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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Esocidae: [ 46 ] records


acus, Esox Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xix [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Name only, not available (from Malta). Family uncertain. Esocidae.

affinis, Esox Holbrook [J. E.] 1860:198, Pl. 28 (fig. 1) [Ichthyology of South Carolina. (Second Edition) v. 1; ref. 2185] South Carolina, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Esox niger Lesueur 1818. Current status: Synonym of Esox niger Lesueur 1818. Esocidae. Habitat: freshwater.

amentus, Esox Godfrey [J., Jr.] 1945:11, 36-37 [Outdoors Oct. 1945; ref. 22862] Vermillion Lake, Ontario, Canada. Original description not seen. •Synonym of Esox masquinongy Mitchill 1824 -- (Crossman 1978:18 [ref. 6974]). •Hybrid between Esox masquinongy x Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758 -- (Scott & Crossman 1998:365 [ref. 24570]). Esocidae. Habitat: freshwater.

americanus, Esox Gmelin [J. F.] 1789:1390 [Caroli a Linné ... Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18139] Long Island, New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Valid as Esox americanus Gmelin 1789 [often with subspecies] -- (Crossman 1978:15 [ref. 6974], Lee et al. 1980:131 [ref. 22416], Smith 1986:247 [ref. 22186], Robison & Buchanan 1988:143 [ref. 23393], McAllister 1990:69 [ref. 14674], Tomelleri & Eberle 1990:63 [ref. 24089], Page & Burr 1991:60 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:67 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:334 [ref. 22809], Jenkins et al. in Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:242 [ref. 21581], Ráb & Crossman 1994:1951 [ref. 22739], Warren et al. 1994:133 [ref. 25557], Knight & Hastings 1994:150 [ref. 25560], Stauffer et al. 1995:225 [ref. 23376], Mettee et al. 1996:417 [ref. 25836], Murdy et al. 1997:104 [ref. 23144], Coffie 1997:133 [ref. 25002], Scott & Crossman 1998:348 [ref. 24570], Fuller et al. 1999:227 [ref. 25838], Lyons et al. 2000:37 [ref. 26594], Ross et al. 2001:335 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:84 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:355 [ref. 27995], Page et al. 2013:87 [ref. 32708], Robins et al. 2018:172 [ref. 35886] dated 1788 with 2 subspecies). •Valid as Esox americanus Gmelin 1789, subspecies americanus -- (Lachance 2002:597 [ref. 26243] dated 1788, Grande et al. 2004:746, 750 [ref. 28936], Scharpf 2006:21 [ref. 30386], Page & Burr 2011:372 [ref. 31215] with 2 subspecies). Current status: Valid as Esox americanus Gmelin 1789. Esocidae. Distribution: Eastern North America. Atlantic Slope drainages to southern Georgia [subspecies americanus]. Habitat: freshwater.

aquitanicus, Esox Denys [G. P. J.], Dettai [A.], Persat [H.], Hautecoeur [M.] & Keith [P.] 2014:528, Figs. 3, 4a [Comptes Rendus Biologies 337; ref. 33448] Adour drainage, Estampon, Saint-Gor, France Holotype: MNHN 2013-1246. Paratypes: MNHN (6). •Valid as Esox aquitanicus Denys, Dettai, Persat, Hautecoeur & Keith 2014. Current status: Valid as Esox aquitanicus Denys, Dettai, Persat, Hautecoeur & Keith 2014. Esocidae. Distribution: France. Habitat: freshwater.

aralensis, Esox lucius Pivnev [I. A.] 1985:18 [8 pls.; ref. 8966] Chu River basin, Kyrgyzstan. Syntypes: (many). Preoccupied by Esox aralensis Sytchevskaya 1974, a fossil taxon from the Tertiary of Kazakhstan (Sytchevskaya 1974:224, Pl. 2, figs. 7-9 [ref. 35258]). •Synonym of Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758 -- (Kottelat 2006:26 [ref. 28831]). Current status: Synonym of Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758. Esocidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

atromaculata, Mascalongus Kirtland [J. P.] 1854:84 [Proceedings of the Cleveland Academy of Natural Science (for 1845-1859); ref. 18414] Lake Erie, North America. No types known. •Synonym of Esox masquinongy Mitchill 1824. Current status: Synonym of Esox masquinongy Mitchill 1824. Esocidae. Habitat: freshwater.

atrox, Esox lucius var. Anikin [V. P.] 1902:109 [Izvestiya Tomskogo Imperatorslago Universiteta v. 22; ref. 19629] Ob River basin, Siberia, Russia. Holotype: ZMUT uncat. Paratypes: ZMUT uncat. •Synonym of Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758 -- (Berg 1948:458 [ref. 12882], Kottelat 1997:95 [ref. 22952], Kottelat 2006:26 [ref. 28831]). Current status: Synonym of Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758. Esocidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

australis, Esox Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:323 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Locality unknown; not Australia (see Whitley 1943:130 [ref. 4702]). Holotype (unique): MNHN B-0960. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:5 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758. Current status: Synonym of Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758. Esocidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

baicalensis, Esox reichertii var. Dybowski [B. N.] 1874:392 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 24 (no. 3-4); ref. 1172] Lake Baikal basin, Russia. No types known. •Synonym of Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758 -- (Berg 1948:458 [ref. 12882], Kottelat 1997:95 [ref. 22952], Sideleva 2001:47 [ref. 26181], Sideleva 2003:12 [ref. 27815], Kottelat 2006:26 [ref. 28831]). Current status: Synonym of Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758. Esocidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

bergi, Esox lucius Kaganowsky [A. G.] 1933:138 [4] [Vestnik Dal'nevostocnogo Filiala Akademii Nauk SSSR = Bulletin of the Far Eastern Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR 1933 (nos. 1-3); ref. 19615] Anadyr River, Siberia, Russia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758 -- (Berg 1948:458 [ref. 12882], Kottelat 1997:95 [ref. 22952], Kottelat 2006:26 [ref. 28831]). Current status: Synonym of Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758. Esocidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

boreus, Esox Agassiz [L.] 1850:317 [Lake Superior; ref. 66] Northern shores of Lake Superior. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758 -- (Scott & Crossman 1998:363 [ref. 24570]). Current status: Synonym of Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758. Esocidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

cisalpinus, Esox Bianco [P. G.] & Delmastro [G. B.] 2011:7, Figs. 2A-B, D [Researches on Wildlife Conservation. v. 2 (suppl.); ref. 31648] Cercenasco (Torino), Bealera Bassa (Po basin), Piemonte, Italy. Holotype: IZA 111. Paratypes: many at IZA. •Valid as Esox cisalpinus Bianco & Delmastro 2011 - (Bianco 2013:10 [ref. 32897], Denys et al. 2014:532 [ref. 33448]). Current status: Valid as Esox cisalpinus Bianco & Delmastro 2011. Esocidae. Distribution: Northern and central Italy, Sardinia (introduced), France and probably Switzerland. Habitat: freshwater.

clathratus, Esox Girard [C. F.] (ex Baird) 1853:386 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 6; ref. 20626] Appeared as "E. clathratus, Bd., MS., resemble Esox reticulatus in having the cheeks and opercular apparatus covered with scales." Regarded as unavailable for lack of distinguishing features. Esocidae.

crassus, Esox Agassiz [L.] 1854:308 [14] [American Journal of Science and Arts (Series 2) v. 17; ref. 69] Tennessee River at Huntsville, Alabama, U.S.A. No types known. On p. 14 of separate. •Synonym of Esox niger Lesueur 1818 -- (Crossman 1978:21 [ref. 6974], Lee et al. 1980:137 [ref. 22416]). Current status: Synonym of Esox niger Lesueur 1818. Esocidae. Habitat: freshwater.

cypho, Esox Cope [E. D.] 1865:78 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 17; ref. 907] Waterford, Oakland County, Michigan, U.S.A. Lectotype: ANSP 7681. Paralectotypes: ?UMMZ 213811 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:102 [ref. 13621]. Lectotype established by Fowler 1916:415 [ref. 1394] and 1918:38 [ref. 11665]. •Synonym of Esox americanus Gmelin 1789. Current status: Synonym of Esox americanus Gmelin 1789. Esocidae. Habitat: freshwater.

depraudus, Esox Lesueur [C. A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:336 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Wabash River, New Harmony, Indiana, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-0793. •Synonym of Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758. Current status: Synonym of Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758. Esocidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

estor, Esox Lesueur [C. A.] 1818:413 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 17514] Lake Erie, Buffalo, New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758 -- (Smith 1986:251 [ref. 22186], Scott & Crossman 1998:363 [ref. 24570]). Current status: Synonym of Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758. Esocidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

fasciatus, Esox DeKay [J. E.] 1842:224, Pl. 34 (fig. 110) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] Long Island, New York, U.S.A. Syntypes: New York State coll. (whereabouts unknown). •Synonym of Esox americanus Gmelin 1789 -- (Smith 1986:248 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Esox americanus Gmelin 1789. Esocidae. Habitat: freshwater.

fasciolaris, Esox Rafinesque [C. S.] 1818:447 [American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review v. 3 (no. 6) (art. 6) (Oct.); ref. 3587] Name only, not available. Esocidae.

flaviae, Esox Lucentini [L.], Puletti [M. E.], Ricciolini [C.], Gigliarelli [L.], Fontaneto [D.], Lanfaloni [L.], Bilò [F.], Natali [M.] & Panara [F.] 2011:12, Figs. 1A-D [PLoS ONE v. 6 (no. 12); ref. 31658] Lake Trasimeno, 43°08'43"N, 12°05'52"E, Tevere River basin, central Italy. Holotype: NHGC GS1. Paratypes: not specified. Dates of publication: Cisalpinus on 10 July, flaviae on 2 Dec. -- Bianco 2013:10 [ref. 32897]. •Valid as Esox flaviae Lucentini, Puletti, Ricciolini, Gigliarelli, Fontaneto, Lanfaloni, Bilò, Natali & Panara 2011. •The same as Esox cisalpinus Bianco & Delmastro 2011, also from Italy and of an earlier date (pers. comm. J. Freyhof, 2/9/2012, Bianco 2013:10 [ref. 32897]). Current status: Synonym of Esox cisalpinus Bianco & Delmastro 2011. Esocidae. Distribution: Italy; potentially in other European waters [but probably not valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

immaculatus, Esox masquinongy Jordan [D. S.] (ex Garrard) 1888:89 [A manual of vertebrate animals of the northern United States (fifth edition); ref. 2390] Eagle Lake, northern Wisconsin, U.S.A. See also Jordan & Evermann 1896:630 [ref. 2443]; who attribute to Garrard manuscript as noticed in different fishing journals. •Synonym of Esox masquinongy Mitchill 1824 -- (Crossman 1978:18 [ref. 6974], Lee et al. 1980:135 [ref. 22416], Scott & Crossman 1998:369 [ref. 24570]). Current status: Synonym of Esox masquinongy Mitchill 1824. Esocidae. Habitat: freshwater.

lineatus, Esox Lesueur [C. A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:335 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Wabash River, New Harmony, Indiana, U.S.A. No type known. •Synonym of Esox americanus Gmelin 1789, subspecies vermiculatus Lesueur 1846. Current status: Synonym of Esox americanus Gmelin 1789. Esocidae. Habitat: freshwater.

lucioides, Esox Agassiz [L.] & Girard [C. F.] in Herbert 1850:154 [Frank Forester's fish and fishing of the United States and British Provinces of North America.; ref. 17299] Lake Superior, North America. No type known. Authors are L. Agassiz and C. F. Girard. •Synonym of Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758 -- (Scott & Crossman 1998:363 [ref. 24570]). Current status: Synonym of Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758. Esocidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

lucius, Esox Linnaeus [C.] 1758:314 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Europe. Possible syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.114 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:209 [ref. 13434]. As Esox lucio in Bloch 1782:229 [ref. 19643]. •Valid as Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758 -- (Berg 1948:458 [ref. 12882], Crossman 1978:14 [ref. 6974], Lee et al. 1980:133 [ref. 22416], Smith 1986:250 [ref. 22186], Lelek 1987:67 [ref. 22962], Robison & Buchanan 1988:144 [ref. 23393], McAllister 1990:69 [ref. 14674], Tomelleri & Eberle 1990:65 [ref. 24089], Page & Burr 1991:61 [ref. 18983], Coad 1991:20 [ref. 15702], Etnier & Starnes 1993:335 [ref. 22809], Jenkins et al. in Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:232 [ref. 21581], Ráb & Crossman 1994:1951 [ref. 22739], Baxter & Stone 1995:152 [ref. 23374], Stauffer et al. 1995:227 [ref. 23376], Coad 1995:24 [ref. 23608], Cross & Collins 1995:163 [ref. 23394], Zhu 1995:16 [ref. 25213], Mrakovcic et al. 1995:184 [ref. 23079], Chereshnev 1996:601 [ref. 24659], Coad 1996:85 [ref. 25304], Kottelat 1997:95 [ref. 22952], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:733 [ref. 24702], Coffie 1997:133 [ref. 25002], Sigler & Sigler 1996:162 [ref. 25943], Popova 1998:52 [ref. 23588], Coad 1998:103 [ref. 23869], Scott & Crossman 1998:356 [ref. 24570], Fuller et al. 1999:228 [ref. 25838], Azeroual et al. 2000:20 [ref. 25366], Lyons et al. 2000:37 [ref. 26594], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:17 [ref. 25650], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:45 [ref. 26178], Chereshnev et al. 2001:50 [ref. 26736], Pietsch et al. 2001:141 [ref. 25688], Bianco & Ketmaier 2001:194 [ref. 26728], Sideleva 2001:47 [ref. 26181], Lachance 2002:597 [ref. 26243], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:144 [ref. 25968], Moyle 2002:222 [ref. 26449], Fedorov et al. 2003:27 [ref. 27579], Sideleva 2003:12 [ref. 27815], Wydoski & Whitney 2003:111 [ref. 27816], Hanel 2003:57 [ref. 27894], Nelson et al. 2004:84 [ref. 27807], Bailey et al. 2004:138 [ref. 27882], Miller & Robison 2004:252 [ref. 27931], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:124 [ref. 28183], Grande et al. 2004:746 [ref. 28936], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:165 [ref. 28369], Hanel & Lusk 2005:297 [ref. 28804], Kottelat 2006:26 [ref. 28831], Ocock et al. 2006:55 [ref. 28933], Scharpf 2006:21 [ref. 30386], Fricke 2007:28 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:57 [ref. 29533], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:342 [ref. 29996], McPhail 2007:210 [ref. 31199], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:168 [ref. 31251], Minckley & Marsh 2009:101 [ref. 31114], Esmaeili et al. 2010:374 [ref. 33391], Page & Burr 2011:374 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:87 [ref. 32708], Denys et al. 2014:532 [ref. 33448], Parin et al. 2014:142 [ref. 33547], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:891 [ref. 34062], Barbieri et al. 2015:79 [ref. 35029], Çiçek et al. 2015:149 [ref. 35151], Zhang et al. 2016:190 [ref. 34477], Esmaeili et al. 2017:78 [ref. 35254], Romanov et al. 2017:823 [ref. 35687], Esmaeili et al. 2018:58 [ref. 36089], Fricke et al. 2018:64 [ref. 35805], Özuluğ & Saç 2019:27 [ref. 36599]). Current status: Valid as Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758. Esocidae. Distribution: Circumpolar in Northern Hemisphere (widely introduced elsewhere). Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

lugubrosus, Esox Lesueur [C. A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:338 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Cumberland District, Nashville, Tennessee, U.S.A. •Synonym of Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758. Current status: Synonym of Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758. Esocidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

masquinongy, Esox Mitchill [S. L.] 1824:297 [Minerva, New York v. 1 (no. 16); ref. 18465] Lake Erie, North America. No types known. Not available from Mitchill 1824:297 [ref. 18465] who uses a vernacular name. First available usage if needed is not researched. Available from Jordan 1888:89 [ref. 2390] with Mitchill as author. •Valid as Esox masquinongy ? Mitchill 1824 -- (Crossman 1978:14 [ref. 6974], Lee et al. 1980:135 [ref. 22416], Smith 1986:251 [ref. 22186], Robison & Buchanan 1988:146 [ref. 23393], McAllister 1990:69 [ref. 14674], Tomelleri & Eberle 1990:67 [ref. 24089], Page & Burr 1991:62 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:67 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:337 [ref. 22809], Jenkins et al. in Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:234 [ref. 21581], Ráb & Crossman 1994:1951 [ref. 22739], Stauffer et al. 1995:229 [ref. 23376], Coffie 1997:133 [ref. 25002], Scott & Crossman 1998:363 [ref. 24570], Fuller et al. 1999:229 [ref. 25838], Lyons et al. 2000:37 [ref. 26594], Lachance 2002:597 [ref. 26243], Nelson et al. 2004:84 [ref. 27807], Bailey et al. 2004:139 [ref. 27882], Boschung & Mayden 2004:358 [ref. 27995], Grande et al. 2004:746 [ref. 28936], Scharpf 2006:21 [ref. 30386], Minckley & Marsh 2009:102 [ref. 31114], Page & Burr 2011:374 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:87 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Esox masquinongy Mitchill 1824. Esocidae. Distribution: Great Lakes, North America and south to Georgia and west to Iowa; introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater.

niger, Esox Lesueur [C. A.] 1818:415 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 17514] Saratoga Lake, New York, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2824 (dry). •Valid as Esox niger Lesueur 1818 -- (Crossman 1978:14 [ref. 6974], Lee et al. 1980:137 [ref. 22416], Smith 1986:253 [ref. 22186], Robison & Buchanan 1988:147 [ref. 23393], McAllister 1990:69 [ref. 14674], Tomelleri & Eberle 1990:64 [ref. 24089], Page & Burr 1991:60 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:68 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:339 [ref. 22809], Jenkins et al. in Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:239 [ref. 21581], Ráb & Crossman 1994:1951 [ref. 22739], Knight & Hastings 1994:150 [ref. 25560], Stauffer et al. 1995:231 [ref. 23376], Mettee et al. 1996:419 [ref. 25836], Murdy et al. 1997:105 [ref. 23144], Scott & Crossman 1998:370 [ref. 24570], Coffie 1998:133 [ref. 25002], Fuller et al. 1999:230 [ref. 25838], Ross et al. 2001:336 [ref. 25978], Lachance 2002:597 [ref. 26243], Nelson et al. 2004:84 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:253 [ref. 27931], Boschung & Mayden 2004:359 [ref. 27995], Grande et al. 2004:746 [ref. 28936], Scharpf 2006:21 [ref. 30386], Page & Burr 2011:372 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:87 [ref. 32708], Robins et al. 2018:14 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Esox niger Lesueur 1818. Esocidae. Distribution: North America: eastern Canada along Atlantic slope to Gulf Coast and to Oklahoma and Texas, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

nobilior, Esox Thompson [Z.] 1850:163, 173, 306 [Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History v. 3 (1848-1851); ref. 4392] Lake Champlain, North America. No types known. Not available from p. 163 as above; no distinguishing features were presented by Thompson. Additional comments appeared on p. 173 and p. 305-307 of same journal in 1850. The species apparently dates to p. 306 where distinguishing features appeared. As Esox nobilis in Kirtland 1854:83 [ref. 18414]. •Synonym of Esox masquinongy Mitchill 1824 -- (Smith 1986:253 [ref. 22186], Scott & Crossman 1998:369 [ref. 24570]). Current status: Synonym of Esox masquinongy Mitchill 1824. Esocidae. Habitat: freshwater.

ohiensis, Esox Kirtland [J. P.] 1854:85 [Proceedings of the Cleveland Academy of Natural Science (for 1845-1859); ref. 18414] Mahoning River, tributary of Ohio River, Ohio, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Esox masquinongy Mitchill 1824 -- (Crossman 1978:18 [ref. 6974], Lee et al. 1980:135 [ref. 22416], Smith 1986:253 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Esox masquinongy Mitchill 1824. Esocidae. Habitat: freshwater.

ornatus, Esox Girard [C. F.] 1854:41 [Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History v. 5 (1854-1856); ref. 18029] Charles River, Massachusetts, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Esox americanus Gmelin 1789. Current status: Synonym of Esox americanus Gmelin 1789. Esocidae. Habitat: freshwater.

phaleratus, Esox Say [T.] in Lesueur 1818:416 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 17514] St. Augustine, Florida, U.S.A. •Synonym of Esox niger Lesueur 1818. Current status: Synonym of Esox niger Lesueur 1818. Esocidae. Habitat: freshwater.

porosus, Esox Cope [E. D.] 1867:408 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 13 (pt 3) (art. 13); ref. 18028] Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:102 [ref. 13621]. Unneeded replacement name for Esox cypho Cope 1865 because Cope (p. 409) felt name was inappropriate. •Synonym of Esox americanus Gmelin 1789. Current status: Synonym of Esox americanus Gmelin 1789. Esocidae. Habitat: freshwater.

ravenelii, Esox Holbrook [J. E.] 1860:201 [Ichthyology of South Carolina. (Second Edition) v. 1; ref. 2185] Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Esox americanus Gmelin 1789. Current status: Synonym of Esox americanus Gmelin 1789. Esocidae. Habitat: freshwater.

reichertii, Esox Dybowski [B. N.] 1869:956 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 19; ref. 1169] Lakes of the Onon and Ingoda river systems, Amur River basin, Russia. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Esox reichertii Dybowski 1869 -- (Berg 1948:64 [ref. 12882], Crossman 1978:14 [ref. 6974] as reicherti, Ráb & Crossman 1994:1951 [ref. 22739] as reicherti, Zhu 1995:16 [ref. 25213], Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:14 [ref. 22798], Nikiforov et al. 1997:330 [ref. 24694] as reicherti, Reshetnikov et al. 1997:733 [ref. 24702], Popova 1998:52 [ref. 23588], Fuller et al. 1999:231 [ref. 25838], Pietsch et al. 2001:141 [ref. 25688], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:124 [ref. 28183], Grande et al. 2004:746 [ref. 28936], Kottelat 2006:27 [ref. 28831], Ocock et al. 2006:55 [ref. 28933], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:342 [ref. 29996], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:343 [ref. 30085], Parin et al. 2014:143 [ref. 33547], Zhang et al. 2016:190 [ref. 34477], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:672 [ref. 34853]). Current status: Valid as Esox reichertii Dybowski 1869. Esocidae. Distribution: Russia, China, Mongolia and Sakhalin Island. Habitat: freshwater.

reticulatus, Esox Lesueur [C. A.] 1818:414 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 17514] Connecticut River, Adams, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Lesueur specimens: MNHN B-0961 (1) Philadelphia. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:4-5 [ref. 19576]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Esox reticulatus Rafinesque 1814. •Synonym of Esox niger Lesueur 1818 -- (Crossman 1978:21 [ref. 6974], Lee et al. 1980:137 [ref. 22416], Smith 1986:254 [ref. 22186], Scott & Crossman 1998:374 [ref. 24570], Ross et al. 2001:336 [ref. 25978]). Current status: Synonym of Esox niger Lesueur 1818. Esocidae. Habitat: freshwater.

salmoneus, Esox Rafinesque [C. S.] 1820:167 [Western Revue and Miscellaneous Magazine: a monthly publ., devoted to literature and science, Lexington, KY v. 3 (no. 3); ref. 7306] Ohio River, U.S.A. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Esox salmoneus Mitchill 1815. Also in Rafinesque 1820:71 [ref. 3592]. Apparently mythical -- (Markle 1997:444 [ref. 23370]). Esocidae.

scomberius, Esox Mitchill [S. L.] 1818:322 [American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review v. 2 (no. 5, art. 1); ref. 30214] Streams of New York State, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Esox americanus Gmelin 1789 -- (Smith 1986:248 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Esox americanus Gmelin 1789. Esocidae. Habitat: freshwater.

tridecemlineatus, Esox Mitchill [S. L.] 1825:361 [Minerva, New York v. 1 (no. 16); ref. 18465] Oneida, New York, U.S.A. No types known. Original not seen. •Synonym of Esox niger Lesueur 1818 -- (Smith 1986:254 [ref. 22186], Scott & Crossman 1998:374 [ref. 24570]). Current status: Synonym of Esox niger Lesueur 1818. Esocidae. Habitat: freshwater.

tridecemradiatus, Esox DeKay [J. E.] 1842:225 [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] Originally as tridecem-radiatus. •Synonym of Esox niger Lesueur 1818 -- (Smith 1986:254 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Esox niger Lesueur 1818. Esocidae. Habitat: freshwater.

umbrosus, Esox Kirtland [J. P.] 1854:84 [Proceedings of the Cleveland Academy of Natural Science (for 1845-1859); ref. 18414] Rocky River, Rockport, Ohio, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Esox americanus Gmelin 1789 -- (Crossman 1978:23 [ref. 6974], Lee et al. 1980:131 [ref. 22416], Ross et al. 2001:336 [ref. 25978]). •Synonym of Esox americanus Gmelin 1789, subspecies vermiculatus Lesueur 1846 -- (Scott & Crossman 1998:345 [ref. 24570]). Current status: Synonym of Esox americanus Gmelin 1789. Esocidae. Habitat: freshwater.

variegatus, Esox lucius var. Fitzinger [L. J. F. J.] (ex Agassiz) 1832:339 [Beiträge zur Landeskunde Österreichs unter der Enns, Wien v. 1; ref. 5019] Treated by Kottelat 1997:95 [ref. 22952] as infrasubspecific and not available; from Danube R. and lakes Erlaph and Schwarzensee, Austria. •In the synonymy of Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758 -- (Kottelat 1997:95 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758. Esocidae.

vermiculatus, Esox Lesueur [C. A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:333 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Tributaries of Wabash River, New Harmony, Indiana, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Esox americanus Gmelin 1789, but a valid subspecies -- (Crossman 1978:15 [ref. 6974], Lee et al. 1980:131 [ref. 22416], Smith 1986:248 [ref. 22186], Robison & Buchanan 1988:143 [ref. 23393], McAllister 1990:69 [ref. 14674], Tomelleri & Eberle 1990:63 [ref. 24089], Boschung 1992:67 [ref. 23239], Coffie 1997:133 [ref. 25002], Scott & Crossman 1998:352 [ref. 24570], Fuller et al. 1999:227 [ref. 25838], Ross et al. 2001:336 [ref. 25978], Lachance 2002:597 [ref. 26243], Wydoski & Whitney 2003:110 [ref. 27816], Bailey et al. 2004:137 [ref. 27882], Grande et al. 2004:746 [ref. 28936], Scharpf 2006:21 [ref. 30386], Page & Burr 2011:372 [ref. 31215]). Current status: Synonym of Esox americanus Gmelin 1789. Esocidae. Distribution: East-central to southern U.S.A. [subspecies vermiculatus]. Habitat: freshwater.

vittatus, Esox Rafinesque [C. S.] 1818:447 [American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review v. 3 (no. 6) (art. 6) (Oct.); ref. 3587] Ohio, Wabash, Green rivers, etc., U.S.A. Based on a Audubon drawing; mythical; see Markle 1997:446 [ref. 23370]. Esocidae.

vorax, Luccius Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:68 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Unneeded new name for "Esox luccius" Linnaeus. •Synonym of Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758 -- (Kottelat 1997:95 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758. Esocidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

wiliunensis, Esox lucius lucius natio Kirillov [F. N.] 1962:37 [Trudy Instituta Biologii / Akademiia Nauk SSSR, i Akutskiii filial. v. 8; ref. 23017] Infrasubspecific, not available; from Vilyui R. basin, Yakutia, Siberia, Russia. •In the synonymy of Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758 -- (Kottelat 1997:95 [ref. 22952], Kottelat 2006:26 [ref. 28831]). Current status: Synonym of Esox lucius Linnaeus 1758. Esocidae.