoras oxyrhynchus (Valenciennes 1821). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

armatulus, Doras Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:275 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] Río Paraná, but not below 27°30'S, South America. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-4152 (poor condition). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:17 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:176 [ref. 29155]. Misspelled armatus by Bertoni 1914:6 [ref. 16813]. •Valid as Platydoras armatulus (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Burgess 1989:224 [ref. 12860], Britski et al. 1999:117 [ref. 24147], Piorski 1999:19 [ref. 24217], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:464 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:83 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2006:19 [ref. 30386], Ferraris 2007:176 [ref. 29155], Piorski et al. 2008:490 [ref. 29987], Koerber 2011:6 [ref. 31122], Page et al. 2013:82 [ref. 32708], Birindelli 2014:536 [ref. 33501], Koerber 2014:6 [ref. 33621], Sarmiento et al. 2014:155, 190 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:29 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:44 [ref. 35267], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:77 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Platydoras armatulus (Valenciennes 1840). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Paraná River basin: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Paraguay and Uruguay. Introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater.

armatus, Silurus Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:377 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:177 [ref. 29155]. Originally as Silurus (armado) armatus; corresponds to Silurus 12-radiatus on p. 386. Appeared as Silurus armatus vel 12-radiatus in Devincenzi 1925:308, 322 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Doras granulosus (Valenciennes 1821). •Questionably a synonym of Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:465 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:177 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:17 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:29 [ref. 35117]). •Synonym of Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Koerber et al. 2017:44 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes 1821). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

armbrusteri, Rhinodoras Sabaj Pérez [M. H.] in Sabaj Pérez, Taphorn & Castillo G. 2008:215, Figs. 5-7 [Copeia 2008 (no. 1); ref. 29538] Branco River drainage, St. Ignatius, 1.9 miles north-northeast of Lethem, 3°21'21"N, 059°48'19"W, Takutu River, Rupununi, Guyana. Holotype: UG/CSBD [ex ANSP 180411]. ANSP 179095 (1), 179096 (2), 179097 (2), 179694 (1), 180411 (1); AUM 35756 (1), 35757 (2), 38684 (1); INHS 97814 (1); MCNG 49698 (1), MZUSP 83765 (1). •Valid as Rhinodoras armbrusteri Sabaj Pérez 2008. Current status: Valid as Rhinodoras armbrusteri Sabaj Pérez 2008. Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Takutu River basin, draining into the upper Rio Branco and Rupunui River, Essequibo basin: Brazil and Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

ascita, Mystus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:156 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] No locality. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:177 [ref. 29155]. Permanently invalid, preoccupied by Mystus ascita Walbaum 1792; not replaced. •Synonym of Platydoras costatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:464 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:177 [ref. 29155], Piorski et al. 2008:482 [ref. 29987]). Current status: Synonym of Platydoras costatus (Linnaeus 1758). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

asper, Callichthys Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:157 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] American Rivers. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.193 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:213 [ref. 13434] but as holotype, Ferraris 2007:167 [ref. 29155] •Synonym of Doras cataphractus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Wheeler 1958:213 [ref. 13434]). •Synonym of Acanthodoras cataphractus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:458 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:167 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthodoras cataphractus (Linnaeus 1758). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

asterifrons, Doras Kner [R.] 1853:146 [10], Pl. (fig. 4) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 11 [1853]; ref. 18262] Barra do Rio Negro and River Guaporé. Holotype may be one of these: NMW 46412 (1 of 2), 46611 (1 of 6), 58211 (1 of 3); RMNH 2792 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:170 [ref. 29155]. On p. 10 of separate. Based only on a drawing of the swimbladder. Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:459 [ref. 27061] treat syntypes but the description (figure) was based on one specimen. Later described in more detail by Kner 1855:123, Pl. 2 (fig. 2). •Valid as Astrodoras asterifrons (Kner 1853) -- (Burgess 1989:224 [ref. 12860], de Pinna 1998:307 [ref. 23847], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:460 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:170 [ref. 29155], Birindelli 2014:536 [ref. 33501], Sarmiento et al. 2014:190 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:87 [ref. 35633] without species name). Current status: Valid as Astrodoras asterifrons (Kner 1853). Doradidae: Astrodoradinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Bolivia, Colombia and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

asterophysa, Ossancora Birindelli [J. L. O.] & Sabaj Pérez [M. H.] 2011:119, Figs. 1, 3, 4, 5I-L, 6A, 7-9 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 161; ref. 31591] Urucará, rio Amazonas, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 105279. Paratypes: many at ANSP, CAS, INPA, MZUSP, ROM. Plus many non-type specimens. The name asterophysa is an adjective. •Valid as Ossancora asterophysa Birindelli & Sabaj Pérez 2011 -- (Birindelli 2014:538 [ref. 33501], Sarmiento et al. 2014:190 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Ossancora asterophysa Birindelli & Sabaj Pérez 2011. Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Lowland areas in the Amazon River basin: Bolivia, Brazil and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

atripes, Trachydoras Eigenmann [C. H.] 1925:339, Pls. 2 (5), 18 (6-8), 26 (4) [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 22 (pt 5); ref. 1244] Brook near Río Itaya, above Iquitos, Peru. Holotype: CAS 60234 [ex IU 15877]. Paratypes: CAS 60235 [ex IU 16006] (2), CM 7204 (2, whereabouts unknown). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:179 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Trachydoras atripes Eigenmann 1925 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:13 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Trachydoras steindachneri (Perugia 1897) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:466 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:179 [ref. 29155], Sabaj & Arce H. 2017:27 [ref. 35518]). Current status: Synonym of Trachydoras steindachneri (Perugia 1897). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

bachi, Oxydoras Boulenger [G. A.] 1898:423, Pl. 40 (fig. 3) [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 14 (pt 7, no. 2); ref. 543] Rio Juruá, Brazil. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1897.12.1.46. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:174 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Nemadoras bachi (Boulenger 1898) -- (Burgess 1989:224 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Nemadoras humeralis (Kner 1855) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:463 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:174 [ref. 29155], Sabaj Pérez et al. 2014:147 [ref. 33303]). Current status: Synonym of Nemadoras humeralis (Kner 1855). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

bahiensis, Kalyptodoras Higuchi [H.], Britski [H. A.] & Garavello [J. C.] 1990:222, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 1 (no. 3).; ref. 13602] Rio Paraguaçu, downstream from Bananeiras dam, 12°32'05"S, 38°29'30"W to 12°35'50"S, 39°05'15"W, Bahia State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 38565. Paratypes: MCZ 91101 [ex MZUSP 38567] (1, partially dissected), MZUSP 38566 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:172 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Kalyptodoras bahiensis Higuchi, Britski & Garavello 1990 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:166 [ref. 22901], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:461 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:172 [ref. 29155], Birindelli 2014:536 [ref. 33501]). Current status: Valid as Kalyptodoras bahiensis Higuchi, Britski & Garavello 1990. Doradidae: Wertheimerinae. Distribution: Paraguaçu River basin in Bahia State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

birindellii, Platydoras Sousa [L. M. de], Chaves [M. S.], Akama [A.], Zuanon [J.] & Sabaj Pérez [M. H.] 2018:2, Figs. 1-2, 3C-F, 6 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 166 (no. 1) [for 2017]; ref. 36000] Rio Xingu, Pedra Preta, São Félix do Xingu, Pará, Brazil, 6°57'31"S, 52°15'27"W. Holotype: INPA 57507 [ex LIA 1296]. Paratypes: ANSP, INHS, INPA, LIA, MNRJ, MPEG, MZUEL, MZUSP, ROM. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Platydoras birindellii Sousa, Chaves, Akama, Zuanon & Sabaj 2018. Current status: Valid as Platydoras birindellii Sousa, Chaves, Akama, Zuanon & Sabaj 2018. Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Xingu River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

blochii, Doras Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:277 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] South America [not stated]. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:167 [ref. 29155]. On Cataphractus americanus of Bloch & Schneider 1801:107, Pl. 28. •Synonym of Acanthodoras cataphractus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:458 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:167 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthodoras cataphractus (Linnaeus 1758). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

boehlkei, Rhinodoras Glodek [G. S.], Whitmire [G. L.] & Orcés V. [G.] 1976:3, Figs. 1-2, 3A [Fieldiana Zoology v. 70 (no. 1); ref. 7068] Río Bobonaza between Montalvo and Chicherato, Ecuador. Holotype: FMNH 79203. Paratypes: EPN uncat. (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:75 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:178 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhinodoras boehlkei Glodek, Whitmire & Orcés V. 1976 -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:465 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:178 [ref. 29155], Sabaj et al. 2008:224 [ref. 29538], Barriga S. 2014:115 [ref. 35745] as boelkei, Birindelli 2014:536 [ref. 33501], Sarmiento et al. 2014:190 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Rhinodoras boehlkei Glodek, Whitmire & Orcés V. 1976. Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

bolivarensis, Hildadoras Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1968:43, Fig. 18 [Boletin del Instituto Oceanografico Universidad de Oriente Cumana v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 1325] Quebrada El Pilón, east of Río Parguaza, tributary of Río Orinoco, Venezuela. Holotype: FMNH 84067 [ex AFY 66121]. Paratypes: FMNH 84070 [ex MAC 54094] (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:46 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:168 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Hildadoras bolivarensis Fernández-Yépez 1968 -- (Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Amblydoras bolivarensis (Fernández-Yépez 1968) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:459 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:168 [ref. 29155], Birindelli 2014:xx [ref. 33501] in Astrodoradinae, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:87 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:77 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Amblydoras bolivarensis (Fernández-Yépez 1968). Doradidae: Astrodoradinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

boulengeri, Hemidoras (Leptodoras) Steindachner [F.] 1915:218 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 52 (no. 18); ref. 18909] Mouth of Rio Negro, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW (not found in 2006). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:175 [ref. 29155]. Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1917:77 [p. 63 of separate] Pl. 8 (figs. 1-3); this main work was released as a separate in 1915 [ref. 4244]. •Valid as Opsodoras boulengeri (Steindachner 1915) -- (Burgess 1989:222 [ref. 12860], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:463 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:175 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:115 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:190 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Opsodoras boulengeri (Steindachner 1915). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Ecuador, Bolivia, Colombia and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

brachiatus, Doras Cope [E. D.] 1872:270 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 23; ref. 921] Between mouths of Rio Negro, Brazil and Rio Huallaga, Peru. Holotype (unique): ANSP 8342. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:99 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:170 [ref. 29155] Appeared first as name only in Cope 1871:55 [ref. 19538]. •Valid as Centrodoras brachiatus (Cope 1872) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:13 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:224 [ref. 12860], Camargo & Isaac 2001:145 [ref. 27639], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:460 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:170 [ref. 29155], Birindelli 2014:536 [ref. 33501], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:88 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Centrodoras brachiatus (Cope 1872). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

brachylecis, Platydoras Piorski [N. M.], Garavello [J. C.], Arce H. [M.] & Sabaj Pérez [M. H.] 2008:485, Figs. 3-4 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 29987] Lago dos Viana, Pindaré-Mearim River system, 3°13'S, 45°10'W, Maranhão, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 43593. Paratypes: many at ANSP, AUM, LISDEBE, MCP, MNRJ, MZUSP. •Valid as Platydoras brachylecis Piorski, Garavello, Arce H. & Sabaj Pérez 2008 -- (Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321], Melo et al. 2016:376 [ref. 35317]). Current status: Valid as Platydoras brachylecis Piorski, Garavello, Arce H. & Sabaj Pérez 2008. Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Northeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

brevis, Doras (Corydoras) Kner [R.] 1853:146, Fig. 8 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 11 [1853]; ref. 18262] Rio Negro, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 46375. Paralectotypes: NMW 45397-99 (5), 46375 (1); RMNH 2965 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:179 [ref. 29155] wrongly with types. On p. 10 of separate. Available from illustration of swimbladder (see Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:466 [ref. 27061]). Later described in more detail in Kner 1855:138, Pl. 6 (fig. 11). Lectotype selected by Sabaj & Arce H. 2017:14 [ref. 35518]. •Valid as Doras brevis Kner 1853 -- (Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Trachydoras brevis (Kner 1853) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:466 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:179 [ref. 29155], Birindelli 2014:538 [ref. 33501], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Sabaj & Arce H. 2017:14 [ref. 35518]). Current status: Valid as Trachydoras brevis (Kner 1853). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Amazon and Essequibo River basins: Brazil and Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

brunnescens, Doras Jardine [W.] in Schomburgk 1841:163 [The Natural history of fishes of Guiana; ref. 18707] Upper Essequibo River, Guyana. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:168 [ref. 29155]. Based on a drawing. Considered a nomen oblitum by Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:458 [ref. 27061]. •Synonym of Acanthodoras spinosissimus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:458 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:168 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthodoras spinosissimus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

calderonensis, Doras Vaillant [L. L.] 1880:154 [13] [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 4; ref. 17855] Calderon, upper Amazon River [= Rio Solimões at Tabatinga], Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-1980. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:18 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:179 [ref. 29155]. On p. 13 of separate. Comments on locality are given by Sousa & Birindelli 2011:135 [ref. 31228]. •Valid as Acanthodoras calderonensis (Vaillant 1880) -- (Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860], Sousa & Birindelli 2011:133 [ref. 31228]). •Synonym of Scorpiodoras heckelii (Kner 1855) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:466 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:179 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpiodoras heckelii (Kner 1855). Doradidae: Astrodoradinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon basin. Habitat: freshwater.

carinatus, Silurus Linnaeus [C.] 1766:504 [Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2786] Lawa River (Maroni drainage) about 8 kilometers south-southwest of Anapaike/Kawemhakan, 3°19'31"N, 54°03'48"W, Sipakawini, Suriname. Neotype: ANSP 187114. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:171 [ref. 29155]. Neotype designated by Sabaj-Pérez & Birindelli 2008:199 [ref. 29739]. •Valid as Doras carinatus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860], Le Bail et al. 2000:42 [ref. 24549], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:460 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:171 [ref. 29155], Sabaj Pérez & Birindelli 2008:197 [ref. 29739], Birindelli 2014:538 [ref. 33501], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[22] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Doras carinatus (Linnaeus 1766). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Essequibo River basin and other coastal drainages to mouth of Amazon River: Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

castaneoventris, Doras Jardine [W.] in Schomburgk 1841:161, Pl. 3 [The Natural history of fishes of Guiana; ref. 18707] Río Pasawiri, Guyana. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:168 [ref. 29155]. Spelled castaneo-ventris originally. •Species inquirenda in genus Acanthodoras -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:458 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:168 [ref. 29155]). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

castilloi, Rhynchodoras Birindelli [J. L. O.], Sabaj Pérez [M. H.] & Taphorn [D. C.] 2007:673, Figs. 1, 3B [Copeia 2007 (no. 3); ref. 29263] Caño Bravo, Apure-Orinoco drainage, about 60 kilometers west-northwest of San Fernando de Apure, 8°00'N, 67°59'W, Barinas, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 54510. Paratypes: ANSP 181181 (3); AUM 44237; FMNH 117222 (2); INPA 25826 (2); MBUCV 32900 (2); MCNG 44301 (2), 49400 (1), 49465 (1), 45977 (1), 49301 (1), 49338 (2), 52609 (11); MHNLS 18844 (2); MZUSP 88604 (2); UF 162301 (2). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Rhynchodoras castilloi Birindelli, Sabaj Pérez & Taphorn 2007 -- (Birindelli 2014:536 [ref. 33501]). Current status: Valid as Rhynchodoras castilloi Birindelli, Sabaj Pérez & Taphorn 2007. Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Middle and lower Apure River, Orinoco River basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

cataniai, Leptodoras Sabaj Pérez [M. H.] 2005:667, Figs. 4g, 5g, 6b, 18e and 22 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 4); ref. 28527] Río Casiquiare from mouth of río Pamoni to 4 kilometers below mouth, west of Pamoni, 2°48'N, 65°57'W, Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype: ANSP 180918. Paratypes: lots at AMNH, ANSP, CAS, FMNH, INPA, MBUCV-V, MCNG, MCP, MCZ, MZUSP and UNT. Plus extensive non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:172 [ref. 29155]. See Sabaj 2005:671 [ref. 28527] for details on distribution and specimens of cf. cataniai. •Valid as Leptodoras cataniai Sabaj Pérez 2005 -- (Ferraris 2007:172 [ref. 29155], Birindelli et al. 2008:478 [ref. 29858], Birindelli & Sousa 2010:292 [ref. 30833]). Current status: Valid as Leptodoras cataniai Sabaj Pérez 2005. Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Amazon River drainage: Brazil and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

cataphractus, Silurus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:307 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] America (in error). Lectotype: BMNH 1853.11.12.193. Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:213 [ref. 13434], Ferraris 2007:167 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype designated by Sabaj Pérez 2014:126 [ref. 33305]. •Valid as Acanthodoras cataphractus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860], Le Bail et al. 2000:38 [ref. 24549], Diogo et al. 2004:187 [ref. 27881], Ferraris 2007:167 [ref. 29155], Birindelli 2014:536 [ref. 33501], Sabaj Pérez 2014:119 [ref. 33305], Sarmiento et al. 2014:190 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:87 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Acanthodoras cataphractus (Linnaeus 1758). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, coastal drainages of French Guiana and Suriname: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

copei, Anduzedoras Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1968:31, Fig. 10 [Boletin del Instituto Oceanografico Universidad de Oriente Cumana v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 1325] Lagoon along Río Capanaparo, Orinoco drainage, Apure, Venezuela. Holotype: FMNH 84069 [ex AFY 51.311]. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:9 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:172 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Anduzedoras copei Fernández-Yépez 1968 -- (Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Leptodoras copei (Fernández-Yépez 1968) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:462 [ref. 27061], Sabaj 2005:649 [ref. 28527], Ferraris 2007:172 [ref. 29155], Birindelli et al. 2008:478 [ref. 29858], Birindelli & Sousa 2010:292 [ref. 30833], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[23] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Leptodoras copei (Fernández-Yépez 1968). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Orinoco, Negro, and Amazon River basins: Brazil, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

costatus, Silurus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:306 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] "Indiis" [South America]. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:176 [ref. 29155]. See Piorski et al. 2008:481 [ref. 29987] for link to Mystus ascita Gronow 1854 and remarks on type locality. •Valid as Platydoras costatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:13 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:224 [ref. 12860], Gómez & Chebez 1996:57 [ref. 23791], Piorski 1999:19 [ref. 24217], Fuller et al. 1999:213 [ref. 25838], Le Bail et al. 2000:48 [ref. 24549], Lasso et al. 2001:98 [ref. 25928], López et al. 2003:54 [ref. 27366], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:464 [ref. 27061], Menni 2004:82 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:176 [ref. 29155], Piorski et al. 2008:491 [ref. 29987], Koerber 2011:9 [ref. 31122] as not in Argentina, Barriga S. 2014:115 [ref. 35745], Koerber 2014:6 [ref. 33621], Sarmiento et al. 2014:155, 190 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento 2016:539 [ref. 34727], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[23] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Platydoras costatus (Linnaeus 1758). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Amazon, Tocantins, Parnaíba, Orinoco and Essequibo River basins and coastal drainages in French Guiana and Suriname: Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, ?Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela. But perhaps only coastal drainages of Suriname and French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

cristata, Physopyxis Sousa [L. M. de] & Rapp Py-Daniel [L. H.] 2005:632, Figs. 7, 8a [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 4); ref. 28463] Mouth of igarapé Zamula, rio Negro, Amazonas State, Brazil, 0°51'48"S, 62°46'44"W. Holotype: INPA 24325. Paratypes: ANSP 180960 (2), INPA 20193 (2), 20194 (1), 21915 (1), 25061 (1), 25062 (9, 2 c&s), 25063 (1); MZUSP 76209 (2), 76210 (2)76211 (1) Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:176 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Physopyxis cristata Sousa & Rapp Py-Daniel 2005 -- (Ferraris 2007:176 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Physopyxis cristata Sousa & Rapp Py-Daniel 2005. Doradidae: Astrodoradinae. Distribution: Middle portion of Negro River basin, Amazonas State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

cristinae, Nemadoras Sabaj Pérez [M. H.], Arce H. [M.], Sousa [L. M. de] & Birindelli [J. L. O.] 2014:135, Figs. 1C, 2-4, 7A, 8A [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 163; ref. 33303] Rondônia: rio Madeira, beach immediately downstream of Cachoeira Caldeirão do Inferno [now just below Usina Hidrelétrica de Jirau], 9°15’30'S, 64°38’28'W, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 25659. Paratypes: Many at AMNH, AUM, CAS, FMNH, IAvH, ICNMHN, INHS, LACM, MBUCV-V, MCNG, MCP, MNRJ, MUSM, MZUEL, MZUSP, NMW, ROM, UF, UFRO-I, UNT. Plus non-type specimens. Type catalog: DoNascimiento et al. 2016:410 [ref. 34787]. •Valid as Nemadoras cristinae Sabaj Pérez, Arce H., Sousa & Birindelli 2014 -- (DoNascimiento et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35633]). •Valid as Tenellus cristinae (Sabaj Pérez, Arce H., Sousa & Birindelli 2014) -- (Birindelli & Sousa 2017:232 [ref. 35823]). Current status: Valid as Tenellus cristinae (Sabaj Pérez, Arce H., Sousa & Birindelli 2014). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Brazil, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

crocodili, Doras Humboldt [F. H. A. von] in Humboldt & Valenciennes 1821:181, Pl. 48 (fig. 2) [Voyage de Humboldt et Bonpland v. 2 (Title page 1833); ref. 5612] Río Magdalena, Colombia. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:170 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Centrochir crocodili (Humboldt 1821) -- (Burgess 1989:225 [ref. 12860], Nico 2001:144 [ref. 25828], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:460 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:170 [ref. 29155], Birindelli 2014:536 [ref. 33501], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:88 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Centrochir crocodili (Humboldt 1821). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Magdalena River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

dentatus, Doras Kner [R.] 1855:118 [29], Pl. 3 (fig. 3) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 17; ref. 2629] Suriname. Holotype (unique): NMW 46869. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:177 [ref. 29155]. On p. 29 of separate. •Valid as Platydoras dentatus (Kner 1855) -- (Burgess 1989:224 [ref. 12860], Le Bail et al. 2000:50 [ref. 24549]). •Questionably a synonym of Platydoras costatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:464 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:177 [ref. 29155], Piorski et al. 2008:482 [ref. 29987]). Current status: Synonym of Platydoras costatus (Linnaeus 1758). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

depressus, Doras (Rhinodoras) Steindachner [F.] 1881:103 [3], Pl. 1 (figs. 3-3a) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 43; ref. 14290] Lago Aleixo rapids in the middle of the Amazon River. Holotype (unique): NMW 46870. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:167 [ref. 29155]. On p. 3 of separate. •Valid as Acanthodoras depressus (Steindachner 1881) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:458 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:167 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:87 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Acanthodoras depressus (Steindachner 1881). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Amazon and Negro River basins, Brazil and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

dorbignyi, Doras (Oxydoras) Kner [R.] (ex Krøyer) 1855:149 [60], Pl. 5 (fig. 9) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 17; ref. 2629] Rio de la Plata, South America. Holotype (unique): NMW 44555. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:178 [ref. 29155]. On p. 60 of separate. Spelled d'orbigny in description but 3 times as d'orbignyi in introduction to doradids; Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:465 [ref. 27061] serve as first revisers selecting dorbignyi. •Valid as Rhinodoras dorbignyi (Kner 1855) -- (Gómez & Chebez 1996:57 [ref. 23791], Sverlij et al. 1998:50 [ref. 27632] as Kröyer 1855, Britski et al. 1999:120 [ref. 24147], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:465 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:55 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:82 [ref. 28131] as dorbgnyi, Ferraris 2007:178 [ref. 29155], Sabaj et al. 2008:225 [ref. 29538], Birindelli 2014:536 [ref. 33501], Litz & Koerber 2014:17 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:29 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:416 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:33 [ref. 35565] with author as Kröyer, Koerber et al. 2017:45 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Rhinodoras dorbignyi (Kner 1855). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Paraguay-Paraná River basin: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

dorsalis, Doras Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:284 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] America [Brazil] and ?Cayenne, French Guiana. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4156 (1) Brazil. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:173 [ref. 29155]. Keith & Merona 2000:101 et seq. [ref. 24496] treat MNHN 4156 as the name-bearing paratype (p. 101, abstract and 102), and as the lectotype (p. 102 in table 1), and incorrectly treat a holotype [the specimen from the Cabinet du Roi] on which most of the description was based in 1840. Technically, the original description was based on 2 specimens (syntypes) and no holotype was established. One specimen [MNHN 4156] was collected by Humboldt, the second specimen supposedly from Cayenne is apparently lost. Designation of MNHN 4156 as lectotype would be appropriate, however, the mention of lectotype in table 1 without a statement as to the taxonomic purpose of the designation (after 1999) means their lectotype designation is invalid. We continue to treat 4156 as the surviving syntype. However, this species perhaps dates to Cuvier and Valenciennes 1837:186, Pl. 62 (fig. 2) [ref. 26488]. This interpretation differs from Ferraris 2007:173 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Lithodoras dorsalis (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Keith & Merona 2000:101 [ref. 24496], Le Bail et al. 2000:46 [ref. 24549], Camargo & Isaac 2001:145 [ref. 27639], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:462 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:173 [ref. 29155], Birindelli 2014:536 [ref. 33501], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:88 [ref. 35633] as Lithotodoras). Current status: Valid as Lithodoras dorsalis (Valenciennes 1840). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin and estuary near Cayenne: Brazil, Colombia and French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

duodecimradiatus, Silurus Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:386 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:177 [ref. 29155]. Corresponds to Silurus armatus on p. 377. Appeared as Silurus armatus vel 12-radiatus in Devincenzi 1925:308, 322 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Doras granulosus Valenciennes 1821. •Synonym of Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Ferraris 2007:177 [ref. 29155] with question, Litz & Koerber 2014:17 [ref. 33622] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:29 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:44 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes 1821). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

edentatus, Corydoras Spix [J. B. von] in Spix & Agassiz 1829:Pl. 5 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Holotype: Whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:176 [ref. 29155]. Published in the synonymy of Doras humboldti but name available from the plate. •Questionably in the synonymy of Oxydoras niger (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:464 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:176 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Oxydoras niger (Valenciennes 1821). Doradidae: Doradinae.

eigenmanni, Orinocodoras Myers [G. S.] 1927:124 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 68 (no. 3); ref. 3096] Caño de Quiribana near Caicara, Venezuela. Holotype: CAS-SU 58747 [ex IU 17689]. Paratypes: CAS 60706 [ex IU 17690] (orig. 4, now 2), CAS-SU 18077 [ex IU 17690] (1), MCZ 31575 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:42 [ref. 12291], Ferraris 2007:175 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Orinocodoras eigenmanni Myers 1927 -- (Burgess 1989:224 [ref. 12860], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:464 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:175 [ref. 29155], Birindelli 2014:536 [ref. 33501], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Orinocodoras eigenmanni Myers 1927. Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

eigenmanni, Oxydoras Boulenger [G. A.] 1895:524 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1895 (pt 3); ref. 14576] Rio Paraguai at Fazenda Descalvados, ca. 16°43'58"S, 57°44'56"W, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Lectotype: BMNH 1895.5.17.53. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1895.5.17.50-52 (3). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:167 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Birindelli & Sabaj Pérez 2011:130 [ref. 31591]. •Valid as Doras eigenmanni (Boulenger 1895) -- (Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860], Azpelicueta & Garcia 1994:30 [ref. 24733], Chang & Ortega 1995:3 [ref. 24302], Britski et al. 1999:123 [ref. 24147], Menni 2004:82 [ref. 28131]). •Species incertae sedis in Doradidae -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:458 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:54 [ref. 27366], Ferraris 2007:167 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Ossancora eigenmanni (Boulenger 1895) -- (Birindelli & Sabaj Pérez 2011:130 [ref. 31591], Birindelli 2014:538 [ref. 33501], Koerber 2014:6 [ref. 33621], Sarmiento et al. 2014:190 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:28 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:43 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Ossancora eigenmanni (Boulenger 1895). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Upper Paraguay River basin and one site in the rio Paraná: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

elongatus, Oxydoras Boulenger [G. A.] 1898:424, Pl. 40 (fig. 4) [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 14 (pt 7, no. 2); ref. 543] Rio Juruá, Brazil. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1897.12.1.47 [= 1971.4.13.1]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:174 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Nemadoras elongatus (Boulenger 1898) -- (Burgess 1989:224 [ref. 12860], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:463 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:174 [ref. 29155], Sabaj Pérez et al. 2014:143 [ref. 33303], Birindelli 2014:538 [ref. 33501], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Nemadoras elongatus (Boulenger 1898). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

fimbriatus, Doras Kner [R.] 1855:134 [45], Pl. 3 (fig. 5) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 17; ref. 2629] Rio Guaporé, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 45409. Paralectotypes: NMW 45407-08 (2, 1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:166 [ref. 29155]. On p. 45 of separate. Appeared first as Doras loricatus Kner 1853 as name with figure of a swimbladder; this description not treated as valid since 1899 and, therefore, is considered a nomen oblitum -- Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:458 [ref. 27061]; Doras fimbriatus is a nomen protectum. Lectotype selected by Birindelli & Sabaj Pérez 2011:134, 138 [ref. 31591]. •Valid as Doras fimbriatus Kner 1855 -- (Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860]). •Incertae sedis in Doradidae -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:458 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:167 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Ossancora fimbriata (Kner 1855) -- (Birindelli & Sabaj Pérez 2011:133 [ref. 31591], Birimndelli 2014:538 [ref. 33501], Sarmiento et al. 2014:190 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Ossancora fimbriata (Kner 1855). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Lowland areas in the Amazon River basin: Bolivia and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

flavopictus, Doras (Agamyxis) Steindachner [F.] 1908:84 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 45 (no. 7) (for 20 Feb. 1908); ref. 18801] Iquitos, Peru. Syntypes: NMW 46598-99 (1, 1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:168 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Agamyxis pectinifrons (Cope 1870) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:458 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:168 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Agamyxis pectinifrons (Cope 1870). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

forficulatus, Hypodoras Eigenmann [C. H.] 1925:330, Pls. 4 (fig. 1), 25 (3) [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 22 (pt 5); ref. 1244] Iquitos, Amazon, Peru. Holotype (unique): CAS 37246 [ex IU 15876]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:172 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hypodoras forficulatus Eigenmann 1925 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:13 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:461 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:172 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:115 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:88 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hypodoras forficulatus Eigenmann 1925. Doradidae: Astrodoradinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Ecuador, Peru and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

gabiru, Hassar Birindelli [J. L. O.], Fayal [D. F.] & Wosiacki [W. B.] 2011:520, Figs. 7-8 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 9 (no. 3); ref. 31519] Rio Curuá, Iriri drainage at Vila Castelo dos Sonhos, 8°19'07"Sm, 55°05'23W, Altamira, PA, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 108440. Paratypes: many at ANSP, INPA, MPEG, MZUSP. The specific name is a noun, the nickname of Leandro Melo de Sousa. •Valid as Hassar gabiru Birindelli, Fayal & Wosiacki 2011 -- (Sabaj Pérez & Birindelli 2013:150 [ref. 32562], Birindelli 2014:538 [ref. 33501]). Current status: Valid as Hassar gabiru Birindelli, Fayal & Wosiacki 2011. Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

gallagheri, Rhinodoras Sabaj Pérez [M. H.], Taphorn [D. C.] & Castillo G. [O. E.] 2008:221, Figs. 4A, 5, 8 [Copeia 2008 (no. 1); ref. 29538] Between Río Portuguesa mouth and San Fernando de Apure airport, 7°54'N, 067°32'W, Orinoco drainage, Río Apure, Apure State, Venezuela. Holotype: ANSP 165233. Paratypes: ANSP 179102 (2); AUM 42735 (1); FMNH 116466 (1); INPA 24643 (1); MBUCV-V-14505 (4), -32700 (1); MCNG 13873 (1), 20079 (1), 32701 (3), 32702 (1), 32703 (1), 32705 (1), 37361 (1), 37415 (1), 39828 (1); MCP 37702 (1); MZUSP 83766 (1), 87692 (1). Type catalog: DoNascimiento et al. 2016:410 [ref. 34787]. •Valid as Rhinodoras gallagheri Sabaj Pérez, Taphorn & Castillo G. 2008 -- (DoNascimiento et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Rhinodoras gallagheri Sabaj Pérez, Taphorn & Castillo G. 2008. Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

gepharti, Trachydoras Sabaj Pérez [M. H.] & Arce H. [M.] 2017:6, Figs. 2B, 3B, 4B, 5B, 6, 7 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 166 (no. 1); ref. 35518] Río Ventuari, Raudales Tencua, 56 km east-southeast of San Juan de Manapiare, Amazonas, Venezuela, 5°2'59"N, 65°37'38"W. Holotype: ANSP 203169. Paratypes: AMNH, AMS, ANSP, AUM, BMNH, CAS, CIUA, CSIRO, CUMV, CZUT, FMNH, FRLM, IAvH, ICNMHN, INHS, INPA, LACM, LIA, MCNG, MCP, MCZ, MNHN, MSNG, MUSM, MZUEL, MZUSP, NMNZ, NMW, RMNH, ROM, SAIAB, SIO, UAM, UMMZ, UNMF, UNT, USNM, VIMS, YPM, ZUEC. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Trachydoras gepharti Sabaj Pérez & Arce H. 2017. Current status: Valid as Trachydoras gepharti Sabaj Pérez & Arce H. 2017. Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco basins, Brazil, Guyana, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

gonzalezi, Zathorax Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1968:70, Fig. 36 [Boletin del Instituto Oceanografico Universidad de Oriente Cumana v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 1325] Laguna Punta Vista, edge of Río Caroní, Estado Bolívar, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-3940 [ex AFY 66119]. Paratypes: MBUCV-V-3941 [ex AFY 66120] (6). Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:19 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:168 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Zathorax gonzalezi Fernández-Yépez 1968 -- (Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Amblydoras gonzalezi (Fernández-Yépez 1968) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:459 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:168 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:88 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Amblydoras gonzalezi (Fernández-Yépez 1968). Doradidae: Astrodoradinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin and Casiquiare Canal: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

granulosus, Doras Valenciennes [A.] in Humboldt & Valenciennes 1821:184 [Voyage de Humboldt et Bonpland v. 2 (Title page 1833); ref. 5612] South America. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-4187. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:17 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:177 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:13 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:224 [ref. 12860], Gómez & Chebez 1996:57 [ref. 23791], Sverlij et al. 1998:49 [ref. 27632] dated 1833, Britski et al. 1999:117 [ref. 24147], Fuller et al. 1999:213 [ref. 25838], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:465 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:54 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:82 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:177 [ref. 29155], Birindelli 2014:536 [ref. 33501], Litz & Koerber 2014:17 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:156, 190 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:29 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:416 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:33 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:44 [ref. 35267], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes 1821). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Amazon and Paraná River basins and coastal drainages in Guyana and Suriname: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

grypus, Doras Cope [E. D.] 1872:270, Pl. 15 (figs. 1, 1a) [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 23; ref. 921] Río Ambyiacu, Peru. Syntypes: ANSP 8345 (1), 16460 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:99 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:169 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Anadoras grypus (Cope 1872) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:13 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:224 [ref. 12860], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:459 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:169 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:115 [ref. 35745], Birindelli 2014:536 [ref. 33501], Sarmiento et al. 2014:190 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:88 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Anadoras grypus (Cope 1872). Doradidae: Astrodoradinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

guayoensis, Deltadoras Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1968:37, Fig. 14 [Boletin del Instituto Oceanografico Universidad de Oriente Cumana v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 1325] Caño de Guayo, Delta Amacuro, Estado Delta, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): MBUCV-V-15211 [ex AFY 54818]. Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:7 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:174 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Deltadoras guayoensis Fernández-Yépez 1968 -- (Burgess 1989:224 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Megalodoras guayoensis (Fernández-Yépez 1968) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:462 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:173 [ref. 29155], Birindelli 2014:536 [ref. 33501]). Current status: Valid as Megalodoras guayoensis (Fernández-Yépez 1968). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

hancockii, Doras Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:279 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] Demerara River, Guyana. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1857.6.13.163. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:177 [ref. 29155]. Based on Doras costatus of Hancock. •Valid as Amblydoras hancockii (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:13 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860] as hancocki, Le Bail et al. 2000:40 [ref. 24549], Lasso et al. 2001:98 [ref. 25928] as hancocki, Barriga S. 2014:115 [ref. 35745]). •Species inquirenda in Platydoras Bleeker 1862 -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:465 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:177 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Platydoras hancockii (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Piorski et al. 2008:490 [ref. 29987], Sarmiento et al. 2014:155, 190 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Platydoras hancockii (Valenciennes 1840). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Brazil, Ecuador, Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

hasemani, Hemidoras Steindachner [F.] 1915:218 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 52 (no. 18); ref. 18909] Rio Branco at Boa Vista, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 46381. Paralectotypes: NMW [ex 46381] (3), 46382-85 (4, 5, 1, 1), 46470 (3). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:172 [ref. 29155]. Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1917:75 [p. 61 of separate], Pl. 10 (figs. 4-7) [ref. 15259]; this main work was released as a separate in 1915 [ref. 4244]. Lectotype selected by Sabaj 2005:654 [ref. 28527] •Valid as Leptodoras hasemani (Steindachner 1915) -- (Burgess 1989:222 [ref. 12860], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:462 [ref. 27061], Sabaj 2005:653 [ref. 28527], Ferraris 2007:172 [ref. 29155], Birindelli et al. 2008:478 [ref. 29858], Birindelli & Sousa 2010:292 [ref. 30833]). Current status: Valid as Leptodoras hasemani (Steindachner 1915). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Branco, Orinoco and Essequibo River basins: Brazil, Guyana and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

hasemani, Oxydoras (Rhinodoras) amazonum var. Steindachner [F.] 1915:68 [54] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse. v. 93; ref. 4244] Rio Negro, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW (not found in 2006). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:170 [ref. 29155]. On p. 54 of separate; also in Steindachner 1917 [ref. 15259]. Species not listed in earlier abstract [ref. 18909]. •Valid as Centrodoras hasemani (Steindachner 1915) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:460 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:170 [ref. 29155], Birindelli 2014:536 [ref. 33501], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:88 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Centrodoras hasemani (Steindachner 1915). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

heckelii, Doras Kner [R.] 1855:125 [36], Pl. 3 (fig. 4) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 17; ref. 2629] Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW 46613. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:178 [ref. 29155]. On p. 36 of separate. •Valid as Scorpiodoras heckelii (Kner 1855) -- (Burgess 1989:224 [ref. 12860], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:466 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:178 [ref. 29155], Sousa & Birindelli 2011:122 [ref. 31228], Birindelli 2014:536 [ref. 33501], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:88 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Scorpiodoras heckelii (Kner 1855). Doradidae: Astrodoradinae. Distribution: Negro, Orinoco and upper Amazon River basins: Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

helicophilus, Doras Günther [A.] 1868:475 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 7; ref. 1990] Maroni River, Suriname. Syntypes: BMNH 1866.8.10.1-3 (3). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:177 [ref. 29155]. Also published in Günther (Sept.) 1868:229 [ref. 5756]. •Valid as Platydoras helicophilus (Günther 1868) -- (Burgess 1989:224 [ref. 12860]). •Questionably a synonym of Platydoras costatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:464 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:177 [ref. 29155], Piorski et al. 2008:482 [ref. 29987]). Current status: Synonym of Platydoras costatus (Linnaeus 1758). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

hemipeltis, Opsodoras Eigenmann [C. H.] 1925:349, Pls. 19 (fig. 2), 24 (fig. 6) [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 22 (pt 5); ref. 1244] Río Ucayali at Contamana, Peru. Holotype (unique): CAS 60236 [ex IU 15879]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:174 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Opsodoras hemipeltis Eigenmann 1925 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:13 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:222 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Nemadoras hemipeltis (Eigenmann 1925) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:463 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:174 [ref. 29155], Sabaj Pérez et al. 2014:145 [ref. 33303], Birindelli 2014:538 [ref. 33501], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Nemadoras hemipeltis (Eigenmann 1925). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

higuchii, Doras Sabaj Pérez [M. H.] & Birindelli [J. L. O.] 2008:215, Figs. 2E, 3A, 6C-D, 7, 13 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 157; ref. 29739] Rio Curuám (Iriri-Xingú Drainage), near town of Castelo dos Sonhos, 8°19'07"S, 55°05'23"W, Altamira Municipality, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 96333. Paratypes: ANSP 181056 (6, 1 c&s), 181057 (1), 187378 (1), 187491 (1); INPA 4051 (6), 4052 (6); MNHN 1999-0020 (1); MZUSP 82297 (3), 86887 (5), 87025 (17), 87055 (2), 96334 (1, skeleton). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Doras higuchii Sabaj Pérez & Birindelli 2008 -- (Birindelli 2014:538 [ref. 33501]). Current status: Valid as Doras higuchii Sabaj Pérez & Birindelli 2008. Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Tributaries of the lower Amazon River, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

holdeni, Oxydoras Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1968:54, Figs. 24-26 [Boletin del Instituto Oceanografico Universidad de Oriente Cumana v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 1325] Río Apure, Venezuela. Holotype: AFY 51265 (missing). Paratypes: MCZ 7209 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:176 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pseudodoras holdeni (Fernández-Yépez 1968) -- (Burgess 1989:224 [ref. 12860]). •Questionably a synonym of Oxydoras niger (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:464 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:176 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Oxydoras niger (Valenciennes 1821). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

huberi, Oxydoras (Rhinodoras) Steindachner [F.] 1911:324 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse v. 48 (no. 15) (for 22 June 1911); ref. 14815] Rio Tocantins, near Cameta, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW 12615. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:174 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pseudodoras huberi (Steindachner 1911) -- (Burgess 1989:224 [ref. 12860]). •Questionably a synonym of Megalodoras uranoscopus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:462 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:174 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Megalodoras uranoscopus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

humboldti, Doras Spix [J. B. von] & Agassiz [L.] 1829:14, Pl. 5 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Rio São Francisco, Brazil. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:176 [ref. 29155]. •Questionably a synonym of Oxydoras niger (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:464 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:176 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Oxydoras niger (Valenciennes 1821). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

humeralis, Doras Kner [R.] 1855:140 [51], Pl. 4 (fig. 6) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 17; ref. 2629] Manaus, Brazil. Syntypes: NMW 45410 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:174 [ref. 29155]. On p. 51 of separate. •Valid as Opsodoras humeralis (Kner 1855) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:13 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:222 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Nemadoras humeralis (Kner 1855) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:463 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:174 [ref. 29155], Sabaj Pérez et al. 2014:147 [ref. 33303], Birindelli 2014:538 [ref. 33501], Sarmiento et al. 2014:190 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Nemadoras humeralis (Kner 1855). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

iheringi, Hassar Fowler [H. W.] 1941:140, Figs. 38-40 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 1437] Rio Parnahyba [Parnaiba], Therezina, Piauhy, Brazil [possibly in error for Tocantins basin]. Holotype: ANSP 69393. Paratypes: ANSP 69394-95 (2), 69396 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:99 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:171 [ref. 29155]. See Birindelli et al. 2011:526 [ref. 31519] for remarks on the type locality. •Valid as Hassar iheringi Fowler 1941 -- (Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Hassar affinis (Steindachner 1881) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:461 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:171 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Hassar wilderi Kindle 1895 -- (Birindelli et al. 2011:535 [ref. 31519], Sabaj Pérez & Birindelli 2013:152 [ref. 32562]). Current status: Synonym of Hassar wilderi Kindle 1895. Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

insculptus, Doras Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1912:22 [Loricariidae, Callichthyidae, Doradidae e Trichomycteridae Annexo no. 5; ref. 3718] Manaus, Brazil. Lectotype: MNRJ 656A. Paralectotypes: (3) MNRJ 656 (2). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:398 [ref. 12732], Miranda Ribeiro 1958:5 [ref. 22034], Ferraris 2007:179 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Miranda Ribeiro 1953:398 [ref. 12732]. •Species inquirenda and incertae sedis in Anadoras or Amblydoras -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:460 [ref. 27061]). •Species inquirenda in Doradidae, likely Anadoras or Amblydoras -- (Ferraris 2007:179 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Anadoras insculptus (Miranda Ribeiro 1912) -- (Burgess 1989:224 [ref. 12860], López et al. 2003:53 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:82 [ref. 28131], Mirande & Koerber 2015:28 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Valid as Anadoras insculptus (Miranda Ribeiro 1912). Doradidae: Astrodoradinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Argentina and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

irwini, Megalodoras Eigenmann [C. H.] 1925:307, Pls. 1, 3, 6, 25 (figs. 1-2) [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 22 (pt 5); ref. 1244] Kartabo, Bartica District, Guyana. Holotype: CAS 80234 [not 20735]. Paratypes: CAS 12037 [ex IU 16168] (2, now 1), 60227 [not 64227] [ex IU 15427] (orig. 5, now 2), 80243 [ex IU 15427] (1, labeled holotype); USNM 167837 [ex IU 15427] (1). Type catalog: Mead 1958:133 [ref. 20648], Ferraris & Vari 1992:17 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:174 [ref. 29155]. Species account appears twice in paper; first based only on CAS 20735 (p. 307), second (pp. 308-309) based on IU material. •Valid as Megalodoras irwini Eigenmann 1925 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:13 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860], de Pinna 1998:307 [ref. 23847]). •Synonym of Megalodoras uranoscopus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:462 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:174 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Megalodoras uranoscopus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

juruensis, Leptodoras Boulenger [G. A.] 1898:478 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 2 (no. 12) (art. 58); ref. 545] Río Jurua, Brazil. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1898.10.11.25. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:173 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Leptodoras juruensis Boulenger 1898 -- (Böhlke 1970:61 [ref. 7150], Ortega & Vari 1986:13 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:222 [ref. 12860], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:462 [ref. 27061], Sabaj 2005:671 [ref. 28527], Ferraris 2007:172 [ref. 29155], Birindelli et al. 2008:478 [ref. 29858], Birindelli & Sousa 2010:292 [ref. 30833], Barriga S. 2014:115 [ref. 35745], Birindelli 2014:538 [ref. 33501], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:88 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Leptodoras juruensis Boulenger 1898. Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

kneri, Oxydoras Bleeker [P.] 1862:5 [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises; ref. 393] Cuiabá, Brazil. Holotype: NMW. Type catalog: Boeseman 1972:315 [ref. 19698], Ferraris 2007:175 [ref. 29155]. Based on Doras niger of Kner 1855 (not Valenciennes). Also in Bleeker 1863:12, 14 [ref. 16997]. Treated as knerii and "name only" by Eigenmann and Eigenmann 1890. •Valid as Oxydoras kneri Bleeker 1862 -- (Burgess 1989:224 [ref. 12860], Gómez & Chebez 1996:57 [ref. 23791], Sverlij et al. 1998:48 [ref. 27632], Britski et al. 1999:120 [ref. 24147], López et al. 2003:54 [ref. 27366], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:464 [ref. 27061], Menni 2004:82 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:175 [ref. 29155], Birindelli 2014:536 [ref. 33501], Litz & Koerber 2014:17 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:154, 190 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:28 [ref. 35117], Nión et al. 2016:33 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:44 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Oxydoras kneri Bleeker 1862. Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Paraná River basin: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

laevigatulus, Doras Berg [C.] 1901:298 [Comunicaciones del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires v. 1 (no. 9); ref. 14743] Dock Sud, connecting with Río de la Plata and Riachuelo de la Boca, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Holotype (unique): MACN 4596 [orig. CG 2118]. Type catalog: Braga & Piacentino 1994:102 [ref. 23697] as laevigatus, Ferraris 2007:177 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Megalodoras laevigatulus (Berg 1901) -- (Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860], Gómez & Chebez 1996:57 [ref. 23791], López et al. 2003:54 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:82 [ref. 28131], Nión et al. 2016:33 [ref. 35565]). •Synonym of Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:465 [ref. 27061] with question, Ferraris 2007:177 [ref. 29155] with question, Litz & Koerber 2014:17 [ref. 33622] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:29 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:44 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes 1821). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

lentiginosus, Doras Eigenmann [C. H.] 1917:401, Pl. 40 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 11 (nos 3-4) (art. 14); ref. 1235] Santarém, Pará State, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 58056 [ex CM 7048]. Paratypes: FMNH 58057 [ex CM 7049] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:74 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:33 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:177 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Pterodoras lentiginosus (Eigenmann 1917) -- (Burgess 1989:224 [ref. 12860], Chang & Ortega 1995:3 [ref. 24302]). •Synonym of Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:465 [ref. 27061] with question, Ferraris 2007:177 [ref. 29155] with question, Litz & Koerber 2014:17 [ref. 33622] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:29 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:44 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes 1821). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

leporhinus, Hemidoras Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:195, Pl. 19 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Tumatumari [lower Potaro River, Essequibo Basin], Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53185 [ex CM 1624]. Paratypes: (3) FMNH 53560 (1), CAS 52132 [ex CM 1625 and IU 12021] (3). Type catalog: Henn 1928:74 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:44 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:174 [ref. 29155] Appeared first as name only in Eigenmann 1910:394 [ref. 1224]. •Valid as Opsodoras leporhinus (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Burgess 1989:222 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Nemadoras leporhinus (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:463 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:174 [ref. 29155], Sabaj Pérez et al. 2014:151 [ref. 33303], DoNascimiento 2016:531 [ref. 34727]). •Valid as Tenellus leporhinus (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Birindelli 2014:xx [ref. 33501] in Doradinae, Birindelli 2014:538 [ref. 33501], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Tenellus leporhinus (Eigenmann 1912). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Orinoco, Branco and Essequibo River basins, rio Trombetas and Amazonas tributaries draining Brazilian Shield: Brazil, Colombia, Guyana and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

libertatis, Doras Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1912:20 [Loricariidae, Callichthyidae, Doradidae e Trichomycteridae Annexo no. 5; ref. 3718] Manaus, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNRJ 718 (missing). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:398 [ref. 12732], Miranda Ribeiro 1958:8 [ref. 22034], Ferraris 2007:174 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Megalodoras libertatis (Miranda Ribeiro 1912) -- (Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Megalodoras uranoscopus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:462 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:174 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Megalodoras uranoscopus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

linnelli, Leptodoras Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:191, Pl. 17 (fig. 1), Pl. 18 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Potaro river, Tumatumari, Mazaruni-Potaro, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53561 [ex CM 1652a]. Paratypes: (36, 3 missing) BMNH 1911.10.31.73-74 (2), 1911.10.31.75 (1); CAS 59775-77 [ex IU 12022-24] (5, 2, 1); FMNH 7399 (1), 53186 (12), 53187-88 (1, 1), 53562 (1); MCZ 30070-71 (1, 1); NMW 46109 (1); CAS-SU 21940 (1); USNM 66222 [ex CM 1627] (1); ZMA 110690 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:42 [ref. 12291], Henn 1928:74 [ref. 12305], Nijssen et al. 1982:56 [ref. 19236], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:52 [ref. 12367], Ferraris & Vari 1992:17 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:173 [ref. 29155]. Appeared first as name only in Eigenmann 1910:395 [ref. 1224]. •Valid as Leptodoras linnelli Eigenmann 1912 -- (Böhlke 1970:59 [ref. 7150], Ortega & Vari 1986:13 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:222 [ref. 12860], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:462 [ref. 27061], Sabaj 2005:655 [ref. 28527], Ferraris 2007:173 [ref. 29155], Birindelli et al. 2008:478 [ref. 29858], Birindelli & Sousa 2010:292 [ref. 30833], Sarmiento et al. 2014:153, 190 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:88 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Leptodoras linnelli Eigenmann 1912. Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Upper Orinoco, Essequebo and Demerara River basins and northern (left bank) tributaries to Lower Amazon: Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Guyana and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

liophysus, Scorpiodoras Sousa [L. M. de] & Birindelli [J. L. O.] 2011:135, Fig. 14 [Copeia 2011 (no. 1); ref. 31228] Porto Velho, Lago Madalena, Rio Jaciparaná, Rio Maderia, 9°17'00"S, 63°03'57"W., Rondônia State, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 33829. Paratypes: ANSP 191036 (1), MZUP 104624 (1). •Valid as Scorpiodoras liophysus Sousa & Birindelli 2011. Current status: Valid as Scorpiodoras liophysus Sousa & Birindelli 2011. Doradidae: Astrodoradinae. Distribution: Middle Madelira basin, razil. Habitat: freshwater.

lipophthalmus, Doras (Oxydoras) Kner [R.] 1855:147 [58], Pl. 5 (fig. 8) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 17; ref. 2629] Rio Negro, Brazil. Syntypes: NMW 45418-20 (2, 1, 1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:169 [ref. 29155]. On p. 58 of separate. •Valid as Hassar lipophthalmus (Kner 1855) -- (Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Anduzedoras oxyrhynchus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:459 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:169 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Anduzedoras oxyrhynchus (Valenciennes 1821). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

lithogaster, Doras Kner [R.] (ex Heckel) 1855:132 [43] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 17; ref. 2629] Forte do Rio Branco, Brazil. No types known. Syntypes: (2) at NMW not found. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:168 [ref. 29155]. On p. 43 of separate. •Synonym of Lithodoras dorsalis (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Burgess 1989:224 [ref. 12860], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:462 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:173 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Lithodoras dorsalis (Valenciennes 1840). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

longispinis, Doras Steindachner [F.] 1878:89 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 15 (no. 12) (for 9 May 1878); ref. 20476] Río Magdalena, Colombia. Syntypes: (several) NMW 46624 (4). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:168 [ref. 29155]. Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1879:39 [p. 23 of separate], Pls. 4 (fig. 2), 5 (fig. 1) [ref. 4227]. •Synonym of Centrochir crocodili (Humboldt 1821) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:460 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:170 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Centrochir crocodili (Humboldt 1821). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

loricatus, Doras Kner [R.] 1853:146 [10], Pl. (fig. 2) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 11 [1853]; ref. 18262] Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:167 [ref. 29155]. On p. 10 of separate. Based only on a drawing of the swimbladder; later described as Doras fimbriatus Kner 1855. See Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:458 [ref. 27061]. •Species incertae sedis in Doradidae -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:458 [ref. 27061] and as a nomen oblitum). •In the synonymy of Doras fimbriatus Kner 1855 -- (Ferraris 2007:166 [ref. 29155]). •In the synonymy of Ossancora finbriata (Kner 1855) -- (Birindelli & Sabaj Pérez 2011:133 [ref. 31591]). Current status: Synonym of Ossancora fimbriata (Kner 1855). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

lyra, Physopyxis Cope [E. D.] 1872:273, Pl. 5 (figs. 1a-1c) [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 23; ref. 921] Río Ampiyacu, Peru. Holotype (unique): ANSP 8282. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:99 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:176 [ref. 29155]. Also appeared in Cope 1872:273, Pl. 5 (figs. 1a-1c) [ref. 921]. •Valid as Physopyxis lyra Cope 1872 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:13 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860], de Pinna 1998:307 [ref. 23847], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:464 [ref. 27061], Sousa & Rapp Py-Daniel 2005:628 [ref. 28463], Ferraris 2007:176 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:115 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:190 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento 2016:532 [ref. 34727], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:88 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Physopyxis lyra Cope 1872. Doradidae: Astrodoradinae. Distribution: Amazon River and Essequibo River basins: Brazil, Ecuador, Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana and Peru; ? Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

maculata, Wertheimeria Steindachner [F.] 1877:660 [102], Pl. 10 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4224] Rio Jequitinhonha, southeastern Brazil. Syntypes: (several) NMW 43460 (1 lost), 43461 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:179 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Wertheimeria maculata Steindachner 1877 -- (Burgess 1989:242 [ref. 12860] in Auchenipteridae, Higuchi et al. 1990:224 [ref. 13602] in Doradidae, Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:466 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:179 [ref. 29155], Vono & Birindelli 2007:185 [ref. 29204], Birindelli 2014:536 [ref. 33501]). Current status: Valid as Wertheimeria maculata Steindachner 1877. Doradidae: Wertheimerinae. Distribution: Jequitinhonha and Pardo rivers, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

maculatus, Doras Valenciennes [A.] 1834:Pl. 5 (fig. 3) [Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale; ref. 20720] Buenos Aires, Corrientes, Paraná. Holotype: MNHN B-0201 (1 of 2). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:18 [ref. 19575] as paratypes, Ferraris 2007:177 [ref. 29155]. Name available from plate, description in Valenciennes 1847:7 [ref. 5010]. Pl. 5 was published in 1834. See also Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:281 [ref. 1008]. •Synonym of Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:465 [ref. 27061] with question, Ferraris 2007:177 [ref. 29155] with question, Litz & Koerber 2014:17 [ref. 33622] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:29 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:44 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes 1821). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

marki, Leptodoras Birindelli [J. L. O.] & Sousa [L. M. de] 2010:293, Fig. A-B [Copeia 2010 (no. 2); ref. 30833] Rio Trairão, Fresco-Xingú basin, tributary of Rio de Ponte, 15 kilometers south af Cumaru do Norte, 7°56'34"S, 50°47'48"N, Cumaru do Norte, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 33808. Paratypes: ANSP 189664 (1); MNRJ 33066 (1), 33067 ( 2); MZUSP 36009 (1), 103217 (2, 1 c&s). •Valid as Leptodoras marki Birindelli & Sousa 2010 -- (Birindelli 2014:538 [ref. 33501]). Current status: Valid as Leptodoras marki Birindelli & Sousa 2010. Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Fresco-Xingú basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

marmoratus, Doras Lütken [C. F.] (ex Reinhardt) 1874:30 [2] [Oversigt over det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Forhandlinger og dets Medlemmers Arbeider (Kjøbenhavn) 1874 (no. 1); ref. 2855] Rio das Velhas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ZMUC P 29669 [ex 87]. Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:51 [ref. 9588], Ferraris 2007:171 [ref. 29155]. On p. 2 of separate. Also described in Lütken 1875:146 (and p. III of summary), Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [ref. 19674]. •Valid as Franciscodoras marmoratus (Lütken 1874) -- (Burgess 1989:224 [ref. 12860], Higuchi et al. 1990:224 [ref. 13602], de Pinna 1998:307 [ref. 23847], Britski 2001:19 [ref. 26046], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:460 [ref. 27061], Diogo et al. 2004:176 [ref. 27881], Ferraris 2007:171 [ref. 29155] with author as Reinhardt, Birindelli 2014:536 [ref. 33501], Reis et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34496]). Current status: Valid as Franciscodoras marmoratus (Lütken 1874). Doradidae: Wertheimerinae. Distribution: São Francisco River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

micropoeus, Hemidoras Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:195 [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Upper Demerara River at Wismar, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH [ex CM 1636] (missing). Paratypes: CAS 46959 [ex IU 12029] (1), 60712 [ex IU] (1), FMNH 53193 [ex IU 12029] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:74 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:44 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:171 [ref. 29155]. Appeared first as name only in Eigenmann 1910:394 [ref. 1224]. •Valid as Doras micropoeus (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860], Le Bail et al. 2000:44 [ref. 24549] as cf. micropoeus, Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:460 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:171 [ref. 29155], Sabaj Pérez & Birindelli 2008:209 [ref. 29739], DoNascimiento 2016:531 [ref. 34727]). Current status: Valid as Doras micropoeus (Eigenmann 1912). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Essequibo, Demerara and Corantijn River basins, and possibly other drainages to mouth of Amazon River: French Guiana, Guyana and Suriname; ? Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

microstomus, Hemidoras Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:193, Pl. 18 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Essequibo River at Rockstone, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 118302 [ex FMNH 53207, ex CM 1650]. Paratypes: (11) CAS-SU 21782 (1), CAS 76793 (3), CAS 76792 [ex IU 12039] (1), BMNH 1911.10.31.94 (1); FMNH 7398 (1), 53207 (1); MCZ 30069 (1); USNM 66200 [ex CM 1651] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:42 [ref. 12291], Henn 1928:74 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:44 [ref. 12367], Ferraris & Vari 1992:17 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:179 [ref. 29155]. Appeared first as name only in Eigenmann 1910:394 [ref. 1224]. •Valid as Anduzedoras microstomus (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Trachydoras microstomus (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:466 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:179 [ref. 29155], Birindelli 2014:538 [ref. 33501], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Sabaj & Arce H. 2017:18 [ref. 35518], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Trachydoras microstomus (Eigenmann 1912). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Amazon, Orinoco and Essequibo River basins: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Guyana, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

milesi, Autanadoras Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1950:8, Pl. 1 (fig. 4a, d, e, f, g, h, i) [Novedades Cientificas, Contribuciones Ocasionales del Museo de Historia Natural La Salle, Serie Zoológica No. 2; ref. 1323] Río Autana, Estado Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): MBUCV-V-15210 [ex AFY 48163]. Type catalog: Lasso et al. 1997:44 [ref. 23639], Provenzano et al. 1998:4 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:179 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Autanadoras milesi Fernández-Yépez 1950 -- (Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Scorpiodoras heckelii (Kner 1855) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:466 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:179 [ref. 29155], Sousa & Birindelli 2011:122 [ref. 31228]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpiodoras heckelii (Kner 1855). Doradidae: Astrodoradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

monitor, Zathorax Cope [E. D.] 1872:272, Pl. 4 (figs. 1a-1c) [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 23; ref. 921] Río Ambyiacu, Peru. Lectotype: ANSP 8296. Paralectotypes: ANSP 8297 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:99 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:169 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype established by Eigenmann 1925:363, Pl. 16 (fig. 3) [ref. 1244]. •Valid as Amblydoras monitor (Cope 1872) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:13 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:459 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:169 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:115 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:88 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Amblydoras monitor (Cope 1872). Doradidae: Astrodoradinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

morei, Oxydoras Steindachner [F.] 1881:106 [6], Pl. 1 (figs. 2-2a) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 43; ref. 14290] Rio Negro, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW 45433. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:175 [ref. 29155]. On p. 6 of separate. •Valid as Opsodoras morei (Steindachner 1881) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:13 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:222 [ref. 12860], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:463 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:175 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:115 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:190 [ref. 35004]). •Valid as Hemidoras morei (Steindachner 1881) -- (Birindelli 2014:538 [ref. 33501], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[22] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Hemidoras morei (Steindachner 1881). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Negro River basin: Brazil, Ecuador and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

morrisi, Hemidoras Eigenmann [C. H.] 1925:347, Pl. 27 (fig. 3) [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 22 (pt 5); ref. 1244] Iquitos, upper Amazon River, Peru. Holotype: CAS 52130 [ex IU 15962]. Paratypes: CAS 96282 [ex IU 15962] (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:172 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hemidoras morrisi Eigenmann 1925 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:13 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:222 [ref. 12860], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:461 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:172 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:115 [ref. 35745], Birindelli 2014:538 [ref. 33501]). •Valid as Opsodoras morrisi (Eigenmann 1925) -- (DoNascimiento et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Opsodoras morrisi (Eigenmann 1925). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

murica, Doras Natterer [J.] in Kner 1855:129 [40] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 17; ref. 2629] Cuiabá, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:177 [ref. 29155]. On p. 40 of separate. Credited to Natterer manuscript; authorship perhaps Kner alone. •Synonym of Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:465 [ref. 27061] with question, Ferraris 2007:177 [ref. 29155] with question and with author as Kner, Litz & Koerber 2014:17 [ref. 33622] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:29 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:44 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes 1821). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

myersi, Leptodoras Böhlke [J. E.] 1970:54, Figs. 1-2 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 38 (no. 3); ref. 7150] Vicinity of Iquitos, Amazon River (Marañon) between Isla Iquitos and Isla Lapuna, Peru, depth to 12 feet. Holotype: ANSP 112318. Paratypes: ANSP 112319 (9), 112320 (1, c&s); USNM 203816 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:99 [ref. 13621], Ferraris & Vari 1992:17 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:173 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Leptodoras myersi Böhlke 1970 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:13 [ref. 9708], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:462 [ref. 27061], Sabaj 2005:675 [ref. 28527], Ferraris 2007:173 [ref. 29155], Birindelli et al. 2008:479 [ref. 29858], Birindelli & Sousa 2010:292 [ref. 30833], Barriga S. 2014:115 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:153, 190 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Leptodoras myersi Böhlke 1970. Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

nattereri, Oxydoras Steindachner [F.] 1881:104 [4], Pl. 2 (figs. 1-1a) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 43; ref. 14290] Río Nanay, left bank beach near village of Pampa Chica, ca. 4.5 km west of Iquitos center, Amazon River basin, Brazil, 3°45'09"S, 73°17'0"W. Neotype: ANSP 178443. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:179 [ref. 29155]. On p. 4 of separate. Neotype designated by Sabaj & Arce H. 2017:23 [ref. 35518]. •Valid as Trachydoras nattereri (Steindachner 1881) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:13 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:466 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:179 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:115 [ref. 35745], Birindelli 2014:538 [ref. 33501], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35633], Sabaj & Arce H. 2017:23 [ref. 35518]). Current status: Valid as Trachydoras nattereri (Steindachner 1881). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Amazon and Essequibo River basins: Brazil, Ecuador, Bolivia, Colombia, Peru and Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

nauticus, Zathorax Cope [E. D.] 1874:133 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 26; ref. 931] Nauta, Peru. Syntypes: ANSP 21390-95 (6). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:99 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:168 [ref. 29155]. Unjustifiably emended to nautanus as "Zathorax nauticus[-tanus]" by O'Shaughnessy in Zoological Record for 1874, p. 104. See Ferraris 2007:169 [ref. 29155] for identity of types. •Valid as Zathorax nauticus Cope 1874 -- (Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Anadoras nauticus (Cope 1874) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:13 [ref. 9708]). •Valid as Amblydoras nauticus (Cope 1874) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:459 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:169 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:115 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:88 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Amblydoras nauticus (Cope 1874). Doradidae: Astrodoradinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Ecuador, Peru and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

nebulosus, Doras Eigenmann [C. H.] & Kennedy [C. H.] 1903:500 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 55; ref. 1260] Mato Grosso, Brazil or Asuncion, Paraguay. Holotype (unique): CAS 31186 [ex IU 9837]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:178 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Rhinodoras dorbignyi (Kner 1855) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:465 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:178 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:17 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:29 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:45 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Rhinodoras dorbignyi (Kner 1855). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

nelsoni, Leptodoras Sabaj Pérez [M. H.] 2005:663, Figs. 4f, 5b, 15d, 20 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 4); ref. 28527] Río Metica (Meta-Orinoco drainage), about 1.5 kilometers east of Rajote, Plancha 267, 3°56'N, 73°03'W, Meta, Colombia. Holotype: ANSP 180917. Paratypes: Many lots at AMNH, ANSP, AUM, CAS, FMNH; ICNMN 13571 (1);, MBUCV-V, MCNG, MNHN, USNM. Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:173 [ref. 29155], Mojica & Agudelo-Zamora 2018:46 [ref. 36127]. •Valid as Leptodoras nelsoni Sabaj Pérez 2005 -- (Ferraris 2007:173 [ref. 29155], Birindelli & Sousa 2010:292 [ref. 30833], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:88 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:77 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Leptodoras nelsoni Sabaj Pérez 2005. Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

nheco, Merodoras Higuchi [H.], Birindelli [J. L. O.], Sousa [L. M. de] & Britski [H. A.] 2007:33, Figs. 1-2, 4-6 [Zootaxa No. 1446; ref. 29331] Rio Anhuma, tributary of Rio Negro (Paraguay basin), 19°10'07"S, 55°18'26"W, munic. de Rio Verde de Mato Grosso, Est. de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 90591. Paratypes: AMNH 236346 (1); ANSP 185103 (2); MZUSP 47180 (4), 35906 (3), 83556 (1), 84414 (28), 92610 (20), 92611 (4). •Valid as Merodoras nheco Higuchi, Birindelli, Sousa & Britski 2007 -- (Reis et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34496]). Current status: Valid as Merodoras nheco Higuchi, Birindelli, Sousa & Britski 2007. Doradidae: Astrodoradinae. Distribution: A flooded area of Paraguay River basin, western Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

niger, Doras Valenciennes [A.] in Humboldt & Valenciennes 1821:184 [Voyage de Humboldt et Bonpland v. 2 (Title page 1833); ref. 5612] Probably America [Río Saint Francis, Brazil]. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-4189. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:16 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:175 [ref. 29155] Also appeared in Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:291 [ref. 1008]. •Valid as Pseudodoras niger (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Burgess 1989:224 [ref. 12860], Chang & Ortega 1995:6 [ref. 24302]). •Valid as Oxydoras niger (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:13 [ref. 9708], Fuller et al. 1999:212 [ref. 25838], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:464 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:175 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:115 [ref. 35745], Birindelli 2014:536 [ref. 33501], Sarmiento et al. 2014:154, 190 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Oxydoras niger (Valenciennes 1821). Doradidae. Distribution: Amazon, São Francisco and Essequibo River basins (possibly Orinoco River basin): Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru and Venezuela (?). Habitat: freshwater.

notospilus, Hemidoras Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:196, Pl. 19 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Crab Falls, Essequibo River, Guyana. Holotype (unique): FMNH 53184 [ex CM 1623]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:74 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:44 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:171 [ref. 29155]. Appeared first as name only in Eigenmann 1910:394 [ref. 1224]. •Valid as Hassar notospilus (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Hassar orestis (Steindachner 1875) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:461 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:171 [ref. 29155], Birindelli et al. 2011:526 [ref. 31519]). Current status: Synonym of Hassar orestis (Steindachner 1875). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

ogilviei, Opsodoras Fowler [H. W.] 1958:13 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 310; ref. 1470] Rupununi River, Guyana, 2-3°N, 50°20'W. Holotype: ANSP 39342. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:175 [ref. 29155]. Replacement name for Leptodoras trimaculatus Fowler 1914, secondarily preoccupied by Opsodoras trimaculatus (Boulenger 1898) when both are in Opsodoras. •Synonym of Nemadoras trimaculatus (Boulenger 1898) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:463 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:175 [ref. 29155], Sabaj Pérez et al. 2014:155 [ref. 33303]). •Synonym of Tenellus trimaculatus (Boulenger 1898). Current status: Synonym of Tenellus trimaculatus (Boulenger 1898). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

ophthalmus, Doras (Corydoras) Kner [R.] 1853:146 [10], Pl. (fig. 3) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 11 [1853]; ref. 18262] Type locality not stated. Possible holotype in NMW 45418-20 (1 of 4). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:169 [ref. 29155]. On p. 10 of separate. Based only on a drawing of the swimbladder. Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:459 [ref. 27061] treat NMW 45418-20 (4) as syntypes. Later treated by Kner as Doras (Oxydoras) lipophthalmus. •Synonym of Anduzedoras oxyrhynchus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:459 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:169 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Anduzedoras oxyrhynchus (Valenciennes 1821). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

orestis, Oxydoras Steindachner [F.] (ex Agassiz) 1875:138 [1], Pl. 1 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 71 (no. 1); ref. 15634] Rio Iça, upper Amazon River, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 45428. Paralectotypes: (several) ?MCZ; NMW 45427 (1), 45428 (2), 45429 (2), 45430 (1), 60015 (1 skeleton), 78651 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:171 [ref. 29155]. ` •Valid as Hassar orestis (Steindachner 1875) -- (Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:461 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:171 [ref. 29155], Birindelli et al. 2011:525 [ref. 31519], Sabaj Pérez & Birindelli 2013:150 [ref. 32562], Barriga S. 2014:115 [ref. 35745], Birindelli 2014:538 [ref. 33501], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:88 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hassar orestis (Steindachner 1875). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Amazon, Orinoco and Essequibo River basins: Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Guyana, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

orinocensis, Hildadoras Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1968:41, Fig. 17 [Boletin del Instituto Oceanografico Universidad de Oriente Cumana v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 1325] Caño de San Juan, at mouth, Delta Amacuro, Estado Monagas, Venezuela, depth 5 meters. Holotype (unique): MBUCV-V-3939 [ex AFY 61111]. Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:11 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:176 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hildadoras orinocensis Fernández-Yépez 1968 -- (Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Oxydoras sifontesi Fernández-Yépez 1968 -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:464 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:176 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Oxydoras sifontesi Fernández-Yépez 1968. Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

orthacanthus, Opsodoras Eigenmann [C. H.] 1925:351, Pls. 22 (fig. 3), 23 (fig. 2) [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 22 (pt 5); ref. 1244] Iquitos, Lake Cashiboya, mouth of Río Pacaya, Peru. Holotype: CAS 60231 [ex IU 15884]. Paratypes: CAS 60232 [ex IU 15885] (4), CAS 60233 [ex IU 15886] (3). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:175 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Opsodoras orthacanthus Eigenmann 1925 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:13 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:222 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Opsodoras stuebelii (Steindachner 1882) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:463 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:175 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Opsodoras stuebelii (Steindachner 1882). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

oxyrhynchus, Doras Valenciennes [A.] in Humboldt & Valenciennes 1821:184 [Voyage de Humboldt et Bonpland v. 2 (Title page 1833); ref. 5612] Probably America [Guyana]. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-4190. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:169 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Anduzedoras oxyrhynchus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:459 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:169 [ref. 29155], Birindelli et al. 2008:478 [ref. 29858], Birindelli 2014:538 [ref. 33501], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:88 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Anduzedoras oxyrhynchus (Valenciennes 1821). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela and ? Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

oyakawai, Leptodoras Birindelli [J. L. O.], Sousa [L. M. de] & Sabaj Pérez [M. H.] 2008:466, Figs. 1-12 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 29858] Rio Jamanxim (Tapajós), at Prainha, near Novo Progresso, 7°03'51"S, 55°26'28"W, Novo Progresso, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 97909. Paratypes: ANSP 187336 (1), MZUSP 97395 (2). Plus non-type specimens at ANSP, AUM, INPA, MCP, MNRJ, MZUSP. •Valid as Leptodoras oyakawai Birindelli, Sousa & Sabaj Pérez 2008 -- (Birindelli & Sousa 2010:292 [ref. 30833], Birindelli 2014:538 [ref. 33501]). Current status: Valid as Leptodoras oyakawai Birindelli, Sousa & Sabaj Pérez 2008. Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Tapajós and Xingú river basins, central Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

papilionatus, Doras De Filippi [F.] 1853:167 [4] [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 5; ref. 17378] Amazon River. Holotype (unique): MZUT 229. Type catalog: Tortonese 1940:136 [ref. 21559], Ferraris 2007:173 [ref. 29155] On p. 4 of separate. •Synonym of Lithodoras dorsalis (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:462 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:173 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Lithodoras dorsalis (Valenciennes 1840). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

paraguayensis, Hemidoras Eigenmann [C. H.] & Ward [D. P.] in Eigenmann, McAtee & Ward 1907:116, Pl. 34 (fig. 1) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 4 (no. 2) (art. 7); ref. 1261] Corumba, Paraguay. Holotype (unique): CAS 37216 [ex IU 10127]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:179 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Trachydoras paraguayensis (Eigenmann & Ward 1907) -- (Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860], Gómez & Chebez 1996:57 [ref. 23791], Britski et al. 1999:120 [ref. 24147], López et al. 2003:55 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:82 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:179 [ref. 29155], Birindelli 2014:538 [ref. 33501], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:29 [ref. 35117], Sabaj & Arce H. 2017:25 [ref. 35518]). Current status: Valid as Trachydoras paraguayensis (Eigenmann & Ward 1907). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Paraná-Paraguay River basin: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

parallelus, Opsodoras Eigenmann [C. H.] 1925:350, Pls. 19 (fig. 3), 23 (fig. 3) [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 22 (pt 5); ref. 1244] Iquitos, upper Amazon River, Peru. Holotype (unique): CAS 60229 [ex IU 15964]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:174 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Opsodoras parallelus Eigenmann 1925 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:13 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:222 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Nemadoras elongatus (Boulenger 1898) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:463 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:174 [ref. 29155], Sabaj Pérez et al. 2014:143 [ref. 33303]). Current status: Synonym of Nemadoras elongatus (Boulenger 1898). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

paranensis, Parapterodoras Risso [E. N. P. de] & Morra [M. I.] 1964:2, Pl. 1 [Notas del Museo de Ciencias Naturales del Chaco v. 1 (no. 2); ref. 5940] Río Paraná, at Corrientes, Argentina. Holotype: MCNC X-64-1. Paratypes: MCNC X-64-2,3 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:177 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Parapterodoras paranensis de Risso & Morra 1964 -- (López et al. 2002:60 [ref. 26808]). •Synonym of Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:465 [ref. 27061] with question, Ferraris 2007:177 [ref. 29155] with question, Litz & Koerber 2014:17 [ref. 33622] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:29 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:44 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes 1821). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

paucisquamatus, Megalodoras Van der Stigchel [J. W. R.] 1946:71, Figs. 1-2 [The South American Nematognathi; ref. 13094] Brazil (from Museum at Rio de Janeiro). Holotype (unique): RMNH 15480. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:173 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Megalodoras paucisquamatus Van der Stigchel 1946 -- (Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Lithodoras dorsalis (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:462 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:173 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Lithodoras dorsalis (Valenciennes 1840). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

pectinifrons, Doras Cope [E. D.] 1870:568 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 11; ref. 914] Pebas, Peru. Holotype (unique): ANSP 8346. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:100 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:168 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Agamyxis pectinifrons (Cope 1870) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:13 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:458 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:168 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:115 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:190 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:87 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Agamyxis pectinifrons (Cope 1870). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

phlyzakion, Doras Sabaj Pérez [M. H.] & Birindelli [J. L. O.] 2008:220, Figs. 2G, 3C, 4A, 6G, 7, 14A [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 157; ref. 29739] Rio Tefé (Amazonas Drainage), beach, Vista Escura, 3°38'S, 64°59'W, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 88508. Paratypes: ANSP, AUM, IAvH-P 2860, INPA, MCP, MHNG, MZUSP. Type catalog: DoNascimiento et al. 2016:409 [ref. 34787]. •Valid as Doras phlyzakion Sabaj Pérez & Birindelli 2008 -- (Birindelli 2014:538 [ref. 32501], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:88 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Doras phlyzakion Sabaj Pérez & Birindelli 2008. Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Solimõ and Negro drainages: Brazil and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

polygramma, Doras Kner [R.] 1853:145 [10], Pl. (fig. 1) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 11 [1853]; ref. 18262] Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:167 [ref. 29155]. On p. 10 of separate. Based only on a drawing of the swimbladder. Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:458 [ref. 27061] have two syntypes but name is based on the drawing of one swimbladder. Later treated in Kner 1855:126-127 as Doras cataphractus •Species inquirenda in genus Acanthodoras -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:458 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:168 [ref. 29155]). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

praelongus, Hassar Myers [G. S.] & Weitzman [S. H.] 1956:2, Fig. 1 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 12214] São Gabriel Rapids, Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype (unique): CAS 148679 [ex CAS-SU 48679]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:173 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hassar praelongus Myers & Weitzman 1956 -- (Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Leptodoras praelongus (Myers & Weitzman 1956) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:462 [ref. 27061], Sabaj 2005:647 [ref. 28527], Ferraris 2007:173 [ref. 29155], Birindelli et al. 2008:479 [ref. 29858], Birindelli & Sousa 2010:292 [ref. 30833], Birindelli 2014:538[ref. 33501]). Current status: Valid as Leptodoras praelongus (Myers & Weitzman 1956). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Negro and Orinoco river basins: Brazil and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

prianomus, Rhinodoras Cope [E. D.] 1874:134 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 26; ref. 931] Nauta, Peru. Holotype (unique): ANSP 21203. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:100 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:176 [ref. 29155] •Synonym of Oxydoras niger (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:464 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:176 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Oxydoras niger (Valenciennes 1821). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

punctatus, Doras Kner [R.] 1855:136 [47], Pl. 6 (fig. 10) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 17; ref. 2629] Rio Guaporé, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 45409. Paralectotypes: NMW 45407 (2), 45408 (1). Type information: Van der Stigchel 1947:93 [ref. 13094], Ferraris 2007:167 [ref. 29155], Neumann 2011:257 [ref. 31652].. On p. 47 of separate. Doras (Corydoras) punctatus Kner 1853, based on a drawing of a gas bladder, predates this description but is the same species. But Birindelli & Sabaj Pérez 2011:133 [ref. 31591] regard Kner 1855 as a nomen protectum and the valid author and date. Lectotype selected by Birindelli & Sabaj Pérez 2011:134 [ref. 31591]; they exclude other syntypes of D. (Corydoras) fimbriata Kner 1853. •Treated as valid as Doras punctatus Kner 1855 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:13 [ref. 9708], Diogo et al. 2004:176 [ref. 27881]). •Apparently a synonym of Doras punctatus Kner 1853. •Incertae sedis in Doradidae -- (Ferraris 2007:167 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as a nomen protectum as Ossancora punctata (Kner 1855) -- (Birindelli & Sabaj Pérez 2011:139 [ref. 31591]). •Valid as Ossancora punctata (Kner 1853) -- (Koerber 2014:6 [ref. 33621], Sarmiento et al. 2014:190 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:28 [ref. 35117], Vera-Alcaraz et al. 2017:5 [ref. 35082], Koerber et al. 2017:44 [ref. 35267], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Ossancora punctata (Kner 1855). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Amazon and Paraná-Paraguay basins: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Paraguay and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

punctatus, Doras (Corydoras) Kner [R.] 1853:146 [10], Pl. (fig. 5) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 11 [1853]; ref. 18262] Mato Grosso and rio Guaporé, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 45435. Paralectotypes: NMW 45437 (1), 45438 (1), 45440 ( 2 of 3) and possibly 45434 (gas bladder exposed). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:167 [ref. 29155]. On p. 10 of separate. Based only on a drawing of the gas bladder; Sabaj Pérez & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:458 [ref. 27061] find 5 specimens with gas bladders removed (confirmed by Birindelli & Sabaj Pérez 2011:133 [ref. 31591]). Lectotype selected by Birindelli & Sabaj Pérez 2011:139 [ref. 31591]. Doras punctatus Kner 1855 is treated as a separate species description (homonym) but as a nomen protectum by Birindelli & Sabaj Pérez 2011:133 [ref. 31591]. •Species incertae sedis in Doradidae -- (Sabaj Pérez & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:458 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:167 [ref. 29155]). •A nomen oblitum in the synonymy of Ossancora punctata (Kner 1853) -- (Birindelli & Sabaj Pérez 2011:133 [ref. 31591]). •Valid as Doras punctatus Kner 1853 -- (Barriga S. 2014:115 [ref. 35745]). Current status: Synonym of Ossancora punctata (Kner 1855). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

ramirezi, Hoplodoras Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1968:47, Fig. 19 [Boletin del Instituto Oceanografico Universidad de Oriente Cumana v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 1325] Lower Río Orinoco, Venezuela. Holotype: AFY 66117 (missing). Paratypes: AFY 66118 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:174 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hoplodoras ramirezi Fernández-Yépez 1968 -- (Burgess 1989:224 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Megalodoras guayoensis (Fernández-Yépez 1968) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:462 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:174 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Megalodoras guayoensis (Fernández-Yépez 1968). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

regani, Doras Steindachner [F.] 1908:163 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 45 (no. 11) (for 2 Apr. 1908); ref. 18806] Fish market, Pará, Brazil. Syntypes: NMW 46889 (4). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:169 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Anadoras regani (Steindachner 1908) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:13 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:224 [ref. 12860], Burgess 1989:224 [ref. 12860], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:459 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:169 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:88 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Anadoras regani (Steindachner 1908). Doradidae: Astrodoradinae. Distribution: Amazon and Oyapock River basins: Brazil, Colombia and French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

rivasi, Apuredoras Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1950:195 [1], Fig. on p. 196 [Memoria de la Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle v. 10 (no. 27); ref. 1321] Río Apure, 2 kilometers east of San Fernando, Venezuela. Holotype: AFY 51062 (missing). Paratypes: (8) AFY 51002 (8), FMNH 84066 (7). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:177 [ref. 29155]. On p. 1 of separate. •Valid as Apuredoras rivasi Fernández-Yépez 1950 -- (Burgess 1989:225 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Pterodoras rivasi (Fernández-Yépez 1950) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:465 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:177 [ref. 29155], Birindelli 2014:536 [ref. 33501], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:77 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Pterodoras rivasi (Fernández-Yépez 1950). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

rogersae, Leptodoras Sabaj Pérez [M. H.] 2005:665, Figs. 5c, 15c, 21 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 4); ref. 28527] Río Orinoco (Atlantic drainage), river channel at Palua just below mouth of río Caroni, 181 miles upstream from sea buoy, 8°21'N, 62°43'W, Bolivar, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 226307. Paratypes: lots at ANSP, CAS, FMNH, LACM, MCNG, MCZ, MNHN, MBUVC-V and USNM. Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:173 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Leptodoras rogersae Sabaj Pérez 2005 -- (Ferraris 2007:173 [ref. 29155], Birindelli & Sousa 2010:292 [ref. 30833], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:88 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Leptodoras rogersae Sabaj Pérez 2005. Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Orinoco River and main tributaries: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

shewellkeimi, Hassar Sabaj Pérez [M. H.] & Birindelli [J. L. O.] 2013:137, Figs. 2, 3A-B, 4D [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 162; ref. 32562] Rio Juruena (Tampajá Dr.), above mouth of rio Arimos, 10°26'S, 58°20'W, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 110900. Paratypes: ANSP 189663 (2), 192971 (4); INPA 37586 (2); MPEG 24298 (2); MZUSP 63150 (8), 63151 (10), 84896 (1); USNM 199164 (3). 199200 (5), 199216 (1), 199236 (5). •Valid as Hassar shewellkeimi Sabaj Pérez & Birindelli 2013. Current status: Valid as Hassar shewellkeimi Sabaj Pérez & Birindelli 2013. Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Teles Pires and rio Juruena River, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

sifontesi, Oxydoras Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1968:58, Figs. 28-29 [Boletin del Instituto Oceanografico Universidad de Oriente Cumana v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 1325] Lake `El Medio', Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-1584. Paratypes: MBUCV-V-1525 (2). Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:13 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:176 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Oxydoras sifontesi Fernández-Yépez 1968 -- (Burgess 1989:224 [ref. 12860], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:464 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:176 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento 2016:532 [ref. 34727], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:77 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Oxydoras sifontesi Fernández-Yépez 1968. Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

spinosissimus, Doras Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1888:161 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 1249] Lago do Coari on Rio Solimões at Coari [Coary], Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 7222. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:168 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Acanthodoras spinosissimus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888) -- (Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860], Lasso et al. 2001:98 [ref. 25928], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:458 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:168 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:115 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:190 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento 2016:531 [ref. 34727], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:87 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Acanthodoras spinosissimus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Amazon and Essequibo River basins: Brazil, Ecuador, Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana and Peru; ?Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

steindachneri, Opsodoras Eigenmann [C. H.] (ex Steindachner) 1925:354 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 22 (pt 5); ref. 1244] Mouth of Rio Negro, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW 46379. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:169 [ref. 29155]. Based on Doras carinatus of Steindachner 1915:55; description as an abstract of Steindachner's description. •Valid as Opsodoras steindachneri Eigenmann 1925 -- (Burgess 1989:222 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Anduzedoras oxyrhynchus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:459 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:169 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Anduzedoras oxyrhynchus (Valenciennes 1821). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

steindachneri, Oxydoras Perugia [A.] 1897:20 [5] [Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova (Serie 2) v. 18; ref. 18536] Río Beni, upper Amazon River, Bolivia. Syntypes: MSNG 8834 (17, poor condition). Type catalog: Tortonese 1963:307 [ref. 10351], Ferraris 2007:179 [ref. 29155]. On p. 5 of separate. •Valid as Oxydoras steindachneri Perugia 1897 -- (Burgess 1989:224 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Trachydoras steindachneri (Perugia 1897) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:466 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:179 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:115 [ref. 35745], Birindelli 2014:538 [ref. 33501], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Sabaj & Arce H. 2017:27 [ref. 35518], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Trachydoras steindachneri (Perugia 1897). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

stenopeltis, Doras (Oxydoras) Kner [R.] 1855:142 [53], Pl. 4 (fig. 7) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 17; ref. 2629] Rio Negro, Amazon system, Brazil. Syntypes: NMW 45443 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:172 [ref. 29155]. On p. 53 of separate. •Valid as Hemidoras stenopeltis (Kner 1855) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:13 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:222 [ref. 12860], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:461 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:172 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:115 [ref. 35745], Birindelli 2014:538 [ref. 33501], Sarmiento et al. 2014:190 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:88 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Hemidoras stenopeltis (Kner 1855). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Bolivia, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

stuebelii, Oxydoras Steindachner [F.] 1882:175 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse v. 19 (no. 19); ref. 20487] Río Huallaga, upper Amazon River basin, Peru. Syntypes: MTD F 273 (1), F 274 (1, lost ?), F 277 (1, lost ?). Type catalog: Zarske 2003:23 [ref. 27474], Ferraris 2007:175 [ref. 29155] Species originally spelled as Stübelii, later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1882:5, Pl. 3 (figs. 1-1b) [ref. 14353]. •Valid as Opsodoras stuebelii (Steindachner 1882) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:13 [ref. 9708] as stubelii, Burgess 1989:222 [ref. 12860] as stubelii, Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:463 [ref. 27061] as stuebelii, Ferraris 2007:175 [ref. 29155] as stuebelii, Barriga S. 2014:115 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:190 [ref. 35004]). •Valid as Hemidoras stuebelii (Steindachner 1882) -- (DoNascimiento et al. 2017:88 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Opsodoras stuebelii (Steindachner 1882). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

teffeanus, Rhinodoras Steindachner [F.] 1875:145 [8], Pl. 3 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 71 (no. 1); ref. 15634] Rio Tefé, Amazonas state, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) NMW 44568-69 (1, 1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:176 [ref. 29155]. On p. 8 of separate. •Synonym of Oxydoras niger (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:464 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:176 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Oxydoras niger (Valenciennes 1821). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

ternetzi, Opsodoras Eigenmann [C. H.] 1925:353 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 22 (pt 5); ref. 1244] Rio Tapajos at Santarém, Amazon River system, Brazil. Holotype (unique): CAS 60230 [ex IU 16173]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:175 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Opsodoras ternetzi Eigenmann 1925 -- (Burgess 1989:222 [ref. 12860], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:463 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:175 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento 2016:532 [ref. 34727]). •Valid as Nemadoras ternetzi (Eigenmann 1925) -- (Sabaj Pérez et al. 2014:153 [ref. 33303]). •Valid as Tenellus ternetzi (Eigenmann 1925) -- (Birindelli 2014:xx [ref. 33501] in Doradinae, Birindelli 2014:538 [ref. 33501], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Tenellus ternetzi (Eigenmann 1925). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Colombia, Guyana, Venezuela and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

thomersoni, Rhinodoras Taphorn [D. C.] & Lilyestrom [C. G.] 1984:87, Figs. 1-3 [Revista Unellez de Ciencia y Tecnologia v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 19836] Near El Congo, Río Catatumbo mouth, Estado Zulia, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 368. Paratypes: MCNG 11295 (12), UF 41970 (2), MBUCV-V-14615 (2), FMNH 96003 (3), DISCA [= MARNR] 345 (1), 297-1 (2). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:75 [ref. 12367], Provenzano et al. 1998:16 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:178 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhinodoras thomersoni Taphorn & Lilyestrom 1984 -- (Galvis et al. 1997:57 [ref. 23651], González Bencomo et al. 1997:158 [ref. 24960], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:465 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:178 [ref. 29155], Sabaj et al. 2008:225 [ref. 29538], Birindelli 2014:536 [ref. 33501], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Rhinodoras thomersoni Taphorn & Lilyestrom 1984. Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Rivers along southwest shore of Lake Maracaibo: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

trachyparia, Oxydoras Boulenger [G. A.] 1898:423, Pl. 40 (fig. 2) [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 14 (pt 7, no. 2); ref. 543] Rio Juruá, Brazil. Syntypes: BMNH 1897.12.1.44-45 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:179 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Trachydoras trachyparia (Boulenger 1898) -- (Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Trachydoras steindachneri (Perugia 1897) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:466 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:179 [ref. 29155], Birindelli 2014:538 [ref. 33501], Sabaj & Arce H. 2017:27 [ref. 35518]). Current status: Synonym of Trachydoras steindachneri (Perugia 1897). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

trimaculatus, Leptodoras Fowler [H. W.] 1914:264, Fig. 14 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 66; ref. 1390] Rupununi River, Guyana, about 2 to 3°N, 50°20'W. Holotype: ANSP 39342. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:100 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:174 [ref. 29155] Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Opsodoras trimaculatus (Boulenger 1898), replaced by Opsodoras ogilviei Fowler 1958. •Synonym of Nemadoras trimaculatus (Boulenger 1898) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:463 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:174 [ref. 29155], Sabaj Pérez et al. 2014:155 [ref. 33303]). Current status: Synonym of Nemadoras trimaculatus (Boulenger 1898). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

trimaculatus, Oxydoras Boulenger [G. A.] 1898:422, Pl. 40 (fig. 1) [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 14 (pt 7, no. 2); ref. 543] Rio Juruá, Brazil. Syntypes: BMNH 1897.12.1.41-43 (3). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:174 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Opsodoras trimaculatus (Boulenger 1898) -- (Burgess 1989:222 [ref. 12860], Chang & Ortega 1995:3 [ref. 24302]). •Valid as Nemadoras trimaculatus (Boulenger 1898) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:463 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:174 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:115 [ref. 35745], Sabaj Pérez et al. 2014:155 [ref. 33303], DoNascimiento 2016:531 [ref. 34727]). •Valid as Tenellus trimaculatus (Boulenger 1898) -- (Birindelli 2014:538 [ref. 33501] in Doradinae, Birindelli 2014:xx [ref. 33501], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Tenellus trimaculatus (Boulenger 1898). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Amazon, Orinoco and Essequibo River basins: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Guyana, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

truncatus, Amblydoras Bleeker [P.] 1863:18 [9] [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 1; ref. 16997] Rio Guaporé, Brazil. Holotype (unique): RMNH 2973. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:168 [ref. 29155]. On p. 9 of separate. The holotype is also a syntype of Doras affinis Kner (see Boeseman 1972:316 [ref. 19698]). •Species inquirenda in Amblydoras Bleeker 1862 -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:459 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Amblydoras affinis (Kner 1855) -- (Ferraris 2007:168 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Amblydoras affinis (Kner 1855). Doradidae: Astrodoradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

ucayalensis, Hassar Fowler [H. W.] 1940:228, Figs. 15-17 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 91 (for 1939); ref. 1432] Contamana, Río Ucayali basin, Peru. Holotype (unique): ANSP 68647. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:100 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:171 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hassar ucayalensis Fowler 1940 -- (Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860]). •Questionably a synonym of Hassar orestis (Steindachner 1875) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:461 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:171 [ref. 29155], Birindelli et al. 2011:526 [ref. 31519]). Current status: Synonym of Hassar orestis (Steindachner 1875). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

uranoscopus, Doras Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1888:159 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 1249] Lake Hyanuary, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 7235. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:174 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hoplodoras uranoscopus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888) -- (Burgess 1989:224 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Megalodoras uranoscopus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:462 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:174 [ref. 29155], Barriga S. 2014:115 [ref. 35745], Birindelli 2014:xx [ref. 33501], Sarmiento et al. 2014:190 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:88 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Megalodoras uranoscopus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Amazon, Tocantins and Essequibo River basins: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

weddellii, Doras Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:48, Pl. 17 (fig. 1) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Chiquitos, Bolivia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-4155. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:18 [ref. 19575] with locality Amazon River, Brazil, Ferraris 2007:169 [ref. 29155]. Misspelled veddellii by Bertoni 1914:7 [ref. 16813]. •Valid as Anadoras weddellii (Castelnau 1855) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:13 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:224 [ref. 12860], Britski et al. 1999:117 [ref. 24147], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:459 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:54 [ref. 27366] as wedelli, Diogo et al. 2004:186 [ref. 27881], Menni 2004:82 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:169 [ref. 29155], Sarmiento et al. 2014:190 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:28 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:43 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Anadoras weddellii (Castelnau 1855). Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Upper Mamoré, Paraguay and Pilcomayo River basins: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

wilderi, Hassar Kindle [E. M.] 1895:251 [Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences v. 8 (art. 9) [for 1894]; ref. 12354] Touceira, on Rio Tocantins, Brazil. Lectotype: CAS 60711 [ex CAS-SU 2243 [ex IU 5120, 165 mm]]. Paralectotypes: CUMV 72933 (1), SU 2243 [ex CU 1704] (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:171 [ref. 29155]. Name appeared earlier as a nomen nudum in Kindle 1893:72 [ref. 27364]. Lectotype selected in Eigenmann 1925:364 [ref. 1244] in caption to Pl. 22, fig. 2. See Birindelli et al. 525 [ref. 31519] for remarks on the type locality. See Birindelli et al. 525 [ref. 31519] incorrectly rejected the lectotype designation by Eigenmann; the figured specimen is identifiable; CAS 60711 is the lectotype -- Ferraris 2007:171 [ref. 20155] and the Catalog of Fishes. •Valid as Hassar wilderi Kindle 1895 -- (Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:461 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:171 [ref. 29155], Birindelli et al. 2011:535 [ref. 31519], Sabaj Pérez & Birindelli 2013:152 [ref. 32562]). Current status: Valid as Hassar wilderi Kindle 1895. Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Tocantins and Araguaia River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

woodi, Hassar Fowler [H. W.] 1941:139, Figs. 35-37 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 1437] Rio Parnahyba [Parnaiba], Therezina, Piauhy, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ANSP 69392. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:100 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:171 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Hassar woodi Fowler 1941 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:13 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:223 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Hassar affinis (Steindachner 1881) -- (Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:461 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:171 [ref. 29155], Birindelli et al. 2011:517 [ref. 31519], Sabaj Pérez & Birinelli 2013:149 [ref. 32562]). Current status: Synonym of Hassar affinis (Steindachner 1881). Doradidae: Doradinae. Habitat: freshwater.

woodsi, Rhynchodoras Glodek [G. S.] 1976:44, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 1976 (no. 1); ref. 7080] Río Bobonaza at Moreta, between Sarayacu and Montalvo, western Ecuador. Holotype: FMNH 77008. Paratypes: (2) FMNH 77009 (1, missing). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:75 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:178 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Rhynchodoras woodsi Glodek 1976 -- (Burgess 1989:225 [ref. 12860], de Pinna 1998:309 [ref. 23847], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:466 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:178 [ref. 29155], Birindelli et al. 2007:681 [ref. 29263], Barriga S. 2014:115 [ref. 35745], Birindelli 2014:536 [ref. 33501]). Current status: Valid as Rhynchodoras woodsi Glodek 1976. Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Essequibo and Amazon basins minus Xingú and Tocantins basins: Brazil, Ecuador and Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

xingui, Rhynchodoras Klausewitz [W.] & Rössel [F.] 1961:46, Fig. 1 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 42 (nos 1/2); ref. 2617] Upstream of Rio Xingú, Brazil. Holotype: SMF 5281. Paratypes: SMF 5282 (1, partial skeleton). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:178 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhynchodoras xingui Klausewitz & Rössel 1961 -- (Burgess 1989:225 [ref. 12860] as Rhyncodoras, de Pinna 1998:309 [ref. 23847], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:466 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:178 [ref. 29155], Birindelli et al. 2007:681 [ref. 29263]). Current status: Valid as Rhynchodoras xingui Klausewitz & Rössel 1961. Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Xingú and Tocantins basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

zuanoni, Doras Sabaj Pérez [M. H.] & Birindelli [J. L. O.] 2008:223, Figs. 2H, 3B, gH, 7, 14B-C [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 157; ref. 29739] Rio Araguaia, Laguinho Central, Xambioá, Tocantins River drainage, Tocantins, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 5244. Paratypes: ANSP 185367 (1), INPA 18628 (1), MCP 18188 (1), ZUSP [ex INPA 20408] 96328 (1). •Valid as Doras zuanoni Sabaj Pérez & Birindelli 2008. Current status: Valid as Doras zuanoni Sabaj Pérez & Birindelli 2008. Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Lower to middle rio Araguaia, east-central Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

zuloagai, Doraops Schultz [L. P.] 1944:271, Pl. 7 (fig. A); Fig. 5 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 94 (no. 3172); ref. 3959] Río de Los Pajaros, 1 kilometer above Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121015. Paratypes: FMNH 42031 [ex USNM 121016] (1); MCZ 37304 [ex USNM 121016] (2), CAS-SU 41005 [ex USNM 121017] (1); UMMZ 142485 [ex USNM 121016] (1); USNM 121016 (7, now 3), 121017 (4, now 3), 121018 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:41 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:32 [ref. 12367], Ferraris & Vari 1992:17 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:170 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Doraops zuloagai Schultz 1944 -- (Burgess 1989:224 [ref. 12860], Galvis et al. 1997:56 [ref. 23651], de Pinna 1998:307 [ref. 23847], Sabaj & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:460 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:170 [ref. 29155], Birindelli 2014:536 [ref. 33501], Reis et al. 2016:16 [ref. 34496], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:88 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Doraops zuloagai Schultz 1944. Doradidae: Doradinae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo basin and Apon, Santa Ana, Catatumbo, Escalante and de Los Pajaros River basins: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.