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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Molidae: [ 56 ] records


aculeata, Mola Koelreuter [I. T.] 1766:337, Pl. 8 (figs. 2-3) [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Imperialis Petropolitanae v. 10 (for 1764); ref. 23086] No types known. •Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:113 [ref. 19546], Parenti 2003:2 [ref. 27311], Bray & Hoese 2006:1937 [ref. 29049], Nyegaard et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35492]). Current status: Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

alexandrini, Orthragoriscus Ranzani [C.] 1839:75, 78-79, table, Pl. 6 (left) [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 3; ref. 3605] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. •Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:115 [ref. 19546], Parenti 2003:3 [ref. 27311], Nyegaard et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35492]). •Valid as Mola alexandrini (Ranzani 1839) -- (Sawai et al. 2017:[1] [ref. 35699]). Current status: Valid as Mola alexandrini (Ranzani 1839). Molidae. Distribution: Widely distributed in world oceans. Habitat: marine.

analis, Orthagoriscus Ayres [W. O.] 1859:31, Fig. 5 (p. 54) [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 1) v. 2 (1858-1862); ref. 155] Santa Barbara Channel, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): CAS (lost in 1906). •Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:115 [ref. 19546], Parenti 2003:3 [ref. 27311]). •Synonym of Mola -- (Nyegaard et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35492]). Current status: Synonym of Mola. Molidae. Habitat: marine.

aspera, Mola Nardo [G. D.] 1827:26, 35 (no. 26) [Giornale di fisica, chimica e storia naturale, medicina, ed arti. (series 2) Dec. II, v. 10; ref. 3146] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Also in Nardo 1827:col. 477 and 483 [ref. 19740] and Nardo 1827:104 [ref. 26236]. Distinguishing features are provided on p. 35 in ref. 3146. •Questionably a synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:115 [ref. 19546]). •Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2003:3 [ref. 27311], Nyegaard et al. 2017:9 [ref. 35492]). Current status: Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

battarae, Orthragoriscus Ranzani [C.] 1839:76, table [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 3; ref. 3605] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Based on literature source. •Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:95 [ref. 19546], Parenti 2003:4 [ref. 27311]). Current status: Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

blochii, Orthragoriscus Ranzani [C.] 1839:76, table [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 3; ref. 3605] As "mari Oceano" [ocean sea]. No types known. Based on literature sources. •Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:115 [ref. 19546], Parenti 2003:3 [ref. 27311], Nyegaard et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35492]). Current status: Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

boops, Ostracion Richardson [J.] 1845:52, Pl. 30 (figs. 18-21) [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] South Atlantic. Holotype (unique): type lost before publication. •Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:95 [ref. 19546], Parenti 2003:4 [ref. 27311]). Current status: Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

brevis, Cephalus Shaw [G.] 1804:437, Pl. 175, top [General zoology or systematic natural history; ref. 4015] European Sea. No types known. Unneeded new name based on previously-described species and literature sources. •Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:114 [ref. 19546], Parenti 2003:2 [ref. 27311], Nyegaard et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35492]). Current status: Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

capensis, Aledon Castelnau [F. L.] 1861:76 [Mémoire sur les poissons de l'Afrique australe; ref. 767] Aledon capensis Castelnau 1861 was a new combination for Pedalion capensis described by Castelnau in the same paper, then put in the new genus Aledon at the end of the article; from Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. •In the synonymy of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:115 [ref. 19546], Heemstra 1986:908 [ref. 5660], Parenti 2003:3 [ref. 27311], Nyegaard et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35492]). Current status: Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758). Molidae.

capensis, Pedalion Castelnau [F. L.] 1861:75 [Mémoire sur les poissons de l'Afrique australe; ref. 767] Table Bay, South Africa. No types known. Aledon capensis Castelnau 1861 was a new combination for Pedalion capensis described by Castelnau in the same paper, then put in the new genus Aledon at the end of the article. •Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:115 [ref. 19546], Parenti 2003:3 [ref. 27311], Nyegaard et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35492]). Current status: Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

carinatus, Diodon Mitchill [S. L.] 1828:265 [Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York v. 2; ref. 17780] Off Massachusetts, 38°N, 62°W, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:115 [ref. 19546], Parenti 2003:3 [ref. 27311], Nyegaard et al. 2017:9 [ref. 35492]). Current status: Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

cocherani, Cephalus Traill [T. S.] 1832:381, Pl. 6 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society, Edinburgh v. 6 (art. 15); ref. 20837] Off southern Peru, 18°S, 81°W [stomach content]. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:95 [ref. 19546], Parenti 2003:4 [ref. 27311]). Current status: Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

commersoni, Orthragus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:17 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Name only, not available. •Nomen nudum -- (Parenti 2003:6 [ref. 27311], Nyegaard et al. 2017:9 [ref. 35492]). Molidae.

dimidiatus, Diodon Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:600 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality [Cornwall, England]. No types known. Based on "Oblong diodon" of Pennant. •Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776) -- (Parenti 2003:4 [ref. 27311]). Current status: Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

elegans, Orthragoriscus Ranzani [C.] 1839:76, table [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 3; ref. 3605] Atlantic. No types known. •Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2003:3 [ref. 27311]). •Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776) -- (Nyegaard et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35492]). Current status: Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

elongatus, Cephalus Risso [A.] 1827:173 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:95 [ref. 19546], Parenti 2003:4 [ref. 27311]). Current status: Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

eurypterus, Orthagoriscus Philippi [R. A.] 1892:14, Pl. 6 (fig. 1) [Anales del Museo Nacional de Chile. Primera seccion, Zoología No. 3; ref. 22759] Chañaral, Chile. No types known. On p. 15 of German edition (Philippi 1893 [ref. 14560]). •Questionably a synonym of Mola ramsayi (Giglioli 1883) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:111 [ref. 19546]). •Synonym of Mola ramsayi (Giglioli 1883) -- (Parenti 2003:3 [ref. 27311]). •Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nyegaard et al. 2017:14 [ref. 35492]). Current status: Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758). Molidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fasciatus, Orthragoriscus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:511 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Mari septentrionali [northern ocean]. No types known. •Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:113 [ref. 19546], Parenti 2003:2 [ref. 27311], Nyegaard et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35492]). Current status: Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

ghini, Orthragoriscus Ranzani [C.] 1839:75, table [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 3; ref. 3605] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:115 [ref. 19546], Parenti 2003:3 [ref. 27311], Nyegaard et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35492]). Current status: Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

gigas, Pedalion Guilding [L.] in Swainson 1838:199, Fig. 33 [The natural history and classification of fishes, amphibians, & reptiles, or monocardian animals. v. 1; ref. 4302] West Indies. No types known. •Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:115 [ref. 19546], Parenti 2003:3 [ref. 27311], Nyegaard et al. 2017:9 [ref. 35492]). Current status: Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

hispida, Mola Nardo [G. D.] 1827:104 [Giornale di fisica, chimica e storia naturale, medicina, ed arti. (series 2) Dec. II, v. 10; ref. 26236] Tropical seas. No types known. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Mola by Orthragoriscus hispidus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Also appeared in Bull. Sci. Nat. Ferussac, 1828, v. 8, p. 438 [ref. 26980]. •Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2003:3 [ref. 27311], Nyegaard et al. 2017:9 [ref. 35492]). Current status: Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

hispidus, Orthragoriscus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:511 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] No locality. No types known. •Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:114 [ref. 19546], Parenti 2003:2 [ref. 27311], Nyegaard et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35492]). Current status: Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

laevis, Ostracion Pennant [T.] 1776:129, Pl. 19 [British zoology. 4th Edition v. 3; ref. 18528] Cornwall, England, northeastern Atlantic. No types known. •Valid as Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:95 [ref. 19546], Tortonese 1973:650 [ref. 7192], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:301 [ref. 9277], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:366 [ref. 6441], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:1350 [ref. 13677], Heemstra 1986:908 [ref. 5660], Robins & Ray 1986:310 [ref. 23100], Pequeño 1989:78 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:247 [ref. 24556], Tortonese 1990:1078 [ref. 18658], Gomon et al. 1994:920 [ref. 22532], Scott in Fischer et al. 1995:1277 [ref. 22830], Cervigón 1996:89 [ref. 24489], Santos et al. 1997:116 [ref. 23531], Lindberg et al. 1997:187 [ref. 23547], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:663 [ref. 24023], Arruda 1997:124 [ref. 24952], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:140 [ref. 24555], Fricke 1999:615 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:358 [ref. 25013], Randall 1999:31 [ref. 25829], Kar & Chakraborty 2000:288 [ref. 25166], Nakabo 2000:1435 [ref. 25182], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Hutchins 2001:3968 [ref. 26319], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:158 [ref. 26753], Nakabo 2002:1435 [ref. 26193], Santini & Tyler 2002:38 [ref. 25998], Matsuura 2003:2015 [ref. 27119], Parenti 2003:4 [ref. 27311], Myers & Donaldson 2003:651 [ref. 27495], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:186 [ref. 27807], Dennis et al. 2004:84 [ref. 31601], Mundy 2005:539 [ref. 28379], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:942 [ref. 28815], Bray & Hoese 2006:1938 [ref. 29049], Fricke et al. 2007:118 [ref. 29533], Bray 2008:861 [ref. 30620], Fricke et al. 2009:124 [ref. 30213], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:76 [ref. 36649], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:191 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:182 [ref. 32953], Wirtz et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32972], Psomadakis et al. 2015:340 [ref. 34104], Stewart & Struthers 2015:1748 [ref. 34300], Matsuura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3081 [ref. 34618], Fourriére et al. 2016:460 [ref. 34668], Katayama & Matsuura 2016:96 [ref. 34881], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:612 [ref. 34923], Nión et al. 2016:56 [ref. 35565], Kells et al. 2016:342 [ref. 35888], Ali et al. 2018:347 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:390 [ref. 35805], Spier et al. 2018:19 [ref. 36103], Artüz & Fricke 2019:561 [ref. 36612], Brown et al. 2019:183 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776). Molidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and warm temperate seas (including Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, Persian Gulf). Habitat: marine.

lanceolatus, Orthagoriscus Liénard [E.] 1840:291 [Revue Zoologique par la Société Cuvierienne (Paris) v. 3; ref. 17537] Port Louis, Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. See Parenti 2003:1 [ref. 27311] for comments on status and synonymy. Kottelat (2013) sites an inland record from Borneo, Malaysia. •Valid as Mola lanceolata (Liénard 1840) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:310 [ref. 23100], Scott in Fischer et al. 1995:1276 [ref. 22829], Pequeño 1997:84 [ref. 23536], Balart et al. 2000:156 [ref. 25095], Santini & Tyler 2002:38 [ref. 25998], Matsuura 2003:2015 [ref. 27119], Nelson et al. 2004:186 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:191 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Masturus lanceolatus (Liénard 1840) -- (Dor 1984:288 [ref. 29757], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:366 [ref. 6441], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:1348 [ref. 13677], Kan 1986:550 [ref. 6313], Heemstra 1986:907 [ref. 5660], Tortonese 1990:1077 [ref. 18658], Gomon et al. 1994:916 [ref. 22532], Goren & Dor 1994:75 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:630 [ref. 27969], Santos et al. 1997:116 [ref. 23531], Lindberg et al. 1997:183 [ref. 23547], Arruda 1997:124 [ref. 24952], Fricke 1999:614 [ref. 24106], Hutchins in Randall & Lim 2000:649 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1435 [ref. 25182], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Hutchins 2001:3967 [ref. 26319], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:603 [ref. 26158], Nakabo 2002:1435 [ref. 26193], Youn 2002:461, 702 [ref. 26218], Parenti 2003:1 [ref. 27311], Myers & Donaldson 2003:651 [ref. 27495], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27192], Mundy 2005:539 [ref. 28379], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:940 [ref. 28815], Bray & Hoese 2006:1937 [ref. 29049], Bray 2008:859 [ref. 30620], Fricke et al. 2009:124 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Wirtz et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32972], Kottelat 2013:481 [ref. 32989], Stewart & Struthers 2015:1746 [ref. 34300], Pinheiro et al. 2015:36 [ref. 34324], Matsuura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3081 [ref. 34618], Katayama & Matsuura 2016:96 [ref. 34881], Nión et al. 2016:56 [ref. 35565] with author as Lienard and dated 1841, Golani & Fricke 2018:184 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Masturus lanceolatus (Liénard 1840). Molidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical through temperate seas (including Red Sea), but possibly not eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

lassarati, Pseudomola Cadenat [J.] 1959:1115, Figs. 9-11 [Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér A) Sciences Naturelles v. 21 (no. 3); ref. 708] Off Vridi, Ivory Coast. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Mention -- (Tortonese 1990:1079 [ref. 18658]). •Synonym of Masturus lanceolatus (Liénard 1840) -- (Kan 1986:550 [ref. 6313], Parenti 2003:1 [ref. 27311], Kottelat 2013:481 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Mola alexandrini (Ranzani 1839) -- (Sawai et al. 2017:[6] [ref. 35699]). Current status: Synonym of Mola alexandrini (Ranzani 1839). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

luna, Orthragus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:17 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:40 [ref. 3595]. Unneeded new name for T. mola (Nyegaard et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35492]). •Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:114 [ref. 19546], Parenti 2003:3 [ref. 27311], Nyegaard et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35492]). Current status: Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

lunaris, Orthragoriscus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:165 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:95 [ref. 19546]). •Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2003:3 [ref. 27311]). •Synonym of Mola -- (Nyegaard et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35492]). Current status: Synonym of Mola. Molidae. Habitat: marine.

makua, Ranzania Jenkins [O. P.] 1895:779, Pl.(frontispiece); Figs. 1-3 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 5 (pt 1); ref. 18331] Mouth of Pearl Harbor, Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 75155. •Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:95 [ref. 19546], Lindberg et al. 1997:187 [ref. 23547], Parenti 2003:4 [ref. 27311], Mundy 2005:539 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

mola, Diodon Pallas [P. S.] 1770:39, Pl. 4 (fig. 7) [Spicilegia Zoologica v. 1 (fasc. 8); ref. 12293] Guinea. No types known. An unneeded new name for Mola aculeata Koelreuter 1766. •Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1990:1077 [ref. 18658], Parenti 2003:2 [ref. 27311], Nyegaard et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35492]). Current status: Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

mola, Ostracion Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xviii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Name only, not available (from Malta); perhaps for Tetraodon mola Linnaeus. •Nomen nudum -- (Parenti 2003:6 [ref. 27311], Nyegaard et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35492]). Molidae.

mola, Tetraodon Linnaeus [C.] 1758:334 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] [In M. Mediterraneo] Mediterranean Sea (including Montpellier, France; Genoa and Rome, Italy); Middleton-on-Sea, West Sussex, England, U. K., English Channel; Panzance, Cornwall, England, U. K., Northeastern Atlantic. Neotype: MZUB. Neotype designated by Sawai et al. 2017:[12] [ref. 35699]. •Valid as Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:113 [ref. 19546], Tortonese 1973:649 [ref. 7192], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:300 [ref. 9277], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:366 [ref. 6441], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:1349 [ref. 13677], Heemstra 1986:908 [ref. 5660], Robins & Ray 1986:310 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:571 [ref. 25518], Matarese et al. 1989:628 [ref. 26885], Pequeño 1989:78 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:247 [ref. 24556], McAllister 1990:227 [ref. 14674], Tortonese 1990:1077 [ref. 18658], Gomon et al. 1994:917 [ref. 22532], Scott in Fischer et al. 1995:1277 [ref. 22830], Cervigón 1996:88 [ref. 24489], Santos et al. 1997:116 [ref. 23531], Lindberg et al. 1997:180 [ref. 23547], Carpenter et al. 1997:241 [ref. 23922], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:661 [ref. 24023], Arruda 1997:124 [ref. 24952], Anderson et al. 1998:29 [ref. 23611], Aguilera 1998:54 [ref. 24221], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:137 [ref. 24555], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Fricke 1999:615 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:358 [ref. 25013], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2000:401 [ref. 24427], Hutchins in Randall & Lim 2000:649 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1435 [ref. 25182], Hutchins 2001:3967 [ref. 26319], Kolpakov & Barabanshchikov 2001:423 [ref. 25413], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:158 [ref. 26753], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:604 [ref. 26158], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:852 [ref. 25968], Nakabo 2002:1435 [ref. 26193], Santini & Tyler 2002:38 [ref. 25998], Youn 2002:461, 702 [ref. 26218], Matsuura 2003:2015 [ref. 27119], Parenti 2003:2 [ref. 27311], Myers & Donaldson 2003:651 [ref. 27495], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27192], Parin 2003:S36 [ref. 28536], Nelson et al. 2004:186 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:458 [ref. 28072], Mundy 2005:539 [ref. 28379], Randall et al. 2005:132 [ref. 28745], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:941 [ref. 28815], Vaske et al. 2005:77 [ref. 36155], Bray & Hoese 2006:1937 [ref. 29049], Fricke 2007:27 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:118 [ref. 29533], Bray 2008:860 [ref. 30620], Fricke et al. 2009:124 [ref. 30213], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:76 [ref. 36649], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1100 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:191 [ref. 32708], Jawad 2013:287 [ref. 32727], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:182 [ref. 32953], Wirtz et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32972], Matsuura 2014:25 [ref. 33576], Parin et al. 2014:556 [ref. 33547], Psomadakis et al. 2015:340 [ref. 34104], Pinheiro et al. 2015:36 [ref. 34324], Pietsch & Orr 2015:72 [ref. 34694], Matsuura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3081 [ref. 34618], Fourriére et al. 2016:460 [ref. 34668], Katayama & Matsuura 2016:96 [ref. 34881], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:612 [ref. 34923], Nión et al. 2016:56 [ref. 35565], Kells et al. 2016:342 [ref. 35888], Nyegaard et al. 2017:8, 11 [ref. 35492], Sawai et al. 2017:[12] [ref. 35699], Golani & Fricke 2018:184 [ref. 36273], Artüz & Fricke 2019:561 [ref. 36612], Brown et al. 2019:183 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758). Molidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical through temperate seas (including Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, Red Sea). Habitat: marine.

nasus, Diplanchias Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:17 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:40 [ref. 3595] as Diplanchias mola. •Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:115 [ref. 19546], Parenti 2003:3 [ref. 27311], Nyegaard et al. 2017:9 [ref. 35492]). Current status: Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

nummularis, Diodon Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:600 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated. No types known. •Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2003:2 [ref. 27311], Nyegaard et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35492]). Current status: Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

oblongus, Cephalus Shaw [G.] 1804:439, Pl. 176 [General zoology or systematic natural history; ref. 4015] No locality. No types known. Based on literature sources. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Ranzania by Orthragoriscus oblongus Bloch & Schneider 1801. •Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776) -- (Parenti 2003:4 [ref. 27311]). Current status: Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

oblongus, Orthragoriscus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:511, Pl. 97 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Atlantic. No types known. •Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:95 [ref. 19546], Tortonese 1973:650 [ref. 7192], Tortonese 1990:1078 [ref. 18658], Gomon et al. 1994:920 [ref. 22532], Parenti 2003:4 [ref. 27311]). Current status: Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

oblongus, Orthragus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:17 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:40 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:95 [ref. 19546], Parenti 2003:4 [ref. 27311]). Current status: Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

orsini, Ozodura Ranzani [C.] 1839:75, 80-81, table, Pl. 6 (right) [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 3; ref. 3605] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Holotype (unique): mount on wall at MZUB. As Ozodura Ursini on Pl. 6; first reviser not researched. •Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:115 [ref. 19546], Parenti 2003:3 [ref. 27311], Nyegaard et al. 2017:9 [ref. 35492], Sawai et al. 2017:[13] [ref. 35699]). Current status: Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

ortagoriscus, Cephalus Risso [A.] 1827:173 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:115 [ref. 19546], Parenti 2003:3 [ref. 27311], Nyegaard et al. 2017:9 [ref. 35492]). Current status: Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

oxyuropterus, Orthagoriscus Bleeker [P.] 1873:151, Pl. [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Ser. 2) v. 7; ref. 17089] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH. •Valid as Masturus oxyuropterus (Bleeker 1873) -- (Tortonese 1973:649 [ref. 7192], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:366 [ref. 6441], Lindberg et al. 1997:183 [ref. 23547], Santini & Tyler 2002:38 [ref. 25998]). •Synonym of Masturus lanceolatus (Liénard 1840) -- (Tortonese 1990:1077 [ref. 18658], Fraser-Brunner 1951:107 [ref. 19546], Kan 1986:550 [ref. 6313], Parenti 2003:1 [ref. 27311], Bray & Hoese 2006:1937 [ref. 29049], Kottelat 2013:481 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Masturus lanceolatus (Liénard 1840). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

pallasi, Pallasia Nardo [G. D.] 1840:112 [Annali delle Scienze del Regno Lombardo-Veneto, Padova v. 10; ref. 3149] The listing of Pallasina [sic] pallasi in the Catalog of Fishes (Eschmeyer 1998:1271 [ref. 23416]) was in error; see Remarks under unavailable species names in Parenti 2003:6 [ref. 27311]. •In the synonymy of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:115 [ref. 19546], Parenti 2003:3 6 [ref. 27311] with remarks, Nyegaard et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35492]). Current status: Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758). Molidae.

pallasianus, Cephalus Shaw [G.] 1804:440 [General zoology or systematic natural history; ref. 4015] Tropical seas. No types known. Based on literature sources. •Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:114 [ref. 19546], Parenti 2003:2 [ref. 27311], Nyegaard et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35492]). Current status: Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

pallasii, Molacanthus Swainson [W.] (ex Steller) 1839:329 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] No locality. No types known. Based on Pall. Spic. Zool. pl. 4 [not researched]. •Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:115 [ref. 19546], Parenti 2003:3 [ref. 27311], Nyegaard et al. 2017:9 [ref. 35492]). Current status: Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

planci, Mola Nardo [G. D.] 1827:26, 35 [Giornale di fisica, chimica e storia naturale, medicina, ed arti. (series 2) Dec. II, v. 10; ref. 3146] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Also appeared in Nardo 1827:104 [ref. 26236] and in Nardo 1828:437 [ref. 27079]. •Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776) -- (Parenti 2003:4 [ref. 27311]). Current status: Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

planci, Tympanomium Ranzani [C.] 1839:74, table [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 3; ref. 3605] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Subjectively invalid; preoccupied in Mola by Mola planci Nardo 1827. •Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:115 [ref. 19546], Parenti 2003:3 [ref. 27311], Nyegaard et al. 2017:9 [ref. 35492]). Current status: Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

ramsayi, Orthragoriscus Giglioli [E. H.] 1883:315 [Nature (London) v. 28 (no. 718); ref. 19994] New South Wales, Australia. BMNH 1883.11.29.22 (stuffed skin, poor condition). •Valid as Mola ramsayi (Giglioli 1883) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:111 [ref. 19546], Heemstra 1986:908 [ref. 5660], Pequeño 1989:78 [ref. 14125], Gomon et al. 1994:919 [ref. 22532], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:663 [ref. 24023], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Hutchins 2001:3968 [ref. 26319], Santini & Tyler 2002:38 [ref. 25998], Parenti 2003:3 [ref. 27311], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:458 [ref. 28072], Bray & Hoese 2006:1937 [ref. 29049], Bray 2008:860 [ref. 30620], Thys et al. 2013:1 [ref. 32728], Larson et al. 2013:240 [ref. 32988], Matsuura 2014:25 [ref. 33576], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:119 [ref. 36167], Stewart & Struthers 2015:1747 [ref. 34300], Nyegaard et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35492]). •Synonym of Mola alexandrini (Ranzani 1839) -- (Sawai et al. 2017:[1] [ref. 35699]). Current status: Synonym of Mola alexandrini (Ranzani 1839). Molidae. Distribution: Southern Hemisphere. Pacific and Indian Oceans, including Mediterranean and European seas [if valid]. Habitat: brackish, marine.

redi, Orthragoriscus Ranzani [C.] 1839:75, table [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 3; ref. 3605] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Based on literature source. •Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:115 [ref. 19546], Parenti 2003:3 [ref. 27311], Nyegaard et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35492]). Current status: Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

retzii, Orthragoriscus Ranzani [C.] 1839:75, table [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 3; ref. 3605] No locality. No types known. Based on Retzius 1785:115 [ref. 18621]. •Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:115 [ref. 19546], Parenti 2003:3 [ref. 27311], Nyegaard et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35492]). Current status: Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

rondeletii, Orthragoriscus Ranzani [C.] 1839:75, table [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 3; ref. 3605] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Based on a literature source. •Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:115 [ref. 19546], Parenti 2003:3 [ref. 27311], Nyegaard et al. 2017:10 [ref. 35492]). Current status: Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

rotunda, Mola Cuvier [G.] 1797:324 [Tableau élémentaire de l'Histoire Naturélle; ref. 1018] Mediterranean Sea (including Montpellier, France; Genoa and Rome, Italy); Middleton-on-Sea, West Sussex, England, U. K., English Channel; Panzance, Cornwall, England, U. K., northeastern Atlantic. No types known. Unneeded new name for Tetraodon mola Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:113 [ref. 19546], Tortonese 1973:649 [ref. 7192], Tortonese 1990:1077 [ref. 18658], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:358 [ref. 25013], Parenti 2003:2 [ref. 27311], Nyegaard et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35492]). Current status: Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

solaris, Orthragoriscus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:165 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Not treated by Fraser-Brunner 1951 [ref. 19546]. •Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776) -- (Parenti 2003:4 [ref. 27311]). Current status: Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

storeri, Aledon Castelnau [F. L.] 1861:76 [Mémoire sur les poissons de l'Afrique australe; ref. 767] Boston Bay [and Nahant ?], Massachusetts, U.S.A. No types known. Based on Orthagoriscus mola of Storer (Boston J. Nat. Hist., 1839, v. 2, p. 515[-519] (170-173 in separate), Pl. 3 [= Pl. 8], f. 1 [ref. 4278]). Although only one specimen was illustrated, a second specimen was described in the text. The separate of Storer 1839 has pagination of 1-202; in both versions, plate numbers are given as in the text as I-III, but in the Boston J. Nat. Hist. copy, the plates themselves are numbered VI-VIII. •Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:115 [ref. 19546], Parenti 2003:3 [ref. 27311], Nyegaard et al. 2017:11 [ref. 35492]). Current status: Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

tecta, Mola Nyegaard [M.], Sawai [E.], Gemmell [N.], Gillum [J.], Loneragan [N. R.], Yamanoue [Y.] & Stewart [A. L.] 2017:14, Figs. 4-6, 8-9, 12 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society; ref. 35492] North Taranaki Bight, west coast North Island, New Zealand, 38°25.5'S, 174°9.0'E, depth 78 meters. Holotype: NMNZ P.057679. Paratypes: AIM, NMNZ, NMV, SAMA. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Mola tecta Nyegaard, Sawai, Gemmell, Gillum, Loneragan, Yamanoue & Stewart 2017 -- (Sawai et al. 2017:[5] [ref. 35699]). Current status: Valid as Mola tecta Nyegaard, Sawai, Gemmell, Gillum, Loneragan, Yamanoue & Stewart 2017. Molidae. Distribution: Australia and New Zealand and possibly other areas. Habitat: marine.

truncatus, Tetrodon Retzius [A. J.] 1785:121 [Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, Stockholm v. 6 (for 1785); ref. 18621] No locality [Europe]. No types known. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:95 [ref. 19546], Tortonese 1973:650 [ref. 7192], Tortonese 1990:1078 [ref. 18658], Gomon et al. 1994:920 [ref. 22532], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:358 [ref. 25013], Kar & Chakraborty 2000:288 [ref. 25166], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:158 [ref. 26753], Parenti 2003:4 [ref. 27311], Mundy 2005:539 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

typus, Ranzania Nardo [G. D.] 1840:111 [Annali delle Scienze del Regno Lombardo-Veneto, Padova v. 10; ref. 3149] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:95 [ref. 19546], Lindberg et al. 1997:188 [ref. 23547], Parenti 2003:4 [ref. 27311], Bray & Hoese 2006:1938 [ref. 29049]). Current status: Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

varius, Cephalus Shaw [G.] 1804:439 [General zoology or systematic natural history; ref. 4015] No locality [Indian Ocean]. No types known. •Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:95 [ref. 19546], Parenti 2003:4 [ref. 27311]). Current status: Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

willugbei, Trematopsis Ranzani [C.] 1839:74, table [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 3; ref. 3605] Ocean [Atlantic]. Holotype (unique): not found at MZUB. •Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:115 [ref. 19546], Parenti 2003:3 [ref. 27311], Nyegaard et al. 2017:9 [ref. 35492]). Current status: Synonym of Mola mola (Linnaeus 1758). Molidae. Habitat: marine.