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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Nettastomatidae: [ 56 ] records


africanus, Hoplunnis Regan [C. T.] 1915:126 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 15 (no. 85); ref. 15006] Possibly a misprint for the species named punctatus by Regan on the same page. •Name only, not available -- (Lane & Stewart 1968:53 [ref. 7904]). Current status: Unknown. Nettastomatidae.

bellottii, Leptocephalus D'Ancona [U.] 1928:60, Pl. 3 (figs. 16-17) [Memoria, Reale Comitato Talassografico Italiano No. 146; ref. 15917] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea, depth 600 meters. Lectotype: MSNVE P-8 (largest lectotype). Syntypes: (2) MSNVE P-8 (1). Leptocephalus is a catch-all name for larval eels. Lectotype selected by Smith & Castle 1982. •Synonym of Nettastoma melanurum Rafinesque 1810 -- (Castle 1975:25 [ref. 25984]). •Valid as "Leptocephalus" bellottii D'Ancona 1928 -- (Dor 1984:32 [ref. 29757] as bellotii, Goren & Dor 1994:8 [ref. 25356] as belloti). •A species of Nettenchelys, possibly the same as Nettenchelys gephyrs Castle & Smith 1981 -- (Smith & Castle 1982:14 [ref. 5453]). •Valid as Nettenchelys bellottii (D'Ancona 1928) -- (Smith et al. 2015:109 [ref. 34125], Golani & Fricke 2018:26 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Nettenchelys bellottii (D'Ancona 1928). Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

cancrivora, Saurenchelys Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1864:397 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1864; ref. 3437] India (see Lin et al. 2015). Holotype (unique): ZMB 5410. •Valid as Saurenchelys cancrivora Peters 1864 -- (Blache et al. 1973:237 [ref. 7185], Saldanha in Whitehead et al. 1986:564 [ref. 13676], Smith 1989:592 [ref. 13285], Klausewitz & Zajonz 2000:343 [ref. 25118], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:38 [ref. 27192], Yoshida et al. 2013:27 [ref. 34464], Lin et al. 2015:121 [ref. 34126], Nión et al. 2016:25 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Saurenchelys cancrivora Peters 1864. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: West Pacific and southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

castlei, Facciolella Parin [N. V.] & Karmovskaya [E. S.] 1985:1527, Fig. 1-2 [Zoologicheskii Zhurnal v. 64 (no. 10); ref. 17259] Nazca Ridge, 22°06'S, 81°15'W, depth 230 meters. Holotype (unique): ZIN 46506. •Valid as Facciolella castlei Parin & Karmovskaya 1985 -- (Pequeño 1989:25 [ref. 14125], Klausewitz 1994:446 [ref. 23563]). Current status: Valid as Facciolella castlei Parin & Karmovskaya 1985. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Nazca Ridge. Habitat: marine.

cognita, Saurenchelys Smith [D. G.] 1989:593, Fig. 632 [Memoirs of the Sears Foundation of Marine Research Mem. 1 (part 9); ref. 13285] Southeast of Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A., 29°50'N, 86°30'W, Oregon station 944, depth 92 meters. Holotype: USNM 185621. Paratypes: AMNH 83279 (2); ANSP 150528 (1), 153303 (1 c&s), 157987 (11), 158274 (1); UF 72118 [ex FSU 22118] (2), UF 72165 [ex FSU 22165] (1); GCRL 21387 (1); GMBL 76-244 (1); MCZ 62016 (1), 62020 (2); USA 03279 (2), 03496 (1); UF [UMML uncat.] (1, c&s, apparently lost); USNM 157940 (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:28 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Saurenchelys cognita Smith 1989 -- (Smith 1989:716 [ref. 13285], Boschung 1992:37 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:323 [ref. 23897], Klausewitz & Zajonz 2000:343 [ref. 25118], Smith 2003:754 [ref. 26989], Nelson et al. 2004:65 [ref. 27807], Lin et al. 2015:121 [ref. 34126]). Current status: Valid as Saurenchelys cognita Smith 1989. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

denticulatus, Metopomycter Gilbert [C. H.] 1905:585, Fig. 233 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 2) [for 1903]; ref. 1631] Vicinity of Kauai Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 4019, depth 409-550 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 52191. •Synonym of Nettastoma parviceps Günther 1877 -- (Smith et al. 1981:540 [ref. 6158], Gomon et al. 1994:198 [ref. 22532], Mundy 2005:143 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Nettastoma parviceps Günther 1877. Nettastomatidae. Habitat: marine.

diomedianus, Hoplunnis Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1896:146, Pl. 43 (163) [Special Bulletin U. S. National Museum No. 2; ref. 1848] Off Cape San Blas, Florida, U.S.A., 28°36'N, 85°33'30"W, Albatross station 2402, depth 111 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 44240. Subsequent material: CAS-SU 9570 [ex USNM 44240] (1), USNM 152574 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:48 [ref. 12291], Smith 1994:27 [ref. 21917]. Lectotype selected by Ginsburg 1951:449 but not needed as description was based on a single individual and not the other stations mentioned. Hoplunnis is apparently feminine. •Valid as Hoplunnis diomedianus Goode & Bean 1896 -- (Lane & Stewart 1968:54 [ref. 7904], Uyeno & Sasaki in Uyeno et al. 1983:118 [ref. 14275], Smith 1989:583 [ref. 13285], Smith 1989:714 [ref. 13285] as diomediana, Boschung 1992:36 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:317 [ref. 23897], Smith 2003:754 [ref. 26989], Moore et al. 2003:175 [ref. 27076] as diomediana, Nelson et al. 2004:65 [ref. 27807] as diomediana, Page et al. 2013:65 [ref. 32708] as diomediana). Current status: Valid as Hoplunnis diomediana Goode & Bean 1896. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

dionisi, Nettenchelys Brito [A.] 1989:877, Figs. 2-4 [Copeia 1989 (no. 4); ref. 13509] Candelaria, Tenerife, Canary Islands, depth 400 meters. Holotype: TFMC ZM-3. Paratypes: CCML 01/248 (1). •Valid as Nettenchelys dionisi Brito 1989 -- (Karmovskaya 1999:835 [ref. 24844], Smith et al. 2015:109 [ref. 34125], Smith 2016:1699 [ref. 34556]). Current status: Valid as Nettenchelys dionisi Brito 1989. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Canary Islands. Habitat: marine.

elongatum, Nettastoma Kotthaus [A.] 1968:25, Figs. 116-118, 151 [Meteor Forschungsergebnisse. Reihe D, Biologie No. 3; ref. 2669] Indian Ocean, 12°25'N, 43°28.8'E to 12°22.7'N, 43°29.2'E, depth 185 meters. Holotype: ZMH 4948 [ex IOES 50b]. Paratypes: ZMH 4949 [ex IOES 50a] (3), 4950 [ex IOES 50c] (1). Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:413-414 [ref. 21161]. •Status uncertain, in Saurenchelys -- (Smith 1989:592 [ref. 13285]). •Synonym of Saurenchelys cancrivora Peters 1864 -- (Klausewitz 1994:447 [ref. 23563], Klausewitz & Zajonz 2000:343 [ref. 25118]). •Valid as Saurenchelys elongatum (Kotthaus 1968) -- (Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S96 [ref. 27377]). •Valid as Saurenchelys elongata (Kotthaus 1968) -- (Lin et al. 2015:121 [ref. 34126]). Current status: Valid as Saurenchelys elongata (Kotthaus 1968). Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

equatorialis, Chlopsis Gilbert [C. H.] 1891:347 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 14 (no. 856); ref. 1625] Off Ecuador, 0°37'00"S, 81°00'00"W, Albatross station 2792, depth 401 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 44391. Type catalog: Smith 1994:26 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Facciolella equatorialis (Gilbert 1891) -- (Smith 1989:597 [ref. 13285], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:173 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:126 [ref. 24555], Nelson et al. 2004:65 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:189 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:65 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Facciolella equatorialis (Gilbert 1891). Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

erroriensis, Nettenchelys Karmovskaya [E. S.] 1994:408 [122], Fig. [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 34 (no. 3); ref. 22030] Error Seamount, 10°19'N, 56°10'E, northeastern Indian Ocean, station 2825, depth 420-395 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMMU P-19251. Type catalog: Vasil'eva et al. 2001:17 [ref. 25714]. On p. 122 of English translation. •Valid as Nettenchelys erroriensis Karmovskaya 1994 -- (Karmovskaya 1999:835 [ref. 24844], Smith et al. 2015:110 [ref. 34125]). Current status: Valid as Nettenchelys erroriensis Karmovskaya 1994. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Error Seamount, western Arabian Sea. Habitat: marine.

exorius, Nettenchelys Böhlke [J. E.] & Smith [D. G.] in Smith, Böhlke & Castle 1981:556, Figs. 8D, 12 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 94 (no. 2); ref. 6158] Florida, U.S.A., 29°41'N, 80°11'W, depth 347 meters. Holotype: ANSP 142275. Paratypes: ANSP 130813 (1), 131739 (1); UF 220867 [ex UMML 20867] (1, c&s). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:131 [ref. 13621]. Original spelling of species should have been exoria. •Valid as Nettenchelys exoria Böhlke & Smith 1981 -- (Smith 1989:602 [ref. 13285], Smith 1989:709 [ref. 13285], Karmovskaya 1999:835 [ref. 24844], Claro et al. 2000:20 [ref. 26458], Smith 2003:754 [ref. 26989], Smith et al. 2015:110 [ref. 34125]). Current status: Valid as Nettenchelys exoria Böhlke & Smith 1981. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

falcinaris, Nettastoma Parin [N. V.] & Karmovskaya [E. S.] 1985:1525, Figs. 1-2 [Zoologicheskii Zhurnal v. 64 (no. 10); ref. 17259] Nazca Ridge, 25°34'S, 85°21'W, depth 1070-1100 meters. Holotype: ZIN 47271. Paratypes: ZIN 47272 (2). •Valid as Nettastoma falcinaris Parin & Karmovskaya 1985 -- (Pequeño 1989:25 [ref. 14125]). Current status: Valid as Nettastoma falcinaris Parin & Karmovskaya 1985. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific (Nazca Ridge). Habitat: marine.

fierasfer, Chlopsis Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:860, Fig. 10 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1239); ref. 2508] Wakanoura, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, Inland Sea. Holotype: CAS-SU 6471. Paratypes: USNM 49728 [= 49897] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:48 [ref. 12291], Smith 1994:26 [ref. 21917]. •Status uncertain, in Saurenchelys -- (Smith 1989:592 [ref. 13285]). •Synonym of Saurenchelys cancrivora Peters 1864 -- (Klausewitz 1994:447 [ref. 23563], Klausewitz & Zajonz 2000:343 [ref. 25118], Nakabo 2002:239 [ref. 26001], Yoshida et al. 2013:27 [ref. 34464]). •Valid as Saurenchelys fierasfer (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:29 [ref. 6441], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:169 [ref. 27969], Shinohara et al. 1996:158 [ref. 26605], Nakabo 2000:239 [ref. 25086], Smith in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:295 [ref. 25995], Shinohara et al. 2005:402 [ref. 28370], Zhang et al. 2010:303 [ref. 31511], Lin et al. 2015:121 [ref. 34126], Ho et al. 2015:165 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Saurenchelys fierasfer (Jordan & Snyder 1901). Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

finitimus, Chlopsis (Dietrichthys) Whitley [G. P.] 1935:220, Figs. 3-3a [Records of the Australian Museum v. 19 (no. 4); ref. 4683] Whitsunday Passage, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.924. •Status uncertain, in Saurenchelys -- (Smith 1989:592 [ref. 13285]). •Valid as Saurenchelys finitimus (Whitley 1935) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:114 [ref. 12442], Johnson 1999:720 [ref. 25471], Paxton et al. 2006:300 [ref. 28995]). •Valid as Saurenchelys finitima (Whitley 1935) -- (Lin et al. 2015:121 [ref. 34126]). Current status: Valid as Saurenchelys finitima (Whitley 1935). Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

gephyra, Nettenchelys Castle [P. H. J.] & Smith [D. G.] in Smith, Böhlke & Castle 1981:553, Figs. 8B, 11 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 94 (no. 2); ref. 6158] Bulari Pass, New Caledonia [Grande Terre, Procince Sud, Nouvelle-Calédonie, Coral Sea, southwestern Pacific], depth 400 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1979-0150. Additional material: USNM 134972 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:119 [ref. 20810]. •Valid as Nettenchelys gephyra Castle & Smith 1981 -- (Smith 1989:600 [ref. 13285], Smith 1999:1690 [ref. 24661], Karmovskaya 1999:835 [ref. 24844], Nakabo 2000:240 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:240 [ref. 26001], Mundy 2005:143 [ref. 28379], Paxton et al. 2006:299 [ref. 28995], Fricke et al. 2011:354 [ref. 31242], Smith et al. 2015:110 [ref. 34125], Ho et al. 2015:165 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Nettenchelys gephyra Castle & Smith 1981. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Philippines, New Caledonia, Taiwan, Indonesia, Australia. Habitat: marine.

gigas, Saurenchelys Lin [J.], Smith [D. G.] & Shao [K.-T.] in Lin et al. 2015:122, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa 4060 (no. 1); ref. 34126] Daxi, Yilan, northeastern Taiwan, depth ca. 100-200 meters. Holotype: TOU-AE 6530. Paratypes: NMMB P, TOU-AE, USNM. •Valid as Saurenchelys gigas Lin, Smith & Shao 2015 -- (Ho et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:165 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Saurenchelys gigas Lin, Smith & Shao 2015. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

gilbertii, Chlopsis Garman [S.] 1899:316, Pl. 62 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Off Pacific Panama, 7°21'N, 79°35'W, Albatross station 3394, depth 511 fathoms. Holotype (unique): MCZ 28444. •Possibly the same as Facciolella equatorialis (Gilbert 1891) -- (Smith 1989:597 [ref. 13285] as gilberti). •Valid as Facciolella gilbertii (Garman 1899) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1993:78 [ref. 21807] as gilberti, McCosker et al. 1997:23 [ref. 22816] as Faciolella gilberti). •Synonym of Facciolella equatorialis (Gilbert 1891) -- (Grove & Lavenberg 1997:175 [ref. 24023] as gilberti). Current status: Synonym of Facciolella equatorialis (Gilbert 1891). Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific (if valid). Habitat: marine.

guentheri, Muraenosaurus Osório [B.] 1909:14, Pl. 1 (figs. 2-4) [Memorias do Museu Bocage, Lisboa Fasc. 1; ref. 3317] Off Cape Espichel, Portugal, depth about 800 meters. Holotype: MB 2066 (lost in fire in 1978). •Synonym of Nettastoma melanura Rafinesque 1810 -- (Blache et al. 1973:236 [ref. 7185] as melanurum, Smith et al. 1981:543 [ref. 6158], Smith 1989:605 [ref. 13285], Smith 1990:174 [ref. 13454] as melanurum). Current status: Synonym of Nettastoma melanura Rafinesque 1810. Nettastomatidae. Habitat: marine.

halimyon, Saurenchelys van Utrecht [W. L.] 1983:227, Figs. 1-2 [Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde v. 53 (no. 2); ref. 8268] Mid-Atlantic, 34°14.4'N, 31°31.6'W, station 20, depth 40-110 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMA 118791. •Valid as Saurenchelys halimyon van Utrecht 1983. Current status: Valid as Saurenchelys halimyon van Utrecht 1983. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Mid-Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

inion, Nettenchelys Smith [D. G.] & Böhlke [J. E.] in Smith, Böhlke & Castle 1981:555, Fig. 8C [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 94 (no. 2); ref. 6158] Florida Straits, south of Bimini, Bahamas, 25°36'N, 79°21'W, depth 458-531 meters. Holotype (unique): ANSP 142274. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:132 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Nettenchelys inion Smith & Böhlke 1981 -- (Smith 1989:587 [ref. 13285], Smith 1989:709 [ref. 13285], Karmovskaya 1999:835 [ref. 24844], Smith 2003:754 [ref. 26989], Smith et al. 2015:111 [ref. 34125]). Current status: Valid as Nettenchelys inion Smith & Böhlke 1981. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic and eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

karreri, Facciolella Klausewitz [W.] 1995:46, Figs. 2-6 [Senckenbergiana Maritima v. 26 (nos 1-2); ref. 22578] Ras Abu Shagara, Sudan, Red Sea, 21°14.45'N, 37°15.90'E, depth 823-824 meters. Holotype: SMF 15703. Paratypes: SMF 15704 (1), 15705-06 (2), 15707-09 (1, 1, 1). Named after Dr. Christine Karrer, therefore mandatory correction to karrerae. •Valid as Facciolella karrerae Klausewitz 1995 -- (Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[23] 261 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:26 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Facciolella karrerae Klausewitz 1995. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

lateromaculatus, Leptocephalus D'Ancona [U.] 1928:56, Pl. 4 (figs. 13-15a) [Memoria, Reale Comitato Talassografico Italiano No. 146; ref. 15917] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Syntypes: MSNVE P-7. •Valid as Leptocephalus lateromaculatus D'Ancona 1928 -- (Castle 1975:25 [ref. 25984], Dor 1984:32 [ref. 29757], Klausewitz 1994:446 [ref. 23563], Goren & Dor 1994:8 [ref. 25356]). •Valid as Saurenchelys lateromaculatus (D'Ancona 1928) -- (Smith in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Klausewitz & Zajonz 2000:343 [ref. 25118]). •Valid as Saurenchelys lateromaculata (D'Ancona 1928) -- (Lin et al. 2015:121 [ref. 34126], Golani & Fricke 2018:26 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Saurenchelys lateromaculata (D'Ancona 1928). Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Southern Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

longirostris, Leptocephalus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:150, Pl. 18 (fig. 14) [Catalogue of the apodal fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2573] Messina, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Holotype: MNHN 0000-2628 or 2269 (lost). Type catalog: Bertin 1935:102 [ref. 21550], Bauchot et al. 1993:133-134 [ref. 20810]. •Synonym of Nettastoma melanura Rafinesque 1810 -- (Blache et al. 1973:236 [ref. 7185] as melanurum, Smith et al. 1981:543 [ref. 6158], Smith 1989:605 [ref. 13285], Smith 1989:705 [ref. 13285], Smith 1990:173 [ref. 13454] as melanurum). Current status: Synonym of Nettastoma melanura Rafinesque 1810. Nettastomatidae. Habitat: marine.

macrurus, Hoplunnis Ginsburg [I.] 1951:450, Fig. 5 [Texas Journal of Science v. 3 (no. 3); ref. 1804] Off Mississippi Delta, Louisiana, U.S.A., 29°14'N, 88°35'W, depth 40 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 152565. Paratypes: USNM 152566 (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:27 [ref. 21917]. Hoplunnis is apparently feminine, so macrura is appropriate. •Valid as Hoplunnis macrura Ginsburg 1951 [sometimes as macrurus] -- (Lane & Stewart 1968:56 [ref. 7904], Robins & Ray 1986:56 [ref. 23100] as macrurus, Smith 1989:587 [ref. 13285], Smith 1989:712 [ref. 13285], Boschung 1992:36 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:318 [ref. 23897], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:150 [ref. 27754], Smith 2003:754 [ref. 26989], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:38 [ref. 27192] with wrong type locality, Moore et al. 2003:175 [ref. 27076], Nelson et al. 2004:65 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:65 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Hoplunnis macrura Ginsburg 1951. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

megista, Hoplunnis Smith [D. G.] & Kanazawa [R. H.] in Smith 1989:579, 614-616 [Memoirs of the Sears Foundation of Marine Research Mem. 1 (part 9); ref. 13285] Off Cristobal, (Atlantic) Panama, 9°03'N, 81°22'W, Oregon station 3598, depth 366-403 meters. Holotype: USNM 193613. Paratypes: ANSP 126447 (1), 138773 (1), 147554 (1); USNM 193598 (3), 220039 (2). Type catalog: Smith 1994:27 [ref. 21917]. Hoplunnis is apparently feminine. •Valid as Hoplunnis megista Smith & Kanazawa 1898 -- (Smith 2003:754 [ref. 26989]). Current status: Valid as Hoplunnis megista Smith & Kanazawa 1989. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

melanura, Nettastoma Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:66, Pl. 16 (fig. 1) [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:43 [ref. 3595]. The specific name melanura [black tail] is an undeclinable noun. •Valid as Nettastoma melanura Rafinesque 1810 (often seen as melanurum) -- (Blache et al. 1973:236 [ref. 7185], Castle 1975:23 [ref. 25984], Smith et al. 1981:543 [ref. 6158], Ida in Okamura et al. 1982:59, 317 [ref. 8256], Uyeno & Sasaki in Uyeno et al. 1983:116 [ref. 14275], Saldanha in Whitehead et al. 1986:563 [ref. 13676], Smith 1989:605 [ref. 13285], Smith 1989:705 [ref. 13285], Smith 1990:173 [ref. 13454], Boschung 1992:37 [ref. 23239], Galil & Goren 1994:49 [ref. 23163], Santos et al. 1997:24 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:57 [ref. 24952], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:320 [ref. 23897], Porteiro et al. 1999:27 [ref. 24203], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:34 [ref. 26753], Smith 2003:754 [ref. 26989], Moore et al. 2003:175 [ref. 27076], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:38 [ref. 27192], Paxton et al. 2006:299 [ref. 28995], Fricke et al. 2007:25 [ref. 29533], Melo et al. 2009:9 [ref. 30460], Bañon et al. 2010:7 [ref. 31029], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:19 [ref. 36649] as melanurum, Fricke et al. 2011:354 [ref. 31242], Goren & Galil 2015:516 [ref. 33910], Smith 2016:1698 [ref. 34556]). Current status: Valid as Nettastoma melanura Rafinesque 1810. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Western and eastern Atlantic (including Mediterranean Sea), ? western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

mendax, Nettastoma Facciolà [L.] 1893:147 [Naturalista Siciliano [Il Naturalista Siciliano, Giornale di scienze naturali] v. 12; ref. 13647] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Nettastoma melanura Rafinesque 1810 -- (Smith et al. 1981:543 [ref. 6158], Smith 1989:605 [ref. 13285], Smith 1990:173 [ref. 13454] as melanurum). Current status: Synonym of Nettastoma melanura Rafinesque 1810. Nettastomatidae. Habitat: marine.

messanensis, Hyoprorus Kölliker [R. A. von] 1853:102 [Verhandlungen der Physikalisch-Medizinischen Gesellschaft zu Würzburg. v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 2680] Messina, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. •Synonym of Nettastoma melanura Rafinesque 1810 -- (Blache et al. 1973:236 [ref. 7185] as melanurum, Smith et al. 1981:543 [ref. 6158], Smith 1989:605 [ref. 13285], Smith 1990:173 [ref. 13454] as melanurum). Current status: Synonym of Nettastoma melanura Rafinesque 1810. Nettastomatidae. Habitat: marine.

meteori, Saurenchelys Klausewitz [W.] & Zajonz [U.] 2000:339, Figs. 1-8 [Fauna of Arabia v. 18; ref. 25118] Western central Red Sea, 19°25.5'N, 38°31.2'E - 19°24.3'N, 38°30.9'E, Meteor station M5-193, depth 696-705 meters. Holotype (unique): SMF 29126. •Valid as Saurenchelys meteori Klausewitz & Zajonz 2000 -- (Lin et al. 2015:121 [ref. 34126], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[23] 261 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:26 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Saurenchelys meteori Klausewitz & Zajonz 2000. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

multiporosa, Venefica Karrer [C.] 1983:66, Figs. 20 A-B [Faune Tropicale v. 23 (for 1982); ref. 5679] Continental slope northwest of Madagascar, 13°45.6'S, 47°34.2'E, depth 1250-1300 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1979-0067. Paratypes: ZMA 114555 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:119 [ref. 20810]. •Valid as Venefica multiporosa Karrer 1983 -- (Smith 1989:610 [ref. 13285], Smith 1999:1690 [ref. 24661], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847] as cf. multiporosa, Karmovskaya 2004:S29 [ref. 28053], Fricke et al. 2018:51 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Venefica multiporosa Karrer 1983. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar; Sulawesi (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

ocella, Venefica Garman [S.] 1899:318, Pl. 61 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Eastern Pacific, 5°30'N, 86°45'W, Albatross station 3366, depth 1067 fathoms. Holotype: MCZ 28438. •Valid as Venefica ocella Garman 1899 -- (Sakamoto in Amaoka et al. 1983:67, 174, 229, 314 [ref. 8379], Smith 1989:610 [ref. 13285]). Current status: Valid as Venefica ocella Garman 1899. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

oxyrhynchus, Leptocephalus Bellotti [C.] 1883:(172) 177, Fig. [Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali di Milano v. 26 (fasc. 2); ref. 13617] Straits of Messina, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Holotype: MSNM (destroyed in 1943). Type catalog: Conci & Michelangeli 1974:219 [ref. 21560]. Specific name oxyrhynchus is a noun. •Synonym of Facciolella physonema (Facciolà 1914) -- (Blache et al. 1973:237 [ref. 7185]). •Valid as Facciolella oxyrhynchus (Bellotti 1883) [often seen as oxyrhyncha] -- (Saldanha in Whitehead et al. 1986:562 [ref. 13676], Smith 1989:597 [ref. 13285], Smith 1990:172 [ref. 13454], Santos et al. 1997:23 [ref. 23531], Porteiro et al. 1999:27 [ref. 24203], Mendiola 2006:5 [ref. 28763], Fricke et al. 2007:25 [ref. 29533], Bañon et al. 2010:7 [ref. 31029], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:19 [ref. 36649] as oxyrhyncha, Nión et al. 2016:25 [ref. 35565] as oxyrhyncha). Current status: Valid as Facciolella oxyrhynchus (Bellotti 1883). Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic; Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: southern Portugal south to Angola, including Madeira. Habitat: marine.

pacifica, Hoplunnis Lane [E. D.] & Stewart [K. W.] 1968:56, Figs. 1-2 [Contributions in Marine Science v. 13; ref. 7904] Mazatlan, Mexico (Pacific). Holotype (unique): BC61-169. Hoplunnis is apparently feminine. •Valid as Hoplunnis pacifica Lane & Stewart 1968 -- (Smith 1989:578 [ref. 13285], Bussing & López S. 1994:40 [ref. 23101], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:240 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:134 [ref. 24555], Nelson et al. 2004:65 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:65 [ref. 32708]). •Possibly a junior synonym of Hoplunnis sicarius (Garman 1889) -- (MCZ type catalog, fide D. G. Smith). Current status: Valid as Hoplunnis pacifica Lane & Stewart 1968. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

parviceps, Nettastoma Günther [A.] 1877:446 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 20 (no. 119) (art. 56); ref. 2009] South of Tokyo, Japan, Challenger station 232, depth 345 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.5.14.440. See also Günther 1887: 253, Pl. 63 (fig. A) [ref. 2013]. •Valid as Metopomycter parviceps (Günther 1877) -- (Pequeño 1989:25 [ref. 14125]). •Valid as Nettastoma parviceps Günther 1877 -- (Smith et al. 1981:540 [ref. 6158], Sakamoto in Amaoka et al. 1983:65, 173 [ref. 8379], Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:29 [ref. 6441], Machida in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:99 [ref. 8057], Castle 1986:191 [ref. 5644], Okamura & Machida 1987:111 [ref. 22279], Paxton et al. 1989:113 [ref. 12442], Smith 1989:605 [ref. 13285], Castle in Amaoka et al. 1990:99 [ref. 16024], Gomon et al. 1994:198 [ref. 22532], Reinthal & Stiassny 1997:354 [ref. 22780], Smith 1999:1690 [ref. 24661], Nakabo 2000:240 [ref. 25086], Shinohara et al. 2001:295 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:240 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:401 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:143 [ref. 28379], Paxton et al. 2006:299 [ref. 28995], Smith 2008:180 [ref. 30621], Shao et al. 2008:239 [ref. 29952], Zhang et al. 2010:302 [ref. 31511], Ho et al. 2015:165 [ref. 34130], Smith & Stewart 2015:286 [ref. 34234], Fricke et al. 2018:51 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Nettastoma parviceps Günther 1877. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Antiequatorial, South Africa and Madagascar east to southern Australia and New Zealand; Japan, China and Taiwan to Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

paxtoni, Nettenchelys Karmovskaya [E. S.] 1999:833 [795], Fig. 1 [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 39 (no. 6); ref. 24844] Pomgo Point Villa, Efate Island, the Vanuatu, 17°46'S, 168°15'W (stomach content of a sea snake [AMS 345400]). Holotype (unique): AMS I.34589002. On p. 795 of English translation. •Valid as Nettenchelys paxtoni Karmovskaya 1999 -- (Smith et al. 2015:113 [ref. 34125]). Current status: Valid as Nettenchelys paxtoni Karmovskaya 1999. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Vanuatu. Habitat: marine.

petersi, Saurenchelys Day [F.] 1878:663, Pl. 168 (fig. 6) [The fishes of India Part 4; ref. 4887] Sea of Orissa, India. Holotype (unique): ZSI 2501. Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:154 [ref. 23762]. •Status uncertain, in Saurenchelys -- (Smith 1989:592 [ref. 13285]). •Valid as Saurenchelys petersi Day 1878 -- (Lin et al. 2015:121 [ref. 34126]). Current status: Valid as Saurenchelys petersi Day 1878. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: India. Habitat: marine.

physonima, Nettastomella Facciolà [L.] 1914:47 [Bollettino della Società Zoologica Italiana (3. Ser.) v. 3; ref. 1290] Straits of Messina, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Neotype: MSNG 37252. Spelled physonema by authors. Neotype designation not researched, not designated here. •Valid as Facciolella physonema (Facciolà 1914) -- (Blache et al. 1973:237 [ref. 7185]). •Synonym of Facciolella oxyrhynchus (Bellotti 1883) -- (Saldanha in Whitehead et al. 1986:562 [ref. 13676] as oxyrhyncha, Smith 1990:172 [ref. 13454] as oxyrhyncha). Current status: Synonym of Facciolella oxyrhynchus (Bellotti 1883). Nettastomatidae. Habitat: marine.

proboscideum, Nettastoma Vaillant [L. L.] 1888:84, Pl. 7 (fig. 3) [Expéditions scientifiques du "Travailleur" et du "Talisman"; ref. 4496] Off Coast of Morocco [eastern Atlantic], 30°08'N, 11°42'W, depth 2200 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1884-1069 (poor condition). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:119 [ref. 20810]. •Valid as Venefica proboscidea (Vaillant 1888) -- (Blache et al. 1973:237 [ref. 7185], Sakamoto in Amaoka et al. 1983:67, 174, 229, 314 [ref. 8379], Saldanha in Whitehead et al. 1986:565 [ref. 13676], Castle 1986:191 [ref. 5644], Smith 1989:610 [ref. 13285], Shcherbachev et al. 1989:165 [ref. 36134] as probiscidae, Smith 1990:174 [ref. 13454], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:84 [ref. 22017], Fricke 1999:72 [ref. 24106], Pakhorukov 2001:377 [ref. 25409], Karmovskaya 2004:S29 [ref. 28053], Fricke et al. 2009:21 [ref. 30213], Smith & Stewart 2015:287 [ref. 34234], Smith 2016:1699 [ref. 34556]). Current status: Valid as Venefica proboscidea (Vaillant 1888). Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical to temperate seas. Habitat: marine.

procerum, Nettastoma Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1883:224 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 10 (no. 5); ref. 1838] North Atlantic, 33°35'20"-34°00'30"N, 76°-76°10'30", depth 178-647 fathoms. Syntypes: MCZ 25902 (1), 25903 (1, missing); USNM 153585 [ex MCZ 28035] (1, in 3 pieces). Type catalog: Smith 1994:27 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Venefica procera (Goode & Bean 1883) -- (Sakamoto in Amaoka et al. 1983:67, 174, 229, 314 [ref. 8379], Smith 1989:605 [ref. 13285], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:324 [ref. 23897], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:126 [ref. 24555], Smith 2003:754 [ref. 26989], Moore et al. 2003:175 [ref. 27076], Melo et al. 2009:9 [ref. 30460] as cf. procera) -- (Melo et al. 2009:9 [ref. 30460]). Current status: Valid as Venefica procera (Goode & Bean 1883). Nettastomatidae. Distribution: North Atlantic; possibly Brazil. Habitat: marine.

proxima, Nettenchelys Smith [D. G.], Lin [J.] & Chen [H.-M.] in Smith et al. 2015:114, Figs. 1a, 5-7 [Zootaxa 4060 (no. 1); ref. 34125] Donggang, Pingtung, Taiwan, 22°12'57"N, 120°26'21"E, depth 300 meters. Holotype: NMMST P 01524. Other material: USNM. •Valid as Nettenchelys proxima Smith, Lin & Chen 2015 -- (Ho et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:165 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Nettenchelys proxima Smith, Lin & Chen 2015. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Taiwan and Philippines (?). Habitat: marine.

punctatus, Hoplunnis Regan [C. T.] 1915:126 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 15 (no. 85); ref. 15006] Lagos, Nigeria. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1914.11.2.25. Hoplunnis is apparently feminine so name should be punctata. •Valid as Hoplunnis punctata Regan 1915 -- (Lane & Stewart 1968:57 [ref. 7904] as punctatus, Smith 1989:578 [ref. 13285], Smith 1990:172 [ref. 13454], Smith 2016:1698 [ref. 34556]). Current status: Valid as Hoplunnis punctata Regan 1915. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

pygmaeus, Nettenchelys Smith [D. G.] & Böhlke [J. E.] in Smith, Böhlke & Castle 1981:551, Figs. 8A, 10 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 94 (no. 2); ref. 6158] Gulf of Mexico, 29°52'N, 87°06.5'W, depth 128 meters. Holotype: ANSP 142277. Paratypes: AMNH 83460 [ex USAIC 3460] (1), ANSP 130812 (1), USNM 200779 (1), USAIC [Univ. S. Alabama Ich. coll.] 03460 (1, ? now 0). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:132 [ref. 13621], Smith 1994:28 [ref. 21917]. Originally as pygmaeus, correction to pygmaea is mandatory. •Valid as Nettenchelys pygmaea Smith & Böhlke 1981 -- (Smith 1989:587 [ref. 13285], Smith 1989:708 [ref. 13285], Boschung 1992:37 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:322 [ref. 23897], Karmovskaya 1999:835 [ref. 24844], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:150 [ref. 27754], Nelson et al. 2004:65 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:65 [ref. 32708], Smith et al. 2015:117 [ref. 34125]). Current status: Valid as Nettenchelys pygmaea Smith & Böhlke 1981. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

saga, Muraenophis Risso [A.] 1810:370, Pl. 10 (fig. 39) [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype: MNHN B-0849 (poor condition). Type catalog: Bertin 1945:375 [ref. 21554], Bauchot et al. 1993:118 [ref. 20810]. •Synonym of Nettastoma melanura Rafinesque 1810 -- (Blache et al. 1973:236 [ref. 7185] as melanurum with question, Smith et al. 1981:543 [ref. 6158], Smith 1989:605 [ref. 13285], Smith 1990:173 [ref. 13454] as melanurum). Current status: Synonym of Nettastoma melanura Rafinesque 1810. Nettastomatidae. Habitat: marine.

saurencheloides, Leptocephalus D'Ancona [U.] 1928:52, Pl. 3 (figs. 10-12b) [Memoria, Reale Comitato Talassografico Italiano No. 146; ref. 15917] Kamaran, Yemen, Red Sea, depth 200 meters. Syntypes: (3) MSNVE P-6 (1). •Valid as Leptocephalus saurencheloides D'Ancona 1928 -- (Dor 1984:32 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:8 [ref. 25356]). •Valid as Facciolella saurencheloides (D'Ancona 1928) -- (Klausewitz 1994:29 [ref. 23160], Klausewitz 1994:446 [ref. 23563], Klausewitz 1994:465 [ref. 23564], Golani & Fricke 2018:26 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Facciolella saurencheloides (D'Ancona 1928). Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

schmidti, Hoplunnis Kaup [J. J.] 1859:20, Pl. 2 (fig. 4) [Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Naturwissenschaften herausgegeben von dem Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein in Hamburg v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 2586] Puerto Cabello, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): Apparently destroyed in WWII. •Status uncertain; questionably the same as Hoplunnis macrura Ginsburg 1951 -- (Smith 1989:587 [ref. 13285]). •Valid as Hoplunnis schmidti Kaup 1859 -- (Lane & Stewart 1968:57 [ref. 7904], Cervigón 1991:72 [ref. 24472], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221] as schmidtii). Current status: Valid as Hoplunnis schmidti Kaup 1859. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

sicarius, Atopichthys Garman [S.] 1899:328, Pl. 66 (figs. 1, 1a, 1b) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Off Colombia/Panama, 6°35'N, 81°44'W, Albaross station 3357, depth over 782 fathoms. Holotype (unique): MCZ 28429. •Valid as Hoplunnis sicarius (Garman 1899). •Possibly a senior synonym of Hoplunnis pacifica Lane & Stewart 1968 -- (MCZ type catalog, fide D. G. Smith). Current status: Valid as Hoplunnis sicarius (Garman 1899). Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

similis, Hoplunnis Smith [D. G.] 1989:586, Figs. 617, 625-627 [Memoirs of the Sears Foundation of Marine Research Mem. 1 (part 9); ref. 13285] Southern Bahamas, 20°53'N, 73°26'W, Oregon station 10851, depth 287 meters. Holotype: ANSP 130814. Paratypes: ANSP 114933(1), 114949 (2), 135423 (1); UF 214153 [ex UMML 14153] (1), 229680 [ex UMML 29680] (2); USNM 158320 (1), 193548 (4), 217404 (7). Plus additional material. Type catalog: Smith 1994:27 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Hoplunnis similis Smith 1989 -- (Smith 1989:715 [ref. 13285], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:150 [ref. 27754], Smith 2003:754 [ref. 26989], Melo et al. 2009:9 [ref. 30460]). Current status: Valid as Hoplunnis similis Smith 1989. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bahamas and Florida (U.S.A.) to Brazil. Habitat: marine.

solitarium, Nettastoma Castle [P. H. J.] & Smith [D. G.] in Smith, Böhlke & Castle 1981:548, Figs. 2-7 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 94 (no. 2); ref. 6158] Philippines [West of Cabra Island, Occidental Mindoro, South China Sea, western Pacific], 13°49.2'N, 120°01.8'E to 13°48.2'N, 120°02.5'E, depth 415-510 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1979-0187. Paratypes: AMS I.20301-016 (1); MNHN 1979-0188 (1), 1979-0189 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:119 [ref. 20810]. •Valid as Nettastoma solitarium Castle & Smith 1981 -- (Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:29 [ref. 6441], Machida in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:101, 322 [ref. 8057], Paxton et al. 1989:113 [ref. 12442], Smith 1989:605 [ref. 13285], Paulin et al. 1989:73 [ref. 24556], Smith 1999:1690 [ref. 24661], Nakabo 2000:240 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:240 [ref. 26001], Karmovskaya 2004:S28 [ref. 28053], Shinohara et al. 2005:402 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:143 [ref. 28379], Paxton et al. 2006:299 [ref. 28995], Shao et al. 2008:239 [ref. 29952], Ho et al. 2015:165 [ref. 34130], Sumod et al. 2016:[2] 930 [ref. 37028], Fricke et al. 2018:51 [ref. 35805], Sawada & Matsunuma 2018:33 [ref. 36269]). Current status: Valid as Nettastoma solitarium Castle & Smith 1981. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Comoros and Madagascar; Andaman Sea; Philippines to Hawaiian Islands, north to southern Japan, south to New Zealand; probably more widespread. Habitat: marine.

stylurus, Leptocephalus Lea [E.] 1913:36, Figs. 28-31; Pl. 5 (no. 3) [Scientific Results of the Michael Sars North Atlantic Deep-Sea Expedition 1910 v. 3 (pt 1, no. 7); ref. 14158] North Atlantic, 26°03'N, 15°00'W, station 39, depth 150 meters. Syntypes: ZMUB 2503 (3), 5102 (3). Type catalog: Frøiland 1979:146 [ref. 21547]. •Valid as Saurenchelys stylurus (Lea 1913) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:114 [ref. 12442], Klausewitz & Zajonz 2000:351 [ref. 25118]). •Valid as Saurenchelys stylura (Lea 1913) -- (Smith 1989:719 [ref. 13285], Smith in Randall & Lim 2000:587 [ref. 25122], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:38 [ref. 27192], Mundy 2005:143 [ref. 28379], Paxton et al. 2006:300 [ref. 28995], Figueroa & Ehrlich 2006:238 [ref. 29812], Lin et al. 2015:121 [ref. 34126]). Current status: Valid as Saurenchelys stylura (Lea 1913). Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Nearly circumglobal in warm seas, including Hawaiian Islands, but not eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

syntresis, Nettastoma Smith [D. G.] & Böhlke [J. E.] in Smith, Böhlke & Castle 1981:546, Figs. 5B, 6B [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 94 (no. 2); ref. 6158] Santaren Channel, near Cuba, 23°40'N, 79°18'W, Silver Bay station 2458, depth 0-290 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 219849. Paratypes: ANSP 114965 (1); UF 231525 [ex UMML 31525] (3); USNM 157939 (1), 158936 (1), 197127 (2), 197342 (1), 197345 (6), 202953 (1). Plus additional material. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:132 [ref. 13621], Smith 1994:27-28 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Nettastoma syntresis Smith & Böhlke 1981 -- (Smith 1989:608 [ref. 13285], Smith 1989:707 [ref. 13285], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:321 [ref. 23897], Smith 2003:754 [ref. 26989]). Current status: Valid as Nettastoma syntresis Smith & Böhlke 1981. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

taiwanensis, Saurenchelys Karmovskaya [E. S.] 2004:S27, Fig. 14 [Journal of Ichthyology v. 44 (suppl. 1); ref. 28053] Philippines, 14°50'N, 120°20'E, depth 1800-1950 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1998-0668. •Valid as Saurenchelys taiwanensis Karmovskaya 2004 -- (Lin et al. 2015:121 [ref. 34126], Ho et al. 2015:165 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Saurenchelys taiwanensis Karmovskaya 2004. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Philippines and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

taylori, Nettenchelys Alcock [A. W.] 1898:150 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 2 (no. 8) (art. 22); ref. 92] Laccadive Sea, off Travancore coast, India, 7°17'30"N, 76°54'30"E, depth 430 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZSI FF 371/1. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:133 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:36 [ref. 22148]. Figured in Alcock 1899: Pl. 25 (fig. 5) [ref. 20535]. •Valid as Nettenchelys taylori Alcock 1898 -- (Smith et al. 1981:557 [ref. 6158], Smith 1989:600 [ref. 13285], Smith et al. 2015:118 [ref. 34125]). Current status: Valid as Nettenchelys taylori Alcock 1898. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean, India. Habitat: marine.

tentaculata, Venefica Garman [S.] 1899:319, Pl. M (figs. 2-2a) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Albatross station 3363, 3364, 3371 and 3418, depth 660-902 fathoms. Syntypes: MCZ 28439-40 (1, 1), 28441 (now. 0), 28442 (1); USNM 57895 (1), 153604 (1). •Valid as Venefica tentaculata Garman 1899 -- (Sakamoto in Amaoka et al. 1983:67, 174, 229, 314 [ref. 8379], Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:29 [ref. 6441], Smith 1989:610 [ref. 13285], Shinohara et al. 1996:158 [ref. 26605], Nakabo 2000:239 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:239 [ref. 26001], Mundy 2005:144 [ref. 28379], Parin et al. 2014:50 [ref. 33547], Robertson et al. 2017:37 [ref. 35676]). Current status: Valid as Venefica tentaculata Garman 1899. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Eastern and western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

tenuis, Hoplunnis Ginsburg [I.] 1951:448, Fig. 4 [Texas Journal of Science v. 3 (no. 3); ref. 1804] Off Cape San Blas, Florida, U.S.A., 28°36'N, 85°33'30"W, Albatross station 2402, depth 111 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 152574. Type catalog: Smith 1994:27 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Hoplunnis tenuis Ginsburg 1951 -- (Lane & Stewart 1968:53 [ref. 7904], Robins & Ray 1986:56 [ref. 23100], Smith 1989:581 [ref. 13285], Smith 1989:710 [ref. 13285], Boschung 1992:37 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:319 [ref. 23897], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:150 [ref. 27754], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:38 [ref. 27192], Smith 2003:754 [ref. 26989], Moore et al. 2003:175 [ref. 27076], Nelson et al. 2004:65 [ref. 27807], Figueroa & Ehrlich 2006:238 [ref. 29812], Page et al. 2013:65 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Hoplunnis tenuis Ginsburg 1951. Nettastomatidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

urosema, Leptocephalus Lea [E.] 1913:32, Fig. 33; Pl. 5 (no. 5) [Scientific Results of the Michael Sars North Atlantic Deep-Sea Expedition 1910 v. 3 (pt 1, no. 7); ref. 14158] North Atlantic, 34°59'N, 33°01'W, station 53, depth 100 meters; 36°53'N, 29°47'W, station 56, depth 100 meters. Syntypes: ZMUB 2505 (1), 5111 (1). Type catalog: Frøiland 1979:146 [ref. 21547]. •Synonym of Nettastoma melanura Rafinesque 1810 -- (Blache et al. 1973:236 [ref. 7185] as melanurum, Smith et al. 1981:543 [ref. 6158], Smith 1989:605 [ref. 13285], Smith 1990:174 [ref. 13454] as melanurum, Santos et al. 1997:24 [ref. 23531] as melanurum). Current status: Synonym of Nettastoma melanura Rafinesque 1810. Nettastomatidae. Habitat: marine.