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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Paralichthyidae: [ 199 ] records


abbotti, Citharichthys Dawson [C. E.] 1969:356, Figs. 1-5 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 82; ref. 7730] Mouth of Laguna de Zontecomapan [Sontecomapan], Veracruz, Mexico. Holotype: USNM 203735. Paratypes: ANSP 112317 (2); GCRL 2436 (3), 2808 (2, c&s); INIBP uncat. (1); MCZ 46368 (1); UF 224484 [ex UMML 24484] (2); USNM 203736-38 (6, 12, 6). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:31 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Citharichthys abbotti Dawson 1969 -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:487 [ref. 24550], Munroe 2003:1906 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:839 [ref. 28815], Matamoros et al. 2009:26 [ref. 31241], Page et al. 2013:184 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys abbotti Dawson 1969. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

adspersus, Pseudorhombus Steindachner [F.] 1867:119 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 4 (no. 14) (for 16 May 1867); ref. 21724] Chinchas Islands [? Chincha Islands, Peru]. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Species also appeared on p. 79 of English version [ref. 18764]; later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1867:709, Pl. 2 [p. 9 of separate] [ref. 6393]. •Valid as Paralichthys adspersus (Steindachner 1867) -- (Nakamura in Nakamura et al. 1986:296 [ref. 14235], Pequeño & Plaza 1987:165 [ref. 6629], Pequeño 1989:76 [ref. 14125] as adpersus, Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:202 [ref. 24555], Evseenko 1998:834 [ref. 24689], Pequeño & Sáez 2000:33 [ref. 24590], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36025]). Current status: Valid as Paralichthys adspersus (Steindachner 1867). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific off northwestern South America. Habitat: marine.

aestuarius, Paralichthys Gilbert [C. H.] & Scofield [N. B.] 1898:499, Pl. 39 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 20 (no. 1131); ref. 14633] Shoal Point, Gulf of California, at mouth of Colorado River, Sonora, Mexico. Holotype: USNM 48128. Paratypes: BMNH 1897.1.12.61 (1), CAS-SU 195 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:140 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Paralichthys aestuarius Gilbert & Scofield 1898 -- (Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1373 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:615 [ref. 24023], Arellano-Martínez et al. 1997:936 [ref. 24501], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:474 [ref. 24550], Fuller et al. 1999:479 [ref. 25838], Thomson et al. 2000:293 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36025]). Current status: Valid as Paralichthys aestuarius Gilbert & Scofield 1898. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Eastern central Pacific and the Gulf of California. Habitat: brackish, marine.

aethalion, Syacium Jordan [D. S.] 1886:52 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 9 (no. 551); ref. 2386] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: (3) USNM 37748 (1). •Synonym of Syacium micrurum Ranzani 1842 -- (Murakami & Amaoka 1992:74 [ref. 19779]). Current status: Synonym of Syacium micrurum Ranzani 1842. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

affinis, Pseudorhombus Weber [M.] 1913:426, Pl. 11 (fig. 1) [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Saleyer, Flores, Siboga station 213, depth 18-45 meters. Syntypes: ZMA 109392 (3). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:106 [ref. 19236]. •Synonym of Pseudorhombus elevatus Ogilby 1912 -- (Li & Wang 1995:141 [ref. 16193]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudorhombus elevatus Ogilby 1912. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

albigutta, Paralichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:302 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 282); ref. 2472] Laguna Grande, Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 30818 (2, now 1). Additional material: USNM 4887 (1) and a few other small specimens. Appeared first and perhaps dates to Goode & Bean 1879:125 [ref. 18134] as Pseudorhombus dentatus albigutta. •Valid as Paralichthys albigutta Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Gutherz 1967:12 [ref. 23862], Robins & Ray 1986:290 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:176 [ref. 23239], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:476 [ref. 24550], Fuller et al. 1999:480 [ref. 25838], Munroe 2003:1909 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:855 [ref. 28815], García-Hernández et al. 2009:94 [ref. 37265], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36025]). Current status: Valid as Paralichthys albigutta Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: including Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

albigutta, Pseudorhombus dentatus Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1879:125 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 2 (no. 74); ref. 18134] Appeared in table of measurements as "Locality......albigutta, type." Later described as Paralichthys albiguttata by Jordan & Gilbert 1882:302 [ref. 2472] to which the species is typically dated. USNM specimen 4887, no locality given. Paralichthyidae.

amblybregmatus, Citharichthys Gutherz [E. J.] & Blackman [R. R.] 1970:340, Figs. 3-4 [Copeia 1970 (no. 2); ref. 7746] Northwestern Atlantic, 12°22.5'N, 82°31.5'W, Oregon station 6453, depth 108 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 203589. Paratypes: UF 19292 [ex TABL 105458] (3); USNM 203590 (6), 203592-94 (4, 4, 4). Additional material: USNM 203595 (1, c&s). Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:110 [ref. 21035]. •Valid as Citharichthys amblybregmatus Gutherz & Blackman 1970 -- (Cervigón 1992:275 [ref. 23827], Munroe 2003:1914 [ref. 27118], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:177 [ref. 37485]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys amblybregmatus Gutherz & Blackman 1970. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Caribbean Sea south to Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil). Habitat: marine.

andersoni, Pseudorhombus Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1904:9, Pl. 26 [Marine Investigations in South Africa v. 3; ref. 1646] Durban Harbor, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAM 15366. •Synonym of Pseudorhombus arsius (Hamilton 1822) -- (Hensley 1986:861 [ref. 5669], Kottelat 2013:463 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudorhombus arsius (Hamilton 1822). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

annamensis, Pseudorhombus Chabanaud [P.] 1929:374 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 1 (no. 6); ref. 16072] Nha-Trang Bay, Vietnam. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 1935.3.12.2 (1), Lab. des Pêches Coloniales du Muséum, France (?now 1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:336 [ref. 25922] with no types at MNHN. •Synonym of Pseudorhombus pentophthalmus Günther 1862 -- (Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:26 [ref. 21500], Desoutter et al. 2001:336 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudorhombus pentophthalmus Günther 1862. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

annulatus, Pseudorhombus Norman [J. R.] 1927:12, Pl. 2 [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 29 (pt 1); ref. 3217] Muscat, Oman, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean, depth 15-30 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1904.5.25.74-77 (5). •Valid as Pseudorhombus annulatus Norman 1927 -- (Randall 1995:358 [ref. 22896], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377]). Current status: Valid as Pseudorhombus annulatus Norman 1927. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

anomalus, Pseudorhombus Ogilby [J. D.] 1912:48 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 1; ref. 14855] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.1568 [ex AFAQ 1908]. •Synonym of Pseudorhombus jenynsii (Bleeker 1855) -- (Gomon et al. 1994:850 [ref. 22532], Hoese & Bray 2006:1828 [ref. 29000]). •Valid as Pseudorhombus anomalus Ogilby 1912 -- (Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudorhombus jenynsii (Bleeker 1855). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

antillarum, Ancylopsetta Gutherz [E. J.] 1966:449, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 16 (no. 3); ref. 9034] North Bahamas, 23°05'N, 78°49'W, Silver Bay station 3512, depth 225-250 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 209018. Paratypes: ANSP 102912 (2); BMNH 1965.6.17.3-4 (1, 1); FMNH 65496 (1), 66760 (1); MCZ 44132 (1); CAS-SU 62529 (1); UF [ex TABL] (2, 1), UF 19298 [ex TABL 101421] (2), 19299-301 [ex TABL] (1, 1, 1), UF 207601 [ex UMML 7601] (1), 2017384 [ex UMML 17384] (1); USNM 208464 (1), 208575-76 (1, 1), 209019-23 (3, 1, 1, 1, 2). Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:110 [ref. 21035], Böhlke 1984:31 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:8 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Ancylopsetta antillarum Gutherz 1966 -- (Gutherz 1967:15 [ref. 23862], Munroe 2003:1912 [ref. 27118]). Current status: Valid as Ancylopsetta antillarum Gutherz 1966. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

aramaca, Hemirhombus Günther [A.] 1862:422 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Not an original description (= Pleuronectes aramaca Cuvier 1829) but treated as such by Aldebert et al. 1990:1035 [ref. 19526] as a synonym of Syacium micrurum Ranzani 1842, also Murakami & Amaoka 1992:74 [ref. 19779]. Current status: Synonym of Syacium micrurum Ranzani 1842. Paralichthyidae.

aramaca, Pleuronectes Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:121 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Brazil. •Synonym of Syacium papillosum (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Murakami & Amaoka 1992:74 [ref. 19779]). Current status: Synonym of Syacium papillosum (Linnaeus 1758). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

aramaca, Rhombus Castelnau [F. L.] (ex Marcgrave) 1855:78, Pl. 40 (fig. 3) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: MNHN 1999-0437. •Synonym of Paralichthys brasiliensis (Ranzani 1842) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:301 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Paralichthys brasiliensis (Ranzani 1842). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

arctifrons, Citharichthys Goode [G. B.] 1880:341 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 165); ref. 1834] 40°05'39"N, 70°23'52"W, Fish Hawk station 872, depth 86 fathoms. Syntypes: (many) USNM 25908 (2). Description based mostly on 137-mm specimen in USNM 25908; stations given as 871 and 872 on p. 337, sta. 870 and 871 on p. 341. •Valid as Citharichthys arctifrons Goode 1880 -- (Gutherz 1967:31 [ref. 23862], Smith 1986:454 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:291 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:534 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:219 [ref. 14674], Boschung 1992:173 [ref. 23239], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:488 [ref. 24550], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:170 [ref. 27754], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:551 [ref. 26158], Moore et al. 2003:231 [ref. 27076], Munroe 2003:1914 [ref. 27118], Hoshino & Munroe 2004:583 [ref. 27908], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:840 [ref. 28815], Victor & Wellington 2013:27 [ref. 32520], Page et al. 2013:184 [ref. 32708], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys arctifrons Goode 1880. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: eastern U.S.A. and Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

arenaceus, Citharichthys Evermann [B. W.] & Marsh [M. C.] 1900:326, Fig. 106 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 20 (pt 1) [for 1900]; ref. 14876] Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. Holotype: USNM 49536. Paratypes: (9) CAS-SU 8556 (1), ?USNM 50195 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:139 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Citharichthys arenaceus Evermann & Marsh 1900 -- (Gutherz 1967:35 [ref. 23862], Robins & Ray 1986:291 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:275 [ref. 23827], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2000:299 [ref. 24565], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639], Munroe 2003:1914 [ref. 27118], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:105 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], Matamoros et al. 2009:26 [ref. 31241], Angulo et al. 2013:1010 [ref. 33194], Di Dario et al. 2013:264 [ref. 37503], Page et al. 2013:184 [ref. 32708], Victor & Wellington 2013:27 [ref. 32520], Catelani et al. 2014:933 [ref. 37496], Spier et al. 2018:17 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys arenaceus Evermann & Marsh 1900. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

argus, Pseudorhombus Weber [M.] 1913:425, Pl. 11 (fig. 6) [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Jeden Island, Aru Islands, Indonesia, Siboga station 273, depth 13 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMA 109385. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:106 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Pseudorhombus argus Weber 1913 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:146 [ref. 25477], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:591 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:234 [ref. 23977], Amaoka & Hensley 2001:3846 [ref. 26312], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Hoese & Bray 2006:1827 [ref. 29000], Kimura in Matsuura & Kimura 2009:316 [ref. 31170], Larson et al. 2013:223 [ref. 32988], Psomadakis et al. 2020:583 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Pseudorhombus argus Weber 1913. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

arsius, Pleuronectes Hamilton [F.] 1822:128, 373 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Botanical Garden of Calcutta, Ganges River estuary, India [Bay of Bengal]. No types known. Information on type locality see Britz 2019:40 [ref. 37532]. Hamilton's original, unpublished illustration reproduced by Britz 2019:Pl. 75 [ref. 37532]. •Valid as Pseudorhombus arsius (Hamilton 1822) -- (Amaoka 1969:99 [ref. 105], Dor 1984:269 [ref. 29757], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:347 [ref. 6441], Matsuura in Okamura et al. 1985:609, 734 [ref. 8056], Desoutter 1986:428 [ref. 6212], Hensley 1986:861 [ref. 5669], Allen & Swainston 1988:146 [ref. 25477], Quéro & Maugé 1989:389 [ref. 19512], Ataur Rahman 1989:29 [ref. 24860], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:668 [ref. 25598], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1039 [ref. 20764], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:24 [ref. 21500], Kottelat et al. 1993:168 [ref. 23448], Kuiter 1993:382 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:849 [ref. 22532], Poll & Gosse 1995:79 [ref. 24781], Goren & Dor 1994:71 [ref. 25356], Li & Wang 1995:137 [ref. 16193], Randall 1995:358 [ref. 22896], Evseenko 1996:726 [ref. 24666], Allen 1997:234 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:373 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:230 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:382 [ref. 25488], Mishra et al. 1999:89 [ref. 25315], Johnson 1999:752 [ref. 25471], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:644 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1357 [ref. 25182], Amaoka & Hensley 2001:3847 [ref. 26312], Sakai et al. 2001:123 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:335 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1357 [ref. 26193], Ataur Rahman 2003:44 [ref. 31338], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Khan 2003:11 [ref. 27710], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:433 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:616 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Bray 2006:1827 [ref. 29000] with Hamilton-Buchannan as author, Gomon 2008:807 [ref. 30616], Ho et al. 2009:9 [ref. 31461], Matsuura in Matsuura & Kimura 2009:316 [ref. 31170], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:80 [ref. 32413], Larson et al. 2013:224 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:462 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:211 [ref. 34464], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:430 [ref. 33460], Imamura in Kimura et al. 2015:91 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:322 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:216 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:344 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:368 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:174 [ref. 36273], Suresh et al. 2018:316 [ref. 36495], Eagderi et al. 2019:122 [ref. 37020], Hoschke et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36626], Psomadakis et al. 2020:583 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Pseudorhombus arsius (Hamilton 1822). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and Persian Gulf east to Marshall Islands and Fiji, north to southern Japan, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia) and New South Wales (Australia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

atlanticus, Citharichthys crossotus Parr [A. E.] 1931:(7) 16 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 4 (art. 1); ref. 16318] Western Atlantic. •Synonym of Etropus crossotus Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Leslie & Stewart 1986:151 [ref. 5948]). Current status: Synonym of Etropus crossotus Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

balteata, Platessa Richardson [J.] 1846:278 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. No types known. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:218, Pl. 9b [ref. 11606]). •Synonym of Pseudorhombus arsius (Hamilton 1822) -- (Li & Wang 1995:137 [ref. 16193], Kottelat 2013:462 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudorhombus arsius (Hamilton 1822). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bicyclophorus, Paralichthys Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1915:Heterostoma p. 14, pl. [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 17; ref. 3711] Praça do Mercado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Lectotype: MNRJ 3022A. Paralectotypes: MNRJ 13626 [ex MNRJ 3022] (1). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:405 [ref. 12732], Miranda Ribeiro 1959:7 [ref. 10393] with MNRJ 3357 as type. On p. 652 when continuously paginated. Lectotype selected by Miranda Ribeiro 1953:405 [ref. 12732] [but perhaps specimen not isolated]; lectotype also designated by Díaz de Astarloa 1996:1035 [ref. 22781] and 1 syntype moved to a new catalog number. •Valid as Paralichthys bicyclophorus Miranda Ribeiro 1915 -- (Andreata & Séret 1996:589 [ref. 16204] as Paralichtys). •Synonym of Paralichthys patagonicus Jordan 1889 -- (Díaz de Astarloa 1996:1035 [ref. 22781], Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:146 [ref. 25942]). Current status: Synonym of Paralichthys patagonicus Jordan 1889. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

binii, Pseudorhombus Tortonese [E.] 1955:1, Figured [Doriana v. 2 (no. 58); ref. 12532] Chimbote, Peru. Holotype (unique): MSNG 35764. Type catalog: Tortonese 1963:314 [ref. 10351]. •Valid as Pseudorhombus binii Tortonese 1955 -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:199 [ref. 24555]). Current status: Valid as Pseudorhombus binii Tortonese 1955. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Peru. Habitat: marine.

bollmani, Hippoglossina Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:122 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Off Colombia, 7°56'N, 79°41'30"W, Albatross station 2805, depth 51.5 fathoms. Lectotype: USNM 41143. Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 361 (2); USNM 41147 (1), 41156 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:139-140 [ref. 12291]. Based on Hippoglossina macrops of Jordan & Bollman 1889:175 [ref. 2433], not of Steindachner. Lectotype established by Norman 1934:68 [ref. 6893]. •Valid as Hippoglossina bollmani Gilbert 1890 -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:152 [ref. 23101], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1369 [ref. 22830], Andreata & Séret 1996:589 [ref. 16204] with authors and date as Meek & Hildebrand 1928, De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:252 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:200 [ref. 24555], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708], Robertson et al. 2017:103 [ref. 35676]). Current status: Valid as Hippoglossina bollmani Gilbert 1890. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern Baja California to Peru, including Cocos and Galápagos islands. Habitat: marine.

brasiliensis, Hippoglossus Ranzani [C.] 1842:10, Pl. 3 [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 5; ref. 3606] Bahia, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MZUB 955. •Valid as Paralichthys brasiliensis (Ranzani 1842) -- (Nakamura in Nakamura et al. 1986:300 [ref. 14235], Andreata & Séret 1996:589 [ref. 16204] as Paralychtys dated 1840, Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:144 [ref. 25942], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639], López et al. 2002:66 [ref. 26808], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:106 [ref. 27192], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2006:241 [ref. 28684], Di Dario et al. 2013:264 [ref. 37503], Catelani et al. 2014:933 [ref. 37496], Nión et al. 2016:54 [ref. 35565], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36025], Spier et al. 2018:17 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Paralichthys brasiliensis (Ranzani 1842). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brasiliensis, Xystreurys Regan [C. T.] 1914:17 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 13 (no. 73); ref. 3661] Cape Frio, Brazil, depth 40 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1913.12.4.257-258 (2). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Off Brazil. Habitat: marine.

caeruleooculea, Platessa chinensis var. Richardson [J.] 1846:277 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China; Chinese coasts. No types known. Original as Platessa chinensis, var.? caeruleo-oculea. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:218, Pl. 10a [ref. 11606]). •Synonym of Tephrinectes sinensis (Lacepède 1802) -- (Li & Wang 1995:114 [ref. 16193] as coeruleocula, Kottelat 2013:463 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Tephrinectes sinensis (Lacepède 1802). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

californicus, Hippoglossus Ayres [W. O.] 1859:29, Fig. 10 (p. 59) [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 1) v. 2 (1858-1862); ref. 155] San Francisco Bay, California, U.S.A. No types known. Any types at CAS would have been lost in 1906. •Valid as Paralichthys californicus (Ayres 1859) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:285 [ref. 9277], Swift et al. 1993:132 [ref. 22379], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1374 [ref. 22830], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:475 [ref. 24550], Allen & Groce 2001:137 [ref. 25751], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:324 [ref. 35888], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2018:15 [ref. 36025], Burton & Lea 2019:95 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Paralichthys californicus (Ayres 1859). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: off northern U.S A. south to Mexico. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cartwrighti, Pseudorhombus Ogilby [J. D.] 1912:47 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 1; ref. 14855] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: QM I.1566 [ex AFAQ 1647]. •Synonym of Pseudorhombus dupliciocellatus Regan 1905 -- (Amaoka 1969:90 [ref. 105], Hoese & Bray 2006:1828 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudorhombus dupliciocellatus Regan 1905. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

cayennensis, Citharichthys Bleeker [P.] 1862:427 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeling Natuurkunde. v. 13; ref. 388] Cayenne, French Guiana. Apparently available from generic description plus "Spec. Rhombus cayennensis M.L.B." Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

chinensis, Platessa Gray [J. E.] 1834:no page number, Pl. 94 (fig. 1) [Illustrations of Indian zoology; ref. 1878] China. No types known. Published about 1 Oct. 1834. As chinensa in list of figures. •Synonym of Tephrinectes sinensis (Lacepède 1802) -- (Li & Wang 1995:113 [ref. 16193], Kottelat 2013:463 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Tephrinectes sinensis (Lacepède 1802). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

chittendeni, Cyclopsetta Bean [B. A.] 1895:635, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 17 (no. 1030); ref. 231] Trinidad Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): USNM 44100. •Valid as Cyclopsetta chittendeni Bean 1895 -- (Gutherz 1967:26 [ref. 23862], Swingle 1971:335 [ref. 26462], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:458 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:292 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:174 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:276 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:48 [ref. 24489], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221] as chitendeni, Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:481 [ref. 24550], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2000:304 [ref. 24565], Munroe 2003:1908 [ref. 27118], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:105 [ref. 27192], Khidir et al. 2004:5 [ref. 36549], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:848 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Cyclopsetta chittendeni Bean 1895. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea south to Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Habitat: marine.

chrysopterus, Pleuronectes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:151 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Chinese seas. Holotype (unique): ZMB 2371. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:114 [ref. 24282]. •Synonym of Pseudorhombus arsius (Hamilton 1822) -- (Li & Wang 1995:138 [ref. 16193] but dating to Richardson 1846). •Family Pleuronectidae -- (Paepke 1999:114 [ref. 24282]). •Questionably a synonym of Pseudorhombus arsius (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:462 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Pseudorhombus arsius (Hamilton 1822). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ciadi, Etropus van der Heiden [A. M.] & Plascencia González [H. G. P.] 2005:471, Figs. 1, 3 [Copeia 2005 (no. 3); ref. 28311] Off Tepoca, 30°11.9'N, 112°47.0'W, between Isla Tiburón and Puerto Peñasco, Sonora, Mexico, depth 36-38 meters. Holotype: IBUNAM-P14003 [ex CIAD 85-19]. Paratypes: CIAD 79-8 (1), 82-18 (64), 82-31 (8), 85-16 (23), 85-19 (13), 85-22 (61), 85-47 (1), 85-56 (10), 85-60 (9), 91-12 (10); IBUNAM-P14004 [ex CIAD 85-6] (29); SIO 04-186 [ex CIAD 82-18] (13) •Valid as Etropus ciadi van der Heiden & Plascencia González 2005 -- (Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etropus ciadi van der Heiden & Plascencia González 2005. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Gulf of California. Habitat: marine.

cinnamoneus, Rhombus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:180, Pl. 93 [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Bays of Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D1324 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH D1325 (1, stuffed), 3520 (3). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:147 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Pseudorhombus cinnamoneus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Amaoka 1969:102 [ref. 105], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:347 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:28 [ref. 21500], Kim & Youn 1994:106 [ref. 22286], Li & Wang 1995:143 [ref. 16193], Cheng & Zhou 1997:445 [ref. 26385], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:644 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1357 [ref. 25182], Amaoka & Hensley 2001:3848 [ref. 26312], Nakabo 2002:1357 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:430, 681 [ref. 26218], Ho et al. 2009:9 [ref. 31461], Ho & Shao 2011:61 [ref. 31432], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:80 [ref. 32413], Psomadakis et al. 2020:584 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Pseudorhombus cinnamoneus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Myanmar east to South China Sea, north to Japan. Habitat: marine.

circumnotatus, Hemirhombus Poey [F.] 2000:713, Pl. 405 (fig. 2) [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1-3; ref. 26366] Not available; not explicitly proposed as new [see Art. 16.1 of the Code]. Posthumous publication. Paralichthyidae.

condorensis, Pseudorhombus Chabanaud [P.] 1929:370 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 1 (no. 6); ref. 16072] Poulo Condor [Condore], Vietnam. Syntypes: BMNH 1935.3.12.1 (1), MNHN 1987-0110 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:301 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Pseudorhombus diplospilus Norman 1926 -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:301 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudorhombus diplospilus Norman 1926. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

cooperi, Metoponops Gill [T. N.] 1864:199 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 5770] Santa Barbara, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 9407. •Synonym of Citharichthys sordidus (Girard 1854). Current status: Synonym of Citharichthys sordidus (Girard 1854). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

coreanicus, Paralichthys olivaceus var. Schmidt [P. Yu.] 1904:230 [Fishes of the eastern seas of the Russian Empire; ref. 3946] Wonsan, Korea, Sea of Japan. Syntypes: ZIN 12378 (2). Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:262 [ref. 37075]. Appeared first without distinguishing features in Schmidt 1903:521 (19 of separate) [ref. 3945]. •Synonym of Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Amaoka 1969:86 [ref. 105], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:20 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:121 [ref. 16193], Evseenko 2003:S58 [ref. 28535], Parin et al. 2014:525 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:194 [ref. 35257]). Current status: Synonym of Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

cornutus, Romboidichthys Günther [A.] 1880:7, Pl. 2 (fig. B) [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Off Brazil, Challenger station 122, depth 30 or 350 fathoms. Syntypes: (at least 3) BMNH 1879.5.14.53-54. •Valid as Citharichthys cornutus (Günther 1880) -- (Gutherz 1967:31 [ref. 23862], Scott & Scott 1988:535 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:219 [ref. 14674], Boschung 1992:173 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:275 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:52 [ref. 24489], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:487 [ref. 24550], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2000:300 [ref. 24565], Marín 2000:79 [ref. 26252], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639], Munroe 2003:1915 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:841 [ref. 28815], Victor & Wellington 2013:27 [ref. 32520], Page et al. 2013:184 [ref. 32708], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:178 [ref. 37485]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys cornutus (Günther 1880). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic North Carolina (U.S.A.) and Bahamas south to uruguay, including Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

crossotus, Etropus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:364 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 237); ref. 2470] Astillero estuary at Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 28124 (missing in 1980). •Valid as Etropus crossotus Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Gutherz 1967:28 [ref. 23862], Leslie & Stewart 1986:151 [ref. 5948], Robins & Ray 1986:292 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:536 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:220 [ref. 14674], Boschung 1992:174 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:276 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:62 [ref. 24489] as crossotus and crosotus, Allen & Robertson 1994:288 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:150 [ref. 23101], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1365 [ref. 22830], Andreata & Séret 1996:589 [ref. 16204] dated 1881, De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:251 [ref. 24545], Murdy et al. 1997:280 [ref. 23144], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:210 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:479 [ref. 24550], Fuller et al. 1999:479 [ref. 25838], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2000:306 [ref. 24565], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639] dated 1802, Munroe 2003:1917 [ref. 27118], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:106 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], van der Heiden & Plascencia González 2005:470 [ref. 28311], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:850 [ref. 28815], McMahan et al. 2013:454 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708], Catelani et al. 2014:933 [ref. 37496], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34871], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:93 [ref. 35859], Spier et al. 2018:17 [ref. 36103], González-Murcia et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36544], Ribeiro et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Etropus crossotus Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic; eastern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ctenosquamis, Spinirhombus Oshima [M.] 1927:188 [Japanese Journal of Zoology v. 1 (no. 5) (art. 14); ref. 3315] Anping, near Tainan, Taiwan. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:61 [ref. 31432]. Holotype is probably lost (Ho & Shao 2011:61 [ref. 31432]). •Valid as Pseudorhombus ctenosquamis (Oshima 1927) -- (Li & Wang 1995:134 [ref. 16193], Ho & Shao 2011:61 [ref. 31432]). Current status: Valid as Pseudorhombus ctenosquamis (Oshima 1927). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

cycloidea, Ancylopsetta Tyler [J. C.] 1959:140, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1959 (no. 2); ref. 12036] Off French Guiana, 7°18'N, 53°32'W, depth 100 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 159793. Paratypes: ANSP 82633 (1); FMNH 64455-56 (1, 8); MCZ 39987 (1); CAS-SU 51069 (1); ?UF 217382 [ex USNM 17382] (1), USNM 159794 (6). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:31 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:8 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Ancylopsetta cycloidea Tyler 1959 -- (Gutherz 1966:461 [ref. 9034], Gutherz 1967:17 [ref. 23862], Cervigón 1992:272 [ref. 23827], Andreata & Séret 1996:589 [ref. 16204], Cervigón 1996:44 [ref. 24489], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2000:298 [ref. 24565], Munroe 2003:1912 [ref. 27118]). Current status: Valid as Ancylopsetta cycloidea Tyler 1959. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Central American and northern coast of South America. Habitat: marine.

cyclosquamus, Etropus Leslie [A. J., Jr.] & Stewart [D. J.] 1986:143, Fig. 3 [Copeia 1986 (no. 1); ref. 5948] Continental shelf off North Carolina, U.S.A., 35°01.4'N, 75°33.9'W, depth 31 meters. Holotype: FMNH 87525. Paratypes: ANSP 153541 (2); CAS 55894 (2); FMNH 87524 (32), 87526 (11), 87527-34 (8), 87535-42 (25, 12, 6, 12, 12, 11, 9, 9); USNM 268481 (2); UWZM 8592 (7). •Valid as Etropus cyclosquamus Leslie & Stewart 1986 -- (Boschung 1992:175 [ref. 23239], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:479 [ref. 24550], Munroe 2003:1918 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], van der Heiden & Plascencia González 2005:470 [ref. 28311], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:851 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etropus cyclosquamus Leslie & Stewart 1986. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western North Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

darwini, Citharichthys Victor [B. C.] & Wellington [G. M.] 2013:21, Figs. 1-4 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 6; ref. 32520] Tagus Cove, Isla Isabela, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, 0.26°S, 91.37°W. Holotype: SIO 12-3075. Paratypes: CAS 6862 (8), 6895 (5); LACM 23671 (8), 57426-1 (1); SIO 12-3076 (2); USNM 101896 (2), 101970 (4). •Valid as Citharichthys darwini Victor & Wellington 2013. Current status: Valid as Citharichthys darwini Victor & Wellington 2013. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

decussata, Cyclopsetta Gunter [G.] 1946:27, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1946 (no. 1); ref. 13127] About 40 miles south of Port Aransas, Texas, U.S.A., depth 26 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 123802 (skin and head over plaster cast). •Valid as Cyclopsetta decussata Gunter 1946 -- (Gutherz 1967:24 [ref. 23862]). •Synonym of Cyclopsetta chittendeni Bean 1895 -- (Swingle 1971:335 [ref. 26462], Munroe 2003:1908 [ref. 27118], Khidir et al. 2004:5 [ref. 36549]). Current status: Synonym of Cyclopsetta chittendeni Bean 1895. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

delfini, Paralichthys Pequeño [G.] & Plaza [R.] 1987:160, Fig. 1 [Revista de Biologia Marina, Valparaiso v. 23 (no. 2); ref. 6629] Lago Budi, a coastal lagoon, 38°53'S, 73°18'W, Chile. Holotype: MNHNC P.6538. Paratypes: P. M. 989. Type catalog: Meléndez C. et al. 1993:207 [ref. 24124]. •Valid as Paralichthys delfini Pequeño & Plaza 1987 -- (Pequeño 1989:76 [ref. 14125], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36025]). Current status: Valid as Paralichthys delfini Pequeño & Plaza 1987. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Southeast Pacific off Chile. Habitat: marine.

delsmani, Etropus Chabanaud [P.] 1940:149 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 12 (no. 4); ref. 13167] 4-6 miles from Santa-Margarita Island, Venezuela, depth 20 fathoms. Holotype: IRSNB 50. Paratypes: IRSNB 51 (1). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:46 [ref. 20755], Desoutter et al. 2001:335 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Etropus delsmani Chabanaud 1940 -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:211 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:479 [ref. 24550], Munroe 2003:1906 [ref. 27118] but may not be valid, van der Heiden & Plascencia González 2005:470 [ref. 28311]). Current status: Valid as Etropus delsmani Chabanaud 1940. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: off Venezuela; eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

dendritica, Ancylopsetta Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:121 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Gulf of California, Mexico, 30°58'30"N, 113°17'15"W, Albatross station 3022, depth 11 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 47291. •Valid as Ancylopsetta dendritica Gilbert 1890 -- (Gutherz 1966:467 [ref. 9034], Bussing & López S. 1994:152 [ref. 23101], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1357 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:613 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:199 [ref. 24555], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:184 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Ancylopsetta dendritica Gilbert 1890. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Eastern central Pacific. Habitat: marine.

dentatus, Pleuronectes Linnaeus [C.] (ex Garden) 1766:458 [Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2786] Carolina [South Carolina, U.S.A.]. Holotype: Linn. Soc. Lond. 122 (eyed side skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1985:69-70 [ref. 20705]. Type information: Goode & Bean 1885:197 [ref. 1841]. Based on 'Plaise' in manuscript description and specimen sent by A. Garden [South Carolina]. •Valid as Paralichthys dentatus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Gutherz 1967:9 [ref. 23862], Smith 1986:454 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:290 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:537 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:220 [ref. 14674], Boschung 1992:176 [ref. 23239], Murdy et al. 1997:277 [ref. 23144], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:554 [ref. 26158], Munroe 2003:1919 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36025]). Current status: Valid as Paralichthys dentatus (Linnaeus 1766). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western North Atlantic: off eastern U.S.A. Habitat: marine.

dilecta, Notosema Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1883:193 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 10 (no. 5); ref. 1838] Atlantic, 32°31'50"N, 78°45'00"W, Blake station 313, depth 75 fathoms. Syntypes: (4) MCZ 25788 (?3), USNM 30413 (1). •Valid as Ancylopsetta dilecta (Goode & Bean 1883) -- (Gutherz 1966:465 [ref. 9034], Gutherz 1967:16 [ref. 23862], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:457 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:289 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:172 [ref. 23239], Munroe 2003:1912 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:837 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:184 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Ancylopsetta dilecta (Goode & Bean 1883). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

dinoceros, Citharichthys Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1886:157 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 12 (no. 5); ref. 1844] Off Guadeloupe, West Indies, depth 175 fathoms. Holotype: MCZ 27963. Paratypes: (4?) MCZ 27961-63 (1, 1). •Valid as Citharichthys dinoceros Goode & Bean 1886 -- (Gutherz 1967:32 [ref. 23862], Boschung 1992:173 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1996:53 [ref. 24489], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2000:300 [ref. 24565], Munroe 2003:1915 [ref. 27118], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:105 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:842 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:184 [ref. 32708], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:179 [ref. 37485]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys dinoceros Goode & Bean 1886. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.) south to Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), including Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

diplospilus, Pseudorhombus Norman [J. R.] 1926:226, Fig. 1 [Biological Results Endeavour v. 5 (pt 5); ref. 3216] 3-7 miles northwest of Hervey bay, Queensland, Australia, depth 9-11 fathoms. Holotype: AMS E. 6678. Paratypes: (6) AMS E.2698 (1), E.2785 (1), E.2852 (1), E.6677 (1), E.6679 (now 0); BMNH 1925.7.22.15-16 [ex AMS E.6679] (2). •Valid as Pseudorhombus diplospilus Norman 1926 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:146 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:234 [ref. 23977], Amaoka & Hensley 2001:3849 [ref. 26312], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Hoese & Bray 2006:1828 [ref. 29000], Larson et al. 2013:224 [ref. 32988], Kodeeswaran et al. 2020:86 [ref. 37514]). Current status: Valid as Pseudorhombus diplospilus Norman 1926. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: east coast of India east to Indonesia, north to South China Sea, south to Western Australia and Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

distinctiales, Pleuronectes Larrañaga [D. A.] in Devincenzi 1925:301 [Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Montevideo (Serie 2) v. 1 (pt. 6); ref. 20322] Based on Larrañaga manuscript [appeared as Pleuronectes maximus in Larrañaga 1923 [ref. 22561] with Distinctiales as name only on p. 372]. Originally as P. distincti-ales vel maximus. Also appeared in Devincenzi 1925:301, 321 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi regarded as a synonym Paralichthys patagonicus Jordan & Goss [= Jordan in Jordan & Goss 1889]. Not treated as valid when proposed, therefore not available (from Uruguay). Paralichthyidae.

dubius, Pseudorhombus jenynsii Norman [J. R.] 1934:116, Fig. 73 [A systematic monograph of the flatfishes; ref. 6893] 3-7 miles northwest of Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia, depth 9-11 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1925.7.22.35. •Synonym of Pseudorhombus jenynsii (Bleeker 1855) -- (Gomon et al. 1994:850 [ref. 22532], Hoese & Bray 2006:1829 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudorhombus jenynsii (Bleeker 1855). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dupliciocellatus, Pseudorhombus Regan [C. T.] 1905:25 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 15 (no. 85) (art. 2); ref. 3624] Inland Sea, Japan. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1905.6.6.243. •Valid as Pseudorhombus dupliciocellatus Regan 1905 -- (Amaoka 1969:89 [ref. 105], Kyushin et al. 1982:259 [ref. 19754], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:347 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:146 [ref. 25477], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:23 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:125 [ref. 16193], Allen 1997:234 [ref. 23977] as dupliocellatus, Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:644 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1356 [ref. 25182], Amaoka & Hensley 2001:3850 [ref. 26312], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:1356 [ref. 26193], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Hoese & Bray 2006:1828 [ref. 29000], Ho et al. 2009:9 [ref. 31461], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:81 [ref. 32413], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1043 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:224 [ref. 32988], Motomura et al. 2017:217 [ref. 35490], Psomadakis et al. 2020:584 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Pseudorhombus dupliciocellatus Regan 1905. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Myanmar and Nicobar Islands to northern Australia, north to Japan. Habitat: marine.

ectenes, Etropus Jordan [D. S.] in Jordan & Goss 1889:277 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 14 (for 1886) (art. 2); ref. 2482] Callao, Peru. Syntypes: MCZ 11605 (2), USNM 120408 [ex MCZ 11145] (1). •Valid as Etropus ectenes Jordan 1889 -- (Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1367 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:211 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:479 [ref. 24550], van der Heiden & Plascencia González 2005:470 [ref. 28311], Barriga Salazar 2014:119 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:391 [ref. 34894]). Current status: Valid as Etropus ectenes Jordan 1889. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific off northwestern South America. Habitat: brackish, marine.

elegans, Tarphops Amaoka [K.] 1969:110 [46], Fig. 26 [Journal of the Shimonoseki University of Fisheries v. 18 (no. 2); ref. 105] Choshi, Chiba Prefecture, Japan. Holotype: FAKU 34199. Paratypes: FAKU 33600-21 (22), 33623-25 (3), 33627-28 (2), 33630-31 (2), 33634 (1), 33721-24 (4). On p. 46 of separate (dual pagination). •Valid as Pseudorhombus elegans (Amaoka 1969) -- (Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:31 [ref. 21500]). •Valid as Tarphops elegans Amaoka 1969 -- (Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:347 [ref. 6441], Nakabo 2000:1355 [ref. 25182], Shimizu 2001:43 [ref. 25799], Nakabo 2002:1355 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:430, 681 [ref. 26218], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:83 [ref. 32413]). Current status: Valid as Tarphops elegans Amaoka 1969. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan. Habitat: marine.

elevatus, Pseudorhombus Ogilby [J. D.] 1912:45 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 1; ref. 14855] Buliver, Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.1569 [ex AFAQ 1713]. •Valid as Pseudorhombus elevatus Ogilby 1912 -- (Hensley 1986:862 [ref. 5669], Allen & Swainston 1988:146 [ref. 25477], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:234 [ref. 24016], Goren & Dor 1994:71 [ref. 25356], Li & Wang 1995:141 [ref. 16193], Randall 1995:359 [ref. 22896], Evseenko 1996:726 [ref. 24666], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:592 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:234 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:373 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:230 [ref. 23922], Johnson 1999:752 [ref. 25471], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:644 [ref. 25122], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:187 [ref. 25703], Amaoka & Hensley 2001:3851 [ref. 26312], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Khan 2003:11 [ref. 27710], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:46 [ref. 27712], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:434 [ref. 28072], Hoese & Bray 2006:1828 [ref. 29000], Ho et al. 2009:9 [ref. 31461], Larson et al. 2013:224 [ref. 32988], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:430 [ref. 33460], Psomadakis et al. 2015:323 [ref. 34104], Voronina et al. 2016:392 [ref. 35064], Ali et al. 2018:344 [ref. 36183], Eagderi et al. 2019:123 [ref. 37020], Psomadakis et al. 2020:584 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Pseudorhombus elevatus Ogilby 1912. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Algoa Bay (South Africa), East Africa and Persian Gulf east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to Taiwan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

evermanni, Citharichthys Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1928:989, Pl. 100 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 249); ref. 2964] Porto Bello, (Atlantic) Panama. Holotype (unique): USNM 81045. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Off Panama. Habitat: marine.

excisiceps, Teratorhombus Macleay [W.] 1881:126, Pl. 2 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 6 (pt 1); ref. 4931] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Syntypes: AMS I.12662 (1), I.16277-001 [ex MAMU F218] (1). Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:205 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Pseudorhombus arsius (Hamilton 1822) -- (Gomon et al. 1994:849 [ref. 22532], Hoese & Bray 2006:1827 [ref. 29000], Kottelat 2013:463 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudorhombus arsius (Hamilton 1822). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fernandezianus, Paralichthys Steindachner [F.] 1903:208 [Zoologische Jahrbücher. Jena, Supplementband v. 6 (for 1905); ref. 15047] Juan Fernández Islands. Holotype (unique): ?ZMB 16279. •Valid as Paralichthys fernandezianus Steindachner 1903 -- (Pequeño & Plaza 1987:165 [ref. 6629], Pequeño 1989:76 [ref. 14125], Pequeño & Sáez 2000:33 [ref. 24590], Dyer & Westneat 2010:610 [ref. 31446], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36025]). Current status: Valid as Paralichthys fernandezianus Steindachner 1903. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Juan Fernandez and Desventuradas islands (Chile). Habitat: marine.

fimbriatus, Hemirhombus Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1885:591 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 8 (no. 543); ref. 1842] Gulf of Mexico, 28°42'30"N, 85°29'W, Albatross station 2403, depth 88 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 37330. Paratypes: USNM 37331 (2). •Valid as Cyclopsetta fimbriata (Goode & Bean 1885) -- (Gutherz 1967:25 [ref. 23862], Robins & Ray 1986:292 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:536 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:219 [ref. 14674], Boschung 1992:174 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:276 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:49 [ref. 24489], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:481 [ref. 24550], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2000:306 [ref. 24565], Munroe 2003:1917 [ref. 27118], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:105 [ref. 27192], Khidir et al. 2004:8 [ref. 36549], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:849 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Cyclopsetta fimbriata (Goode & Bean 1885). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina and Florida (U.S.A.), Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea south to Panama, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: marine.

formosanus, Pseudorhombus Oshima [M.] 1927:182 [Japanese Journal of Zoology v. 1 (no. 5) (art. 14); ref. 3315] Taipei (Taihoku) fish market, Taiwan. Syntypes: (1 + 7). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:61 [ref. 31432]. Technically, the described specimen should be made the lectotype, holotype not established originally. •Synonym of Pseudorhombus cinnamoneus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:28 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:144 [ref. 16193], Ho & Shao 2011:61 [ref. 31432]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudorhombus cinnamoneus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

fragilis, Citharichthys Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:120 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Off Caboo Lobos, Sonora, Mexico, Gulf of California, 29°40'00"N, 112°57'00" W, depth 139 meters. Lectotype: USNM 44409. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1900.9.29.252 (1); CAS 100167 [ex CAS-SU 167] (3), 100167 [ex CAS-SU 671] (7); MCZ 27833 [ex USNM 46386] (1), USNM. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:139 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype established by Norman 1934:142 [ref. 6893]. •Valid as Citharichthys fragilis Gilbert 1890 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:284 [ref. 9277], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1992:99 [ref. 21805], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1358 [ref. 22830], van der Heiden & Mussot-Perez 1995:444 [ref. 21611], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:249 [ref. 24545], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Hoshino & Amaoka 1999:373 [ref. 24199], Allen & Groce 2001:137 [ref. 25751], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], van der Heiden et al.2009:807 [ref. 30608], Victor & Wellington 2013:27 [ref. 32520], Page et al. 2013:184 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys fragilis Gilbert 1890. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific off southwestern U.S.A. and Mexico. Habitat: marine.

frontalis, Gastropsetta Bean [B. A.] 1895:633, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 17 (no. 1030); ref. 231] Key West, Florida, 24°25'45"N, 81°46'45"W, Albatross station 2317, depth 45 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 37668. Paratypes: USNM 37668 (1 of 2), 57899 (1). •Valid as Gastropsetta frontalis Bean 1895 -- (Gutherz 1966:472 [ref. 9034], Gutherz 1967:12 [ref. 23862], Robins & Ray 1986:290 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:175 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:280 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:50 [ref. 24489], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2000:307 [ref. 24565], Munroe 2003:1918 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:853 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:180 [ref. 37485]). Current status: Valid as Gastropsetta frontalis Bean 1895. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina (U.S.A.) south to Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil), including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

fuscus, Hemirhombus Poey [F.] 1868:406 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 11251 (1), ?MCZ 11272 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:181 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Citharichthys spilopterus Günther 1862. Current status: Synonym of Citharichthys spilopterus Günther 1862. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

gilberti, Citharichthys Jenkins [O. P.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1889:157 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 11 (no. 698); ref. 2342] Guaymas Bay, Sonora, western Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 39627. •Valid as Citharichthys gilberti Jenkins & Evermann 1889 -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:43 [ref. 37559], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1992:101 [ref. 21805], Allen & Robertson 1994:287 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:150 [ref. 23101], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1359 [ref. 22830], van der Heiden & Mussot-Perez 1995:444 [ref. 21611], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:248 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:613 [ref. 24023], Bussing 1998:429 [ref. 24179], Hoshino & Amaoka 1999:374 [ref. 24199], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:210 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:486 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:401 [ref. 28615], van der Heiden et al. 2009:814 [ref. 30608], Matamoros et al. 2009:26 [ref. 31241], Angulo et al. 2013:1010 [ref. 33194], McMahan et al. 2013:453 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:184 [ref. 32708], Victor & Wellington 2013:27 [ref. 32520], Barriga Salazar 2014:119 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:391 [ref. 34894], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:611 [ref. 34923], Fourriére et al. 2016:460 [ref. 34668], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:93 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36544], Angulo et al. 2020:8 [ref. 37425]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys gilberti Jenkins & Evermann 1889. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California (Mexico) south to Peru. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

gnathus, Citharichthys Hoshino [K.] & Amaoka [K.] 1999:371, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Research v. 46 (no. 4); ref. 24199] Galápagos Islands, 00°36'S-00°27'S, 90°20'W-90°21'W, depth 95 meters. Holotype: USNM 337310. Paratypes: HUMZ 155534-538 (5), USNM 337311 (19). •Valid as Citharichthys gnathus Hoshino & Amaoka 1999 -- (van der Heiden et al. 2009:814 [ref. 30608], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys gnathus Hoshino & Amaoka 1999. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Galapágos Islands and Pacific coast of Colombia. Habitat: marine.

gordae, Citharichthys Beebe [W.] & Tee-Van [J.] 1938:302, Fig. 2 [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 23 (pt 3, no. 15); ref. 249] Center of outer Gorda Bank, 23°01'N, 109°27' or 28°30'W, Baja California, Mexico, depth 60 fathoms. Holotype: CAS-SU 46496 [ex NYZS 25785]. Paratypes: CAS-SU 46182 (3), 46184-88 (3, 13, 23, 10, 15), 46198 [ex NYZS 25388] (37). Type catalog: Mead 1958:132 [ref. 20648]. •Valid as Citharichthys gordae Beebe & Tee-Van 1938 -- (Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1360 [ref. 22830], van der Heiden & Mussot-Perez 1995:444 [ref. 21611], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:249 [ref. 24545], Hoshino & Amaoka 1999:374 [ref. 24199], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], van der Heiden et al. 2009:814 [ref. 30608], Page et al. 2013:184 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys gordae Beebe & Tee-Van 1938. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Eastern central Pacific; Mexico. Habitat: marine.

guatimalensis, Citharichthys Bleeker [P.] 1863:452 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeling Natuurkunde. v. 15; ref. 17015] Guatemala. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

guianensis, Citharichthys Bleeker [P.] 1863:453 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeling Natuurkunde. v. 15; ref. 17015] Suriname; French Guyana. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Described from one specimen; two localities given. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

guineensis, Hemirhombus Bleeker [P.] in Günther 1862:423 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Coast of Guinea. Holotype: RMNH 3546 (poor condition). Description is quoted from Bleeker. Also appeared in Bleeker 1863:25, Pl. 3 [ref. 395]. Combined with a neuter genus, the adjective becomes guineense. •Synonym of Syacium micrurum Ranzani 1842 -- (Aldebert et al. 1990:1035 [ref. 19526]). •Valid as Syacium guineense (Bleeker 1862) (often seen as guineensis) -- (Fraser 1971:501 [ref. 21277], Murakami & Amaoka 1992:67 [ref. 19779], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:xiv [ref. 21953], Wirtz et al. 2007:41 [ref. 30263], Wirtz et al. 2013:135 [ref. 32972], Wirtz et al. 2014:11 [ref. 33516], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2999 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Syacium guineense (Bleeker 1862). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: western Sahara to Namibia and Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.

gunteri, Syacium Ginsburg [I.] 1933:7 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 82 (no. 2961); ref. 1800] Off the coast of Louisiana, 12 miles northeast of Barstom Light, Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 92800. Paratypes: (65). •Valid as Syacium gunteri Ginsburg 1933 -- (Gutherz 1967:37 [ref. 23862], Fraser 1971:500 [ref. 21277], Robins & Ray 1986:292 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:176 [ref. 23239], Murakami & Amaoka 1992:71 [ref. 19779], Cervigón 1992:278 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:66 [ref. 24489], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Keith et al. 2000:240 [ref. 24547], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:478 [ref. 24550], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2000:307 [ref. 24565], Munroe 2003:1920 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:858 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407]). Current status: Valid as Syacium gunteri Ginsburg 1933. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

guttulatus, Pseudorhombus Macleay [W.] 1883:276 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 2); ref. 17587] Hood Bay, Papua New Guinea. Holotype (unique): AMS I.9180. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Off Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

gymnorhinus, Citharichthys Gutherz [E. J.] & Blackman [R. R.] 1970:345, Figs. 5-6 [Copeia 1970 (no. 2); ref. 7746] Off Panama, Caribbean Sea, 8°56'N, 80°57'W, Oregon station 3594, depth 50 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 203596. Paratypes: UF 19293 [ex TABL 105455] (1), 19294 [ex TABL 105456] (2); USNM 203597-603 (1, 1, 1, 1, 4, 1, 1). Additional material: UF 105457 (2); UF [ex UMML] (17, 6 lots). Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:112 [ref. 21035]. •Valid as Citharichthys gymnorhinus Gutherz & Blackman 1970 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:291 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:536 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:219 [ref. 14674], Boschung 1992:174 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1996:55 [ref. 24489], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2000:300 [ref. 24565], Munroe 2003:1915 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:843 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:184 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys gymnorhinus Gutherz & Blackman 1970. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

hilgendorfii, Paralichthys Steindachner [F.] 1903:209 [Zoologische Jahrbücher. Jena, Supplementband v. 6 (for 1905); ref. 15047] Juan Fernández Islands. Holotype (unique): ZMB 16280. Species spelling should be hilgendorfii. •Valid as Paralichthys hilgendorfi Steindachner 1903 -- (Pequeño 1989:76 [ref. 14125], Pequeño & Sáez 2000:33 [ref. 24590]). •Synonym of Paralichthys fernandezianus Steindachner 1903 -- (Dyer & Westneat 2010:610 [ref. 31446]). Current status: Synonym of Paralichthys fernandezianus Steindachner 1903. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

intermedius, Etropus Norman [J. R.] 1933:203 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 10) v. 12 (no. 68) (art. 21); ref. 16511] Port of Spain, Trinidad Island, West Indies. Holotype: BMNH 1932.5.9.19. Paratypes: BMNH 1923.7.30.341 (1), 1930.9.4.23 (1). •Valid as Etropus intermedius Norman 1933 -- (Gutherz 1967:27 [ref. 23862], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:455 [ref. 14275], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:479 [ref. 24550]). •Synonym of Etropus crossotus Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Munroe 2003:1917 [ref. 27118], van der Heiden & Plascencia González 2005:470 [ref. 28311]). Current status: Synonym of Etropus crossotus Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic off northeastern South America. Habitat: brackish, marine.

intermedius, Hippoglossus Ranzani [C.] 1842:12, Pl. 4 [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 5; ref. 3606] Brazil. Holotype (unique): MZUB 954. •Synonym of Syacium papillosum (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Murakami & Amaoka 1992:74 [ref. 19779]). Current status: Synonym of Syacium papillosum (Linnaeus 1758). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

isosceles, Paralichthys Jordan [D. S.] 1891:330 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 829); ref. 2391] Harbor of Bahia, Brazil. Syntypes: CAS-SU 2789 (2); USNM 43335 (1), 43371 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:140 [ref. 12291] as isoceles. •Valid as Paralichthys isosceles Jordan 1891 -- (Nakamura in Nakamura et al. 1986:298 [ref. 14235], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:106 [ref. 27192], Díaz de Astarloa & Fabré 2003:124 [ref. 27726], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2006:241 [ref. 28684], Mabragaña et al. 2011:10 and table S2 [ref. 31800] as belonging to a new genus, Nión et al. 2016:54 [ref. 35565], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36025]). Current status: Valid as Paralichthys isosceles Jordan 1891. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: off eastern South America. Habitat: marine.

javanicus, Rhombus Bleeker [P.] 1853:502 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 336] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 1862.6.3.3 (1). •Valid as Pseudorhombus javanicus (Bleeker 1853) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:261 [ref. 19754], Li & Wang 1995:131 [ref. 16193], Randall 1995:358 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:593 [ref. 27969], Carpenter et al. 1997:231 [ref. 23922], Mishra et al. 1999:89 [ref. 25315], Amaoka & Hensley 2001:3852 [ref. 26312], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:47 [ref. 27712], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1044 [ref. 31980], Yoshida et al. 2013:212 [ref. 34464], Imamura in Kimura et al. 2015:92 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:323 [ref. 34104], Voronina et al. 2016:392 [ref. 35064], Motomura et al. 2017:217 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:344 [ref. 36183], Imamura in Kimura et al. 2018:289 [ref. 36460], Eagderi et al. 2019:123 [ref. 37020], Psomadakis et al. 2020:585 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Pseudorhombus javanicus (Bleeker 1853). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf east to New Guinea, north to northern Vietnam and southern China. Habitat: marine.

jenynsii, Platessa Bleeker [P.] 1855:15 [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen (Amsterdam) v. 2 (art. 7); ref. 346] King George Sound, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1933.2.28.5 (skin). Available as "Platessa Jenysii Blkr. = Platessa. . .? Jen. Beagle Fish p. 138." •Valid as Pseudorhombus jenynsii (Bleeker 1855) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:146 [ref. 25477], Kuiter 1993:382 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:850 [ref. 22532], Larson & Williams 1997:373 [ref. 23967], Kuiter 1997:382 [ref. 25488], Johnson 1999:752 [ref. 25471], Amaoka & Hensley 2001:3853 [ref. 26312], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Hoese & Bray 2006:1828 [ref. 29000], Gomon 2008:807 [ref. 30616], Larson et al. 2013:224 [ref. 32988], Hoschke et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Pseudorhombus jenynsii (Bleeker 1855). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

jordani, Paralichthys Steindachner [F.] 1898:325 [Zoologische Jahrbücher. Jena, Supplementband v. 4; ref. 4238] Robalo River at Puerto Montt., Chile. Syntypes: ZMB 15697 (3). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

kingii, Hippoglossus Jenyns [L.] 1842:138, Pl. 26 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Valparaíso, Chile. No types known. Based on drawing. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

kumperae, Ancylopsetta Tyler [J. C.] 1959:143, Fig. 2 [Copeia 1959 (no. 2); ref. 12036] Guiana coast, 6°45'N, 55°17'W, depth 24 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 159623. Paratypes: ANSP 83387 (1); FMNH 64453-54 (1, 1); CAS-SU 51074 (1); USNM 159466 (2), 159472 (2), 159507 (1), 159620 (1), 159622 (1), 159728 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:8 [ref. 12367], Böhlke 1984:31 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Ancylopsetta kumperae Tyler 1959 -- (Gutherz 1966:471 [ref. 9034], Gutherz 1967:14 [ref. 23862], Cervigón 1992:272 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:46 [ref. 24489], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2000:299 [ref. 24565], Munroe 2003:1913 [ref. 27118], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:105 [ref. 27192]). Current status: Valid as Ancylopsetta kumperae Tyler 1959. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: northern coast of South America. Habitat: marine.

latifrons, Citharichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:334 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 1 (for 1881); ref. 2471] Panama Bay (Pacific). Syntypes: USNM 29255 (1, lost), 29416 (1, lost), 29425 (1, lost), 29496 (1, lost). •Valid as Syacium latifrons (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Murakami & Amaoka 1992:89 [ref. 19779], Bussing & López S. 1994:150 [ref. 23101], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1376 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:254 [ref. 24545], van der Heiden & Mitchell 1998:756 [ref. 23424], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:206 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:477 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:460 [ref. 34668]). Current status: Valid as Syacium latifrons (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Mexico south to Peru. Habitat: marine.

lentiginosus, Rhombus Richardson [J.] 1843:495 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) Suppl. to v. 11 (no. 73); ref. 18627] Port Essington, Cobourg (Coburg) Peninsula, Northern Territory, Australia. Holotype: BMNH 1843.6.15.49 (skin). •Synonym of Pseudorhombus arsius (Hamilton 1822) -- (Gomon et al. 1994:849 [ref. 22532], Larson & Williams 1997:373 [ref. 23967], Hoese & Bray 2006:1827 [ref. 29000], Larson et al. 2013:224 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:462 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudorhombus arsius (Hamilton 1822). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lethostigma, Paralichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] in Jordan & Meek 1884:237 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 427); ref. 10595] New England to Texas and West Indies. Types not researched. Based on Paralichthys dentatus of Jordan & Gilbert 1883:822 [ref. 2476] (not dentatus Linnaeus). •Valid as Paralichthys lethostigma Jordan & Gilbert 1884 -- (Gutherz 1967:10 [ref. 23862], Lee et al. 1980:829 [ref. 22416], Robins & Ray 1986:290 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:176 [ref. 23239], Knight & Hastings 1994:150 [ref. 25560], Mettee et al. 1996:749 [ref. 25836], Murdy et al. 1997:275 [ref. 23144], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:476 [ref. 24550], Fuller et al. 1999:480 [ref. 25838], Ross et al. 2001:526 [ref. 25978], Munroe 2003:1910 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:636 [ref. 27995], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:856 [ref. 28815], Page & Burr 2011:620 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708], Robins et al. 2018:424 [ref. 35886], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36025]). Current status: Valid as Paralichthys lethostigma Jordan & Gilbert 1884. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Atlantic and Gulf coasts of U.S.A. (North Carolina to Mexico). Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

levisquamis, Spinirhombus Oshima [M.] 1927:189 [Japanese Journal of Zoology v. 1 (no. 5) (art. 14); ref. 3315] Tainan fish market and Kaohsiung (Toko), southwestern Taiwan. Syntypes: (2) whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:61 [ref. 31432] as holotype (Tainan) and paratype (Toko). Technically, the described specimen should be made the lectotype, holotype not established originally. •Valid as Pseudorhombus levisquamis (Oshima 1927) -- (Amaoka 1969:105 [ref. 105], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:347 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:24 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:133 [ref. 16193], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:644 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1357 [ref. 25182], Shinohara et al. 2001:335 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1357 [ref. 26193], Ho et al. 2009:9 [ref. 31461], Ho & Shao 2011:61 [ref. 31432], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:81 [ref. 32413], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2018:290 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Pseudorhombus levisquamis (Oshima 1927). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Vietnam and southern China to Japan. Habitat: marine.

liolepis, Xystreurys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1880:34 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 107); ref. 2467] San Pedro, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 26843. Apparently based on one specimen. •Valid as Xystreurys liolepis Jordan & Gilbert 1880 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:286 [ref. 9277], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1380 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:255 [ref. 24545], De la Cruz-Agüero & Cota-Gómez 1998:357 [ref. 23520], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Allen & Groce 2001:137 [ref. 25751], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:326 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:95 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Xystreurys liolepis Jordan & Gilbert 1880. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: California (U.S.A.) south to Gulf of California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

longidorsale, Syacium Murakami [T.] & Amaoka [K.] 1992:82, Figs. 16-17 [Bulletin of the Faculty of Fisheries Hokkaido University v. 43 (no. 2); ref. 19779] Gulf of Guayaquil, Ecuador, 3°39'S, 80°41'W, depth 13 meters. Holotype: USNM 317825. Paratypes: HUMZ 121131-36 (6), 121137-40 (4); USNM 317826-27 (11, 14). •Valid as Syacium longidorsale Murakami & Amaoka 1992 -- (Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1377 [ref. 22830], van der Heiden & Mitchell 1998:756 [ref. 23424], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:206 [ref. 24555], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Syacium longidorsale Murakami & Amaoka 1992. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Off Ecuador, eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

longimanus, Etropus Norman [J. R.] 1933:202 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 10) v. 12 (no. 68) (art. 21); ref. 16511] Cape Frio, Brazil, depth 40 fathoms. Holotype: BMNH 1913.12.4.312. Paratypes: BMNH 1913.12.4.313-320 (17). •Valid as Etropus longimanus Norman 1933 -- (Andreata & Séret 1996:589 [ref. 16204], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:479 [ref. 24550], López et al. 2002:66 [ref. 26808], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:106 [ref. 27192], Díaz de Astarloa & Fabré 2003:124 [ref. 27726], van der Heiden & Plascencia González 2005:470 [ref. 28311], Costa et al. 2015:1061 [ref. 37495], Nión et al. 2016:54 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Etropus longimanus Norman 1933. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazil. Habitat: marine.

longleyi, Syacium Norman [J. R.] 1933:201 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 10) v. 12 (no. 68) (art. 21); ref. 16511] Off Breton Island, Louisiana, U.S.A. Holotype: BMNH 1931.11.5.23. Additional material or paratypes: (3). Technically a holotype probably was not established in the original description as counts represent multiple specimens. •Synonym of Syacium gunteri Ginsburg 1933 -- (Murakami & Amaoka 1992:71 [ref. 19779] as longreyi). Current status: Synonym of Syacium gunteri Ginsburg 1933. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

macrops, Citharichthys Dresel [H. G.] 1885:539 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 464); ref. 14443] Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 21500. •Valid as Citharichthys macrops Dresel 1885 -- (Gutherz 1967:33 [ref. 23862], Robins & Ray 1986:291 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:174 [ref. 23239], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:256 [ref. 22947], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:200 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:484 [ref. 24550], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2000:302 [ref. 24565], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:170 [ref. 27754], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639], Munroe 2003:1916 [ref. 27118], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:105 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:68 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:845 [ref. 28815], Matamoros et al. 2009:26 [ref. 31241], Victor & Wellington 2013:27 [ref. 32520], Page et al. 2013:184 [ref. 32708], Catelani et al. 2014:933 [ref. 37496], Spier et al. 2018:17 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys macrops Dresel 1885. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

macrops, Hippoglossina Steindachner [F.] 1876:61 [13], Pl. 3 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] "Mazatlan" [in error]. Syntypes: (several) not found at NMW. On p. 13 of separate. •Valid as Hippoglossina macrops Steindachner 1876 -- (Nakamura in Nakamura et al. 1986:304 [ref. 14235], Pequeño & D'Ottone D. 1987:114 [ref. 11844], Pequeño 1989:76 [ref. 14125], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1370 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:252 [ref. 24545], Villarroel & Acuña 1999:145 [ref. 24262]). Current status: Valid as Hippoglossina macrops Steindachner 1876. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific off western South America. Habitat: marine.

macrops, Neoetropus Hildebrand [S. F.] & Schroeder [W. C.] 1928:174, Fig. 89 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 43 (1927, pt 1); ref. 2163] Off Smiths Point, somewhat below mouth of Potomac River, Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, U.S.A., Fish Hawk, depth 25 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 87653. The type locality information is questioned by Hoshino & Munroe 2004:588 [ref. 27908]. •Apparently a valid species of Citharichthys or Etropus, but no current status reference is available -- (S. A. Evseenko, pers. comm., 5/03). •Synonym of Citharichthys arctifrons Goode 1880 -- (Hoshino & Munroe 2004:583 [ref. 27908]). Current status: Synonym of Citharichthys arctifrons Goode 1880. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

maculifer, Citharichthys Garman [S.] 1899:224 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Near Cocos Island, Costa Rica, eastern Pacific, 5°32'45"N, 86°54'30"W, Albatross station 3368, depth 66 fathoms. Syntypes: MCZ 28546 (2). •Valid as Syacium maculiferum (Garman 1899) -- (Murakami & Amaoka 1992:74 [ref. 19779], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1378 [ref. 22830], van der Heiden & Mitchell 1998:753 [ref. 23424]). Current status: Valid as Syacium maculiferum (Garman 1899). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Eastern central Pacific. Habitat: marine.

maculosus, Pleuronectes Cuvier [G.] 1829:341 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Vizagapatam, India. No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:336 [ref. 25922]. Available from footnote as, "Pl. maculosus, N. Russel, 75." •Synonym of Pseudorhombus arsius (Hamilton 1822) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:336 [ref. 25922], Kottelat 2013:462 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudorhombus arsius (Hamilton 1822). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

maculosus, Pleuronectes Girard [C. F.] 1854:155 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 5769] San Diego, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Pleuronectes maculosus Cuvier 1829. •In the synonymy of Paralichthys californicus (Ayres 1859). Current status: Synonym of Paralichthys californicus (Ayres 1859). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

magdalenae, Paralichthys Abbott [C. C.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:2871 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2445] Magdalena Bay, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 10197 [not 10196 as published]. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:140 [ref. 12291]. Author is C. C. Abbott. •Synonym of Paralichthys aestuarius Gilbert & Scofield 1898 -- (Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1373 [ref. 22830], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:474 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Paralichthys aestuarius Gilbert & Scofield 1898. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

malayanus, Pseudorhombus Bleeker [P.] 1865:43 [1] [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 3; ref. 13940] Jakarta, Java; Telokbetong, Benkulen, Sumatra; Singapore; Pamangkat, Borneo; Makassar, Sulawesi; Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: (10) BMNH 1880.4.21.187 (1). On p. 1 of separate. •Valid as Pseudorhombus malayanus Bleeker 1865 -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:260 [ref. 19754], Lu & Wu in Kuang et al. 1986:331 [ref. 26639], Li & Wang 1995:127 [ref. 16193], Randall 1995:359 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:231 [ref. 23922], Amaoka & Hensley 2001:3854 [ref. 26312], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Kottelat 2013:463 [ref. 32989], Imamura in Kimura et al. 2015:92 [ref. 34319], Miesen et al. 2016:96 [ref. 34492], Motomura et al. 2017:218 [ref. 35490], Imamura in Kimura et al. 2018:290 [ref. 36460], Eagderi et al. 2019:123 [ref. 37020], Psomadakis et al. 2020:585 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Pseudorhombus malayanus Bleeker 1865. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf east to Philippines and eastern Indonesia, north to northern Vietnam. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mariajorisae, Citharichthys van der Heiden [A. M.] & Mussot-Pérez [S.] 1995:440, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1995 (no. 2); ref. 21611] Southern Nayarit, 21°14'N, 105°15'W, Mexico, depth 20 meters. Holotype: SIO 91-103. Paratypes: CAS 81736 (3); ICML/MAZ 79-3 (1), 79-7 (1), 81-17 (1), 84-5 (3), 84-6 (7), 84-7 (1), 85-1 (3); IIPB 404-410/1991 (7); SIO 63-517-64 (1), 91-76 (30), 91-104 (4); UCLA W53-275 (4), W58-305 (4); USNM 331904 (3). Type catalog: Allué et al. 2000:158 [ref. 30499]. •Valid as Citharichthys mariajorisae van der Heiden & Mussot-Pérez 1995 -- (Hoshino & Amaoka 1999:372 [ref. 24199], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], van der Heiden et al. 2009:814 [ref. 30608], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708] as Mussot, González-Murcia et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys mariajorisae van der Heiden & Mussot-Pérez 1995. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

maximus, Pleuronectes Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:376 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. Corresponds to Distinctiales on p. 372 and to Pleuronectes distincti-alis on p. 383. Also appeared as Pleuronectes distincti-ales vel maximus as a new species in Devincenzi 1925:301, 321 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi regarded as a synonym Paralichthys patagonicus Jordan & Goss [Jordan in Jordan & Goss 1889]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Pleuronectes maximus Linnaeus 1758, although Larrañaga may not have intended maximus as a new species. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

megalops, Pseudorhombus Fowler [H. W.] 1934:329, Fig. 83 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 85 (for 1933); ref. 1416] Between Samar and Masbate, Philippines, 12°12'35"N, 124°02'48"E, Albatross station D.5392, depth 135 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 93082. Paratypes: USNM 93550 (2). •Valid as Pseudorhombus megalops Fowler 1934 -- (Hensley & Amaoka 1989 [ref. 19772], Amaoka & Hensley 2001:3855 [ref. 26312], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Hoese & Bray 2006:1829 [ref. 29000], Psomadakis et al. 2020:585 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Pseudorhombus megalops Fowler 1934. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

melanogaster, Pleuronectes Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:390 [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York market, New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Paralichthys dentatus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Smith 1986:455 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Paralichthys dentatus (Linnaeus 1766). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

microctenus, Ancylopsetta Gutherz [E. J.] 1966:455, Fig. 2 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 16 (no. 3); ref. 9034] Caribbean Sea off Honduras, 16°26'N, 81°35'W, Oregon station 3625, depth 120 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 209017. Paratypes: ANSP 102913 (2); BMNH 1965.6.17.5-6 (1, 1); FMNH 65489 (2); MCZ 44133 (1); CAS-SU 62533 (1); UF 19302-03 (1, 2), 217381 [ex UMML 17381] (1), 217383 [ex UMML 17383] (1); USNM 209024-26 (1, 4, 2). Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:113 [ref. 21035], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:8 [ref. 12367], Böhlke 1984:31 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Ancylopsetta microctenus Gutherz 1966 -- (Gutherz 1967:16 [ref. 23862], Munroe 2003:1913 [ref. 27118]). Current status: Valid as Ancylopsetta microctenus Gutherz 1966. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

micrognathus, Pseudorhombus Norman [J. R.] 1927:16, Pl. 3 [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 29 (pt 1); ref. 3217] Puri Beach, Orissa, India. Holotype: ZSI F3441/1. Paratypes: BMNH 1927.1.6.23 [ex ZSI] (1); ZSI F5039/1 (1). •Valid as Pseudorhombus micrognathus Norman 1927 -- (Suresh et al. 2018:317 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Pseudorhombus micrognathus Norman 1927. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: east coast of India; Philippines. Habitat: marine.

microps, Hippoglossina Günther [A.] 1881:21 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London v. 49, 1881 (pt 1) (art. 1) (for 4 Jan. 1881); ref. 2012] West coast of Patagonia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1880.7.28.6. •Valid as Paralichthys microps (Günther 1881) -- (Nakamura in Nakamura et al. 1986:294 [ref. 14235], Pequeño & Plaza 1987:165 [ref. 6629], Pequeño & D'Ottone D. 1987:114 [ref. 11844], Pequeño 1989:76 [ref. 14125], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Evseenko 1998:836 [ref. 24689], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:202 [ref. 24555], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36025]). Current status: Valid as Paralichthys microps (Günther 1881). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Southeast Pacific off Chile. Habitat: marine.

micros, Citharichthys Fowler [H. W.] 1911:200, Figs. [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 63; ref. 14787] Corson's Inlet, Cape May County, New Jersey, U.S.A. Holotype: ANSP 37841. Paratypes: ANSP 37842-50 (9). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:31 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Etropus microstomus (Gill 1864) -- (Leslie & Stewart 1986:149 [ref. 5948]). Current status: Synonym of Etropus microstomus (Gill 1864). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

microstomus, Citharichthys Gill [T. N.] 1864:220 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 1704] New Jersey to North Carolina, U.S.A. No types known. •Valid as Etropus microstomus (Gill 1864) -- (Gutherz 1967:28 [ref. 23862], Smith 1986:454 [ref. 22186], Leslie & Stewart 1986:140 [ref. 5948], Robins & Ray 1986:292 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:537 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:220 [ref. 14674], Murdy et al. 1997:279 [ref. 23144], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:552 [ref. 26158], Munroe 2003:1906 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], van der Heiden & Plascencia González 2005:470 [ref. 28311], Victor & Wellington 2013:27 [ref. 32520], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etropus microstomus (Gill 1864). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western North Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

micrurum, Syacium Ranzani [C.] 1842:16, Pl. 5 [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 5; ref. 3606] Brazil. Holotype (unique): MZUB 948. See also Santos et al. 1997:131 [ref. 23531]. •Valid as Syacium micrurum Ranzani 1842 -- (Gutherz 1967:39 [ref. 23862], Fraser 1971:501 [ref. 21277], Hensley 1986:863 [ref. 5669], Robins & Ray 1986:292 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:541 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:220 [ref. 14674], Aldebert et al. 1990:1035 [ref. 19526], Boschung 1992:176 [ref. 23239], Murakami & Amaoka 1992:74 [ref. 19779], Cervigón 1992:278 [ref. 23827], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:178 [ref. 25472], Andreata & Séret 1996:589 [ref. 16204] dated 1840, Cervigón 1996:65 [ref. 24489], Arruda 1997:119 [ref. 24952], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:341 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:87 [ref. 25466], Keith et al. 2000:242 [ref. 24547], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2000:307 [ref. 24565], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639], Munroe 2003:1921 [ref. 27118], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:106 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:859 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708], see Wirtz et al. 2014:11 [ref. 33515], Spier et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36103], Carneiro et al. 2019:188 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Syacium micrurum Ranzani 1842. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic; southern-central Atlantic:, ?Ascension Island. Habitat: marine.

minutus, Citharichthys Cervigón [F.] 1982:9, Fig. 3 [Los peces marinos de Venezuela; ref. 23220] Playa de Boca Chica, Edo. Nueva Esparta, Venezuela. Holotype: UDONECI 1126. Paratypes: UDONECI 996 (1), 1116 (2). •Valid as Citharichthys minutus Cervigón 1982 -- (Cervigón 1992:275 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:56 [ref. 24489], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2000:000 [ref. 24565], Victor & Wellington 2013:27 [ref. 32520]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys minutus Cervigón 1982. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Venezuela. Habitat: marine.

misakius, Pseudorhombus Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1906:175, Figs. 4-5 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 31 (no. 1484); ref. 2532] Kobe, Japan. Holotype: USNM 55643 (not found in 1980). Paratypes: CAS-SU 9823 (1), 9941 (1), 9953 (2); USNM 56348 (2), 56358 (5). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:140 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Pseudorhombus cinnamoneus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Amaoka 1969:102 [ref. 105], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:28 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:144 [ref. 16193]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudorhombus cinnamoneus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

montemaris, Hippoglossina de Buen [F.] 1961:43 [Montemar No. 1; ref. 698] Near Montemar, Chile. Holotype: EBMC 230. Paratypes: EBMC 231 (1). •Valid as Hippoglossina montemaris de Buen 1961 -- (Pequeño 1989:76 [ref. 14125], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:200 [ref. 24555]). Current status: Valid as Hippoglossina montemaris de Buen 1961. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Chile. Habitat: marine.

moorei, Pseudorhombus Thominot [A.] 1880:175 [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 4; ref. 20216] Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:336 [ref. 25922] as not types at MNHN. On p. 3 of separate. •Questionably a synonym of Pseudorhombus jenynsii (Bleeker 1855) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:336 [ref. 25922] following Norman 1934). •Incertae sedis in Paralichthyidae -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1830 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Uncertain as Pseudorhombus jenynsii (Bleeker 1855). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mortoniensis, Pleuronectes De Vis [C. W.] 1882:370 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 3); ref. 1087] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: whereabouts unknown. Paratypes: ?AMS I.367 (1), QM I.90 (4). •Synonym of Pseudorhombus arsius (Hamilton 1822) -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1827 [ref. 29000], Kottelat 2013:463 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudorhombus arsius (Hamilton 1822). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

multimaculatus, Pseudorhombus Günther [A.] 1862:427 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] No locality (Haslar coll.) [Australian area]. Syntypes: BMNH 1855.9.19.1246 (3). •Synonym of Pseudorhombus jenynsii (Bleeker 1855) -- (Gomon et al. 1994:850 [ref. 22532], Hoese & Bray 2006:1828 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudorhombus jenynsii (Bleeker 1855). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

multiradiatus, Pseudorhombus Macleay [W.] 1882:13 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 1); ref. 2870] Not available. Not intended as new; apparently in error for Pseudorhombus multimaculatus Günther. •In the synonymy of Pseudorhombus jenynsii (Bleeker 1855) -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1828 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudorhombus jenynsii (Bleeker 1855). Paralichthyidae.

mystacium, Hippoglossina Ginsburg [I.] 1936:130, Fig. 1 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 26 (no. 3); ref. 19996] Taitao Peninsula, Chile, 46°47'30"S, 75°15'W, Albatross station 2787, depth 61 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 77393. •Valid as Hippoglossina mystacium Ginsburg 1936 -- (Pequeño 1989:76 [ref. 14125]). Current status: Valid as Hippoglossina mystacium Ginsburg 1936. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Chile. Habitat: marine.

naresi, Thysanopsetta Günther [A.] 1880:22, Pl. 11 (fig. A) [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Off Cape Virgins, Strait of Magellan, Argentina, depth 55 fathoms. Syntypes: (2?) BMNH 1879.5.14.58. Spelled naresii on plate, naresi twice in text. •Valid as Thysanopsetta naresi Günther 1880 -- (Inada in Nakamura et al. 1986:306 [ref. 14235], Pequeño 1989:76 [ref. 14125], Evseenko 1996:726 [ref. 24666] as naresii). Current status: Valid as Thysanopsetta naresi Günther 1880. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Southern tip of South America. Habitat: marine.

natalensis, Pseudorhombus Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1904:8, Pl. 25 [Marine Investigations in South Africa v. 3; ref. 1646] Off Cape Natal, bearing W by N distant 6.5 miles, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, depth 54 fathoms. Syntypes: ?BMNH 1903.12.31.9 [ex SAM] (1), SAM 15377 (12). •Valid as Pseudorhombus natalensis Gilchrist 1904 -- (Hensley 1986:862 [ref. 5669], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:593 [ref. 27969], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:434 [ref. 28072], Psomadakis et al. 2020:586 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Pseudorhombus natalensis Gilchrist 1904. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: South Africa east to Myanmar Habitat: marine.

nauphala, Pleuronectes Hamilton [F.] 1822:126, 373 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Gangetic estuaries, India. No types known. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

neglectus, Pseudorhombus Bleeker [P.] 1865:44 [2] [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 3; ref. 13940] Makassar (?), Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. On p. 2 of separate. •Valid as Pseudorhombus neglectus Bleeker 1865 -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:262 [ref. 19754], Lu & Wu in Kuang et al. 1986:332 [ref. 26639], Li & Wang 1995:145 [ref. 16193], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:644 [ref. 25122], Amaoka & Hensley 2001:3856 [ref. 26312] dated 1866, Ho et al. 2009:9 [ref. 31461], Kottelat 2013:463 [ref. 32989], Imamura in Kimura et al. 2015:92 [ref. 34319], Miesen et al. 2016:96 [ref. 34492], Psomadakis et al. 2020:586 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Pseudorhombus neglectus Bleeker 1865. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nivosus, Paralichthys simulans var. Lahille [F.] 1939:Pl. 7 [Physis (Buenos Aires) v. 16; ref. 21719] Not available, see account of Paralichthys simulans Lahille 1939. •In the synonymy of Paralichthys simulans Lahille 1939 -- (Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2006:237 [ref. 28684]). •In the synonymy Paralichthys orbignyanus (Valenciennes 1839) based on placement of simulans. Current status: Synonym of Paralichthys orbignyanus (Valenciennes 1839). Paralichthyidae.

norma, Dorsopsetta Nielsen [J. G.] 1963:379, Figs. 1-2; Pl. 13 (figs. 1-4) [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn. v. 125; ref. 3194] A few miles west of Talara, Peru. Holotype: Inst. Recursos Marinos, Callao, Peru. Paratypes: ZMUC P853116 (1). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:84 [ref. 9588]. •Valid as Dorsopsetta norma Nielsen 1963 -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:203 [ref. 24555]). •Synonym of Cyclopsetta querna (Jordan & Bollman 1890) -- (van der Heiden & Mussot-Pérez 1993 [ref. 21026], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:613 [ref. 24023], Khidir et al. 2004:13 [ref. 36549]). Current status: Synonym of Cyclopsetta querna (Jordan & Bollman 1890). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

normani, Istiorhombus spinosus Whitley [G. P.] 1931:322 [Australian Zoologist v. 6 (pt 4); ref. 4672] Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: AMS E.1958-59 (1, 1). Based on Pseudorhombus spinosus of Norman 1926:224 [ref. 3216]. •Synonym of Pseudorhombus spinosus McCuloch 1914 -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1829 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudorhombus spinosus McCulloch 1914. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

notata, Hippoglossina Berg [C.] 1895:75 [Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires v. 4; ref. 261] Mar del Plata, Atlantic coast of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

novaecambriae, Paralichthys Ogilby [J. D.] 1898:296 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 23 (pt 3); ref. 3276] Mouth of George's River, New South Wales, Australia. Syntypes: (8) ?AMS I.7689-90 and I.10887. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

oblongus, Pleuronectes Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:391 [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Valid as Hippoglossina oblonga (Mitchill 1815) -- (Gutherz 1967:18 [ref. 23862], Evseenko 1996:726 [ref. 24666], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Munroe 2003:1919 [ref. 27118]). •Valid as Paralichthys oblongus (Mitchill 1815) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:290 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:538 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:220 [ref. 14674], Murdy et al. 1997:276 [ref. 23144], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:559 [ref. 26158], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36025]). Current status: Valid as Paralichthys oblongus (Mitchill 1815). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western North Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

obscurior, Paralichthys simulans var. Lahille [F.] 1939:Pl. 6 (no. 2) [Physis (Buenos Aires) v. 16; ref. 21719] See account of Paralichthys simulans Lahille 1939. •In the synonymy of Paralichthys simulans Lahille 1939 -- (Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2006:237 [ref. 28684]). •In the synonymy Paralichthys orbignyanus (Valenciennes 1839) based on placement of simulans. Current status: Synonym of Paralichthys orbignyanus (Valenciennes 1839). Paralichthyidae.

occellatus, Neorhombus De Vis [C. W.] 1886:5 [Annual Report of the Queensland Museum; ref. 19986] Not available, name mentioned in list, no description; from Caloundra, Queensland, Australia. Subsequently published by Norman 1934:102 [ref. 6893] as ocellatus, but in the synonymy of Pseudorhombus arsius (Hamilton 1822), therefore still not available from that publication. •In the synonymy of Pseudorhombus arsius (Hamilton 1822) -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1827 [ref. 29000] as ocellatus and author as Hamilton-Buchannan, Kottelat 2013:463 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudorhombus arsius (Hamilton 1822). Paralichthyidae.

ocellaris, Platessa DeKay [J. E.] 1842:300, Pl. 47 (fig. 152) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] New York, U.S.A. Syntypes: New York State coll. (whereabouts unknown). •Synonym of Paralichthys dentatus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Smith 1986:455 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Paralichthys dentatus (Linnaeus 1766). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

ocellatus, Hippoglossus Poey [F.] 1860:314 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Holotype: MCZ 11188. Paratypes: MCZ 11144 (1), 11192 (1), 11194 (1); ?NMW 43858 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:181 [ref. 22926] with a holotype and paratypes, but probably syntypes originally. •Synonym of Syacium micrurum Ranzani 1842 -- (Murakami & Amaoka 1992:74 [ref. 19779]). Current status: Synonym of Syacium micrurum Ranzani 1842. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

ocellifer, Pseudorhombus Regan [C. T.] 1905:25 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 15 (no. 85) (art. 2); ref. 3624] Inland Sea, Japan. BMNH. Syntypes: BMNH 1879.5.14.71-72 (2), 1905.6.6.244-246 (3). •Synonym of Pseudorhombus pentophthalmus Günther 1862 -- (Amaoka 1969:97 [ref. 105], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:26 [ref. 21500], Amaoka & Hensley 2001:3858 [ref. 26312]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudorhombus pentophthalmus Günther 1862. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

oculocirris, Pseudorhombus Amaoka [K.] 1969:94 [30], Fig. 15 [Journal of the Shimonoseki University of Fisheries v. 18 (no. 2); ref. 105] Mimase, Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Holotype: FAKU 33053. Paratypes: FAKU 19654 (1), 33501-07 (7), 33508-09 (2), 33510 (1), 33511-12 (2), 33513 (1), 33514 (1), 33515 (1), 33516 (1), 33517 (1), 33518-20 (3), 33521-29 (9), 33530-37 (8). On p. 30 of separate (dual pagination). •Valid as Pseudorhombus oculocirris Amaoka 1969 -- (Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:347 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:23 [ref. 21500], Nakabo 2000:1356 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1356 [ref. 26193], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:81 [ref. 32413], Voronina et al. 2016:393 [ref. 35064]). Current status: Valid as Pseudorhombus oculocirris Amaoka 1969. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan and Vietnam. Habitat: marine.

oligodon, Rhombus Bleeker [P.] 1854:419 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 13964] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Pseudorhombus oligodon (Bleeker 1854) -- (Amaoka 1969:92 [ref. 105], Kyushin et al. 1982:260 [ref. 19754], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:347 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:24 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:128 [ref. 16193], Chen et al. 1997:175 [ref. 26476], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:644 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1357 [ref. 25182], Amaoka & Hensley 2001:3857 [ref. 26312], Shinohara et al. 2001:335 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1357 [ref. 26193], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:82 [ref. 32413], Yoshida et al. 2013:212 [ref. 34464], Voronina et al. 2016:394 [ref. 35064], Motomura et al. 2017:218 [ref. 35490], Imamura in Kimura et al. 2018:291 [ref. 36460], Sonoyama et al. 2020:116 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Pseudorhombus oligodon (Bleeker 1854). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Vietnam east to Philippines, north to Japan. Habitat: marine.

oligolepis, Rhombus Bleeker [P.] 1858:8, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 5 (art. 9); ref. 16963] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Pseudorhombus oligolepis (Bleeker 1858) -- (Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:31 [ref. 21500], Kim & Youn 1994:107 [ref. 22286], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:84 [ref. 32413]). •Valid as Tarphops oligolepis (Bleeker 1858) -- (Amaoka 1969:108 [ref. 105], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:347 [ref. 6441], Li & Wang 1995:147 [ref. 16193], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:644 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1355 [ref. 25182], Shimizu 2001:43 [ref. 25799], Nakabo 2002:1355 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:430, 681 [ref. 26218], Ho et al. 2009:9 [ref. 31461], Jeong in Kimura et al. 2018:292 [ref. 36460], Sonoyama et al. 2020:117 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Tarphops oligolepis (Bleeker 1858). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: northern Vietnam and Taiwan to Korea and Japan. Habitat: marine.

olivaceus, Hippoglossus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:184, Pl. 94 [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Nagasaki, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D1302 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH D1301 (1, stuffed). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:150 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Amaoka 1969:85 [ref. 105], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:346 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:19 [ref. 21500], Kim & Youn 1994:106 [ref. 22286], Li & Wang 1995:117 [ref. 16193], Evseenko 1996:726 [ref. 24666], Cheng & Zhou 1997:444 [ref. 26385], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Mizuno et al. 1999:13 [ref. 25311], Nakabo 2000:1355 [ref. 25182], Shimizu 2001:43 [ref. 25799], Wang et al. 2001:304 [ref. 26566], Nakabo 2002:1355 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:430, 680 [ref. 26218], Hagiwara 2003:40 [ref. 27188], Evseenko 2003:S58 [ref. 28535], Motomura et al. 2010:230 [ref. 31256], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:77 [ref. 32413], Shinohara et al. 2014:274 [ref. 33330], Parin et al. 2014:525 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:194 [ref. 35257], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2018:15 [ref. 36025], Kimura & Imamura in Kimura et al. 2018:289 [ref. 36460], Sonoyama et al. 2020:114 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Vietnam and China to Korea, Russia and Japan. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ommatus, Paralichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1883:824 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 16; ref. 2476] Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. Based on style ("nom. sp. nov." instead of "sp. nov.") and the footnote on p. 825, this name is regarded as a replacement name for Ancylopsetta quadrocellata Gill 1864, preoccupied by Platessa quadrocellata Storer 1847 ("which is also a species of Paralichthys"). Type locality is same as for quadrocellata Gill. •Wrongly as a synonym of Ancylopsetta quadrocellata Gill 1864 -- (Gutherz 1966:469 [ref. 9034], Munroe 2003:1913 [ref. 27118]). •Should be regarded as valid. Current status: Valid as Ancylopsetta ommata (Jordan & Gilbert 1883). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico to western Atlantic off southern U.S.A. Habitat: marine.

ophryas, Paralichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1883:822 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 16; ref. 2476] Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 17114. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

orbignyana, Platessa Jenyns [L.] (ex Valenciennes) 1842:137 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Probably not an available name. It appears that the plate from Valenciennes was published first and the name was made available from then, not here. Current status: Synonym of Paralichthys orbignyanus (Valenciennes 1839). Paralichthyidae.

orbignyana, Platessa Valenciennes [A.] 1839:Pl. 16 (fig. 1) [Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale; ref. 20720] Río de la Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1999-0295. Name available from plate, description in Valenciennes 1847:10 [ref. 5010]; also in Jenyns (ex Valenciennes) 1842. Pl. 16 was published in 1839. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:301 [ref. 25922] dating to 1837 and incorrectly with syntypes -- the figured specimen is the holotype. •Valid as Paralichthys orbignyanus (Valenciennes 1839) -- (Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:144 [ref. 25942], López et al. 2002:66 [ref. 26808], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:106 [ref. 27192] dating to 1839, Díaz de Astarloa & Fabré 2003:124 [ref. 27726], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2006:236 [ref. 28684], Mabragaña et al. 2011:10 and table S2 [ref. 31800], Di Dario et al. 2013:264 [ref. 37503], Fabiano et al. 2014:9 [ref. 33530], Nión et al. 2016:54 [ref. 35565] with author as Jenyns 1842, Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36025], Spier et al. 2018:17 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Paralichthys orbignyanus (Valenciennes 1839). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ovalis, Hemirhombus Günther [A.] 1864:154 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1864 (pt 1) (art. 3) (for 22 Mar. 1864); ref. 13930] Pacific coast of Panama. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1864.1.26.348. •Valid as Syacium ovale (Günther 1864) -- (Murakami & Amaoka 1992:86 [ref. 19779], Allen & Robertson 1994:289 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:150 [ref. 23101], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1379 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:254 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:615 [ref. 24023], van der Heiden & Mitchell 1998:756 [ref. 23424], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:206 [ref. 24555], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:477 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:460 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:611 [ref. 34923], González-Murcia et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Syacium ovale (Günther 1864). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

pacificus, Etropus delsmani Nielsen [J. G.] 1963:387, Figs. 6-7; Pl. 14 (fig. 2) [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn. v. 125; ref. 3194] South of San José, Perlas Island, Gulf of Panama, depth 46 meters. Holotype: ZMUC P853137. Paratypes: ZMUC P853138-43 (6), Servicio de Pesqueria, Lima, Peru (?). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:84 [ref. 9588]. •Synonym of Etropus delsmani Chabanaud 1940, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1366 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:211 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:479 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Etropus delsmani Chabanaud 1940. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

paetulus, Hemirhombus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] (ex Bean) 1882:304 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 282); ref. 2472] Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. Syntypes: (several) USNM 30180 (1). Description involves other specimens than those used by Goode and Bean, so authorship is attributed to Jordan & Gilbert. Also appeared (later in same journal) as new in Goode & Bean 1882:414 [ref. 1840] based on USNM 30180. •Synonym of Syacium papillosum (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Murakami & Amaoka 1992:74 [ref. 19779]). Current status: Synonym of Syacium papillosum (Linnaeus 1758). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

palad, Platophrys Evermann [B. W.] & Seale [A.] 1907:105, Fig. 21 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 26 (Doc. 607) (for 1906); ref. 1285] Bulan, Sorsogon, Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype (unique): USNM 55898. •Synonym of Pseudorhombus dupliciocellatus Regan 1905 -- (Amaoka 1969:90 [ref. 105]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudorhombus dupliciocellatus Regan 1905. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

panamensis, Citharichthys Steindachner [F.] 1875:90 [62] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.); ref. 4223] (Pacific) Panama. Syntypes: (several) MCZ 24981 (1); NMW 9132-36 (5); USNM 44132 (1). On p. 62 of separate. •Valid as Cyclopsetta panamensis (Steindachner 1875) (sometimes dated to 1876) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:287 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:150 [ref. 23101], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1363 [ref. 22830], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:207 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:482 [ref. 24550], Khidir et al. 2004:11 [ref. 36549], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], McMahan et al. 2013:453 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:93 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Cyclopsetta panamensis (Steindachner 1875). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California (Mexico) south to Ecuador. Habitat: brackish, marine.

papillosus, Pleuronectes Linnaeus [C.] 1758:271 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] America. No types known. •Valid as Syacium papillosum (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Gutherz 1967:38 [ref. 23862], Fraser 1971:500 [ref. 21277], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:456 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:293 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:177 [ref. 23239], Murakami & Amaoka 1992:78 [ref. 19779], Cervigón 1992:279 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:67 [ref. 24489], Evseenko 1996:726 [ref. 24666], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:478 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:341 [ref. 25013], Keith et al. 2000:208 [ref. 24547], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2000:308 [ref. 24565], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:170 [ref. 27754], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639], Munroe 2003:1921 [ref. 27118], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:106 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:860 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:85 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:11 [ref. 33516], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:181 [ref. 37485], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3000 [ref. 34618], Spier et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36103], Carneiro et al. 2019:188 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Syacium papillosum (Linnaeus 1758). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.) south to Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); southern-central Atlantic: Ascension Island. Habitat: marine.

patagonicus, Paralichthys Jordan [D. S.] in Jordan & Goss 1889:248 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 14 (for 1886) (art. 2); ref. 2482] Puerto San Antonio, eastern coast of Patagonia. Lectotype: MCZ 11399. Paralectotypes: MCZ 135300 [ex MCZ 11399] (2). Lectotype selected by Díaz de Astarloa 1996:1036 [ref. 22781]. •Valid as Paralichthys patagonicus Jordan 1889 -- (Pequeño & Plaza 1987:165 [ref. 6629], Pequeño 1989:76 [ref. 14125], Díaz de Astarloa 1996:1035 [ref. 22781], Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:146 [ref. 25942], López et al. 2002:66 [ref. 26808], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:106 [ref. 27192], Díaz de Astarloa & Fabré 2003:124 [ref. 27726], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2006:241 [ref. 28684], Mabragaña et al. 2011:10 and table S2 [ref. 31800], Nión et al. 2016:54 [ref. 35565] with author as (Jordan 1890), Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36025], Spier et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Paralichthys patagonicus Jordan 1889. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Chile; southwestern Atlantic: Brazil south to Argentina. Habitat: marine.

pentophthalmus, Pseudorhombus Günther [A.] 1862:428 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] China seas. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1848.3.16.207. •Valid as Pseudorhombus pentophthalmus Günther 1862 -- (Amaoka 1969:97 [ref. 105], Amaoka in Masuda et al. 1984:347 [ref. 6441], Matsuura in Okamura et al. 1985:611, 735 [ref. 8056], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:26 [ref. 21500], Kim & Youn 1994:107 [ref. 22286], Li & Wang 1995:139 [ref. 16193], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:644 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1356 [ref. 25182], Amaoka & Hensley 2001:3858 [ref. 26312], Shimizu 2001:44 [ref. 25799], Shinohara et al. 2001:335 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1356 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:430, 681 [ref. 26218], Shinohara et al. 2005:442 [ref. 28370], Ho et al. 2009:9 [ref. 31461], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:82 [ref. 32413], Shinohara et al. 2014:274 [ref. 33330], Imamura in Kimura et al. 2018:291 [ref. 36460], Sonoyama et al. 2020:117 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Pseudorhombus pentophthalmus Günther 1862. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: western Indonesia and South China Sea to central Japan. Habitat: marine.

percocephala, Platessa Basilewsky [S.] 1855:245 [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Northern China. Holotype or syntype: ZIN 5886 (1, lost). Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:279 [ref. 37075]. Type specimen ZIN 5886 lost during flood in 1924; see Voronina & Volkova 2019:279 [ref. 37075]. •Synonym of Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:19 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:117 [ref. 16193], Evseenko 2003:S58 [ref. 28535], Parin et al. 2014:525 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:194 [ref. 35257]). Current status: Synonym of Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

peruvianus, Etropus Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:470, Fig. 88 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Sechura Bay, Peru. Holotype: USNM 128166. Paratypes: USNM 41352 (1), 88830 (1), 128167 (1). •Valid as Etropus peruvianus Hildebrand 1946 -- (Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1368 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:251 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:211 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:480 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], van der Heiden & Plascencia González 2005:470 [ref. 28311], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etropus peruvianus Hildebrand 1946. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Eastern central Pacific. Habitat: marine.

platophrys, Citharichthys Gilbert [C. H.] 1891:454 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 840); ref. 1624] Panama Bay, eastern Pacific, 8°44'N, 79°09'W, Albatross station 2799, depth 29.5 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 43415. •Valid as Citharichthys platophrys Gilbert 1891 -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1992:100 [ref. 21805], Bussing & López S. 1994:150 [ref. 23101], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1361 [ref. 22830], van der Heiden & Mussot-Perez 1995:444 [ref. 21611], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:249 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:613 [ref. 24023], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:210 [ref. 24555], Hoshino & Amaoka 1999:374 [ref. 24199], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], van der Heiden et al. 2009:814 [ref. 30608], Victor & Wellington 2013:27 [ref. 32520], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708], Robertson et al. 2017:102 [ref. 35676], González-Murcia et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys platophrys Gilbert 1891. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California (Mexico) south to Peru, including Cocos Island. Habitat: marine.

polyspilos, Rhombus Bleeker [P.] 1853:503 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 336] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia; Telok betong, southern Sumatra, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2). Bleeker specimens: NMV 45946 (1). •Synonym of Pseudorhombus arsius (Hamilton 1822) -- (Amaoka 1969:99 [ref. 105], Li & Wang 1995:138 [ref. 16193], Randall 2005:616 [ref. 28239] as polyspilus, Hoese & Bray 2006:1827 [ref. 29000], Kottelat 2013:463 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudorhombus arsius (Hamilton 1822). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

punctata, Lioglossina Abraham [D. S.] 1969:1, Fig. 1 [Ichthyologica (Srinagar, Kashmir) v. 5 (nos 1-2) (1966); ref. 7712] Off Quilon, India, 8°42'40"N, 76°09'35"E, depth 100 fathoms. Holotype (unique): IFP [Mus. Ocean. Lab., Ernakulame]. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

quadrocellata, Platessa Storer [D. H.] 1848:242 [Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History v. 2 (1845-1848); ref. 18841] Provincetown, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Paralichthys oblongus (Mitchill 1815). Current status: Synonym of Paralichthys oblongus (Mitchill 1815). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

quadrocellatus, Ancylopsetta Gill [T. N.] 1864:224 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 5773] Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 8081. See account of Paralichthys ommatus Jordan & Gilbert 1883; Gill's name has been replaced. Originally as quadrocellatus but change to quadrocellata is necessary for gender agreement. •Wrongly valid as Ancylopsetta quadrocellata Gill 1864 -- (Gutherz 1966:469 [ref. 9034], Gutherz 1967:14 [ref. 23862], Robins & Ray 1986:289 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:172 [ref. 23239], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:473 [ref. 24550], Munroe 2003:1913 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:838 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:184 [ref. 32708]). •Synonym of Ancylopsetta ommata (Jordan & Gilbert 1883) -- (authors). Current status: Synonym of Ancylopsetta ommata (Jordan & Gilbert 1883). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

querna, Azevia Jordan [D. S.] & Bollman [C. H.] 1890:174 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 12 (no. 770); ref. 2433] Off Pacific coast of Colombia. Syntypes: CAS-SU 478 (1); USNM 41159 (2), 41223 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:139 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Cyclopsetta querna (Jordan & Bollman 1890) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1992:101 [ref. 21805], Allen & Robertson 1994:288 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:150 [ref. 23101], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1364 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:250 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:613 [ref. 24023], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:207 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:482 [ref. 24550], Khidir et al. 2004:13 [ref. 36549], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], McMahan et al. 2013:454 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708], González-Murcia et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Cyclopsetta querna (Jordan & Bollman 1890). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Chiapas (Mexico) south to Peru. Habitat: brackish, marine.

quinquocellatus, Pseudorhombus Weber [M.] & de Beaufort [L. F.] 1929:104 [Fishes Indo-Australian Archipelago v. 5; ref. 16063] Madura Straits, depth 80-100 meters, near Kangeang Island, Indonesia. Lectotype: ZMA 112569. Paralectotypes: (2) ZMA 109328 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:107 [ref. 19236]. Lectotype selected by Norman 1934:101 [ref. 6893]. •Valid as Pseudorhombus quinquocellatus Weber & de Beaufort 1929 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:326 [ref. 19756], Allen & Swainston 1988:146 [ref. 25477], Feng in Pan et al. 1991:524 [ref. 23876], Li & Wang 1995:135 [ref. 16193], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:594 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:234 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:175 [ref. 26476], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:644 [ref. 25122], Amaoka & Hensley 2001:3859 [ref. 26312], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Hoese & Bray 2006:1829 [ref. 29000], Ho et al. 2009:9 [ref. 31461], Psomadakis et al. 2020:586 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Pseudorhombus quinquocellatus Weber & de Beaufort 1929. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

rasile, Verecundum Jordan [D. S.] 1891:330 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 829); ref. 2391] "... purports to have been taken at Bahia [Brazil].. probably it may have come from the coast of Patagonia." Holotype (unique): USNM 43430. Combined with a masculine genus, the adjectiv becomes rasilis. •Valid as Verecundum rasile Jordan 1891 -- (Nakamura in Nakamura et al. 1986:302 [ref. 14235], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:106 [ref. 27192]). •Valid as Xystreurys rasilis (Jordan 1891) (often seen as rasile) -- (Andreata & Séret 1996:589 [ref. 16204] dated 1890, Evseenko 1996:726 [ref. 24666], Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:148 [ref. 25942], Díaz de Astarloa & Fabré 2003:124 [ref. 27726], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800], Nión et al. 2016:54 [ref. 35565] as Xystreuris with author as (Jordan 1890)). Current status: Valid as Xystreurys rasilis (Jordan 1891). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Southwest Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

rathbuni, Citharichthys Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1915:Heterostoma p. 16 [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 17; ref. 3711] Caravelas, Bahia, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNRJ 1604. Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:404-405 [ref. 12732], Miranda Ribeiro 1959:6 [ref. 10393]. On p. 654 when continuously paginated. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

ribeiroi, Xystreurys Fowler [H. W.] & Bean [B. A.] 1923:26 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 63 (no. 2488); ref. 1474] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype: USNM 83404. Paratypes: USNM 83399 (1). •Synonym of Paralichthys orbignyanus (Valenciennes 1839) -- (Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2006:237 [ref. 28684]). Current status: Synonym of Paralichthys orbignyanus (Valenciennes 1839). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

rimosus, Etropus Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1885:593 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 8 (no. 543); ref. 1842] Gulf of Mexico, 28°28'N, 84°25'W, Albatross station 2408, depth 21 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 37332 (100-mm specimen). Paratypes: USNM 295726 [ex 37332] (1). Type established in first sentence of description; also established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 385, p. 3312 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446] if figured specimen is identifiable. •Valid as Etropus rimosus Goode & Bean 1885 -- (Gutherz 1967:29 [ref. 23862], Leslie & Stewart 1986:145 [ref. 5948], Robins & Ray 1986:292 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:175 [ref. 23239], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:341 [ref. 25013], Munroe 2003:1918 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], van der Heiden & Plascencia González 2005:470 [ref. 28311], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:852 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etropus rimosus Goode & Bean 1885. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

russellii, Platessa Gray [J. E.] 1834:no page number, Pl. 94 (fig. 2) [Illustrations of Indian zoology; ref. 1878] China. Holotype: BMNH 2004.10.31.1 (skin). Published about 1 Oct. 1834. •Synonym of Pseudorhombus arsius (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:462 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudorhombus arsius (Hamilton 1822). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: China (if valid). Habitat: brackish, marine.

sabanensis, Hippoglossina Boulenger [G. A.] 1899:4 [Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata della R. Università di Torino v. 14 (no. 346); ref. 14698] Río Sabana, Darien, Panama. Holotype (unique): MZUT 1649. Type catalog: Tortonese 1940:142 [ref. 21559]. •Synonym of Ancylopsetta dendritica Gilbert 1890 -- (Gutherz 1966:467 [ref. 9034]). Current status: Synonym of Ancylopsetta dendritica Gilbert 1890. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

schmitti, Paralichthys Ginsburg [I.] 1933:1 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 82 (no. 2961); ref. 1800] Juan Fernández Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 88831. •Valid as Paralichthys schmitti Ginsburg 1933 -- (Pequeño & Plaza 1987:165 [ref. 6629] and Pequeño 1989:76 [ref. 14125] as smitti, Pequeño & Sáez 2000:33 [ref. 24590], Pequeño & Lamilla 2000:434 [ref. 24906], Meléndez C. & Cornejo C. 2001:70 [ref. 26163]). •Synonym of Paralichthys fernandezianus Steindachner 1903 -- (Dyer & Westneat 2010:610 [ref. 31446]). Current status: Synonym of Paralichthys fernandezianus Steindachner 1903. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Juan Fernández and Desventuradas islands (Chile). Habitat: marine.

simulans, Paralichthys Lahille [F.] 1939:191, Pls. 6-7 [Physis (Buenos Aires) v. 16; ref. 21719] Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. Plate 6 (no. 2) is labelled Paralichthys simulans Lahille, var. obscurior, and Pl. 7 (no. 1) is labelled Paralichthys simulans Lahille, var. nivosus. Neither variety is described in the text and neither is apparently available (Art. 13 of the Code). •Synonym of Paralichthys orbignyanus (Valenciennes 1839) -- (Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2006:237 [ref. 28684]). Current status: Synonym of Paralichthys orbignyanus (Valenciennes 1839). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

sinaloae, Paralichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Abbott [C. C.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:2872 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2445] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Holotype: USNM 47486 or CAS-SU 2930. Paratypes: BMNH 1895.5.27.221-222 (2), CAS-SU 11726-30 (5). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:140 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Paralichthys woolmani Jordan & Williams 1897 -- (Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1375 [ref. 22830], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:475 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Paralichthys woolmani Jordan & Williams 1897. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sinensis, Pleuronectes Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:595, 635, Pl. 14 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] China. No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:339-340 [ref. 25992]. Family placement uncertain; see Hoshino & Amaoka 1998:73 [ref. 23353]. Based on a painting. •Valid as Tephrinectes sinensis (Lacepède 1802) -- (Lu & Wu in Kuang et al. 1986:330 [ref. 26639], Zheng 1989:375 [ref. 21202], Feng in Pan et al. 1991:524 [ref. 23876], Li & Wang 1995:113 [ref. 16193], Zhu 1995:190 [ref. 25213], Evseenko 1996:726 [ref. 24666], Hoshino & Amaoka 1998:69 [ref. 23353], Amaoka in Randall & Lim 2000:644 [ref. 25122], Kottelat 2001:64 [ref. 25482], Desoutter et al. 2001:339 [ref. 25922], Ho et al. 2009:9 [ref. 31461], Kottelat 2013:463 [ref. 32989], Voronina et al. 2016:383 [ref. 35064]). Current status: Valid as Tephrinectes sinensis (Lacepède 1802). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: China and Taiwan. Habitat: brackish, marine.

soleaeformis, Rhombus Agassiz [L.] in Spix & Agassiz 1831:86, Pl. 47 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Atlantic off Brazil. No types known. •Synonym of Syacium papillosum (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Murakami & Amaoka 1992:74 [ref. 19779]). Current status: Synonym of Syacium papillosum (Linnaeus 1758). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

sordidus, Psettichthys Girard [C. F.] 1854:142 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 1818] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. No types known. •Valid as Citharichthys sordidus (Girard 1854) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:284 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:568 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:219 [ref. 14674], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1992:101 [ref. 21805], van der Heiden & Mussot-Perez 1995:444 [ref. 21611], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:249 [ref. 24545], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:207 [ref. 24555], Hoshino & Amaoka 1999:374 [ref. 24199], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:816 [ref. 25968], Allen & Groce 2001:137 [ref. 25751], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], van der Heiden et al. 2009:814 [ref. 30608], Victor & Wellington 2013:27 [ref. 32520], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:68 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:324 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:95 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys sordidus (Girard 1854). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: Bering Sea south to Mexico. Habitat: marine.

spilopterus, Citharichthys Günther [A.] 1862:421 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Atlantic. Syntypes: (at least 22) BMNH 1847.4.4.29-30 (2) Niger exped., 1848.1.12.1387 (1 left half skin) Jamaica, 1848.1.12.1392--97 (6, left half skins) Jamaica, 1848.1.12.1399 (1 left half skin) jamaica, 1850.6.7.10-11 (3) Santa Domingo, 2013.3.28.1 (1) New Orleans, 1852.9.16.244 (1), Zool. Soc., 1862.4.24.20-21 (2) Bahia. Some specimens are in the synonymy of Citharichthys stampflii (Steindachner 1895) -- (Desoutter 1986:428 [ref. 6212]). Specimen Citharichthys spilopterus by original author (p. 372) is not a hototype. •Valid as Citharichthys spilopterus Günther 1862 -- (Gutherz 1967:34 [ref. 23862], Lee et al. 1980:828 [ref. 22416], Robins & Ray 1986:291 [ref. 23100], Bussing 1987:254 [ref. 22927], Boschung 1992:174 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:275 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:58 [ref. 24489], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:256 [ref. 22947], Murdy et al. 1997:278 [ref. 23144], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Bussing 1998:428 [ref. 24179], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:484 [ref. 24550], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2000:304 [ref. 24565], Marín 2000:79 [ref. 26252], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:170 [ref. 27754], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639], Kobelkowsky D. 2002:53 [ref. 26482], Munroe 2003:1916 [ref. 27118], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:105 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:68 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:635 [ref. 27995], Miller 2006:402 [ref. 28615], Matamoros et al. 2009:26 [ref. 31241], Angulo et al. 2013:1010 [ref. 33194], Di Dario et al. 2013:264 [ref. 37503], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708], Victor & Wellington 2013:27 [ref. 32520], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:85 [ref. 33341], Marceniuk et al. 2017:42 [ref. 35324] as cf. spilopterus, Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:422 [ref. 35886], Spier et al. 2018:17 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys spilopterus Günther 1862. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

spinosus, Pseudorhombus McCulloch [A. R.] 1914:129, Pl. 25 [Biological Results Endeavour v. 2 (pt 3); ref. 2940] Houtman Abrolhos, Western Australia. Holotype: AMS I.7237 (1). Paratypes: (1) ?AMS E.2480 (1). •Valid as Pseudorhombus spinosus McCulloch 1914 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:146 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:234 [ref. 23977], Amaoka & Hensley 2001:3860 [ref. 26312], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Hoese & Bray 2006:1829 [ref. 29000], Larson et al. 2013:225 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Pseudorhombus spinosus McCulloch 1914. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

squamilentus, Paralichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:303 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 282); ref. 2472] Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 30862 (2). •Valid as Paralichthys squamilentus Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Gutherz 1967:9 [ref. 23862], Robins & Ray 1986:290 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:176 [ref. 23239], Munroe 2003:1920 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:857 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36025]). Current status: Valid as Paralichthys squamilentus Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

stampflii, Hemirhombus Steindachner [F.] 1894:52, Pl. 3 (fig. 3) [Notes from the Leyden Museum v. 16 (nos 1-2, art. 1); ref. 4237] Grand Cape Mount, Liberia. Lectotype: RMNH 5344. Paralectotypes: ?NMW (1). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1963:48, Pl. 6 (fig. 4) [ref. 21734]. Misspelled stampfli by Pellegrin 1921:636 [ref. 30437], also erroneously in Hemiramphus. •Valid as Citharichthys stampflii (Steindachner 1894) -- (Desoutter 1986:428 [ref. 6212], Aldebert et al. 1990:1033 [ref. 19526], Desoutter in Lévêque et al. 1992:858 [ref. 21590], Poll & Gosse 1995:79 [ref. 24781], Vreven 2007:590 [ref. 30080], Wirtz et al. 2013:135 [ref. 32972], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2998 [ref. 34618], Skelton 2019:228 [ref. 36564]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys stampflii (Steindachner 1894). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal south to Angola. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

stigmaeus, Citharichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:411 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 296); ref. 18358] Santa Barbara, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 31099. Misspelled stigmateus by Goode 1884:182 [ref. 18145]. •Valid as Citharichthys stigmaeus Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:284 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:570 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:219 [ref. 14674], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1992:101 [ref. 21805], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1356 [ref. 22829], van der Heiden & Mussot-Perez 1995:444 [ref. 21611], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:249 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:613 [ref. 24023], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:210 [ref. 24555], Hoshino & Amaoka 1999:374 [ref. 24199], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:817 [ref. 25968], Allen & Groce 2001:137 [ref. 25751], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], van der Heiden et al. 2009:814 [ref. 30608], Victor & Wellington 2013:27 [ref. 32520], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:68 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:324 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:95 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys stigmaeus Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: Alaska (U.S.A.) south to Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

stomata, Hppoglossina Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1890:22 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 3; ref. 1256] San Diego, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: (2) ?BMNH 1891.5.19.164 (1), USNM 41905 (1). The original genus is correctly Hippoglossina. •Valid as Hippoglossina stomata Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1890 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:285 [ref. 9277], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1371 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:252 [ref. 24545], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Ruiz-Campos et al. 2000:76 [ref. 24940], Allen & Groce 2001:137 [ref. 25751], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:324 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:95 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Hippoglossina stomata Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1890. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

sumichrasti, Citharichthys Jordan [D. S.] in Jordan & Goss 1889:276 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 14 (for 1886) (art. 2); ref. 2482] Río Zanatenco, Chiapas, Mexico. Holotype: MCZ 25299. Paratypes: MCZ 94427 (1). •Synonym of Citharichthys gilberti Jenkins & Evermann 1889 -- (van der Heiden & Mussot-Perez 1995:444 [ref. 21611], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:486 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Citharichthys gilberti Jenkins & Evermann 1889. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

surinamensis, Pleuronectes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:156 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Suriname. Syntypes: ZMB 2366 (5). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:110 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Citharichthys surinamensis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Paepke 1999:110 [ref. 24282]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys surinamensis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Northern coast of South America. Habitat: marine.

swinhonis, Pseudorhombus Günther [A.] 1873:379 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 12 (no. 71); ref. 18198] Chefoo, Shantung Province, China. Syntypes: BMNH 1873.9.23.17-18 (2). •Synonym of Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Amaoka 1969:86 [ref. 105], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:19 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:120 [ref. 16193], Evseenko 2003:S58 [ref. 28535], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:194 [ref. 35257]). Current status: Synonym of Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

taiwanus, Spinirhombus Oshima [M.] 1927:189 [Japanese Journal of Zoology v. 1 (no. 5) (art. 14); ref. 3315] Taihoku fish market and Tainan fish market, Taiwan. Syntypes: (1 + 2) (probably lost). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:61 [ref. 31432] as holotype and paratypes. Technically, the described specimen should be made the lectotype, holotype not established originally. •Synonym of Pseudorhombus cinnamoneus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:28 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:144 [ref. 16193], Ho & Shao 2011:61 [ref. 31432]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudorhombus cinnamoneus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

tenuirastrum, Paralichthys Waite [E. R.] 1899:121, Pl. 28; Fig. 10 [Memoirs of the Australian Museum, Sydney v. 4 (pt 1); ref. 4557] Port Stephens to Port Hacking, New South Wales, Australia, depth 20-52 fathoms. Syntypes: (several) AMS I.3989 (1). •Valid as Pseudorhombus tenuirastrum (Waite 1899) -- (Amaoka & Hensley 2001:3861 [ref. 26312], Hoese & Bray 2006:1830 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Valid as Pseudorhombus tenuirastrum (Waite 1899). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

tetrophthalmus, Lioglossina Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:122 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Gulf of California, Mexico, Albatross station 3014 and 3016, depth 29 and 76 fathoms. Syntypes: USNM 47268 (1), 47290 (orig. 1, now 2). •Valid as Hippoglossina tetrophthalmus (Gilbert 1890) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:288 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:152 [ref. 23101] as tetraothalmus, De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:253 [ref. 24545]). •Valid as Hippoglossina tetrophthalma (Gilbert 1890) -- (Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1372 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:200 [ref. 24555], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708], Robertson et al. 2017:103 [ref. 35676]). Current status: Valid as Hippoglossina tetrophthalma (Gilbert 1890). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California to Peru. Habitat: marine.

triocellatus, Paralichthys Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1903:192 [49] [Boletim Sociedade Nacional Agricultura, Rio de Janeiro [Lavoura] 1903 (nos 4-7); ref. 3709] East-southeast of Ilha Rasa, off coast of Brazil, depth 100 meters. Lectotype: MNRJ 3154A. Paralectotypes: MNRJ 3154 (1). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:405 [ref. 12732], Miranda Ribeiro 1959:8 [ref. 10393]. On p. 49 of separate. Lectotype selected by Miranda Ribeiro 1953:405 [ref. 12732] [but perhaps specimen not isolated]. •Valid as Paralichthys triocellatus Miranda Ribeiro 1903 -- (Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:106 [ref. 27192], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2006:241 [ref. 28684], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36025]). Current status: Valid as Paralichthys triocellatus Miranda Ribeiro 1903. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Southwest Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

triocellatus, Pleuronectes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:145 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India. Syntypes: ZMB 2390 (2). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:110 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Pseudorhombus triocellatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Krishnan & Mishra 1993:234 [ref. 24016], Li & Wang 1995:130 [ref. 16193], Randall 1995:359 [ref. 22896], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:253 [ref. 24754], Mishra et al. 1999:89 [ref. 25315], Amaoka & Hensley 2001:3862 [ref. 26312] with author as Schneider, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Psomadakis et al. 2015:323 [ref. 34104], Suresh et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36495], Psomadakis et al. 2020:587 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Pseudorhombus triocellatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean, western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

tropicus, Paralichthys Ginsburg [I.] 1933:4 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 82 (no. 2961); ref. 1800] Off Trinidad Island, West Indies, 10°37'40"N, 61°42'40"W, depth 31 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 34919. •Valid as Paralichthys tropicus Ginsburg 1933 -- (Gutherz 1967:11 [ref. 23862], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:459 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:277 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:63 [ref. 24489], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2000:307 [ref. 24565], Munroe 2003:1911 [ref. 27118], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2006:241 [ref. 28684], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36025]). Current status: Valid as Paralichthys tropicus Ginsburg 1933. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western central Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

uhleri, Citharichthys Jordan [D. S.] in Jordan & Goss 1889:275 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 14 (for 1886) (art. 2); ref. 2482] Haiti, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MCZ 11102. •Valid as Citharichthys uhleri Jordan 1889 -- (Gutherz 1967:35 [ref. 23862], Villa 1982:235 [ref. 36708], Bussing 1987:255 [ref. 22927], Bussing 1998:430 [ref. 24179], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:487 [ref. 24550], Munroe 2003:1917 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708], Angulo et al. 2013:1010 [ref. 33194]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys uhleri Jordan 1889. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: freshwater.

unicolor, Neorhombus Castelnau [F. L.] 1875:45 [Official Record, containing Introduction, Catalogues, Official Awards of the Commissioners, Report and Recommendations of the Experts, and Essays and Statistics on the Social and Economic Resources of the Colony of Victoria.; ref. 768] Fremantle, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:336 [ref. 25922]. •Unidentifiable from a brief description -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:336 [ref. 25922]). •Incertae sedis in Paralichthyidae -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1830 [ref. 29000]). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

unicornis, Citharichthys Goode [G. B.] 1880:342 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 165); ref. 1834] Off northeastern U.S.A., 40°02'36"N, 70°22'58"W, depth 155 fathoms; 40°02'54"N, 70°23'40"W, depth 115 fathoms. Syntypes: USNM 26003 (3). Description based mostly on 69-mm specimen in USNM 26003. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

vagrans, Hippoglossina var. Garman [S.] 1899:221 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Pacific west of Costa Rica, 5°32'45"N, 86°54'30"W, Albatross station 3368, depth 66 fathoms. Syntypes: MCZ 28549 (3). Described as Hippoglossina vagrans var. n.; apparently as a variety of H. bollmani Gilbert. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

valdezi, Citharichthys Cervigón [F.] 1986:20, Figs. 10-11 [Los peces marinos de Venezuela No. 7; ref. 23221] Golfo de Venezuela, 18 miles west of Punta Espada do Falcón, Venezuela. Holotype: FCIR 750. Paratypes: CMUNEFM 286 (13), FCIR 751 (9). •Valid as Citharichthys valdezi Cervigón 1986 -- (Cervigón 1992:275 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:59 [ref. 24489], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2000:304 [ref. 24565]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys valdezi Cervigón 1986. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Western central Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

velafracta, Platessa Richardson [J.] 1846:278 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton; coasts of China. No types known. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:218, Pl. 27b [ref. 11606]). •Synonym of Tephrinectes sinensis (Lacepède 1802) -- (Feng in Pan et al. 1991:524 [ref. 23876], Li & Wang 1995:114 [ref. 16193], Kottelat 2013:463 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Tephrinectes sinensis (Lacepède 1802). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ventrocellatus, Cephalopsetta Dutt [S.] & Rao [K. H.] 1965:181, Figs. 1-2 [Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences Section B (Animal Sciences) v. 62 (no. 4); ref. 1167] Visakhapatnam in Bay of Bengal, India. Holotype: MDZAU. Paratypes: (5). Originally as ventrocellatus, but genus is feminine and species is correctly ventrocellata. •Valid as Cephalopsetta ventrocellatus Dutt & Rao 1965 -- (Hensley & Amaoka 1989 [ref. 19772] with a and us spelling, Krishnan & Mishra 1993:234 [ref. 24016]). •Valid as Cephalopsetta ventrocellata Dutt & Rao 1965 -- (Evseenko 1996:726 [ref. 24666], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Psomadakis et al. 2015:322 [ref. 34104], Psomadakis et al. 2020:583 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopsetta ventrocellata Dutt & Rao 1965. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean: Pakistan and India east to Myanmar. Habitat: marine.

vorax, Pseudorhombus Günther [A.] 1862:429 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] South America. Syntypes: BMNH 1848.12.31.13 (1) Schomburgk, 1855.9.19.1242-1243 (2) Haslar Collection, 2016.8.14.1 (1). Based on Rhombus aramaca of Castelnau (not of Cuvier 1829) and on 4 specimens; not regarded as a replacement name. •Uncertain in Paralichthys Girard 1858 -- (Norman 1934:77 [ref. 6893]). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

wakiyai, Arnoglossus Schmidt [P. Yu.] 1931:313, Fig. 1 [Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR; ref. 16330] Pusan, South Korea. Holotype (unique): ZIN 23825. Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:262 [ref. 37075]. •Synonym of Pseudorhombus pentophthalmus Günther 1862 -- (Amaoka 1969:97 [ref. 105], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:26 [ref. 21500]). •Synonym of Pseudorhombus argus Weber 1913 -- (Voronina & Volkova 2019:262 [ref. 37075]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudorhombus argus Weber 1913. Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

wolffii, Rhombus Bleeker [P.] 1854:421 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 13964] Nagasaki, Japan. Syntypes: (2). •Synonym of Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Amaoka 1969:85 [ref. 105], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:19 [ref. 21500], Evseenko 2003:S58 [ref. 28535], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:194 [ref. 35257]). Current status: Synonym of Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Paralichthyidae. Habitat: marine.

woolmani, Paralichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Williams [T. M.] in Gilbert 1897:457 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 19 (no. 1115); ref. 1629] Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 47575. •Valid as Paralichthys woolmani Jordan & Williams 1897 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:289 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:152 [ref. 23101], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1375 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:614 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:202 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:475 [ref. 24550], Fuller et al. 1999:481 [ref. 25838], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:391 [ref. 34894], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36025]). Current status: Valid as Paralichthys woolmani Jordan & Williams 1897. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Eastern central Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

xanthostigma, Citharichthys Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:120 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Magdalena Bay, Baja California, Mexico, depth 47-74 fathoms. Lectotype: USNM 44408. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1932.12.31.7-8 (2) [ex USNM], MCZ 27839 (1), CAS-SU 18 (5), USNM 46418 (now 6). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:139 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype established by Jordan & Evermann 1898:2681 [ref. 2445]. •Valid as Citharichthys xanthostigma Gilbert 1890 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:285 [ref. 9277], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1992:101 [ref. 21805], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1362 [ref. 22830], van der Heiden & Mussot-Perez 1995:444 [ref. 21611], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:249 [ref. 24545], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Hoshino & Amaoka 1999:374 [ref. 24199], Allen & Groce 2001:137 [ref. 25751], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], van der Heiden et al. 2009:814 [ref. 30608], Victor & Wellington 2013:27 [ref. 32520], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:461 [ref. 34668] doubtful from Revillagigedo Archipelago (Mexico), Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:611 [ref. 34923], Kells et al. 2016:324 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:95 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys xanthostigma Gilbert 1890. Paralichthyidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: central California (U.S.A.) south to Gulf of California and Revillagigedo Islands (Mexico). Habitat: marine.