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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Labrisomidae: [ 189 ] records


affinis, Cremnobates Steindachner [F.] 1876:226 [178] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] Eastern Pacific, possibly Panama [not St. Thomas Island, Virgin Islands, West Indies]. Holotype (unique): possible at NMW. On p. 178 of separate. Appeared as "An n. sp.? Cremn. affinis Steind." Type locality probably e. Pacific; see Springer 1955:428 [ref. 10206]. •In genus Paraclinus -- (V. G. Springer, pers. comm. 8/98). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

africanus, Malacoctenus Cadenat [J.] 1951:271, Fig. 211 [Initiations Africaines. III. Poissons de mer du Sénégal; ref. 12676] Senegal. No types known. •Valid as Malacoctenus africanus Cadenat 1951 -- (Wirtz 1990:919 [ref. 19374], Patzner et al. 2009:463 [ref. 30396], Wirtz 2014:19 [ref. 33594], Williams & Springer in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2798 [ref. 34618], Carvalho-Filho et al. 2020:516 [ref. 37678]). Current status: Valid as Malacoctenus africanus Cadenat 1951. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

afuerae, Labrisomus Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:400, Fig. 77 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Lobos de Afuera Island, Peru. Holotype: USNM 128213. Paratypes: USNM 128214 (2). Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:16 [ref. 22274]. The holotype also is the neotype of Blennius tetranemus Cope 1877. •Synonym of Malacoctenus tetranemus (Cope 1877) -- (Stephens & Springer 1974:10 [ref. 7149], Allen & Robertson 1994:233 [ref. 22193], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:255 [ref. 24555]). Current status: Synonym of Malacoctenus tetranemus (Cope 1877). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

albicaudus, Auchenopterus Evermann [B. W.] & Marsh [M. C.] 1899:360 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 25 (for 1899) Appendix 7; ref. 1283] Arroyo, Puerto Rico. Holotype (unique): USNM 49373. Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:16 [ref. 22274]. •Synonym of Paraclinus nigripinnis (Steindachner 1867) -- (D. Hensley, pers. comm. 8/2005). Current status: Synonym of Paraclinus nigripinnis (Steindachner 1867). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

albigenys, Labrisomus Beebe [W.] & Tee-Van [J.] 1928:233, Fig. [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 15836] Lamentin Reef, Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti, West Indies. Holotype: USNM 170899 [ex NYZS 7372]. Paratypes: USNM 170900 [ex NYZS 7372a] (3). Type catalog: Mead 1958:133 [ref. 20648], Springer & Orrell 1996:16 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Labrisomus albigenys Beebe & Tee-Van 1928 -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:15 [ref. 5580], Sazima et al. 2002:131 [ref. 26189], Williams 2003:1759 [ref. 27109], Smith et al. 2003:48 [ref. 27621], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:590 [ref. 28815], Patzner et al. 2009:462 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:169 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:67 [ref. 33341]). •Valid as Brockius albigenys (Beebe & Tee-Van 1928) -- (Lin & Hastings 2013:12 [ref. 33286]). Current status: Valid as Brockius albigenys (Beebe & Tee-Van 1928). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

albipes, Labrisomus Fowler [H. W.] 1944:117, Fig. 244 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] Courtown Key, Caribbean Sea. Holotype (unique): ANSP 69994. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:60 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Malacoctenus gilli (Steindachner 1867). Current status: Synonym of Malacoctenus gilli (Steindachner 1867). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

albuquerquensis, Malacoctenus Fowler [H. W.] 1944:169, Fig. 245 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] Albuquerque Key, Caribbean Sea. Holotype: ANSP 69987 [not 67987] (with paratypes). Paratypes: ANSP 69988 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:60 [ref. 13621]. •Postlarval stage, genus Labrisomus. Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

altivelis, Cremnobates Lockington [W. N.] 1881:116 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 33; ref. 14288] La Paz, Baja California, Mexico, Gulf of California, depth 22 fathoms. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. See Hastings & Springer 2002:543 [ref. 26375] for commments on types. •Valid as Paraclinus altivelis (Lockington 1881) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:235 [ref. 22193], Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:254 [ref. 24555], Thomson et al. 2000:210 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:163 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:463 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Paraclinus altivelis (Lockington 1881). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California. Habitat: marine.

apectolophus, Haptoclinus Böhlke [J. E.] & Robins [C. R.] 1974:1, Figs. 1-4 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 126; ref. 611] Arrowsmith Bank, western Caribbean Sea, 21°04'N, 86°19'W, depth 185-200 fathoms. Holotype: ANSP 121251. Paratypes: ANSP 121252 (1, c&s, in pieces). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:60 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Haptoclinus apectolophus Böhlke & Robins 1974 -- (Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:165 [ref. 27754], Williams 2003:1759 [ref. 27109], Nelson et al. 2004:162 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:462 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:169 [ref. 32708], Baldwin & Robertson 2013:71 [ref. 32721]). Current status: Valid as Haptoclinus apectolophus Böhlke & Robins 1974. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Arrowsmith Bank, Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

arcanus, Paraclinus Guimarães [R. Z. P.] & Bacellar [A. C. L. H. de] 2002:421, Figs. 1A, 3C-D [Copeia 2002 (no. 2); ref. 26015] Itapinhoacanga Inlet, Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, 23°02'S, 44°12'W, depth 3 meters. Holotype: MNRJ 15900. Paratypes: ANSP 175722 (3); LBRP 3399 (1), 3431 (5), 3523 (1), 3464 (1); MCZ 151298 (3); MNRJ 14577 (112, 4 c&s); MZUSP 50200 (2), 50202 (4), 50210 (1), 51604 (1); USNM 345468 (3); ZUEC 275-277 (3), 3166 (3). •Valid as Paraclinus arcanus Guimarães & Bacellar 2002 -- (Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:95 [ref. 27192], Patzner et al. 2009:463 [ref. 30396]). Current status: Valid as Paraclinus arcanus Guimarães & Bacellar 2002. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazil. Habitat: marine.

argus, Cremnobates Beebe [W.] & Tee-Van [J.] 1928:238, Fig. [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 15836] Lamentin Reef, Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti, West Indies. Holotype (unique): USNM 170904 [ex NYZS 7375]. Type catalog: Mead 1958:132 [ref. 20648], Springer & Orrell 1996:16 [ref. 22274]. Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

asper, Auchenopterus Jenkins [O. P.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1889:154 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 11 (no. 698); ref. 2342] Guaymas, Sonora, western Mexico. Holotype: USNM 39643. Paratypes: (5) CAS 79641 [ex IU 7769] (1). Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:16 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Exerpes asper (Jenkins & Evermann 1889) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:227 [ref. 22193], Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:202 [ref. 24545], Thomson et al. 2000:216 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:162 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:462 [ref. 30396], Hastings & Springer 2009:10 [ref. 31156], Page et al. 2013:169 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Paraclinus asper (Jenkins and Evermann 1889) -- (Lin & Hastings 2013:3 [ref. 33286]). Current status: Valid as Paraclinus asper (Jenkins & Evermann 1889). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California and outer Baja coast. Habitat: marine.

atelestos, Nemaclinus Böhlke [J. E.] & Springer [V. G.] 1975:58, Figs. 1, 2a [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 127 (no. 7); ref. 615] Eleuthera Island, Bahamas, depth 34-38 meters. Holotype: ANSP 130821. Paratypes: ANSP 130822-24 (3); FMNH 64814 (1); UF 13452 (1), 20630 [ex UMML 16287] (2), 227074 [ex UMML 27074] (1); USNM 214025 (2, 1 c&s), 214026 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:60 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:60 [ref. 12367], Springer & Orrell 1996:16 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Nemaclinus atelestos Böhlke & Springer 1975 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:306 [ref. 25013], Williams 2003:1759 [ref. 27109], Nelson et al. 2004:163 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:602 [ref. 28815], Patzner et al. 2009:463 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Nemaclinus atelestos Böhlke & Springer 1975. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

atlantica, Starksia Longley [W. H.] 1934:258 [Carnegie Institution of Washington Publications No. 33; ref. 13896] Andros Island, Bahamas. Holotype: Whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Starksia atlantica Longley 1934 -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:37 [ref. 5580], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:165 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:118 [ref. 26784], Williams & Mounts 2003:160 [ref. 26947], Williams 2003:1760 [ref. 27109], Smith et al. 2003:52 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:164 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396], Baldwin 2011:33-35 [ref. 31149], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:68 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Starksia atlantica Longley 1934. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

aurolineatus, Malacoctenus Smith [C. L.] 1957:2, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 585; ref. 12167] Mouth of the Condado Lagoon, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Holotype: UMMZ 171179. Paratypes: UMMZ 171162-63 (1, 1), 171185 (5), 171190 (1). •Valid as Malacoctenus aurolineatus Smith 1957 -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:24 [ref. 5580], Robins & Ray 1986:227 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1994:81 [ref. 24488], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:165 [ref. 27754], Williams 2003:1759 [ref. 27109], Smith et al. 2003:49 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:163 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:598 [ref. 28815], Patzner et al. 2009:463 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:169 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:67 [ref. 33341], Wirtz 2014:18 [ref. 33594], Robertson et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34961], Carvalho-Filho et al. 2020:516 [ref. 37678]). Current status: Valid as Malacoctenus aurolineatus Smith 1957. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

bahamensis, Labrisomus Fowler [H. W.] 1947:8, Fig. 7 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 199; ref. 13084] Nassau Harbor, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Holotype (unique): ANSP 71734. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:60 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Current status: Synonym of Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

barbatus, Paraclinus Springer [V. G.] 1955:431, Fig. 1 [Texas Journal of Science v. 6 (no. 4) (for Dec. 1954); ref. 10206] Off St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, Caribbean Sea. Holotype (unique): ZMUC P76230. Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:75 [ref. 9588]. •Valid as Paraclinus barbatus Springer 1955 -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:30 [ref. 5580], Williams 2003:1760 [ref. 27109], Smith et al. 2003:51 [ref. 27621], Patzner et al. 2009:463 [ref. 30396]). Current status: Valid as Paraclinus barbatus Springer 1955. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

beebei, Paraclinus Hubbs [Clark L.] 1952:81, Fig. 21 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 2252] Piedra Blanca Bay, Costa Rica. Holotype: CAS-SU 46512 [ex NYZS 28152]. Paratypes: (28) AMNH 48699 (1); CAS 20471 (1); NYZS 28590 (1); CAS-SU 16227-29 (1, 17, 4); TNHC 408 (2); USNM 151992 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:98 [ref. 12291], Mead 1958:134 [ref. 20648], Springer & Orrell 1996:16 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Paraclinus beebei Hubbs 1952 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:235 [ref. 22193], Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], Thomson et al. 2000:210 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:163 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:463 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32708], González-Murcia et al. 2019:295 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Paraclinus beebei Hubbs 1952. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to El Salvador. Habitat: marine.

biguttatus, Labrisomus Cope [E. D.] 1871:473 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] New Providence Island, Bahamas. Syntypes: ANSP 10590 (1), plus 1 missing. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:60 [ref. 13621] with a holotype. •Synonym of Malacoctenus gilli (Steindachner 1867). Current status: Synonym of Malacoctenus gilli (Steindachner 1867). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

bimaculatus, Clinus Steindachner [F.] 1876:228 [180] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] Little rocky island north of Cuba, Florida Straits. Holotype (unique): NMW 77753. On p. 180 of separate. •Synonym of Malacoctenus gilli (Steindachner 1867) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:306 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Malacoctenus gilli (Steindachner 1867). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

boehlkei, Malacoctenus Springer [V. G.] 1959:443, Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [Publications of the Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Texas v. 5 (for Dec. 1958); ref. 10210] Northeast end of Rose Island, 25°07'55"N, 77°05'32"W, Bahamas, Caribbean Sea. Holotype: ANSP 74719. Paratypes: ANSP 74691 (1), 77931 (15), 77932-33 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:61 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Malacoctenus boehlkei Springer 1959 -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:25 [ref. 5580], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:165 [ref. 27754], Williams 2003:1759 [ref. 27109], Smith et al. 2003:49 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:163 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:463 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:169 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:67 [ref. 33341], Wirtz 2014:18 [ref. 33594], Carvalho-Filho et al. 2020:515 [ref. 37678]). Current status: Valid as Malacoctenus boehlkei Springer 1959. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

bondi, Malacoctenus Fowler [H. W.] 1930:275, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 82; ref. 16081] Grenada, West Indies. Holotype (unique): ANSP 52504. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:61 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Gobioclinus guppyi (Norman 1922). Current status: Synonym of Gobioclinus guppyi (Norman 1922). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

brasiliensis, Brannerella Gilbert [C. H.] 1900:180, Pl. 9 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 2; ref. 1630] Reef near Maceio, Brazil. Holotype: CAS-SU 7750. Paratypes: CAS-SU 53510 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:95 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Starksia brasiliensis (Gilbert 1900) -- (Greenfield 1979:38 [ref. 7013], Rocha & Rosa 2001:991 [ref. 25909], Williams & Mounts 2003:147 [ref. 26947], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:95 [ref. 27192], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396]). Current status: Valid as Starksia brasiliensis (Gilbert 1900). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazil. Habitat: marine.

bristolae, Emmnion Jordan [D. S.] in Gilbert 1897:454, Pl. 55 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 19 (no. 1115); ref. 1629] Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 47578. Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:16 [ref. 22274]. Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

brunoi, Malacoctenus Guimarães [R. Z. P.], Nunan [G. W.] & Gasparini [J. L.] 2010:51, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa No. 2567; ref. 30917] Tide pool, Enseada dos Portugueses, Trindade Island, off southeastern Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 21978 [ex LBRP 5377]. Paratypes: CIUFEAS 1316 (3, c&s), 1317 (3); LBRM 4214 (1), 5377 (1), 5382 (10); MBML 594 (3); ZUEC 2652 (1). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Malacoctenus brunoi Guimarães, Nunan & Gasparini 2010 -- (Wirtz 2014:19 [ref. 33594], Pinheiro et al. 2015:29 [ref. 34324], Carvalho-Filho et al. 2020:514 [ref. 37678]). Current status: Valid as Malacoctenus brunoi Guimarães, Nunan & Gasparini 2010. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Trindade Island and Martin-Vaz Archipelago, off southeastern Brazil. Habitat: marine.

bucciferus, Labrosomus Poey [F.] 1868:399 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Cuba. No types known. Original genus should have been Labrisomus. •Valid as Labrisomus bucciferus Poey 1868 -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:15 [ref. 5580], Robins & Ray 1986:226 [ref. 23100], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:305 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:165 [ref. 27754], Sazima et al. 2002:131 [ref. 26189], Williams 2003:1759 [ref. 27109], Smith et al. 2003:48 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:162 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:591 [ref. 28815], Patzner et al. 2009:462 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:169 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:67 [ref. 33341]). •Valid as Gobioclinus bucciferus (Poey 1868) -- (Lin & Hastings 2013:12 [ref. 33286]). Current status: Valid as Gobioclinus bucciferus (Poey 1868). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

canariensis, Clinus Valenciennes [A.] 1838:[60], Pl. 17 [Ichthyologie des îles Canaries v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 4502] Tenerife, Canary Islands. Syntypes: MNHN A-2530 (2, dry skins). Type catalog: Bauchot 1967:43 [ref. 20734]. Dates to Pl. 17 in 1838, p. 60 published in 1843. •Synonym of Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Wirtz 1990:918 [ref. 19374]). Current status: Synonym of Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

canops, Cottoclinus McCosker [J. E.], Stephens [J. S., Jr.] & Rosenblatt [R. H.] 2003:156, Figs. 1, 2, 4 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences v. 54 (no. 8); ref. 26739] Low tidepool south side of Punta Suarez, Isla Española (Hood Island), Galápagos Islands. Holotype: CAS 217107. Paratypes: CAS 217108 (1). •Valid as Cottoclinus canops McCosker, Stephens & Rosenblatt 2003 -- (Patzner et al. 2009:462 [ref. 30396], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:194 [ref. 30957]). Current status: Valid as Cottoclinus canops McCosker, Stephens & Rosenblatt 2003. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

capillatus, Clinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1836:377 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 11; ref. 1005] Martinique Island, West Indies; Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6328 (1) Martinique, A-3454 (1) Bahia, Brazil. Type catalog: Bauchot 1967:44 [ref. 20734]. •Synonym of Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Current status: Synonym of Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

carrowi, Malacoctenus Wirtz [P.] 2014:15, Fig. 1 (a-d) [Archipélago, Life and Marine Sciences v. 31; ref. 33594] King Bay, Tarrafal, Santiago Island, Cape Verde Islands, ca. 15.2749°N, 23.7582°W, depth 12 meters. Holotype: ZSM 43039. Paratypes: 43040 (1), 41223 (1). •Valid as Malacoctenus carrowi Wirtz 2014 -- (Carvalho-Filho et al. 2020:516 [ref. 37678]). Current status: Valid as Malacoctenus carrowi Wirtz 2014. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Cape Verde Islands, eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

catherinae, Mnierpes macrocephalus Hubbs [Clark L.] 1952:61, Fig. 6 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 2252] Piedra Blanca, Costa Rica. Holotype: CAS-SU 46509 [ex NYZS 28178]. Paratypes: (41) CAS 3991 (1), 20496-97 (2, 2); FMNH 51433 (2), 51439 (1); CAS-SU 16191-95 (1, 10, 9, 2, 1), 46508 (2); TNHC 412 (4?); USNM 151990-91 (1, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:98 [ref. 12291], Mead 1958:133 [ref. 20648], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:57 [ref. 12367], Springer & Orrell 1996:20 [ref. 22274]. •Synonym of Dialommus macrocephalus (Günther 1861) -- (Hastings & Springer 2009:10 [ref. 31156]). Current status: Synonym of Dialommus macrocephalus (Günther 1861). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

chalaco, Auchenionchus de Buen [F.] 1962:70, Fig. 17 [Montemar No. 2; ref. 699] Antofagasta, Chile. Holotype (unique): EBMC 10022. •Synonym of Auchenionchus crinitus (Jenyns 1841) -- (Stephens & Springer 1974:17 [ref. 7149], Sáez & Pequeño 2009:135 [ref. 30951]). Current status: Synonym of Auchenionchus crinitus (Jenyns 1841). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

chaperi, Acanthoclinus Mocquard [F.] 1885:19 [2] [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 10; ref. 3033] Bay of Guanta, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1885-0008. Type catalog: Bauchot 1967:41 [ref. 20734]. On p. 2 of separate. Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

chilensis, Clinus Sauvage [H.-E.] 1883:157 [14] [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 7; ref. 3897] Chile. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-4870. Type catalog: Bauchot 1967:44 [ref. 20734]. On p. 14 of separate. •Synonym of Labrisomus philippii (Steindachner 1866) -- (Stephens & Springer 1974:10 [ref. 7149], Sáez & Pequeño 2009:137 [ref. 30951]). Current status: Synonym of Labrisomus philippii (Steindachner 1866). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

cingulatus, Auchenopterus Evermann [B. W.] & Marsh [M. C.] 1899:361 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 25 (for 1899) Appendix 7; ref. 1283] Ponce, Puerto Rico. Holotype: USNM 49375. Paratypes: (4) USNM 50165 (1), 125928 (2). Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:16-17 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Paraclinus cingulatus (Evermann & Marsh 1899) -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:32 [ref. 5580], Robins & Ray 1986:225 [ref. 23100], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:165 [ref. 27754], Williams 2003:1760 [ref. 27109], Smith et al. 2003:51 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:163 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:603 [ref. 28815], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:68 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Paraclinus cingulatus (Evermann & Marsh 1899). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

cirrhosum, Lepisoma DeKay [J. E.] 1842:41, Pl. 30 (fig. 94) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): LNHNY (whereabouts unknown). •Synonym of Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Current status: Synonym of Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

cleophensis, Paraclinus mexicanus Hubbs [Clark L.] 1952:80, Fig. 20 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 2252] Tide pool on Cleopha Island, Las Tres Marias Islands, Mexico. Holotype: CAS-SU 16225. Paratypes: (40) CAS-SU 16226 (30); TNHC 409 (?); USNM 151993 (5). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:98 [ref. 12291], Springer & Orrell 1996:20 [ref. 22274] as cleophens. •Synonym of Paraclinus mexicanus (Gilbert 1904) -- (Palacios-Salgado et al. 2014:238 [ref. 36362]). Current status: Synonym of Paraclinus mexicanus (Gilbert 1904). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

conditus, Labrisomus Sazima [I.], Carvalho-Filho [A.], Gasparini [J. L.] & Sazima [C.] 2009:63, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa No. 2015; ref. 30096] Praia do Boldró, Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, 3°50'S, 32°25'W, off northeastern Brazil. Holotype: ZUEC 6225. Paratypes: CIUFES, MZUSE, ZUEC. Plus oon-type material. •Valid as Labrisomus conditus Sazima, Carvalho-Filho, Gasparini & Sazima 2009 -- (Lin & Hastings 2013:12 [ref. 33286]). Current status: Valid as Labrisomus conditus Sazima, Carvalho-Filho, Gasparini & Sazima 2009. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Fernando de Noronha, Brazil. Habitat: marine.

corallicola, Stathmonotus Beebe [W.] & Tee-Van [J.] 1928:249, Fig. [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 15836] Lamentin Reef, Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti, West Indies, depth about 1 foot. Holotype (unique): USNM 170571 [ex NYZS 7463]. Type catalog: Mead 1958:134 [ref. 20648], Springer & Orrell 1996:5 [ref. 22274]. •Synonym of Stathmonotus hemphillii Bean 1885 -- (Hastings & Springer 1994:18 [ref. 21894] as hemphilli). Current status: Synonym of Stathmonotus hemphillii Bean 1885. Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

corallinum, Cryptotrema Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:101 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Off Santa Barbara Island, California, U.S.A., 34°00'N, 119°29'30"W, Albatross station 2845, depth 30 fathoms. Lectotype: USNM 48257. Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 75 (2), USNM 43092 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:95 [ref. 12291], Springer & Orrell 1996:17 [ref. 22274]. Lectotype perhaps not technically designated by Hubbs 1952:100 [ref. 4731] as "holotype USNM 48257, here designated from 4 cotypes"; Springer & Orrell 1996:17 [ref. 22274] designated the same specimen as type. •Valid as Cryptotrema corallinum Gilbert 1890 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:242 [ref. 9277], Nelson et al. 2004:162 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:462 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:169 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:298 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Cryptotrema corallinum Gilbert 1890. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

costaricanus, Malacoctenus Springer [V. G.] 1959:468, Pl. 7 (fig. 1) [Publications of the Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Texas v. 5 (for Dec. 1958); ref. 10210] Piedra Blanca Bay, Costa Rica, eastern Pacific. Holotype: CAS-SU 49601. Paratypes: CAS-SU 49602 [ex NYZS 28151] (2), 49603 [ex NYZS 28169] (1). •Valid as Malacoctenus costaricanus Springer 1959 -- (Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], Patzner et al. 2009:463 [ref. 30396]). Current status: Valid as Malacoctenus costaricanus Springer 1959. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

coventryi, Labrisomus Fowler [H. W.] 1940:187, Fig. 17 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 92; ref. 17232] Mocha Island, Chile. Holotype (unique): ANSP 69149. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:61 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Calliclinus geniguttatus (Valenciennes 1836) -- (Stephens & Springer 1974:20 [ref. 7149] as conventryi, Sáez & Pequeño 2009:137 [ref. 30951] as conventryi). Current status: Synonym of Calliclinus geniguttatus (Valenciennes 1836). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

cremnobates, Labrosomus Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:100 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Gulf of California, Mexico, 24°55'15"N, 110°39'W, Albatross station 3001, depth 33 [not 71] fathoms. Lectotype: USNM 48262. Paralectotypes: USNM 44371 (1). Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:17-18 [ref. 22274]. Lectotype selected by Rosenblatt & Taylor 1971:453 [ref. 3811]. •Valid as Starksia cremnobates (Gilbert 1890) -- (Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], Thomson et al. 2000:218 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:164 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Starksia cremnobates (Gilbert 1890). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California. Habitat: marine.

cricota, Labrisomus Sazima [I.], Gasparini [J. L.] & Moura [R. L. de] 2002:128, Figs. 1-2 [aqua, Journal of Ichthyology and Aquatic Biology v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 26189] Três Ilhas, Guarapari, 20°40'S, Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Holotype: ZUEC 3434. Paratypes: MZUSP 51574 (3), 51590 (1), 52622 (5), 52624 (3); ZUEC 3073 (1), 3147 (8), 3403 (1), 3435 (2), 4841-43 (1, 2, 3), 5225 (1). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Labrisomus cricota Sazima, Gasparini & Moura 2002 -- (Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:95 [ref. 27192], Sazima et al. 2009:63 [ref. 30096], Patzner et al. 2009:462 [ref. 30396], Lin & Hastings 2013:12 [ref. 33286], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:67 [ref. 33341] as cf. cricota). Current status: Valid as Labrisomus cricota Sazima, Gasparini & Moura 2002. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazil. Habitat: marine.

crinitus, Clinus Jenyns [L.] 1841:90, Pl. 18 (fig. 1) [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Coquimbo, Chile. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1917.7.14.55. •Valid as Auchenionchus crinitus (Jenyns 1841) -- (Stephens & Springer 1974:17 [ref. 7149], Pequeño 1989:66 [ref. 14125], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:259 [ref. 24555], Patzner et al. 2009:462 [ref. 30396], Sáez & Pequeño 2009:135 [ref. 30951]). Current status: Valid as Auchenionchus crinitus (Jenyns 1841). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Peru and Chile. Habitat: marine.

culebrae, Malacoctenus Evermann [B. W.] & Marsh [M. C.] 1899:357 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 25 (for 1899) Appendix 7; ref. 1283] Reefs outside harbor of Culebra, Puerto Rico. Holotype: USNM 49369. Paratypes: USNM 50207 (1), 125973 (1). Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:18 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Starksia culebrae (Evermann & Marsh 1899) -- (Greenfield 1979:17 [ref. 7013], Williams & Mounts 2003:147 [ref. 26947], Williams 2003:1760 [ref. 27109], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:69 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Starksia culebrae (Evermann & Marsh 1899). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

culebrai, Stathmonotus Seale [A.] 1940:42, Pl. 5 [Allan Hancock Pacific Expedition 1932-40, Los Angeles v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 12332] Harbor of Culebra, Costa Rica. Holotype (unique): CAS 5745. Misspelled culebrae in Eschmeyer et al. 1998. •Valid as Stathmonotus culebrai Seale 1940 -- (Hastings & Springer 1994:27 [ref. 21894], Allen & Robertson 1994:251 [ref. 22193], Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:999 [ref. 22829], Patzner et al. 2009:471 [ref. 30396], Kim & Hastings 2013:8 [ref. 33286] in Labrisomidae). Current status: Valid as Stathmonotus culebrai Seale 1940. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

delalandii, Clinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1836:378 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 11; ref. 1005] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN A-2014 (3). Type catalog: Bauchot 1967:45 [ref. 20734]. The original spelling delalandii is acceptable; delalandei is misspelled. •Valid as Malacoctenus delalandei [sic] (Valenciennes 1836) -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:27 [ref. 5580], Cervigón 1994:82 [ref. 24488], Aguilera 1998:52 [ref. 24221], Williams 2003:1759 [ref. 27109] as delalandii, Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:95 [ref. 27192] as delalandii, Smith et al. 2003:49 [ref. 27621], Patzner et al. 2009:463 [ref. 30396], Guimarães et al. 2010:54 [ref. 30917] as delalandei, Wirtz 2014:19 [ref. 33594] as delalandei, Spier et al. 2018:17 [ref. 36103], Carvalho-Filho et al. 2020:511 [ref. 37678]). Current status: Valid as Malacoctenus delalandii (Valenciennes 1836). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Belize, Central America, Puerto Rico, Carribean Sea to Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Habitat: marine.

delicata, Tagusa Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1935:435 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 18 (no. 12); ref. 2109] Tagus Cove, Isabela Island [Albemarle Island], Galápagos Islands. Holotype: FMNH 17399. Paratypes: FMNH 17400-01 (1, 1), 17403 (1); CAS-SU 24420 (5, now 4), 53190 (1); USNM 117315 [ex FMNH 17402] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:95 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:82 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Malacoctenus zonogaster Heller & Snodgrass 1903 -- (Springer 1995:495 [ref. 22273]). Current status: Synonym of Malacoctenus zonogaster Heller & Snodgrass 1903. Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

dendriticus, Odontoclinus Reid [E. D.] 1935:165, Fig. 2 [Copeia 1935 (no. 4); ref. 3683] Isabela Island [Albemarle Island], Galápagos Islands. Holotype: USNM 43397. Additional material: USNM 94033 (1). Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:18 [ref. 22274]. Second specimen listed as "apparently the same species..."; doubtfully included therefore not a type. •Valid as Labrisomus dendriticus (Reid 1935) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:227 [ref. 22193], Springer 1995:495 [ref. 22273], Herrera & Lavenberg 1999:5 [ref. 24180], Patzner et al. 2009:462 [ref. 30396], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:194 [ref. 30957]). •Valid as Gobioclinus dendriticus (Reid 1935) -- (Lin & Hastings 2013:12 [ref. 33286]). Current status: Valid as Gobioclinus dendriticus (Reid 1935). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands and Malpelo Islands. Habitat: marine.

ditrichus, Paraclinus Rosenblatt [R. H.] & Parr [T. D.] 1969:5, Fig. 4d [Copeia 1969 (no. 1); ref. 7842] West side of Isla San Juanito (21°43.5'N, 106°42.3'W), Mexico, depth 0-20 feet. Holotype: SIO 62-8. Paratypes: SIO 62-8 (2). •Valid as Paraclinus ditrichus Rosenblatt & Parr 1969 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:236 [ref. 22193], Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], Nelson et al. 2004:163 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396], Erisman et al. 2011:33 [ref. 31460], Page et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Paraclinus ditrichus Rosenblatt & Parr 1969. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Islas Marías archipelago endemic. Habitat: marine.

dropi, Haptoclinus Baldwin [C. C.] & Robertson [D. R.] 2013:72, Figs. 1-2 [ZooKeys No. 306; ref. 32721] Curaçao, east of dropline off Substation Curaçao dock, near 12°05.069'N, 68°53.886'W, depth 157-167 meters. Holotype (unique): USNM 414915. •Valid as Haptoclinus dropi Baldwin & Robertson 2013. Current status: Valid as Haptoclinus dropi Baldwin & Robertson 2013. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Habitat: marine.

earli, Exerpes asper Hubbs [Clark L.] 1952:94, Fig. 29 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 2252] Three-fourth mile southeast of Cape Tortolo, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype: CAS-SU 16239. Paratypes: (90) AMNH 48697 (6); CAS 20499 (2); FMNH 51434 (5); NYZS 28822 (?); TNHC 420 (?); CAS-SU 16240-41 (45, 4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:96 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:36 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Exerpes asper (Jenkins & Evermann 1889) -- (Hastings & Springer 2009:10 [ref. 31156]). •Synonym of Paraclinus asper (Hubbs 1952). Current status: Synonym of Paraclinus asper (Jenkins & Evermann 1889). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

ebisui, Malacoctenus Springer [V. G.] 1959:478, Pl. 7 (fig. 5) [Publications of the Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Texas v. 5 (for Dec. 1958); ref. 10210] Bahía Honda, (Pacific) Panama. Holotype: CAS-SU 49604. Paratypes: (53) BMNH 1861.8.13.32 (1); FMNH 61901 (1); CAS-SU 49605 (11), 49606 (2), 49607-08 (3, 1), 49609-10 (2, 2), 49611 (3), 49612 (3), 49613-14 (1, 11), 49615 (1), 49699 (2); UMMZ 171894 (7); USNM 174964 (1), 204967 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:54 [ref. 12367], Springer & Orrell 1996:18 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Malacoctenus ebisui Springer 1959 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:230 [ref. 22193], Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:208 [ref. 24545], Thomson et al. 2000:213 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:163 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:463 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:169 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34871]). Current status: Valid as Malacoctenus ebisui Springer 1959. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

elegans, Clinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1836:388, Pl. 333 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 11; ref. 1005] Valparaíso, Chile. Syntypes: MNHN A-2073 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot 1967:45 [ref. 20734]. •Synonym of Calliclinus geniguttatus (Valenciennes 1836) -- (Stephens & Springer 1974:20 [ref. 7149], Sáez & Pequeño 2009:137 [ref. 30951]). Current status: Synonym of Calliclinus geniguttatus (Valenciennes 1836). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

elongata, Starksia Gilbert [C. R.] 1971:195, Fig. 1A [Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences v. 33 (no. 3) (1970); ref. 7677] About 3/4 mile off shore, near Sumner's Point, south side of Rum Cay, Bahamas, depth 5-10 feet. Holotype: UF 14134. Paratypes: AMNH 23232 (1, lost), 28998-99 (1, 1, both lost), 29000 (1); ANSP 109799 [ex AMNH 29000] (1); UF 227336 [ex UMML 27336, ex AMNH 28999] (1); USNM 205199 [ex AMNH 28999] (1). Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:112 [ref. 21035], Böhlke 1984:61 [ref. 13621], Springer & Orrell 1996:18 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Starksia elongata Gilbert 1971 -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:40 [ref. 5580], Williams & Mounts 2003:160 [ref. 26947], Williams 2003:1760 [ref. 27109], Smith et al. 2003:52 [ref. 27621], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:69 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Starksia elongata Gilbert 1971. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

erdmani, Malacoctenus Smith [C. L.] 1957:8, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 585; ref. 12167] Condado Lagoon, San Juan, Puerto Rico. Holotype: UMMZ 171175. Paratypes: UMMZ 171157 (1), 171173 (1), 171176 (1), 171183 (4), 171187 (1), 171192 (1), 171204 (1), 171207 (1), 171217 (1), 171226 (1), 171231 (2). •Valid as Malacoctenus erdmani Smith 1957 -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:27 [ref. 5580], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:165 [ref. 27754], Williams 2003:1759 [ref. 27109], Smith et al. 2003:50 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:163 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:463 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:169 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:68 [ref. 33341], Wirtz 2014:18 [ref. 33594], Carvalho-Filho et al. 2020:515 [ref. 37678]). Current status: Valid as Malacoctenus erdmani Smith 1957. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

fajardo, Auchenopterus Evermann [B. W.] & Marsh [M. C.] 1899:361 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 25 (for 1899) Appendix 7; ref. 1283] Fajardo, Puerto Rico. Holotype (unique): USNM 49376. Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:18 [ref. 22274]. •Synonym of Paraclinus nigripinnis (Steindachner 1867) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:307 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Paraclinus nigripinnis (Steindachner 1867). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

fasciata, Brannerella Longley [W. H.] 1934:258 [Carnegie Institution of Washington Publications No. 33; ref. 13896] Mastic Pt., Andros, Bahamas. Syntypes: Mus. Biol. Inst., Univ. Lund (2, poor condition). •Valid as Starksia fasciata (Longley 1934) -- (Williams & Mounts 2003:161 [ref. 26947], Williams 2003:1760 [ref. 27109], Nelson et al. 2004:164 [ref. 27807], Dennis et al. 2004:80 [ref. 31601], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Starksia fasciata (Longley 1934). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bahamas and Cuba. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Clinus Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:26, Pl. 12 (fig. 3) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1967:51 [ref. 20734]. Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Cremnobates Steindachner [F.] 1876:224 [176] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] Little Rocky Island north of Cuba [Florida Straits]. Syntypes: (several) NMW. On p. 176 of separate. •Valid as Paraclinus fasciatus (Steindachner 1876) -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:33 [ref. 5580], Robins & Ray 1986:225 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1994:89 [ref. 24488], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:165 [ref. 27754], Williams 2003:1760 [ref. 27109], Smith et al. 2003:51 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:163 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:604 [ref. 28815], García-Hernández et al. 2009:93 [ref. 37265], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:68 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Paraclinus fasciatus (Steindachner 1876). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: including Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

fehlmanni, Paraclinus Springer [V. G.] & Trist [R. E.] 1969:323, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 82; ref. 10205] Tidepools, Bahia de Santa Elena, 2°13'11"S, 80°55'22"W, Ecuador, 0-6 feet. Holotype: USNM 202697. Paratypes: USNM 202713-14 (3, 13). Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:18 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Paraclinus fehlmanni Springer & Trist 1969 -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:254 [ref. 24555], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396]). Current status: Valid as Paraclinus fehlmanni Springer & Trist 1969. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Ecuador. Habitat: marine.

fernandezianus, Clinus Guichenot [A.] 1848:282 [Fauna Chilena.... in Gay.; ref. 1939] Juan Fernández Islands. No types known. •Valid as Labrisomus fernandezianus (Guichenot 1848) -- (Pequeño 1989:66 [ref. 14125], Patzner et al. 2009:462 [ref. 30396], Lin & Hastings 2013:12 [ref. 33286] with question). •Nomen dubium -- (Sáez & Pequeño 2009:137 [ref. 30951]). Current status: Valid as Labrisomus fernandezianus (Guichenot 1848). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Juan Fernandez. Habitat: marine.

filamentosus, Labrisomus (Gobioclinus) Springer [V. G.] 1960:289, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1959 (no. 4); ref. 11952] Caribbean Sea, 16°43'N, 81°57'W, Oregon station 1874, depth 50 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 185618. Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:18 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Labrisomus filamentosus Springer 1960 -- (Sazima et al. 2002:129 [ref. 26189], Williams 2003:1759 [ref. 27109], Smith et al. 2003:48 [ref. 27621], Dennis et al. 2004:80 [ref. 31601], Sazima et al. 2009:63 [ref. 30096], Patzner et al. 2009:462 [ref. 30396]). •Valid as Gobioclinus filamentosus (Springer 1960) -- (Lin & Hastings 2013:12 [ref. 33286]). Current status: Valid as Gobioclinus filamentosus (Springer 1960). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

fortidentatus, Clinus Cope [E. D.] 1877:42 [26] [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 17; ref. 18033] Callao Bay, Peru. Syntypes: ANSP 127537 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:61 [ref. 13621]. On p. 26 of separate. •Synonym of Labrisomus philippii (Steindachner 1866) -- (Stephens & Springer 1974:10 [ref. 7149], Sáez & Pequeño 2009:137 [ref. 30951]). Current status: Synonym of Labrisomus philippii (Steindachner 1866). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

fulva, Starksia Rosenblatt [R. H.] & Taylor [L. R., Jr.] 1971:454, Figs. 5, 8 [Pacific Science v. 25 (no. 3); ref. 3811] Isla San Jose, Islas Perlas, Gulf of Panama, eastern Pacific, depth 0-4 feet. Holotype: SIO 67-37. Paratypes: ANMH 16106 (6), 16110-11 (2, 1), 20297 (2); CAS-SU 48142 (5); LACM 6894-3 (3), 21017-19 (3, 5, 2), 20822-23 (3, 6); SIO (12 lots, 109), 11-1061 (6) (ex UCLA 63-141). Additional material: USNM (15 lots, 36). Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:18 [ref. 22274] with USNM specimens as paratypes. •Valid as Starksia fulva Rosenblatt & Taylor 1971 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:236 [ref. 22193], Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396]). Current status: Valid as Starksia fulva Rosenblatt & Taylor 1971. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

furcata, Somersia Beebe [W.] & Tee-Van [J.] 1934:1, Fig. 1 [American Museum Novitates No. 730; ref. 248] Hungry Bay, Bermuda. Holotype (unique): USNM 170924 [ex NYZS 26165]. Type catalog: Mead 1958:134 [ref. 20648], Springer & Orrell 1996:18-19 [ref. 22274]. •Synonym of Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:305 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

fuscus, Dialommus Gilbert [C. H.] 1891:452 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 840); ref. 1624] Duncan Island and Isabela Island [Albemarle Island], Galápagos Islands. Syntypes: (2). •Valid as Dialommus fuscus Gilbert 1891 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:227 [ref. 22193], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:525 [ref. 24023], Herrera & Lavenberg 1999:5 [ref. 24180], McCosker et al. 2003:158 [ref. 26739], Hastings & Springer 2009:7 [ref. 30391], Patzner et al. 2009:462 [ref. 30396], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:194 [ref. 30957]). Current status: Valid as Dialommus fuscus Gilbert 1891. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Archipelago and Cocos Island. Habitat: marine.

galapagensis, Starksia Rosenblatt [R. H.] & Taylor [L. R., Jr.] 1971:456, Figs. 5, 8 [Pacific Science v. 25 (no. 3); ref. 3811] Isla Genovesa (Tower Island), Galápagos Islands, depth 10-15 feet. Holotype: SIO 70-246 [ex UCLA 67-35]. Paratypes: LACM 20824-25 (4, 5), 21020-21 (1, 3), 21023 (4); SIO 12-3083 (8) (ex UCLA W67-43), 15-182 (5, not 4) (ex UCLA W64-42), 15-1018 (33, not 32) (ex UCLA W67-36), 15-1293 (9) (ex UCLA W67-33), 64-1012 (4), 70-246 [ex UCLA 67-35] (49), 64-1017 (13) (ex UCLA 64-38); SMF 15752-53 (2); USNM 205467 [ex UCLA 64-16] (9). Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:19 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Starksia galapagensis Rosenblatt & Taylor 1971 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:236 [ref. 22193], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:531 [ref. 24023], Herrera & Lavenberg 1999:3 [ref. 24180], Hastings & Springer 2009:7 [ref. 30391], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:194 [ref. 30957], Victor 2018:70 [ref. 36255]). Current status: Valid as Starksia galapagensis Rosenblatt & Taylor 1971. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands endemic. Habitat: marine.

geniguttatus, Clinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1836:386 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 11; ref. 1005] Valparaíso, Chile. Lectotype: MNHN A-2069. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-3105 [ex MNHN A-2069] (2). Type catalog: Bauchot 1967:45 [ref. 20734]. Originally as geni-guttatus. Lectotype selected by Stephens & Springer 1974:20 [ref. 7149]. •Valid as Calliclinus geniguttatus (Valenciennes 1836) -- (Stephens & Springer 1974:20 [ref. 7149], Cervigón et al. 1979:46 [ref. 23538], Pequeño 1989:66 [ref. 14125], Pequeño 1999:174 [ref. 24566], Pequeño & Sáez B. 2005:155 [ref. 28604], Patzner et al. 2009:462 [ref. 30396], Sáez & Pequeño 2009:137 [ref. 30951]). Current status: Valid as Calliclinus geniguttatus (Valenciennes 1836). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Chile. Habitat: marine.

gigas, Malacoctenus Springer [V. G.] 1959:457, Pl. 5 (figs. 1-2) [Publications of the Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Texas v. 5 (for Dec. 1958); ref. 10210] 250 yards south of the tip of Punta Cholla, 6 miles north of Punta Peñasco, Sonora, Gulf of California, Mexico. Holotype: CAS-SU 49617. Paratypes: (846) BMNH 1957.5.1.205-236 (32); CAS 6041 (30); CAS-SU 16483, 16537, 16644-45, 16655, 17875, 19180, 20721-22, 47183-84, 49618-22, 49623 (1), 49624-31, 49643-45, 49646-47 (2), 49648 (18), 49649 (3), 49650; FMNH 61903 (48); LACM W50-192A [not 52-192A] (2), 52-51, 52-69, 52-74 (2), 53-86, 54-20 (10), 54-193 (1), 54-194 (2), 56-20 [not 54-20] (2), 56-26 [not 56-27] (1); SIO 15-283 (9) (ex UCLA W52-51), 15-2434 (9) (ex UCLA W52-69); TNHC 2973 (16); USNM 174961 (18); ZMUC P 76956 (1). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:75 [ref. 9588], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:54 [ref. 12367], Springer & Orrell 1996:19 [ref. 22274]. Corrections to the original description are given by Springer in Copeia 1959 (no. 4):292. •Valid as Malacoctenus gigas Springer 1959 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:230 [ref. 22193], Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:208 [ref. 24545], Thomson et al. 2000:211 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:163 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:463 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:169 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Malacoctenus gigas Springer 1959. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California. Habitat: marine.

gilli, Clinus Steindachner [F.] 1867:352 [46] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 56 (1. Abth.); ref. 14188] Barbados, West Indies. Syntypes: (2) ? NMW. On p. 46 of separate. •Valid as Malacoctenus gilli (Steindachner 1867) -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:28 [ref. 5580], Cervigón 1994:83 [ref. 24488], Aguilera 1998:52 [ref. 24221], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:165 [ref. 27754], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:306 [ref. 25013], Williams 2003:1759 [ref. 27109], Smith et al. 2003:50 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:163 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:599 [ref. 28815], Patzner et al. 2009:463 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:169 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:68 [ref. 33341], Wirtz 2014:18 [ref. 33594], Carvalho-Filho et al. 2020:515 [ref. 37678]). Current status: Valid as Malacoctenus gilli (Steindachner 1867). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

gobio, Clinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1836:395 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 11; ref. 1005] Lesser Antilles. Lectotype: MNHN A-2125. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-1324 [ex MNHN A-2125] (4). Type catalog: Bauchot 1967:45-46 [ref. 20734]. Lectotype selected by Longley in Longley & Hildebrand 1941. •Valid as Labrisomus gobio (Valenciennes 1836) -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:19 [ref. 5580], Robins & Ray 1986:226 [ref. 23100], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:165 [ref. 27754], Sazima et al. 2002:131 [ref. 26189], Williams 2003:1759 [ref. 27109], Smith et al. 2003:48 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:163 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:592 [ref. 28815], Sazima et al. 2009:63 [ref. 30096], Patzner et al. 2009:462 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:169 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:67 [ref. 33341]). •Valid as Gobioclinus gobio (Valenciennes 1836) -- (Lin & Hastings 2013:12 [ref. 33286]). Current status: Valid as Gobioclinus gobio (Valenciennes 1836). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

grammilaga, Starksia Rosenblatt [R. H.] & Taylor [L. R., Jr.] 1971:457, Figs. 5, 8 [Pacific Science v. 25 (no. 3); ref. 3811] Tangola Island, Tangola, Mexico, eastern Pacific. Holotype: USNM 102014. Paratypes: CAS-SU 48141 (2); SIO 12-62 (1) (ex UCLA W58-2), 59-350 (5), 62-30 (1), 62-55 (1), 62-63 (2); UALTF 690820-1 (8); USNM 116223-24 (2, 2), 205212 (1). Additional material: SIO 61-256 (1). Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:19 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Starksia grammilaga Rosenblatt & Taylor 1971 -- (Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], Thomson et al. 2000:218 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:164 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Starksia grammilaga Rosenblatt & Taylor 1971. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

grandicomis, Auchenopterus Rosén [N.] 1911:69, Pl. 1 (fig. 5) [Lunds Universitets Årsskrift. N. F. v. 7 (Afd. 2 no. 5); ref. 14867] Mastic Point, Andros Island, Bahamas. Syntypes: (several) ZMUL, ZMB 18260 (2). Additional material: (several) ZMUC West Indies. •Valid as Paraclinus grandicomis (Rosén 1911) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:225 [ref. 23100], Williams 2003:1760 [ref. 27109], Nelson et al. 2004:164 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:68 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Paraclinus grandicomis (Rosén 1911). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

greenfieldi, Starksia Baldwin [C. C.] & Castillo [C. I.] in Baldwin, Castillo, Weigt & Victor 2011:50, Figs 12, 15 [ZooKeys No. 79; ref. 31149] Vertical wall just north of Charlotteville on east side of North Point, Tobago, depth 5-12 meters. Holotype: USNM 320832. Paratypes (all from Tobago): USNM 320829 (1), 398919 (1), 398920 (1), 398921 (1), 398922 (1), 398923 (1), 398924 (4). Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Starksia greenfieldi Baldwin & Castillo 2011. Current status: Valid as Starksia greenfieldi Baldwin & Castillo 2011. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

guadalupae, Starksia Rosenblatt [R. H.] & Taylor [L. R., Jr.] 1971:458, Figs. 5, 9 [Pacific Science v. 25 (no. 3); ref. 3811] East side of Isla Guadalupe (29°10.5'N, 118°16.0'W), Baja California, Mexico, depth 30-60 feet. Holotype: SIO 60-14. Paratypes: SIO 53-163 (2), 65-51 (2), 57-190 (1), 65-51 (2); CAS-SU 48144 (5); USNM 205475 [ex SIO 58-493] (1). Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:19 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Starksia guadalupae Rosenblatt & Taylor 1971 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:164 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396]). Current status: Valid as Starksia guadalupae Rosenblatt & Taylor 1971. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

guppyi, Clinus Norman [J. R.] 1922:533 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9) v. 9 (no. 53); ref. 6475] Tobago Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1920.12.22.187. •Valid as Labrisomus guppyi (Norman 1922) -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:20 [ref. 5580], Robins & Ray 1986:226 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1994:72 [ref. 24488], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:403 [ref. 24550], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:165 [ref. 27754], Sazima et al. 2002:127 [ref. 26189], Collette et al. 2003:117 [ref. 26784], Williams 2003:1759 [ref. 27109], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:95 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:48 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:163 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:593 [ref. 28815], Patzner et al. 2009:462 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:169 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:67 [ref. 33341]). •Valid as Gobioclinus guppyi (Norman 1922) -- (Lin & Hastings 2013:12 [ref. 33286]). Current status: Valid as Gobioclinus guppyi (Norman 1922). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

guttata, Brannerella Fowler [H. W.] 1931:401, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 83; ref. 1410] Monas Island, Trinidad Island, West Indies. Holotype: ANSP 53324. Paratypes: ANSP 53325-26 (1, 1), 53327-30 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:61 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Starksia guttata (Fowler 1931) -- (Greenfield 1979:20 [ref. 7013], Williams & Mounts 2003:147 [ref. 26947], Williams 2003:1760 [ref. 27109], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396]). Current status: Valid as Starksia guttata (Fowler 1931). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

guttulatus, Clinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1836:387 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 11; ref. 1005] Valparaíso, Chile. Neotype: MNHN A-2069. Type catalog: Bauchot 1967:51 [ref. 20734]. As Clinus guttatus in Guichenot 1848:278 [ref. 1939]. Neotype designated by Stephens & Springer 1974:20 [ref. 7149]. •Synonym of Calliclinus geniguttatus (Valenciennes 1836) -- (Stephens & Springer 1974:20 [ref. 7149], Sáez & Pequeño 2009:137 [ref. 30951]). Current status: Synonym of Calliclinus geniguttatus (Valenciennes 1836). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

gymnodermis, Stathmonotus Springer [V. G.] 1955:77, Fig. [Bulletin of Marine Science of the Gulf and Caribbean v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 10208] West end of San Juan Island, vicinity of Fort San Geronimo, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Caribbean Sea. Holotype: USNM 117436. Paratypes: USNM 163324-25 (2, 1), 163419 (1). Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:6 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Stathmonotus gymnodermis Springer 1955 -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:45 [ref. 5580], Hastings & Springer 1994:24 [ref. 21894], Cervigón 1994:99 [ref. 24488], Collette et al. 2003:121 [ref. 26784], Williams 2003:1767 [ref. 27109], Smith et al. 2003:56 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:166 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:471 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:172 [ref. 32708], Kim & Hastings 2013:8 [ref. 33286] in Labrisomidae, Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:71 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Stathmonotus gymnodermis Springer 1955. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

haitiensis, Labrisomus Beebe [W.] & Tee-Van [J.] 1928:232, Fig. [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 15836] Bizoton, Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti, West Indies, depth 4 feet. Holotype (unique): USNM 170903 [ex NYZS 7170]. Type catalog: Mead 1958:133 [ref. 20648], Springer & Orrell 1996:19 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Labrisomus haitiensis Beebe & Tee-Van 1928 -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:22 [ref. 5580], Robins & Ray 1986:226 [ref. 23100], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:165 [ref. 27754], Sazima et al. 2002:131 [ref. 26189], Williams 2003:1759 [ref. 27109], Smith et al. 2003:48 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:163 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:594 [ref. 28815], Patzner et al. 2009:462 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:169 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:67 [ref. 33341]). •Valid as Gobioclinus haitiensis (Beebe & Tee-Van 1928) -- (Lin & Hastings 2013:12 [ref. 33286]). Current status: Valid as Gobioclinus haitiensis (Beebe & Tee-Van 1928). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

hassi, Starksia Klausewitz [W.] 1958:76, Fig. 5 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 39 (nos 1/2); ref. 12080] Bonaire, Lesser Antilles, Caribbean Sea. Holotype: SMF 4146. Paratypes: ANSP 94143 [ex SMF] (1); SMF 4147 (1), 4148 (now 0). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:61 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Starksia hassi Klausewitz 1958 -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:41 [ref. 5580], Cervigón 1994:94 [ref. 24488], Collette et al. 2003:118 [ref. 26784], Williams & Mounts 2003:161 [ref. 26947], Williams 2003:1760 [ref. 27109], Smith et al. 2003:52 [ref. 27621], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396]). Current status: Valid as Starksia hassi Klausewitz 1958. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

heilneri, Labrisomus Nichols [J. T.] 1921:2, Fig. 2 [American Museum Novitates No. 26; ref. 15321] Berry Island, Bahamas, rook pools. Holotype: AMNH 7769. Paratypes: AMNH 20930 (1). •Synonym of Labrisomus bucciferus Poey 1868 -- (Springer 1959:432 [ref. 10210]). •Synonym of Gobioclinus bucciferus (Poey 1868). Current status: Synonym of Gobioclinus bucciferus (Poey 1868). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

hemphillii, Stathmonotus Bean [T. H.] 1885:191, Pl. 13 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 8 (no. 508); ref. 226] Key West, Florida, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 37193. Paralectotypes: USNM 324027 [ex 37193] (1). Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:6-7 [ref. 22274]. Lectotype potentially established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 340, p. 3302 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446] but specimen not distinguishable; lectotype (specimen in best condition of two) designated by Hastings & Springer 1994:18 [ref. 21894]. •Valid as Stathmonotus hemphillii Bean 1885 -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:45 [ref. 5580] as hemphilli, Robins & Ray 1986:224 [ref. 23100] as hemphilli, Cervigón 1994:99 [ref. 24488] as hemphilli, Cavulluzzi 1997:140 [ref. 23511] as hemphilli, Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:166 [ref. 27754] as hemphilli, Williams 2003:1767 [ref. 27109] as hemphilli, Smith et al. 2003:56 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:166 [ref. 27807] as hemphilli, Dennis et al. 2004:80 [ref. 31601], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:622 [ref. 28815], Patzner et al. 2009:471 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:172 [ref. 32708], Kim & Hastings 2013:8 [ref. 33286] in Labrisomidae, Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:71 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Stathmonotus hemphillii Bean 1885. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

hoesei, Starksia Rosenblatt [R. H.] & Taylor [L. R., Jr.] 1971:459, Figs. 5, 9 [Pacific Science v. 25 (no. 3); ref. 3811] Isla Ildefonso (26°38'N, 111°26.5'W), eastern Pacific, depth 80-105 feet. Holotype: SIO 65-329. Paratypes: SIO 65-329 (3). •Valid as Starksia hoesei Rosenblatt & Taylor 1971 -- (Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], Thomson et al. 2000:218 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:164 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Starksia hoesei Rosenblatt & Taylor 1971. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

holderi, Starksia Lauderbach [F.] in Jordan & Starks 1907:73, Fig. 6 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 32 (no. 1510); ref. 10667] Avalon, Santa Catalina Island, southern California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 56397. Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:19 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Alloclinus holderi (Lauderbach 1907) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:241 [ref. 9277], Nelson et al. 2004:162 [ref. 27807], Hastings & Springer 2009:7 [ref. 30391], Patzner et al. 2009:462 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:169 [ref. 32708], González-Acosta et al. 2016:[2] 1626 [ref. 36125], Kells et al. 2016:298 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Alloclinus holderi (Lauderbach 1907). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) to Gulf of California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

hubbsi, Malacoctenus Springer [V. G.] 1959:463, Pl. 6 (figs. 1-2, 4) [Publications of the Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Texas v. 5 (for Dec. 1958); ref. 10210] Southwestern end of San Pedro Martír Island, Gulf of California, Mexico. Holotype: CAS-SU 49651. Paratypes: (2593) BMNH 1957.5.1.150-204 (54); CAS 20719-20 (2); CAS-SU (37 lots); FMNH 42658 (7), 50254 (4), 61902 (114); LACM W52-263 (7), 53-91 (71), 54-258 (14), 54-262 (15), 55-118 (2), 56-22 (129), 53-97 (1); SIO 14-174 (658) (ex UCLA W51-224), 15-260 (64) (ex UCLA W56-20), 15-444 (148) (ex UCLA 55-85), 15-643 (52) (ex UCLA W51-221), 15-648 (235) (ex UCLA W51-223), 15-1297 (81) (ex UCLA W55-93), 15-2441 (14) (ex UCLA W55-94); UCLA 53-91, 53-97 (1); USNM 134904 (3), 174965 (orig. 89) Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:55 [ref. 12367], Springer & Orrell 1996:19 [ref. 22274]. Described as a new species and subspecies. Corrections to the original description are given by Springer in Copeia 1959 (no. 4):292. •Valid as Malacoctenus hubbsi Springer 1959 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:231 [ref. 22193], Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:206 [ref. 24545], Thomson et al. 2000:212 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:163 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:463 [ref. 30396], Hastings & Springer 2009:10 [ref. 31156], Page et al. 2013:169 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Malacoctenus hubbsi Springer 1959. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California and Baja California. Habitat: marine.

infrons, Paraclinus Böhlke [J. E.] 1960:1, Fig. 1 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 337; ref. 11895] About 6 miles east of West End, Little Bahama Bank, south shore of Grand Bahama Island, Bahamas, 40-80 feet. Holotype: ANSP 92977. Paratypes: ANSP 92978-80 (1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:61 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Paraclinus infrons Böhlke 1960 -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:33 [ref. 5580], Robins & Ray 1986:225 [ref. 23100], Williams 2003:1760 [ref. 27109], Smith et al. 2003:51 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:164 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Paraclinus infrons Böhlke 1960. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

integripinnis, Cremnobates Smith [R.] 1880:147 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 133); ref. 18281] La Jolla, near San Diego, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: MCZ 27397 (1), USNM 27404 (2). Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:19 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Paraclinus integripinnis (Smith 1880) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:245 [ref. 9277], Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], Rosales-Casián 2000:112 [ref. 24623], Nelson et al. 2004:164 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:298 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Paraclinus integripinnis (Smith 1880). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

interrupta, Ctenichthys Howell Rivero [L.] 1936:69 [Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History v. 41 (no. 4); ref. 12257] Matanzas Bay, Cuba. Holotype (unique): MCZ 34151. Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

jenkinsi, Lepisoma Heller [E.] & Snodgrass [R. E.] 1903:219, Pl. 16 [Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 5; ref. 2089] Iguana Cove, Isabela Island [Albemarle Island], Galápagos Islands. Holotype: CAS-SU 6350. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8655 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:98 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Labrisomus jenkinsi (Heller & Snodgrass 1903) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:228 [ref. 22193], Springer 1995:495 [ref. 22273], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:528 [ref. 24023], Patzner et al. 2009:462 [ref. 30396], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:194 [ref. 30957], Lin & Hastings 2013:12 [ref. 33286]). Current status: Valid as Labrisomus jenkinsi (Heller & Snodgrass 1903). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

kalisherae, Ericteis Jordan [D. S.] 1904:543, Pl. 2 (fig. 4) [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2400] Bush Key, Tortugas Archipelago, depth 3 feet. Holotype: USNM 79275 [ex CAS-SU 8366]. Paratypes: BMNH 1908.3.19.9 (1). Non-type: USNM 57082 [ex SU] (1). Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:20 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Labrisomus kalisherae (Jordan 1904) -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:22 [ref. 5580], Robins & Ray 1986:226 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1994:74 [ref. 24488], Aguilera 1998:52 [ref. 24221], Sazima et al. 2002:129 [ref. 26189], Williams 2003:1759 [ref. 27109], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:95 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:49 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:163 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:595 [ref. 28815], Sazima et al. 2009:63 [ref. 30096], Patzner et al. 2009:462 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:169 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Gobioclinus kalisherae (Jordan 1904) -- (Lin & Hastings 2013:12 [ref. 33286]). Current status: Valid as Gobioclinus kalisherae (Jordan 1904). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

langi, Starksia Baldwin [C. C.] & Castillo [C. I.] in Baldwin, Castillo, Weigt & Victor 2011:53, Figs. 13-15 [ZooKeys No. 79; ref. 31149] Curlew Reef, Belize, depth 0-3 meters. Holotype: USNM 398927. Paratypes: USNM 398928 (1), 398929 (1), 398930 (1), 398931 (1), 399917 (1). Plus additional non-type material from Colombia and Panama. •Valid as Starksia langi Baldwin & Castillo 2011 -- (Page et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32708] as Castro & Baldwin). Current status: Valid as Starksia langi Baldwin & Castillo 2011. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Belize, Central America; also Honduras and Panama, questionably off Colombia. Habitat: marine.

lentiginosus, Labrisomus Bean [T. H.] 1906:30 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 19; ref. 15640] Tidepool at Doe's Rock, Paget Parish, Bermuda. Holotype (unique): FMNH 5142. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:50 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:305 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

lepicoelia, Starksia Böhlke [J. E.] & Springer [V. G.] 1961:37, Figs. 5-6 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 113 (no. 3); ref. 9303] North-northwest of Green Cay, Bahamas, 25°07'07"N, 77°11'38"W, depth to 50 feet. Holotype: ANSP 94144. Paratypes: ANSP (162 + 2 c&s, 32 lots); UF [ex UMML] (2 lots); 2 lots at Florida State Board of Conservation Marine Lab. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:61 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Starksia lepicoelia Böhlke & Springer 1961 -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:41 [ref. 5580], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:165 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:118 [ref. 26784], Williams & Mounts 2003:161 [ref. 26947], Williams 2003:1760 [ref. 27109], Smith et al. 2003:52 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:164 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:607 [ref. 28815], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396], Baldwin et al. 2011:36, 45 [ref. 31149], Victor 2018:70 [ref. 36255]). Current status: Valid as Starksia lepicoelia Böhlke & Springer 1961. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

lepidogaster, Starksia Rosenblatt [R. H.] & Taylor [L. R., Jr.] 1971:460, Figs. 5, 7 [Pacific Science v. 25 (no. 3); ref. 3811] Isla Cleopha (21°15.0'N, 106°17.3'W), Tres Marias Islands, off western Mexico, depth 0-43 feet. Holotype: SIO 62-55. Paratypes: SIO 62-55 (10). •Valid as Starksia lepidogaster Rosenblatt & Taylor 1971 -- (Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], Nelson et al. 2004:164 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:465 [ref. 30396], Erisman et al. 2011:33 [ref. 31460], Page et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Starksia lepidogaster Rosenblatt & Taylor 1971. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Islas Marías archipelago endemic. Habitat: marine.

leucovitta, Starksia Williams [J. T.] & Mounts [J. H.] 2003:148, Figs. 2, 3a [aqua, Journal of Ichthyology and Aquatic Biology v. 6 (no. 4); ref. 26947] Lulu Bay, about 18°24'N, 75°02'W, Navassa Island, Caribbean Sea, depth 0-16.5 meters. Holotype: USNM 361112. Paratypes: USNM 359445 (6), 359663 (3), 360980 (1), 361055-57 (1, 5, 3). •Valid as Starksia leucovitta Williams & Mounts 2003 -- (Patzner et al. 2009:465 [ref. 30396]). Current status: Valid as Starksia leucovitta Williams & Mounts 2003. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Navassa Island, Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

lianae, Malacoctenus Carvalho-Filho [A.], Almeida [D.], Britto [M. R.], Dias [R. M.] & Lima [S. M. Q.] in Carvalho-Filho, Sazima, Lima, Almeida, Mendes, Dias et al. 2020:500, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 4819 (no. 3); ref. 37678] Tidepool at Praia do Boldró, Fernando de Noronha, Pernambuco, Brazil, -3.84527, -32.42916 [3°50'42.97"S, 32°25'44.98"W], depth 0 - 0.9 meter. Holotype: MZUSP 123844. Paratypes: CIUFES, MZUSP, ZUEC. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Malacoctenus lianae Carvalho-Filho, Almeida, Britto, Dias & Lima 2020. Current status: Valid as Malacoctenus lianae Carvalho-Filho, Almeida, Britto, Dias & Lima 2020. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Fernando de Noronha Archipelago - Atol das Rocas and St. Peter's Rocks, Pernambuco, Brazil. Habitat: marine.

lugubris, Stathmonotus Böhlke [J. E.] 1953:145, Fig. 1 [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 38 (pt 3, no. 11); ref. 12685] Port Guatulco, Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico, about 15°43'30"N, 96°08'W. Holotype: CAS-SU 17748 [ex NYZS 27236]. Paratypes: ANSP 117021 [ex SU] (1, c&s). Type catalog: Mead 1958:134 [ref. 20648], Böhlke 1984:61 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Stathmonotus lugubris Böhlke 1953 -- (Hastings & Springer 1994:28 [ref. 21894], Allen & Robertson 1994:250 [ref. 22193], Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:999 [ref. 22829], Thomson et al. 2000:216 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:166 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:471 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:172 [ref. 32708], Kim & Hastings 2013:8 [ref. 33286] in Labrisomidae). Current status: Valid as Stathmonotus lugubris Böhlke 1953. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

macrocephalus, Clinus Günther [A.] 1861:266 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 3; ref. 1964] Cape San Lucas, Baja California to Bay of Panama. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1861.8.13.7. Non-types: ZMB 5421 (1). Also appeared as new in Günther 1862:373 [4] [ref. 1968]. •Valid as Mnierpes macrocephalus (Günther 1861) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:234 [ref. 22193], Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], Thomson et al. 2000:218 [ref. 25640]). •Valid as Dialommus macrocephalus (Günther 1861) -- (McCosker et al. 2003:158 [ref. 26739], Nelson et al. 2004:162 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:462 [ref. 30396], Hastings & Springer 2009:10 [ref. 31156], Page et al. 2013:169 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Dialommus macrocephalus (Günther 1861). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Colombia. Habitat: marine.

macropus, Myxodes Poey [F.] 1868:399 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 12511 (2). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:217 [ref. 22926]. •Valid as Malacoctenus macropus (Poey 1868) -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:28 [ref. 5580], Robins & Ray 1986:227 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1994:85 [ref. 24488], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:306 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:165 [ref. 27754], Williams 2003:1759 [ref. 27109], Smith et al. 2003:50 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:163 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:600 [ref. 28815], Patzner et al. 2009:463 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:169 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:68 [ref. 33341], Wirtz 2014:18 [ref. 33594], Robertson et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34961], Carvalho-Filho et al. 2020:515 [ref. 37678]). Current status: Valid as Malacoctenus macropus (Poey 1868). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

maculiferus, Labrosomus Poey [F.] 2000:589, Pl. 323 (fig. 5) [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1-3; ref. 26366] Not available; not explicitly proposed as new [see Art. 16.1 of the Code]. Posthumous publication. Genus should have been spelled Labrisomus. Labrisomidae.

magdalenae, Paraclinus Rosenblatt [R. H.] & Parr [T. D.] 1969:12, Fig. 4c [Copeia 1969 (no. 1); ref. 7842] Isla Margarita, south of Punta Redonda (24°29.8'N, 111°59.4'W), Baja California, Mexico, depth 60-70 feet. Holotype: SIO 64-56. Paratypes: BMNH 1980.9.5.36 [ex SIO]; SIO 64-43 (1), 64-45 (2), 64-52 (1), 64-61 (4); USNM 204259 [ex SIO 64-56] (3). Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:20 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Paraclinus magdalenae Rosenblatt & Parr 1969 -- (Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], Nelson et al. 2004:164 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Paraclinus magdalenae Rosenblatt & Parr 1969. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

magdalenensis, Exerpes asper Hubbs [Clark L.] 1952:93 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 2252] Magdalena Bay, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype: CAS-SU 16237. Paratypes: CAS-SU 16238 (12). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:96 [ref. 12291]. Synonym of Paraclinus asper (Jenkins & Evermann 1899). Current status: Synonym of Paraclinus asper (Jenkins & Evermann 1889). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

margaritae, Acteis Fowler [H. W.] 1944:285, Fig. 239 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] Tide pool at Saboga, Perlas Islands, (Pacific) Panama. Holotype: ANSP 70047. Paratypes: ANSP 70050-59 (10). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:61 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Malacoctenus margaritae (Fowler 1944) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:232 [ref. 22193], Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:208 [ref. 24545], Thomson et al. 2000:213 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:163 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:463 [ref. 30396], Hastings & Springer 2009:10 [ref. 31156], Palacios-Salgado et al. 2014:238 [ref. 36362]). Current status: Valid as Malacoctenus margaritae (Fowler 1944). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Costa Rica, Panama. Habitat: marine.

marmoratus, Cremnobates Steindachner [F.] 1876:222 [174], Pl. 12 (fig. 6) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] Little rocky Island north of Cuba, Florida Straits. Holotype (unique): NMW 76414. On p. 174 of separate. •Valid as Paraclinus marmoratus (Steindachner 1876) -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:35 [ref. 5580], Robins & Ray 1986:225 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1994:90 [ref. 24488], Williams 2003:1760 [ref. 27109], Smith et al. 2003:51 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:164 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:605 [ref. 28815], García-Hernández et al. 2009:93 [ref. 37265], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Paraclinus marmoratus (Steindachner 1876). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: including Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

melasma, Starksia Williams [J. T.] & Mounts [J. H.] 2003:151, Figs. 3b, 4 [aqua, Journal of Ichthyology and Aquatic Biology v. 6 (no. 4); ref. 26947] Desecheo Island, Puerto Rico, Caribbean, 18°23'N, 67°29'W. Holotype: ANSP 143033. Paratypes: ANSP 178470 (8), USNM 368721 (4). Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Starksia melasma Williams & Mounts 2003 -- (Patzner et al. 2009:465 [ref. 30396], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:69 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Starksia melasma Williams & Mounts 2003. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

mexicanus, Auchenopterus Gilbert [C. H.] 1904:269, Pl. 29 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 3) v. 3 (no. 9); ref. 12422] La Paz, Mexico, Baja California, Gulf of California. Holotype: CAS-SU 6486. Paratypes: (1) CAS-SU 238 (11). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:95 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Paraclinus mexicanus (Gilbert 1904) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:235 [ref. 22193], Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:254 [ref. 24555], Thomson et al. 2000:209 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:164 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Paraclinus mexicanus (Gilbert 1904). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

mexicanus, Malacoctenus margaritae Springer [V. G.] 1959:449, Pl. 3 (fig. 4) [Publications of the Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Texas v. 5 (for Dec. 1958); ref. 10210] South side of Bahia Inez Island, Gulf of California, Mexico. Holotype: USNM 174956. Paratypes: (183) BMNH 1957.5.1.51-57 (26); FMNH 61905 (47); CAS-SU 49683-84 (1, 1); SIO 15-299 (20) (ex UCLA W53-91), 15-1173 (1) (ex UCLA 53-93), 15-2442 (1) (ex UCLA W53-89), UCLA W52-51 (1); USNM 174959 (85, actual 86). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:55 [ref. 12367], Springer & Orrell 1996:20 [ref. 22274]. •Synonym of Malacoctenus margaritae (Fowler 1944) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:232 [ref. 22193]). •Valid as Malacoctenus mexicanus Springer 1959 -- (Patzner et al. 2009:463 [ref. 30396], Hastings & Springer 2009:10 [ref. 31156], Page et al. 2013:169 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:149 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:449 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:611 [ref. 34923] as aff. mexicanus). Current status: Valid as Malacoctenus mexicanus Springer 1959. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

microcirrhis, Clinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1836:384 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 11; ref. 1005] Coasts of Valparaíso, Chile. Syntypes: MNHN A-2072 (1), A-2126 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot 1967:47 [ref. 20734]. Clinus microcirrus is a misspelling. •Valid as Auchenionchus microcirrhis (Valenciennes 1836) -- (Stephens & Springer 1974:14 [ref. 7149], Pequeño 1989:66 [ref. 14125], Stepien 1990:600 [ref. 19879], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:259 [ref. 24555], Patzner et al. 2009:462 [ref. 30396], Sáez & Pequeño 2009:135 [ref. 30951]). Current status: Valid as Auchenionchus microcirrhis (Valenciennes 1836). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Peru and Chile. Habitat: marine.

microlepidotus, Labrosomus Poey [F.] 1880:246, Pl. 8 (fig. 2) [Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid v. 9 (for 7 July 1880); ref. 6524] Cuba. Possible syntypes: USNM 37572 (2). Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:21 [ref. 22274]. Genus should have been spelled Labrisomus. •Synonym of Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Springer 1959:426 [ref. 10210]). Current status: Synonym of Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

miniatus, Auchenionchus de Buen [F.] 1962:60, Fig. 13 [Montemar No. 2; ref. 699] Valparaíso, Chile. Holotype: EBMC 10372. Paratypes: (2 + 1). •Synonym of Auchenionchus microcirrhis (Valenciennes 1836) -- (Stephens & Springer 1974:14 [ref. 7149], Sáez & Pequeño 2009:135 [ref. 30951]). Current status: Synonym of Auchenionchus microcirrhis (Valenciennes 1836). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

monophthalmus, Auchenopterus Günther [A.] 1861:275 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 3; ref. 1964] Pacific coast of Central America. Syntypes: (3) BMNH 1861.8.13.19-21 (2). Also appeared as new in Günther 1862:374 [5] [ref. 1968] as Cremnobates monophthalmus. •Valid as Paraclinus monophthalmus (Günther 1861) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:235 [ref. 22193], Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396], González-Murcia et al. 2019:295 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Paraclinus monophthalmus (Günther 1861). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: El Salvador, Costa Rica and Panama. Habitat: marine.

moorei, Malacoctenus Evermann [B. W.] & Marsh [M. C.] 1899:357 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 25 (for 1899) Appendix 7; ref. 1283] Culebra Island, Puerto Rico. Holotype (unique): USNM 49370. Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:21 [ref. 22274]. •Synonym of Malacoctenus macropus (Poey 1868) -- (D. Hensley, pers. comm. 8/2005). Current status: Synonym of Malacoctenus macropus (Poey 1868). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

multilepis, Starksia Williams [J. T.] & Mounts [J. H.] 2003:152, Figs. 3c, 5 [aqua, Journal of Ichthyology and Aquatic Biology v. 6 (no. 4); ref. 26947] Fernando de Noronha Island, 200 miles east of tip of Brazil, about 3°51'S, 32°25'W, Sacode Atalaia, South Atlantic, depth 1 meter. Holotype: USNM 361113. Paratypes: UF 19251 (5), USNM 304961 (2). •Valid as Starksia multilepis Williams & Mounts 2003 -- (Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:95 [ref. 27192], Patzner et al. 2009:465 [ref. 30396]). Current status: Valid as Starksia multilepis Williams & Mounts 2003. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Atoll das Rocas and Fernando de Noronha Island, Brazil. Habitat: marine.

multiporosus, Labrisomus (Labrisomus) Hubbs [Clark L.] 1953:131, Fig. 9 [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 38 (pt 3, no. 9); ref. 2253] Ormos, Acapulco Harbor, Mexico. Holotype: CAS-SU 17553. Paratypes: (261) CAS (10 lots); FMNH 59551-52 (1, 1); MCZ 38005-06 (1, 1); NYZS (1 lot); CAS-SU (16 lots); TNHC (3 lots); UCLA (12 lots); USNM 30743 (1), 47484 (2), 94008 (1), 134910 (1), 165469-71 (2, 2, 5), 165474 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:50 [ref. 12367], Springer & Orrell 1996:21 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Labrisomus multiporosus Hubbs 1953 -- (Stephens & Springer 1974:10 [ref. 7149], Allen & Robertson 1994:228 [ref. 22193], Springer 1995:495 [ref. 22273], Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:203 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:529 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:256 [ref. 24555], Herrera & Lavenberg 1999:7 [ref. 24180], Thomson et al. 2000:214 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:163 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:462 [ref. 30396], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:194 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:169 [ref. 32708], Lin & Hastings 2013:12 [ref. 33286], Fourriére et al. 2016:449 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:610 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Labrisomus multiporosus Hubbs 1953. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

multipunctatus, Malacoctenus afuerae Springer [V. G.] 1959:462, Pl. 5 (fig. 5) [Publications of the Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Texas v. 5 (for Dec. 1958); ref. 10210] Southwestern end of San Lucas Bay, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype: CAS-SU 49596. Paratypes: (137) BMNH 1957.5.1.77-87 (11); FMNH 61900 (52); CAS-SU 18933 (7), 49597-600 (7, 3, 1, 1); UCLA W51-20, 51-33, 51-54, 51-58 (1), 53-97 (2), W6-26 (2); UMMZ 171893 (2); USNM 174962 (38). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:54 [ref. 12367], Springer & Orrell 1996:16 [ref. 22274]. •Synonym of Malacoctenus tetranemus (Cope 1877) -- (Stephens & Springer 1974:10 [ref. 7149], Allen & Robertson 1994:233 [ref. 22193]). Current status: Synonym of Malacoctenus tetranemus (Cope 1877). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

naeorhegmis, Paraclinus Böhlke [J. E.] 1960:4, Fig. 2 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 337; ref. 11895] Between North Cay and the small cay just off Long Cay, vicinity of Nassau, Bahamas, 25°05'51"N, 77°23'30"W. Holotype: ANSP 92981. Paratypes: ANSP 92982-84 (1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:61 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Paraclinus naeorhegmis Böhlke 1960 -- (Williams 2003:1760 [ref. 27109], Smith et al. 2003:51 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:164 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Paraclinus naeorhegmis Böhlke 1960. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

nanodes, Starksia Böhlke [J. E.] & Springer [V. G.] 1961:41, Figs. 7-8 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 113 (no. 3); ref. 9303] Wood Cay, off Grand Bahama Island, Little Bahama Bank, Bahamas, 26°44'15"N, 79°02'37"W. Holotype: ANSP 94177. Paratypes: ANSP 94178-79 (1, 1), 94180 (1, c&s), 94181-85 (1, 1, 1, 2, 6); UF 208310 [ex UMML 8310] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:61 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Starksia nanodes Böhlke & Springer 1961 -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:42 [ref. 5580], Collette et al. 2003:118 [ref. 26784], Williams & Mounts 2003:163 [ref. 26947], Williams 2003:1760 [ref. 27109], Smith et al. 2003:52 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:164 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:465 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:69 [ref. 33341] as cf. nanodes). Current status: Valid as Starksia nanodes Böhlke & Springer 1961. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

niger, Clinus Philippi [R. A.] 1896:377 [Anales de la Universidad de Chile 93-95; ref. 3465] Matanzas, Santiago Province, Chile. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Auchenionchus microcirrhis (Valenciennes 1836) -- (Stephens & Springer 1974:14 [ref. 7149]). Current status: Synonym of Auchenionchus microcirrhis (Valenciennes 1836). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

nigricinctus, Labrisomus Howell Rivero [L.] 1936:68 [Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History v. 41 (no. 4); ref. 12257] Coast of Havana, Cuba. Holotype (unique): MCZ 34150. •Valid as Labrisomus nigricinctus Howell Rivero 1936 -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:23 [ref. 5580], Robins & Ray 1986:227 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1994:75 [ref. 24488], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:165 [ref. 27754], Sazima et al. 2002:131 [ref. 26189], Williams 2003:1759 [ref. 27109], Smith et al. 2003:49 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:163 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:596 [ref. 28815], Patzner et al. 2009:462 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:169 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:67 [ref. 33341]). •Valid as Brockius nigricinctus (Howell Rivero 1936) -- (Lin & Hastings 2013:12 [ref. 33286]). Current status: Valid as Brockius nigricinctus (Howell Rivero 1936). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

nigripinnis, Clinus Steindachner [F.] 1867:351 [45] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 56 (1. Abth.); ref. 14188] Barbados, West Indies. Holotype (unique): ?NMW. On p. 45 of separtate. •Valid as Paraclinus nigripinnis (Steindachner 1867) -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:36 [ref. 5580], Robins & Ray 1986:225 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1994:91 [ref. 24488], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:307 [ref. 25013], Williams 2003:1760 [ref. 27109], Smith et al. 2003:51 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:164 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:606 [ref. 28815], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:68 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Paraclinus nigripinnis (Steindachner 1867). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

nox, Cremnobates Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1884:30 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 402); ref. 12325] Key West, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 34971. Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:21 [ref. 22274]. Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

nuchipinnis, Clinus Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:255 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Rio de Janeiro Bay, Brazil. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot 1967:51 [ref. 20734]. A second specimen is mentioned by Quoy & Gaimard but not regarded as a type. •Valid as Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:23 [ref. 5580], Robins & Ray 1986:227 [ref. 23100], Wirtz 1990:918 [ref. 19374], Cervigón 1994:77 [ref. 24488], Aguilera 1998:52 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:403 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:305 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:78 [ref. 25466], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:165 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1646 [ref. 25634], Sazima et al. 2002:130 [ref. 26189], Williams 2003:1759 [ref. 27109], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:95 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:49 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:163 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:597 [ref. 28815], Wirtz et al. 2007:38 [ref. 30263], Sazima et al. 2009:63 [ref. 30096], Patzner et al. 2009:462 [ref. 30396], Matamoros et al. 2009:22 [ref. 31241], García-Hernández et al. 2009:93 [ref. 37265], Lin & Hastings 2013:12 [ref. 33286], Page et al. 2013:169 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:67 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:28 [ref. 34324], Williams & Springer in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2798 [ref. 34618], Spier et al. 2018:17 [ref. 36103], Carneiro et al. 2019:206 [ref. 37250], Ribeiro et al. 2019:5 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: including Gulf of Mexico; eastern Atlantic: including Madeira and Canary Islands. Habitat: marine.

nudiventris, Calliclinus Cervigón [F.] & Pequeño [G.] in Cervigón, Pequeño & Moreno 1979:42, Figs. 1-4 [Medio Ambiente v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 23538] Linao, Isla de Chiloé, 41°58'S, 73°33'W, Chile. Holotype: IZUA-PM 266. Paratypes: INCO-P 4436 (1), 4464 (1), 4493 (4), 4499 (4), 5865 (4); IZUA-PM 189 (17), 267 (3), 295 (1), 301 (1), 641 (1), 642 (1); MNHNC P.5865 (1). Type catalog: Meléndez C. et al. 1993:188 [ref. 24124]. •Valid as Calliclinus nudiventris Cervigón & Pequeño 1979 -- (Pequeño 1989:66 [ref. 14125], Pequeño & Sáez B. 2005:155 [ref. 28604], Patzner et al. 2009:462 [ref. 30396], Sáez & Pequeño 2009:137 [ref. 30951]). Current status: Valid as Calliclinus nudiventris Cervigón & Pequeño 1979. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Chile. Habitat: marine.

occidentalis, Starksia Greenfield [D. W.] 1979:27, Figs. 16-18 [Fieldiana Zoology v. 73 (no. 2); ref. 7013] Tarpon Cay, Belize, about 16°10'N, 88°40'W, depth 1 meter. Holotype: FMNH 83716. Paratypes: CAS 31610 (5), 31661 (1), 31727 (3); FMNH 84377 (5), 84379-86 (2, 1, 6, 5, 7, 9, 1, 1), 84388-89 (3, 1); MPM 11369 (1), 11577 (1); S10 67-45 (1); UF 23348 (1), 24303 (1); UMMZ 200204 (6); USNM 107110 (2), 192388 (1), 192399 (1), 192401 (1), 192416 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:81 [ref. 12367] as 41 paratypes from 11 localities, Springer & Orrell 1996:21 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Starksia occidentalis Greenfield 1979 -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:42 [ref. 5580], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:166 [ref. 27754], Williams & Mounts 2003:147 [ref. 26947], Williams 2003:1760 [ref. 27109], Smith et al. 2003:52 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:164 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:465 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Starksia occidentalis Greenfield 1979. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

ocellatus, Clinus Steindachner [F.] 1876:230 [182], Pl. 12 (fig. 5) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] Bahamas. Syntypes: ANSP 93813 (1), 94205 (1); NMW 60687 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:61 [ref. 13621]. On p. 182 of separate. •Valid as Starksia ocellata (Steindachner 1876) -- (Greenfield 1979:12 [ref. 7013], Robins & Ray 1986:227 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1994:95 [ref. 24488], Williams & Mounts 2003:147 [ref. 26947], Williams 2003:1760 [ref. 27109], Smith et al. 2003:53 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:164 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:608 [ref. 28815], Patzner et al. 2009:465 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32708], Robertson et al. 2016:147, 151 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Starksia ocellata (Steindachner 1876). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

ocellatus, Paraclinus Howell Rivero [L.] 1936:67 [Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History v. 41 (no. 4); ref. 12257] Shallow water near shore off Havana, Cuba. Holotype (unique): MCZ 34149. Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

oculata, Starksia Fowler [H. W.] 1947:9, Fig. 6 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 199; ref. 13084] Layford Cay, New Providence Island, Bahamas. Holotype (unique): ANSP 71735. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:61 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Brockius nigricinctus (Howell Rivero 1936). Current status: Synonym of Brockius nigricinctus (Howell Rivero 1936). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

odysseus, Crockeridius Clark [H. W.] 1936:391 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 21 (no. 29); ref. 839] Potholes, Duncan Island, Galápagos Islands. Holotype: CAS 2806 (missing). Paratypes: CAS 2809 (1, dissected, missing); ? plus more at CAS; UMMZ 157656 (1). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

pectinifer, Clinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1836:374 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 11; ref. 1005] Brazil; Gorée, Senegal. Syntypes: MNHN A-2060 (1), A-2071 (2), A-2168 (1, dry), A-2529 (1), A-3451 (1), A-3452 (2), A-3453 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot 1967:48-49 [ref. 20734]. Also in Griffith & Smith 1834:Pl. 46 (fig. 2) (opp. p. 230) [ref. 1908] •Synonym of Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Wirtz 1990:918 [ref. 19374]). Current status: Synonym of Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

pedatipennis, Clinus Rochebrune [A. T. de] 1880:165 [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 4; ref. 3790] Casamance River, Senegal. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot 1967:52 [ref. 20734]. •Synonym of Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Wirtz 1990:918 [ref. 19374]). Current status: Synonym of Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

peruvianus, Clinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1836:383 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 11; ref. 1005] Peru. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1967:51 [ref. 20734]. Based on a drawing; that drawing is reproduced in Stephens & Springer 1974:15, Fig. 10 [ref. 7149]. •Synonym of Auchenionchus microcirrhis (Valenciennes 1836) -- (Stephens & Springer 1974:14 [ref. 7149], Sáez & Pequeño 2009:135 [ref. 30951]). Current status: Synonym of Auchenionchus microcirrhis (Valenciennes 1836). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

philippii, Clinus Steindachner [F.] 1866:19 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe v. 3; ref. 21713] West coast of South America. Syntypes: (9) not yet found at NMW. Species first described in the abstract above, later described in more detail in Steindachner 1866 [ref. 14059], p. 210 [p. 3 of separate]; also appeared in English in Steindachner 1866:312 [ref. 21712]. •Nomen dubium -- (Sáez & Pequeño 2009:137 [ref. 30951]). •Valid as Labrisomus philippii (Steindachner 1866) -- (Stephens & Springer 1974:10 [ref. 7149], Pequeño 1989:66 [ref. 14125] as philippi, Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:256 [ref. 24555], Patzner et al. 2009:463 [ref. 30396], Lin & Hastings 2013:12 [ref. 33286]). Current status: Valid as Labrisomus philippii (Steindachner 1866). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Chile. Habitat: marine.

polyporosus, Malacoctenus hubbsi Springer [V. G.] 1959:468, Pl. 6 (figs. 3-4) [Publications of the Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Texas v. 5 (for Dec. 1958); ref. 10210] Islas Venados, just north of Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Holotype: USNM 174957. Paratypes: (499) ANSP 74511; BMNH 1957.5.1.90-149 (60); FMNH 61898 (32); CAS-SU 49677-79 (1, 1, 1); SIO 11-398 (9) (ex UCLA 51-29), 11-399 (23) (ex UCLA W51-54), 11-400 (7, not 8) (ex UCLA W51-58), 15-115 (130) (ex UCLA W51-20), 15-2444 (3) (ex UCLA W51-44); USNM 174960 (orig. 231, now 228). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:55 [ref. 12367], Springer & Orrell 1996:19 [ref. 22274]. •Synonym of Malacoctenus hubbsi Springer 1959 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:231 [ref. 22193]). •Synonym of Malacoctenus hubbsi Springer 1959, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Thomson et al. 2000:212 [ref. 25640]). •Valid as Malacoctenus polyporosus Springer 1959 -- (Patzner et al. 2009:463 [ref. 30396], Hastings & Springer 2009:10 [ref. 31156], Page et al. 2013:169 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:149 [ref. 34871]). Current status: Valid as Malacoctenus polyporosus Springer 1959. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

pomaspilus, Labrisomus (Labrisomus) Springer [V. G.] & Rosenblatt [R. H.] 1965:25, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 1965 (no. 1); ref. 9258] Tidepool on beach at Esmeraldas, Ecuador. Holotype: UBC 63-973. Paratypes: USNM 197771 (1). Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:21 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Labrisomus pomaspilus Springer & Rosenblatt 1965 -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:255 [ref. 24555], Patzner et al. 2009:463 [ref. 30396], Lin & Hastings 2013:12 [ref. 33286]). Current status: Valid as Labrisomus pomaspilus Springer & Rosenblatt 1965. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Ecuador. Habitat: marine.

posthon, Starksia Rosenblatt [R. H.] & Taylor [L. R., Jr.] 1971:460, Figs. 5, 7 [Pacific Science v. 25 (no. 3); ref. 3811] Isla Secas, off Panama. eastern Pacific, depth 14 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 101945. Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:21 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Starksia posthon Rosenblatt & Taylor 1971 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:237 [ref. 22193], Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], Nelson et al. 2004:164 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:465 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Starksia posthon Rosenblatt & Taylor 1971. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Central America. Habitat: marine.

puertoricensis, Malacoctenus Evermann [B. W.] & Marsh [M. C.] 1899:358 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 25 (for 1899) Appendix 7; ref. 1283] Hucares, Puerto Rico. Holotype: USNM 49371. Paratypes: (6) FMNH 3314 (2), CAS-SU 8656 (3). Non-types: USNM 50180 [ex USBF 919] (4), USNM 125974 [ex USBF 841] (orig. 1, now 2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:98 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:55 [ref. 12367], Springer & Orrell 1996:21-22 [ref. 22274]. •Synonym of Malacoctenus gilli (Steindachner 1867) -- (D. Hensley, pers. comm. 8/2005). Current status: Synonym of Malacoctenus gilli (Steindachner 1867). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

racemarius, Pennaclinus de Buen [F.] 1962:82, Fig. 22 [Montemar No. 2; ref. 699] Valdivia, Chile. Holotype: EBMC? (probably destroyed). •Synonym of Calliclinus geniguttatus (Valenciennes 1836) -- (Stephens & Springer 1974:20 [ref. 7149], Sáez & Pequeño 2009:137 [ref. 30951]). Current status: Synonym of Calliclinus geniguttatus (Valenciennes 1836). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

rava, Starksia Williams [J. T.] & Mounts [J. H.] 2003:153, Figs. 3d, 6 [aqua, Journal of Ichthyology and Aquatic Biology v. 6 (no. 4); ref. 26947] Sanit Giles Island, Tobago, Caribbean Sea, about 11°21'22"N, 60°31'46"W, depth 6-10.7 meters. Holotype: USNM 361110. Paratypes: USNM 329526-29 (7, 7, 3, 3), 329535-40 (4, 1, 4, 15, 4, 1). •Valid as Starksia rava Williams & Mounts 2003 -- (Patzner et al. 2009:465 [ref. 30396]). Current status: Valid as Starksia rava Williams & Mounts 2003. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Tobago, Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

rhodopyga, Xenomedea Rosenblatt [R. H.] & Taylor [L. R., Jr.] 1971:445, Figs. 1, 2c, 5, 6 [Pacific Science v. 25 (no. 3); ref. 3811] East side of Isla Cerraja, Bahia de Los Angeles (29°00.3'N, 133°33.7'W), Gulf of California, Mexico, depth 0-20 feet. Holotype: SIO 62-212. Paratypes: SIO (19 lots, 1156), 15-290 (41) (ex UCLA W55-246), 15-301 (21) (ex UCLA W56-22). Additional material: AMNH 29799 (5); SIO (36 lots, 673); UCLA 56-72 (2), 57-52 (1), 60-6 (2); USNM 205479 [ex SIO 69-358] (23). Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:22 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Xenomedea rhodopyga Rosenblatt & Taylor 1971 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:237 [ref. 22193], Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829] as rhodophyga, Thomson et al. 2000:217 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:164 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:465 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:171 [ref. 32708], Page et al. 2013:171 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Xenomedea rhodopyga Rosenblatt & Taylor 1971. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California. Habitat: marine.

robertsoni, Starksia Baldwin [C. C.], Victor [B. C.] & Castillo [C. I.] in Baldwin, Castillo, Weigt & Victor 2011:43, Figs. 9-11 [ZooKeys No. 79; ref. 31149] Islas de Las Dos Hermanas, Portobelo, Panama, 9°35'45"N, 79°40'05". Holotype: AMNH 249667. Paratypes: (all from Panama) AMNH 249640 (1), 249642 (1); USNM 399909 (1), 399910 (1), 399912 (1), 399913 (1). •Valid as Starksia robertsoni Baldwin, Victor & Castillo 2011 -- (Victor 2018:70 [ref. 36255]). Current status: Valid as Starksia robertsoni Baldwin, Victor & Castillo 2011. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Atlantic Panama, western Caribbean. Habitat: marine.

rubescens, Auchenopterus Evermann [B. W.] & Marsh [M. C.] 1899:360 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 25 (for 1899) Appendix 7; ref. 1283] Puerto Real, Puerto Rico. Holotype (unique): USNM 49374. Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:22 [ref. 22274]. •Synonym of Paraclinus nigripinnis (Steindachner 1867) -- (D. Hensley, pers. comm. 8/2005). Current status: Synonym of Paraclinus nigripinnis (Steindachner 1867). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

rubicundus, Auchenopterus Starks [E. C.] 1913:74, Pl. 15 [Leland Stanford Jr. University Publications, University Series; ref. 4197] Tide pools at Natal, Brazil. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 22218. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:95 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Paraclinus rubicundus (Starks 1913) -- (Guimarães & Bacellar 2002:420 [ref. 26015], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:95 [ref. 27192], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396]). Current status: Valid as Paraclinus rubicundus (Starks 1913). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazil. Habitat: marine.

sanctiandrewsi, Starksia Fowler [H. W.] 1950:91, Figs. 33-34, 47 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 102; ref. 12949] St. Andrews Island [San Andrés Island], West Indies. Holotype: ANSP 71781. Paratypes: ANSP 71782-85 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:61 [ref. 13621]. Originally as sancti-andrewsi. •Synonym of Gobioclinus guppyi (Norman 1922). Current status: Synonym of Gobioclinus guppyi (Norman 1922). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

sangreyae, Starksia Castillo [C. I.] & Baldwin [C. C.] in Baldwin, Castillo, Weigt & Victor 2011:27, Figs. 2, 4 [ZooKeys No. 79; ref. 31149] South side of Island, Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, depth 1-2 meters. Holotype: USNM 398932. Paratypes: all from Belize, most are DNA vouchers, deposited at the USNM. Plus additional material. •Valid as Starksia sangreyae Castillo & Baldwin 2011 -- (Lobel & Lobel 2011:50 [ref. 31774], Page et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Starksia sangreyae Castillo & Baldwin 2011. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Caribbean: Belize and Honduras. Habitat: marine.

seftoni, Cryptotrema Hubbs [Clark L.] 1954:17, Fig. 2 [Copeia 1954 (no. 1); ref. 12649] Off the northern end of Angel de la Guarda Island, 29°31'N, 113°37'W, Gulf of California, Mexico, depth 14-20 fathoms. Holotype: CAS-SU 17866. Paratypes: CAS-SU 17877 [? 17867] (1), TNHC 3022 (1), USNM 165475 (1). Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:22 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Cryptotrema seftoni Hubbs 1954 -- (Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], Thomson et al. 2000:218 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:162 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:462 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:169 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Cryptotrema seftoni Hubbs 1954. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California. Habitat: marine.

sella, Starksia Williams [J. T.] & Mounts [J. H.] 2003:155, Figs. 3e, 7 (see comments) [aqua, Journal of Ichthyology and Aquatic Biology v. 6 (no. 4); ref. 26947] Saint Giles Islands, Tobago, Caribbean, about 11°21'22"N, 60°32'00"W, depth 12-26 meters. Holotype: USNM 361111. Paratypes: USNM 329530-31 (1, 1), 329533-34 (2, 8). Figure 7 in the original is actually the same as Fig. 6; the corrected Fig. 7 appeared in Aqua, v. 7 (no. 2) as an erratum on p. 60. •Valid as Starksia sella Williams & Mounts 2003 -- (Patzner et al. 2009:465 [ref. 30396]). Current status: Valid as Starksia sella Williams & Mounts 2003. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Tobago, Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

sini, Paraclinus altivelis Hubbs [Clark L.] 1952:74, Fig. 14 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 2252] San Ignacio Lagoon, Baja California, Mexico, depth 3.25-3.75 meters. Holotype: CAS-SU 16206. Paratypes: (14) CAS 20468 (9), CAS-SU 16207 (1), TNHC 430 (?), USNM 151996 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:98 [ref. 12291], Springer & Orrell 1996:16 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Paraclinus sini Hubbs 1952 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:235 [ref. 22193], Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], Thomson et al. 2000:209 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:164 [ref. 27807], Hastings & Springer 2009:7 [ref. 30391], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Paraclinus sini Hubbs 1952. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

sinuscalifornici, Parastathmonotus Chabanaud [P.] 1942:115, Figs. 3-7 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 67; ref. 798] San Gabriel Bay, Espiritu Santo Island, Gulf of California, about 24°30'N, near Bay of La Paz, Mexico. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1942-0028. Type catalog: Bauchot 1967:56 [ref. 20734]. Originally as sinus californici. •Valid as Stathmonotus sinuscalifornici (Chabanaud 1942) -- (Hastings & Springer 1994:25 [ref. 21894], Allen & Robertson 1994:250 [ref. 22193], Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:999 [ref. 22829], Thomson et al. 2000:216 [ref. 25640], Hastings & Springer 2002:544 [ref. 26375], Nelson et al. 2004:166 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:471 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:172 [ref. 32708], Kim & Hastings 2013:8 [ref. 33286] in Labrisomidae). Current status: Valid as Stathmonotus sinuscalifornici (Chabanaud 1942). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

sluiteri, Brannerella Metzelaar [J.] 1919:155, Fig. 49 [Report on the fishes; ref. 2982] Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles. Syntypes: RMNH 9823 (1); ZMA 112908 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:94 [ref. 19236]. Bannerella Metzelaar synonym of Starkksia •Valid as Starksia sluiteri (Metzelaar 1919) -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:43 [ref. 5580], Cervigón 1994:96 [ref. 24488], Collette et al. 2003:118 [ref. 26784], Feitoza et al. 2003:69 [ref. 26943] as aff.sluiteri, Williams & Mounts 2003:157 [ref. 26947], Williams 2003:1760 [ref. 27109], Smith et al. 2003:53 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:164 [ref. 27807], Vaske et al. 2005:77 [ref. 36155], Patzner et al. 2009:465 [ref. 30396], Baldwin et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31149], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:69 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Starksia sluiteri (Metzelaar 1919). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

smithvanizi, Starksia Williams [J. T.] & Mounts [J. H.] 2003:158, Fig. 10 [aqua, Journal of Ichthyology and Aquatic Biology v. 6 (no. 4); ref. 26947] Navassa Island, Caribbean Sea, 18°24'48"N, 75°01'13"W, depth 0-5 meters. Holotype: USNM 359136. Paratypes: ANSP 124688 (1); UF 122114 (13); USNM 359454 (15), 368830 (10). Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Starksia smithvanizi Williams & Mounts 2003 -- (Dennis et al. 2004:80 [ref. 31601], Patzner et al. 2009:465 [ref. 30396], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:69 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Starksia smithvanizi Williams & Mounts 2003. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Caribbean Sea (earlier confused with S. fasciata). Habitat: marine.

soccorroensis, Labrisomus (Labrisomus) Hubbs [Clark L.] 1953:128, Fig. 7 [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 38 (pt 3, no. 9); ref. 2253] Socorro Island, eastern Pacific. Holotype: CAS 1762. Paratypes: CAS 1625 (1). Named after Socorro I., but misspelled by the author; we believe the name should be spelled socorroensis -- the correct original spelling when named after Socorro Island. •Valid as Labrisomus socorroensis Hubbs 1953 -- (Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], Nelson et al. 2004:163 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:463 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:169 [ref. 32708], Lin & Hastings 2013:12 [ref. 33286], Fourriére et al. 2016:449 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:610 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Labrisomus socorroensis Hubbs 1953. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

spectator, Paraclinus Guimarães [R. Z. P.] & Bacellar [A. C. L. H. de] 2002:424, Figs. 2B, 3E-F [Copeia 2002 (no. 2); ref. 26015] Cataguás Island, Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, 23°01'S, 44°17'W, depth 5 meters. Holotype: MNRJ 15901. Paratypes: ANSP 175723 (1); LBRP 3147 (4, 2 c&s), 3430 (1), 3462 (1), 3490 (2), 3504 (1), 3514 (2,) 3937 (1), 5076 (1); MCZ 151299 (1); MNRJ 15877(2); MZUSP 51603 (1); USNM 345469 (1); ZUEC 743-745 (3), 4076 (2), 4389 (1). •Valid as Paraclinus spectator Guimarães & Bacellar 2002 -- (Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:95 [ref. 27192], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396], Spier et al. 2018:17 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Paraclinus spectator Guimarães & Bacellar 2002. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Brazil. Habitat: marine.

spinipenis, Brannerella Al-Uthman [H. S.] 1960:168, Figs. 2c [Texas Journal of Science v. 12 (nos 3-4); ref. 6769] Southwestern end of San Pedro Martir Island near Angel de la Guarda Island, 28°20'02"N, 112°20'30"W, Gulf of California, Mexico. Holotype: CAS-SU 48135. Paratypes: CAS-SU 48132 (1), 48136-37 (2, 1), 48138 (1), 48139 (now 2), 48140 (1), 48141 (now 2), 48143 (1), 48144 (3, missing); SIO 15-284 (1) (ex UCLA W52-258), UCLA W52-258 (1 ex 2). Plus non-type material and possibly additional types. •Valid as Starksia spinipenis (Al-Uthman 1960) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:237 [ref. 22193], Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], Thomson et al. 2000:217 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:164 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:465 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:171 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:149 [ref. 34871]). Current status: Valid as Starksia spinipenis (Al-Uthman 1960). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

spinosus, Parviclinus Fraser-Brunner [A.] 1932:828, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1932 (pt 4) (no. 40); ref. 1487] Mouth of Conway River, near Tal-y-cafn Bridge, northern Wales, U. K. (stomach content). Holotype (unique): BMNH 1932.10.22.1. Type locality is clearly in error, should be western Atlantic (see Hastings & Springer 1994:23 [ref. 21894]). •Synonym of Stathmonotus stahli (Evermann & Marsh 1899) -- (Hastings & Springer 1994:21 [ref. 21894], Kim & Hastings 2013:8 [ref. 33286] in Labrisomidae). Current status: Synonym of Stathmonotus stahli (Evermann & Marsh 1899). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

splendens, Starksia Victor [B. C.] 2018:56, Figs. 1-17 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 31; ref. 36255] Southwest corner of Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands, 19.286°, -81.392°, depth 5-15 meters. Holotype: UF 241196. Paratypes: UF. •Valid as Starksia splendens Victor 2018. Current status: Valid as Starksia splendens Victor 2018. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Cayman Islands. Habitat: marine.

springeri, Starksia Castillo [C. I.] & Baldwin [C. C.] in Baldwin, Castillo, Weigt & Victor 2011:30, Figs. 3-4 [ZooKeys No. 79; ref. 31149] Blue Cay, Curaçao, 12°07'59.22"N, 68°50'05.34"W, depth 1-25 meters. Holotype: USNM 398945. Paratypes (all from Curaçao): USNM 399658 (1), 399659 (6). •Valid as Starksia springeri Castillo & Baldwin 2011. Current status: Valid as Starksia springeri Castillo & Baldwin 2011. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Southwestern Caribbean: Curaçao. Habitat: marine.

stahli, Auchenistius Evermann [B. W.] & Marsh [M. C.] 1899:359 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 25 (for 1899) Appendix 7; ref. 1283] Ponce, Puerto Rico. Holotype: USNM 49372. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8658 (1); USNM 50163 (4), 126078 (8). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:95 [ref. 12291], Springer & Orrell 1996:10 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Auchenistius stahli Evermann & Marsh 1899, with subspecies -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:46 [ref. 5580]). •Valid as Stathmonotus stahli (Evermann & Marsh 1899) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:224 [ref. 23100], Hastings & Springer 1994:21 [ref. 21894], Cervigón 1994:97 [ref. 24488], Almany & Baldwin 1996:426 [ref. 22526], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:166 [ref. 27754], Williams 2003:1767 [ref. 27109] as a valid subspecies, Smith et al. 2003:56 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:166 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:623 [ref. 28815], Patzner et al. 2009:471 [ref. 30396], Hastings & Springer 2009:8 [ref. 31156], Kim & Hastings 2013:8 [ref. 33286] in Labrisomidae, Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:71 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Stathmonotus stahli (Evermann & Marsh 1899). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

starcki, Starksia Gilbert [C. R.] 1971:200, Figs. 1B-C [Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences v. 33 (no. 3) (1970); ref. 7677] Looe Key, Monroe County, Florida, U.S.A., depth 5-20 feet. Holotype: UF 10874. Paratypes: ANSP 109800 (1); UF 16188 (1), 17279 (1), 227335 [ex UMML 27335] (1); USNM 205200 (1). Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:114 [ref. 21035], Böhlke 1984:62 [ref. 13621], Springer & Orrell 1996:22 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Starksia starcki Gilbert 1971 -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:44 [ref. 5580], Robins & Ray 1986:228 [ref. 23100], Musick 2000:18 [ref. 24959], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:166 [ref. 27754], Williams & Mounts 2003:163 [ref. 26947], Williams 2003:1760 [ref. 27109], Smith et al. 2003:53 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:164 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:609 [ref. 28815], Patzner et al. 2009:465 [ref. 30396], Baldwin et al. 2011:45 [ref. 31149], Page et al. 2013:171 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Starksia starcki Gilbert 1971. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

stephensi, Paraclinus Rosenblatt [R. H.] & Parr [T. D.] 1969:13, Fig. 4b [Copeia 1969 (no. 1); ref. 7842] East of Isla María Magdalaena (21°26.5'N, 106°22'W), Trés Marías Island, western Mexico, depth 0-45 feet. Holotype: SIO 62-25-61A. Paratypes: LACM 9044 (1); SIO 62-25-61B (2); USNM 204261 [ex SIO 62-49] (2). Additional material: SIO 62-65 (2) Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:22 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Paraclinus stephensi Rosenblatt & Parr 1969 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:236 [ref. 22193], Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], Nelson et al. 2004:164 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Paraclinus stephensi Rosenblatt & Parr 1969. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

striatus, Labrisomus (Brockius) Hubbs [Clark L.] 1953:120, Fig. 2 [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 38 (pt 3, no. 9); ref. 2253] Acapulco Harbor, Mexico. Holotype: CAS-SU 17560. Paratypes: CAS-SU 17559 (3), 17608 (2); TNHC 2961 (1); USNM 165472 (1). Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:22 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Labrisomus striatus Hubbs 1953 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:229 [ref. 22193], Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:204 [ref. 24545], Thomson et al. 2000:214 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:163 [ref. 27807], Hastings & Springer 2009:7 [ref. 30391], Patzner et al. 2009:463 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:169 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Brockius striatus (Hubbs 1953) -- (Lin & Hastings 2013:12 [ref. 33286]). Current status: Valid as Brockius striatus (Hubbs 1953). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

sudensis, Malacoctenus zonifer Springer [V. G.] 1959:474, Pl. 7 (fig. 3) [Publications of the Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Texas v. 5 (for Dec. 1958); ref. 10210] Saboga, Perlas Islands, (Pacific) Panama. Holotype: CAS-SU 49641. Paratypes: (344) ANSP 10574-77 (4); BMNH 1898.12.31.44-46 (3), 1957.5.1.1-50 (59); CAS 4014-41 (28), 6907 (1), 6987; CAS-SU 49692-98 (7, 4, 3, 1, 15, 5, 7), 49700-07 (1, 4, 8, 5, 5, 1, 1, 17); FMNH 61899 (50); SIO 11-286 (25) (ex UCLA 53-283); USNM 65567 (1), 81898 (1), 94046 (1), 101933 (10), 101936 (2), 101987-88 (1, 1), 101990 (1), 102002 (2), 128493 (24), 144820 (7), 144822 (15), 144824-26 (2, 1, 2), 144828 (2), 174963 (18). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:55 [ref. 12367], Springer & Orrell 1996:23-24 [ref. 22274]. •Synonym of Malacoctenus zonifer (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:234 [ref. 22193]). •Valid as Malacoctenus sudensis Springer 1959 -- (Patzner et al. 2009:463 [ref. 30396], Hastings & Springer 2009:10 [ref. 31156], González-Murcia et al. 2019:295 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Malacoctenus sudensis Springer 1959. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: El Salvador south to Ecuador. Habitat: marine.

supracorniculum, Paraclinus Fowler [H. W.] 1941:99, Fig. 13 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 13237] Off Pacific Reef, Florida, U.S.A., depth 45-50 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ANSP 69720. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:62 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Paraclinus grandicomis (Rosén 1911). Current status: Synonym of Paraclinus grandicomis (Rosén 1911). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

tanygnathus, Paraclinus Rosenblatt [R. H.] & Parr [T. D.] 1969:10, Fig. 5a [Copeia 1969 (no. 1); ref. 7842] West side of Isla Mariá Cleopha (21°15.5'N, 106°17.3'W), Trés Marías Islands, western Mexico, 0-45 feet. Holotype: SIO 62-56. Paratypes: BMNH 1980.9.5.8-9 [ex SIO] (2); LACM 9045-3 (2); SIO 59-210 (2), 61-225 (3), 61-237 (22), 61-248 (3), 62-20 (3), 62-25 (4), 62-56 (16), 62-29 (7), 62-55 (27), 62-58 (2); USNM 204260 [ex SIO 62-19] (8). Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:22 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Paraclinus tanygnathus Rosenblatt & Parr 1969 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:236 [ref. 22193], Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], Thomson et al. 2000:210 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:164 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:149 [ref. 34871]). Current status: Valid as Paraclinus tanygnathus Rosenblatt & Parr 1969. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

tekla, Stathmonotus Nichols [J. T.] 1910:161 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 28 (art. 16); ref. 14795] Rocky shallows at Sand Key, off Key West harbor, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): AMNH 2536. •Synonym of Stathmonotus stahli (Evermann & Marsh 1899), but a valid subspecies -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:46 [ref. 5580], Cavulluzzi 1997:146 [ref. 23511], Williams 2003:1767 [ref. 27109]). •Synonym of Stathmonotus stahli (Evermann & Marsh 1899) -- (Hastings & Springer 1994:21 [ref. 21894]). •Valid as Stathmonotus tekla Nichols 1910 -- (Patzner et al. 2009:471 [ref. 30396], Hastings & Springer 2009:8 [ref. 31156], Page et al. 2013:172 [ref. 32708], Kim & Hastings 2013:8 [ref. 33286] in Labrisomidae). Current status: Valid as Stathmonotus tekla Nichols 1910. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

tentaculatus, Auchenionchus de Buen [F.] 1962:63, Figs. 14-15 [Montemar No. 2; ref. 699] Arica, Chile. Holotype: EBMC 10356. Paratypes: EBMC 10357-59 (1, 1, 1). •Synonym of Auchenionchus microcirrhis (Valenciennes 1836) -- (Stephens & Springer 1974:14 [ref. 7149], Sáez & Pequeño 2009:135 [ref. 30951]). Current status: Synonym of Auchenionchus microcirrhis (Valenciennes 1836). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

tetranemus, Blennius Cope [E. D.] 1877:42 [26] [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 17; ref. 18033] Lobos de Afuera Island, Peru [original Pecasmayo Bay, Peru]. Neotype: USNM 128213. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:30 [ref. 13621] as no types at ANSP, Springer et al. 1991:24 [ref. 18888], Springer & Orrell 1996:22 [ref. 22274]. On p. 26 of separate. Neotype designated by Stephens & Springer 1974:10 [ref. 7149]; neotype is also the holotype of Labrisomus afurae Meek & Hildebrand. •Valid as Malacoctenus tetranemus (Cope 1877) -- (Stephens & Springer 1974:10 [ref. 7149], Allen & Robertson 1994:233 [ref. 22193], Springer 1995:495 [ref. 22273], Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:208 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:529 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:255 [ref. 24555], Herrera & Lavenberg 1999:8 [ref. 24180], Thomson et al. 2000:213 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:163 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:463 [ref. 30396], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:194 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:169 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:149 [ref. 34871]). Current status: Valid as Malacoctenus tetranemus (Cope 1877). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

triangulatus, Malacoctenus Springer [V. G.] 1959:477, Pl. 7 (fig. 4) [Publications of the Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Texas v. 5 (for Dec. 1958); ref. 10210] West of Delaporte Point, New Providence Island, Bahamas, 25°05'04"N, 77°27"42'W, Caribbean Sea. Holotype: ANSP 74729. Paratypes: (263) ANSP (32 lots, 200, 1 c&s,); BMNH 1888.1.19.92-101 (22), 1939.5.12.180 (1); FMNH 6981 (1), 59878 (7); IMSC uncat. (3); UMMZ 171181, 171193 (2), 171225 (1); USNM 37430 (1), 82536-37 (1, 1), 88120 (1), 114760 (1), 116823-24 (17, 2), 128794 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:62 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:55 [ref. 12367], Springer & Orrell 1996:22 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Malacoctenus triangulatus Springer 1959 -- (Greenfield & Johnson 1981:29 [ref. 5580], Robins & Ray 1986:227 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1994:86 [ref. 24488], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:165 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:117 [ref. 26784], Feitoza et al. 2003:69 [ref. 26943] as aff. triangulatus, Williams 2003:1759 [ref. 27109], Smith et al. 2003:50 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:163 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:601 [ref. 28815], Vaske et al. 2005:77 [ref. 36155], Patzner et al. 2009:463 [ref. 30396], Guimarães et al. 2010:54 [ref. 30917], Page et al. 2013:169 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:68 [ref. 33341], Wirtz 2014:19 [ref. 33594], Robertson et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34961], Carvalho-Filho et al. 2020:516 [ref. 37678]). Current status: Valid as Malacoctenus triangulatus Springer 1959. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

trindadensis, Labrisomus Pinto [S. Y.] 1957:1, Fig. 1 [Boletim do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Zoologia, Nova Série No. 163; ref. 12163] Trindade Island, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 6324. Paratypes: MNI 4153, 6325-36. •Synonym of Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1652 [ref. 25634]). Current status: Synonym of Labrisomus nuchipinnis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

validus, Calliclinus de Buen [F.] 1962:80, Fig. 21 [Montemar No. 2; ref. 699] Valparaíso, Chile. Holotype (unique): EBMC 10390. •Synonym of Auchenionchus variolosus (Valenciennes 1836) -- (Stephens & Springer 1974:12 [ref. 7149], Sáez & Pequeño 2009:135 [ref. 30951]). Current status: Synonym of Auchenionchus variolosus (Valenciennes 1836). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

variabilis, Starksia Greenfield [D. W.] 1979:33, Figs. 19-21 [Fieldiana Zoology v. 73 (no. 2); ref. 7013] Northeast of Bahía de Nenquange, Parque Nacional Tayrona, Santa Marta, Colombia, about 11°40'N, 74°30'W, depth 1 meter. Holotype: FMNH 83717. Paratypes: CAS 40229 (1), FMNH 83718 (5), GCRL 15739 (1), UF 23349 (1), USNM 217832 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:81 [ref. 12367], Springer & Orrell 1996:22 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Starksia variabilis Greenfield 1979 -- (Williams & Mounts 2003:147 [ref. 26947], Williams 2003:1760 [ref. 27109], Patzner et al. 2009:465 [ref. 30396]). Current status: Valid as Starksia variabilis Greenfield 1979. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Colombia, Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

variolosus, Clinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1836:381, Pl. 332 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 11; ref. 1005] Valparaíso, Chile. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-2170. Type catalog: Bauchot 1967:50 [ref. 20734]. •Valid as Auchenionchus variolosus (Valenciennes 1836) -- (Stephens & Springer 1974:11 [ref. 7149], Pequeño 1989:66 [ref. 14125], Cárdenas S. & Pequeño 1995:3 [ref. 22708], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:256 [ref. 24555], Patzner et al. 2009:462 [ref. 30396], Sáez & Pequeño 2009:136 [ref. 30951]). Current status: Valid as Auchenionchus variolosus (Valenciennes 1836). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Chile. Habitat: marine.

varius, Myxodes Poey [F.] 1876:174 [132], Pl. 8 [5] (fig. 2) [Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid v. 5 (for 5 Apr. 1876); ref. 3510] Cuba. Holotype: USNM 37538 [Poey 726]. Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:22 [ref. 22274]. On p. 132 of separate. Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

veliger, Histioclinus Metzelaar [J.] 1919:157, Fig. 51 [Report on the fishes; ref. 2982] Bonaire, West Indies. Syntypes: (several) BMNH 1920.1.8.15-16 (2); RMNH 9821 (1); CAS-SU 23312 (4); USNM 160661 (6); ZMA 102174 (11). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:97 [ref. 12291], Nijssen et al. 1982:94 [ref. 19236], Springer & Orrell 1996:11 [ref. 22274]. •Synonym of Stathmonotus stahli (Evermann & Marsh 1899) -- (Hastings & Springer 1994:21 [ref. 21894], Kim & Hastings 2013:8 [ref. 33286] in Labrisomidae). Current status: Synonym of Stathmonotus stahli (Evermann & Marsh 1899). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

verrucosus, Auchenionchus de Buen [F.] 1962:68, Fig. 16 [Montemar No. 2; ref. 699] Antofagasta, Chile. Holotype (unique): EBMC 10021. •Synonym of Auchenionchus microcirrhis (Valenciennes 1836) -- (Stephens & Springer 1974:14 [ref. 7149], Sáez & Pequeño 2009:135 [ref. 30951]). Current status: Synonym of Auchenionchus microcirrhis (Valenciennes 1836). Labrisomidae. Habitat: marine.

versicolor, Myxodes Poey [F.] 1876:173 [131], Pl. 8 [5] (fig. 1) [Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid v. 5 (for 5 Apr. 1876); ref. 3510] Cuba. No types known. On p. 131 of separate. •Valid as Malacoctenus versicolor (Poey 1876) -- (Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:165 [ref. 27754], Williams 2003:1759 [ref. 27109], Smith et al. 2003:50 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:163 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:463 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:68 [ref. 33341], Wirtz 2014:18 [ref. 33594], Carvalho-Filho et al. 2020:515 [ref. 37678]). Current status: Valid as Malacoctenus versicolor (Poey 1876). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

walkeri, Paraclinus Hubbs [Clark L.] 1952:88, Fig. 24 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 2252] Mud flat 1500 meters northwest of Laguna Point, San Quintin Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Holotype: CAS-SU 15320. Paratypes: (106) CAS-SU 15224 (58), 15239 (4); TNHC 437 (?); USNM 151995 [ex CAS-SU 15320] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:98-99 [ref. 12291], Springer & Orrell 1996:22 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Paraclinus walkeri Hubbs 1952 -- (Rosales-Casián 2000:110 [ref. 24623], Nelson et al. 2004:164 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:464 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Paraclinus walkeri Hubbs 1952. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Outer coast of Baja California. Habitat: marine.

weigti, Starksia Baldwin [C. C.] & Castillo [C. I.] in Baldwin, Castillo, Weigt & Victor 2011:37, Figs. 7, 10-11 [ZooKeys No. 79; ref. 31149] Spuir and groove, Carrier Bow Cay, Belize, depth 6-8 meters. Holotype: USNM 399648. Paratypes: (all from Belize): many at USNM. Plus additional non DNA vouchers. •Valid as Starksia weigti Baldwin & Castillo 2011 -- (Lobel & Lobel 2011:50 [ref. 31774], Page et al. 2013:171 [ref. 32708], Victor 2018:70 [ref. 36255]). Current status: Valid as Starksia weigti Baldwin & Castillo 2011. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Belize and Honduras. Habitat: marine.

wigginsi, Labrisomus (Odontoclinus) Hubbs [Clark L.] 1953:122, Fig. 3 [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 38 (pt 3, no. 9); ref. 2253] 3 miles north of Arroyo Seco, between Magdalena Bay and Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype: CAS-SU 17562. Paratypes: CAS-SU 17561 (1), 17563 (12); TNHC 2960 (2); USNM 165473 (5). Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:22 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Labrisomus wigginsi Hubbs 1953 -- (Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], Nelson et al. 2004:163 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:463 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:169 [ref. 32708], Lin & Hastings 2013:12 [ref. 33286], González-Acosta et al. 2016:[3] 1627 [ref. 36125]). Current status: Valid as Labrisomus wigginsi Hubbs 1953. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: western Baja California and Gulf of California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

williamsi, Starksia Baldwin [C. C.] & Castillo [C. I.] in Baldwin, Castillo, Weigt & Victor 2011:41, Figs. 8, 10-11 [ZooKeys No. 79; ref. 31149] Saba Bank, Netherland Antilles, 17°28.47"N, 63°26.55"W, depth 19 meters. Holotype: USNM 387675. Paratypes: (Saba Bank) USNM 397396 (1), 387767 (7). 387869 (4), 388033 (8), 388444 (4), 389396 (1), 399613 (3). Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Starksia williamsi Baldwin & Castillo 2011 -- (Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:69 [ref. 33341], Victor 2018:70 [ref. 36255]). Current status: Valid as Starksia williamsi Baldwin & Castillo 2011. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

xanti, Labrosomus Gill [T. N.] 1860:107 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 12; ref. 1765] Cerro Blanco, Baja California, Mexico. Lectotype: USNM 2334. Paralectotypes: USNM 2335 (1), 2478 (missing). Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:22-23 [ref. 22274]. Lectotype selected by Springer & Orrell 1996:22 [ref. 22274]. Original genus should have been Labrisomus. •Valid as Labrisomus xanti Gill 1860 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:229 [ref. 22193], Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:205 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:256 [ref. 24555], Thomson et al. 2000:214 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:163 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:463 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:169 [ref. 32708], Lin & Hastings 2013:12 [ref. 33286], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:449 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:611 [ref. 34923], Walker et al. 2020:4 [ref. 37499]). Current status: Valid as Labrisomus xanti Gill 1860. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

y-lineata, Starksia Gilbert [C. R.] 1965:2, Fig. 1C [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 379; ref. 9213] North side of Georgetown, Grand Cayman Island, West Indies, depth 5-12 feet. Holotype: ANSP 102233. Paratypes: ANSP 102214-15 (2, 8), 102223 (7), 102242 (5), 102310 (5), 142850 (2); FMNH 72741 (2); LACM 6985 [ex UF 12272] (2); MNHN 1971-0043 (1); TU 36401 (2); UF 10736 (orig. 12, now 11, 1 c&s), 12270-1 (1, 2), 12272 (orig. 8, now 6), 12273-74 (7, now 4), 215661 [ex UMML 15661] (2); UMMZ 187503 (2); UPRM 2364 (2); USNM 208572 (2), 209095 [ex 257754-F1] (2). Type catalog: Suttkus 1970:127 [ref. 20861], Gilbert 1974:115 [ref. 21035], Böhlke 1984:62 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:81 [ref. 12367], Bart & Taylor 1993:65 [ref. 20906], Springer & Orrell 1996:23 [ref. 22274]. Species originally spelled y-lineata, and that spelling should be retained. •Valid as Starksia y-lineata Gilbert 1965 -- (Williams & Mounts 2003:163 [ref. 26947], Williams 2003:1760 [ref. 27109], Patzner et al. 2009:465 [ref. 30396]). Current status: Valid as Starksia y-lineata Gilbert 1965. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

zacae, Malacoctenus Springer [V. G.] 1959:470, Pl. 6 (fig. 5) [Publications of the Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Texas v. 5 (for Dec. 1958); ref. 10210] Puerto Marqués, south of Acapulco, Guerro, Mexico. Holotype: CAS-SU 49685. Paratypes: (68) BMNH 1957.5.1.88-89 (2); CAS-SU 49686-90 (8, 27, 1, 4, 1); FMNH 61899 (12); SIO 11-1031 (2) (ex UCLA 52-263); UMMZ 171895 (2); USNM 174966 (6). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:55 [ref. 12367], Springer & Orrell 1996:23 [ref. 22274]. •Valid as Malacoctenus zacae Springer 1959 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:233 [ref. 22193], Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:207 [ref. 24545], Thomson et al. 2000:213 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:163 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:463 [ref. 30396], Page et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Malacoctenus zacae Springer 1959. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

zacae, Paraclinus integripinnis Hubbs [Clark L.] 1952:87, Fig. 23 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 2252] Tide pool at the south end of Guadalupe Island, Mexico. Holotype: CAS-SU 16230. Paratypes: (102) AMNH 48698 (1); CAS 20462-63 (3, 4); FMNH 51438 (18); NYZS 28819 (1); CAS-SU 1899 (1), 16231 (23), 16233 (12); TNHC 414 (16), 423 (?); USNM 151994 (1), 151997 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:98 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:63 [ref. 12367], Springer & Orrell 1996:19-20 [ref. 22274]. •Synonym of Paraclinus integripinnis (Smith 1880) -- (Rosenblatt & Parr 1969:8 [ref. 7842]). Current status: Synonym of Paraclinus integripinnis (Smith 1880). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Mexico (if valid). Habitat: marine.

zaluari, Malacoctenus Carvalho-Filho [A.], Gasparini [J. L.] & Sazima [I.] in Carvalho-Filho, Sazima, Lima, Almeida, Mendes, Dias et al. 2020:506, Figs. 3-4 [Zootaxa 4819 (no. 3); ref. 37678] Ilha Gaeta de Dentro, Ilha do Boi, APA Baía das Tartarugas, Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil, approximately -20.3075, -40.2755 [corrected; about 20°18'27"S, 40°16'32"W]. Holotype: ZUEC 1920. Paratypes: CIUFES, MZUSP, ZUEC. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Malacoctenus zaluari Carvalho-Filho, Gasparini & Sazima 2020. Current status: Valid as Malacoctenus zaluari Carvalho-Filho, Gasparini & Sazima 2020. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazilian coastline from Maranhão (Parcel Manoel Luiz) to Santa Catarina State. Habitat: marine.

zonifer, Clinus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:361 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 237); ref. 2470] Rock pools at Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Lectotype: USNM 28122. Paralectotypes: USNM 164585 (2). Type catalog: Springer & Orrell 1996:23 [ref. 22274]. Lectotype selected by Springer 1959:474 [ref. 10210]. •Valid as Malacoctenus zonifer (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:234 [ref. 22193], Hastings in Fischer et al. 1995:1014 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:208 [ref. 24545], Thomson et al. 2000:213 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:163 [ref. 27807], Patzner et al. 2009:463 [ref. 30396], Hastings & Springer 2009:10 [ref. 31156], Page et al. 2013:170 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Malacoctenus zonifer (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Mexico. Habitat: marine.

zonogaster, Malacoctenus Heller [E.] & Snodgrass [R. E.] 1903:217, Pl. 15 [Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 5; ref. 2089] Iguana Cove, Isabela Island [Albemarle Island], Galápagos Islands. Holotype: CAS-SU 6353 [not 6352 as published]. Paratypes: CAS-SU 7060 (2), 8481 (5). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:98 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Malacoctenus zonogaster Heller & Snodgrass 1903 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:234 [ref. 22193], Springer 1995:495 [ref. 22273], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:529 [ref. 24023], Herrera & Lavenberg 1999:9 [ref. 24180], Patzner et al. 2009:463 [ref. 30396], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:194 [ref. 30957]). Current status: Valid as Malacoctenus zonogaster Heller & Snodgrass 1903. Labrisomidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.