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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Torpedinidae: [ 56 ] records


adenensis, Torpedo Carvalho [M. R. de], Stehmann [M. F. W.] & Manilo [L. G.] 2002:5, Figs. 1-7 [American Museum Novitates No. 3369; ref. 26091] Gulf of Aden, close to shore of Yemen, northwestern Indian Ocean, 15°15'03"N, 52°00'04"E, depth 125-140 meters. Holotype: ZMUAS 5121. Paratypes: AMNH 231441 (1); ZMH 123432 [ex ISH 4-1993] (1); ZMUAS 5121 (1), 5418 (1). Type catalog: Thiel et al. 2009:15 [ref. 30918]. •Valid as Torpedo adenensis Carvalho, Stehmann & Manilo 2002 -- (Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S93 [ref. 27377], Weigmann 2016:79 [ref. 34211], Carvalho et al. 2016:194 [ref. 34999]). Current status: Valid as Torpedo adenensis Carvalho, Stehmann & Manilo 2002. Torpedinidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

alexandrinsis, Torpedo Mazhar [F. M. M.] 1987:113, Figs. 7-8 [Bulletin of the Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries v. 8 (no. 2) 1982; ref. 16257] Alexandria, Egypt, eastern Mediterranean Sea (probably erroneous, from northern Red Sea). Syntypes: (5) whereabouts unknown (possibly University College for Women, Ain Shams University, Egypt). •Valid as Torpedo alexandrinsis Mazhar 1987 -- (Compagno 1999:488 [ref. 25589], Psomadakis et al. 2012:14 [ref. 33457], DiBattista et al. 2015:19 [ref. 35706], Weigmann 2016:79 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Torpedo alexandrinsis Mazhar 1987. Torpedinidae. Distribution: Northern Red Sea endemic? Habitat: marine.

andersoni, Torpedo Bullis [H. R., Jr.] 1962:61, Figs. 1-2 [Bulletin of Marine Science of the Gulf and Caribbean v. 12 (no. 1); ref. 5832] Along the western edge of the Great Bahama Bank, Florida Straits, 23°40'N, 79°06'W, Silver Bay station 2467, depth 25 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 196128. Paratypes: USNM 196129 (1). •Valid as Torpedo andersoni Bullis 1962 -- (Compagno 1999:488 [ref. 25589], Carvalho et al. 2002:30 [ref. 26091], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:517 [ref. 26985], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:100 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:79 [ref. 34211], Carvalho et al. 2016:195 [ref. 34999], Ehemann et al. 2018:26 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Torpedo andersoni Bullis 1962. Torpedinidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

atlantica, Torpedo torpedo forma Pietschmann [V.] 1906:88 [Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien v. 21; ref. 15169] Coast of Morocco, eastern Atlantic. Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

bauchotae, Torpedo (Torpedo) Cadenat [J.], Capapé [C.] & Desoutter [M.] 1978:30, Fig. 1 [Cybium 3e série. Bulletin de la Société Française d'Ichtyologie No. 4; ref. 8952] Pointe-Noire, Republic of the Congo. Holotype: MNHN 1967-0739. Paratypes: MNHN 1969-288 (1). Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:27 [ref. 9312]. •Valid as Torpedo bauchotae Cadenat, Capapé & Desoutter 1978 -- (Capapé & Desoutter 1990:57 [ref. 19317], Compagno 1999:488 [ref. 25589], Carvalho et al. 2002:30 [ref. 26091], Tweddle & Anderson 2008:4 [ref. 29604], Weigmann 2016:79 [ref. 34211], Carvalho & Séret 2016:1375 [ref. 34550], Carvalho et al. 2016:196 [ref. 34999], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:130 [ref. 37302]). Current status: Valid as Torpedo bauchotae Cadenat, Capapé & Desoutter 1978. Torpedinidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal south to Angola. Habitat: marine.

bicolor, Raia (Narcobatus) Blainville [H. de] 1816:121 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. Torpedinidae.

californica, Torpedo Ayres [W. O.] 1855:70 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 1) v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 159] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. No types known. •Valid as Torpedo californica Ayres 1855 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:53 [ref. 9277], McAllister 1990:34 [ref. 14674], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:22 [ref. 22793], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:81 [ref. 24555], Compagno 1999:487 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:162 [ref. 25086], Neer & Cailliet 2001:842 [ref. 25474], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:90 [ref. 25968], Nakabo 2002:162 [ref. 26001], Carvalho et al. 2002:31 [ref. 26091], Nelson et al. 2004:54 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:10 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:54 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:17 [ref. 34694], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:101 [ref. 34398], Kells et al. 2016:76 [ref. 35888]). •Valid as Tetronarce californica (Ayres 1855) -- (Ebert et al. 2015:245 [ref. 33710], Weigmann 2016:77 [ref. 34211] see remarks, Carvalho et al. 2016:186 [ref. 34999], Ebert et al. 2017:57 [ref. 35618], Ehemann et al. 2018:26 [ref. 36194], Burgos-Vázquez et al. 2019:[2] [ref. 36691], Burton & Lea 2019:31 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Tetronarce californica (Ayres 1855). Torpedinidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: northern British Columbia (Canada) south to Baja California (Mexico), and southern Gulf of Mexico (Mexico). Also Japan. Habitat: marine.

cowleyi, Tetronarce Ebert [D. A.], Haas [D. L.] & Carvalho [M. R. de] 2015:239, Figs. 2-6 [Zootaxa 3936 (no. 2); ref. 33710] Atlantic Ocean, off the west coast of South Africa, 33°39.0'S, 17°34.0'E, depth 262 meters. Holotype: SAIAB 25190. Paratypes: SAIAB 25347 (1 immature). •Valid as Tetronarce cowleyi Ebert, Haas & Carvalho 2015 -- (Weigmann 2016:77 [ref. 34211], Carvalho et al. 2016:187 [ref. 34999], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:131 [ref. 37302]). Current status: Valid as Tetronarce cowleyi Ebert, Haas & Carvalho 2015. Torpedinidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic: Namibia south to South Africa. Habitat: marine.

diversicolor, Torpedo Davy [J.] 1834:542 [Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 1834 (pt 1) (art. 24); ref. 19708] Unneeded new name for Torpedo marmorata Risso, 1810. •Synonym of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810 -- (Capapé & Desoutter 1990:56 [ref. 19317]). Current status: Synonym of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810. Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

electrica, Torpedo Swainson [W.] 1838:183 [The natural history and classification of fishes, amphibians, & reptiles, or monocardian animals. v. 1; ref. 4302] Not available; used as a common name, and for, "two species evidently inhabit the British seas." Torpedinidae.

emarginata, Torpedo McCoy [F.] 1841:407, Fig. [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 6 (no. 39) (art. 46); ref. 17754] Dublin Bay, Ireland, northeastern Atlantic. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Torpedo nobiliana Bonaparte 1835 -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:57 [ref. 7167]). •Synonym of Tetronarce nobiliana (Bonaparte 1835). Current status: Synonym of Tetronarce nobiliana (Bonaparte 1835). Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

fairchildi, Torpedo Hutton [F. W.] 1872:83, Pl. 12 (fig. 134) [Fishes of New Zealand (Hutton); ref. 2287] Napier Harbor, New Zealand. Holotype (unique): presumed lost. Type catalog: Russell 1996:220 [ref. 22562]. •Synonym of Torpedo macneilli (Whitley 1932) -- (Gomon et al. 1994:157 [ref. 22532]). •Valid as Torpedo fairchildi Hutton 1872 -- (Paulin et al. 1989:26 [ref. 24556], Nishida in Amaoka et al. 1990:78 [ref. 16024], Compagno 1999:487 [ref. 25589], Carvalho et al. 2002:31 [ref. 26091], Gomon 2008:101 [ref. 30616]). •Valid as Tetronarce fairchildi (Hutton 1972) -- (Duffy & Ahyong 2015:107 [ref. 36167], Ebert et al. 2015:245 [ref. 33710], Last & Stewart 2015:170 [ref. 34224], Weigmann 2016:78 [ref. 34211]). •Synonym of Tetronarce nobiliana (Bonaparte 1835) -- (Carvalho et al. 2016:189 [ref. 34999]). Current status: Synonym of Tetronarce nobiliana (Bonaparte 1835). Torpedinidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: New Zealand, Kermadec Islands, possibly Norfolk Island [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

formosa, Torpedo Haas [D. L.] & Ebert [D. A.] 2006:2, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa No. 1320; ref. 28818] Tashi Fish Market, Tashi [Daxi], northeastern Taiwan, 24°53'N, 122°01'E. Holotype: CAS 223471. Paratypes: CAS 223472 (1), 223473 (1). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:19 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Torpedo formosa Haas & Ebert 2006 -- (Ho & Shao 2011:19 [ref. 31432]). •Valid as Tetronarce formosa (Haas & Ebert 2006) -- (Ebert et al. 2013:341 [ref. 33045], Ebert et al. 2015:245 [ref. 33710], Weigmann 2016:78 [ref. 34211], Carvalho et al. 2016:188 [ref. 34999], White et al. 2017:214 [ref. 35860], White & Ko'ou 2018:51 [ref. 35922], Fricke et al. 2019:43 [ref. 36673], Psomadakis et al. 2020:201 [ref. 37272] as cf. formosa). Current status: Valid as Tetronarce formosa (Haas & Ebert 2006). Torpedinidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Taiwan and Papua New Guinea, possibly Philippines. Habitat: marine.

fusca, Torpedo Parker [T. J.] 1884:283, Pl. 22 [Transactions of the New Zealand Institute v. 16 (art. 19); ref. 13764] Purakanui, near Dunedin, Otago, New Zealand. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1886.11.18.119 (stuffed). •Synonym of Torpedo fairchildi Hutton 1872 -- (Carvalho et al. 2002:31 [ref. 26091]). •Synonym of Tetronarce nobiliana (Bonaparte 1835). Current status: Synonym of Tetronarce nobiliana (Bonaparte 1835). Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

fuscomaculata, Torpedo Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1855:466 [Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855; ref. 3449] Angoxe [Angoche], Ibo, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Lectotype: ZMB 4573 (223 mm TL). Paralectotypes: ZMB 4573 (1). Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:172 [ref. 21041]. Also described as new in Peters 1855:278 [ref. 13448]. Lectotype selected by Carvalho el al. 2002:22 [ref. 26091]. •Valid as Torpedo fuscomaculata Peters 1855 -- (Compagno 1986:112 [ref. 5648], Fricke 1999:29 [ref. 24106], Compagno 1999:488 [ref. 25589], Carvalho et al. 2002:22 [ref. 26091], Sujatha 2002:157 [ref. 26899], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S93 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:77 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2009:12 [ref. 30213], Psomadakis et al. 2012:15 [ref. 33457], Ebert et al. 2015:237 [ref. 33710], Weigmann 2016:79 [ref. 34211], Carvalho et al. 2016:197 [ref. 34999], Fricke et al. 2018:21 [ref. 35805], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:131 [ref. 37302], Roy et al. 2019:482 [ref. 37256]). Current status: Valid as Torpedo fuscomaculata Peters 1855. Torpedinidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, Indian Ocean: South Africa and East Africa to Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes; Odisha (India). Habitat: brackish, marine.

galvani, Torpedo Risso [A.] 1810:21, Pl. 3 (fig. 5) [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:35 [ref. 9312]. Name spelled Torpedo galvanii by Berthelot 1840:115 [ref. 30346]. •Synonym of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810 -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:56 [ref. 7167], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:56 [ref. 19317], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:20 [ref. 26753], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:12 [ref. 36649]). Current status: Synonym of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810. Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

gronovianus, Raia (Narcobatus) Blainville [H. de] 1816:121 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. Torpedinidae.

guttatus, Raia (Narcobatus) Blainville [H. de] 1816:121 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. Torpedinidae.

hebetans, Torpedo Lowe [R. T.] 1838:195 [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 2 (pt 3, art. 14); ref. 2831] Madeira, eastern Atlantic. Syntypes: BMNH 1852.8.30.22 (1). •Synonym of Torpedo nobiliana Bonaparte 1835 -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:57 [ref. 7167]). •Synonym of Tetronarce nobilina (Bonaparte 1935). Current status: Synonym of Tetronarce nobiliana (Bonaparte 1835). Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

immaculata, Torpedo Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:48, 60 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] [Sicilia] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. •Synonym of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810 -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:56 [ref. 7167], Parenti 2019:104 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810. Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

mackayana, Torpedo Metzelaar [J.] 1919:197, Fig. 57 [Report on the fishes; ref. 2982] Coast of Senegal. Holotype (unique): ZMA 100443. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:7 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Torpedo mackayana Metzelaar 1919 -- (Capapé & Desoutter 1990:58 [ref. 19317], Compagno 1999:488 [ref. 25589], Capapé et al. 2001:95 [ref. 25352], Weigmann 2016:79 [ref. 34211], Carvalho & Séret 2016:1376 [ref. 34550], Carvalho et al. 2016:198 [ref. 34999], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:131 [ref. 37302]). Current status: Valid as Torpedo mackayana Metzelaar 1919. Torpedinidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal south to Angola. Habitat: marine.

macneilli, Notastrape Whitley [G. P.] 1932:327 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 18 (no. 6); ref. 4674] 9 miles east of Green Cape, New South Wales, Australia, depth 49 fathoms. Holotype (unique): AMS I.13838. Based on Torpedo fairchildi of McCulloch 1919:171, Pl. 25 [ref. 21655]. •Valid as Torpedo macneilli (Whitley 1932) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:61 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:156 [ref. 22532], Last & Stevens 1994:370 [ref. 23873], Compagno & Last 1999:1451 [ref. 24637], Compagno 1999:487 [ref. 25589], Hutchins 2001:15 [ref. 25847], Carvalho et al. 2002:31 [ref. 26091], Paxton et al. 2006:165 [ref. 28995], Gomon 2008:101 [ref. 30616]). •Valid as Tetronarce macneilli (Whitley 1932) -- (Ebert et al. 2015:245 [ref. 33710] with question, Weigmann 2016:78 [ref. 34211]). •Synonym of Tetronarce nobiliana (Bonaparte 1835) -- (Carvalho et al. 2016:189 [ref. 34999]). Current status: Synonym of Tetronarce nobiliana (Bonaparte 1835). Torpedinidae. Distribution: Australia or Indo-West Pacific [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

maculata, Raja torpedo var. Chiereghini [A. P.] in Ninni 1872:21 [Rivista critica delle specie dei pesci adriatici descritti nell'opera manoscritta dell'Ab. Stefano Chiereghini di Chioggia.; ref. 17995] Not available, description from Chiereghini quoted, but maculata not treated as valid by Ninni. Torpedinidae.

maculata, Torpedo Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:65 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Raja maculata Shaw 1804. •Synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Döderlein 1884:140 [ref. 17416], Parenti 2019:104 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758). Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

marmorata, Torpedo Risso [A.] 1810:20, Pl. 3 (fig. 4) [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:35 [ref. 9312]. Lectotype selected by Fricke 1999:17 [ref. 24101] as the illustration of Risso 1810, Pl. 3 (fig. 4) [specimen not in existence]. •Valid as Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810 -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:56 [ref. 7167], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:161 [ref. 13675], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:56 [ref. 19317], Morón et al. 1999:154 [ref. 24253], Capapé et al. 1999:47 [ref. 25276], Compagno 1999:488 [ref. 25589], Fricke 1999:17 [ref. 24101], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:20 [ref. 26753], Carvalho et al. 2002:30 [ref. 26091], Golani 2005:12 [ref. 37112], Fricke 2007:26 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:17 [ref. 29533], George 2009:56 [ref. 30539], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:12 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32972], Goren & Galil 2015:520 [ref. 33910], Weigmann 2016:79 [ref. 34211], Carvalho & Séret 2016:1377 [ref. 34550], Carvalho et al. 2016:199 [ref. 34999], Biscoito et al. 2018:475 [ref. 37562], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:130 [ref. 37302], Carneiro et al. 2019:41 [ref. 37250], Bariche & Fricke 2020:28 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:7 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810. Torpedinidae. Distribution: Western Baltic Sea; North Sea; Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: British Isles south to South Africa, including Madeira, Canary Islands and Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.

mediterranea, Torpedo torpedo forma Pietschmann [V.] 1906:88 [Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien v. 21; ref. 15169] Mediterranean Sea. Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

microdiscus, Torpedo Parin [N. V.] & Kotlyar [A. N.] 1985:709, Figs. 1a, 2 [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 25 (no. 5); ref. 17260] Junction of Naska and Sala y Gomez ridges, southeastern Pacific, 25°39'S, 85°23'W, depth 180-280 meters. Holotype: ZIN 47251. Paratypes: ZMMU P-16300 (1). Type catalog: Vasil'eva et al. 2001:13 [ref. 25714]. •Valid as Torpedo microdiscus Parin & Kotlyar 1985 -- (Pequeño 1997:79 [ref. 23536], Compagno 1999:487 [ref. 25589]). •Questionably a synonym of Torpedo tremens de Buen 1959 -- (Carvalho et al. 2002:31 [ref. 26091]). •Valid as Tetronarce microdiscus (Parin & Kotlyar 1985) -- (Weigmann 2016:78 [ref. 34211]). •Synonym of Tetronarce tremens (de Buen 1959) -- (Carvalho et al. 2016:193 [ref. 34999]). Current status: Synonym of Tetronarce tremens (de Buen 1959). Torpedinidae. Distribution: Chile [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

narke, Torpedo Risso [A.] 1810:18 [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Spelled narce by early authors. •Synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:55 [ref. 7167], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:55 [ref. 19317], Golani 2005:13 [ref. 37112]). Current status: Synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758). Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

narke, Torpedo Delaroche [F. E.] (ex Duméril) 1809:314 [28] [Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 13; ref. 17380] [Iviça] Ibiza, Balearic Islands, Spain, western Mediterranean Sea. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:35 [ref. 9312]. On p. 28 of separate. Name only, not available. See Torpedo narke Risso 1810. •In the synonymy of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:55 [ref. 7167], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:20 [ref. 26753]). Current status: Synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758). Torpedinidae.

nigra, Torpedo Guichenot [A.] 1850:131, Pl. 8 (figs. 1, 1a-1b) [Histoire naturelle des reptiles et poissons; ref. 1940] Algeria, western Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-1309. Type catalog: Bertin 1939:83 [ref. 20739], Séret & McEachran 1987:27 [ref. 9312]. •Synonym of Torpedo nobiliana Bonaparte 1835 -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:57 [ref. 7167]). •Synonym of Tetronarce nobiliana (Bonabarte 1835). Current status: Synonym of Tetronarce nobiliana (Bonaparte 1835). Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

nobiliana, Torpedo Bonaparte [C. L.] 1835:fasc. 12, punt. 63, Pl. 154 [Iconografia della fauna italica; ref. 518] Italy, western Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: ANSP 426-430 and 461-469 (14), 16948 (1, jaw and dry skin, missing); NMW 76279 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:162 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Torpedo nobiliana Bonaparte 1835 -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:56 [ref. 7167], Uyeno & Miyake in Uyeno et al. 1983:70 [ref. 14275], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:160 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1986:112 [ref. 5648], Robins & Ray 1986:36 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:39 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:34 [ref. 14674], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:57 [ref. 19317], Compagno et al. 1991:89 [ref. 21083], Boschung 1992:25 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:208 [ref. 23827], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:90 [ref. 25472], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:21 [ref. 22793], Golani 1996:21 [ref. 22271], Santos et al. 1997:14 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:22 [ref. 24952], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:134 [ref. 23897], Uiblein et al. 1999:60 [ref. 24045], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:155 [ref. 24490], Afonso et al. 1999:82 [ref. 25466], Compagno 1999:487 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:581 [ref. 25122] as cf. nobiliana, Capapé et al. 2001:95 [ref. 25352], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:19 [ref. 26753], Carvalho et al. 2002:30 [ref. 26091], McEachran in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:59 [ref. 26158], Gomes & Gadig in Menezes et al. 2003:27 [ref. 27192], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:517 [ref. 26985], Moore et al. 2003:170 [ref. 27076], Nelson et al. 2004:54 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:77 [ref. 28072], Golani 2005:12 [ref. 37112], Trunov & Kuuyev 2005:705 [ref. 28420], Haas & Ebert 2006:11 [ref. 28818], Fricke et al. 2007:17 [ref. 29533], Wirtz et al. 2007:24 [ref. 30263], George 2009:56 [ref. 30539], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:12 [ref. 36649], Naylor et al. 2012:92 [ref. 32267] see remarks, Page et al. 2013:54 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:101 [ref. 34398]). •Valid as Tetronarce nobiliana (Bonaparte 1835) -- (Ebert et al. 2015:237 [ref. 33710], Weigmann 2016:78 [ref. 34211], Carvalho & Séret 2016:1374 [ref. 34550], Carvalho et al. 2016:189 [ref. 34999], Biscoito et al. 2018:475 [ref. 37562], Ehemann et al. 2018:26 [ref. 36194], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:131 [ref. 37302], Carneiro et al. 2019:40 [ref. 37250], Ehemann et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36861], Bariche & Fricke 2020:28 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:7 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Tetronarce nobiliana (Bonaparte 1835). Torpedinidae. Distribution: North Sea; Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: English Channel south to South Africa, including Madeira and Canary Islands; ?western Atlantic: Nova Scotia (Canada) south to Brazil (including Caribbean Sea). Habitat: marine.

occidentalis, Torpedo Storer [D. H.] 1843:166, Pl. 3 (figs. 1-2) [American Journal of Science and Arts v. 45 (no. 1) (art. 18); ref. 18832] Wellfleet, Massachusetts, U.S.A., eastern North Atlantic. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Torpedo nobiliana Bonaparte 1835 -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:57 [ref. 7167]). •Synonym of Tetronarce nobiliana (Bonaparte 1835). •Valid as Tetronarce occidentalis (Storer 1843) -- (Carvalho et al. 2016:190 [ref. 34999], Ehemann et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36861], Jones et al. 2020:286 [ref. 37610]). Current status: Valid as Tetronarce occidentalis (Storer 1843). Torpedinidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Massachusetts (U.S.A.) south to Venezuela, including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

ocellata, Torpedo Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:48, 60 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] [Sicilia] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:29 [ref. 9312] treated as a separate description with types at MNHN. Apparently a new name for Raja torpedo Linnaeus 1758 and taking the same type. •Objective synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:55 [ref. 7167], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:55 [ref. 19317], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:20 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:13 [ref. 37112], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:12 [ref. 36649], Parenti 2019:104 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758). Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

oculata, Torpedo Davy [J.] 1834:542 [Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 1834 (pt 1) (art. 24); ref. 19708] Malta, Mediterranean Sea. Unneeded new name for Torpedo ocellata Rafinesque 1810. •Synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:55 [ref. 7167], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:55 [ref. 19317]). Current status: Synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758). Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

oculata, Torpedo Duméril [A. H. A.] (ex Belon) 1852:234 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 4; ref. 1148] Algeria and Mediterranean Sea. Based on literature sources, including pre-Linnaean author Belon. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Torpedo oculata Davy 1834. •Synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758). Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

panthera, Torpedo Olfers [J. F. M. von] 1831:15, 16 [Die Gattung Torpedo; ref. 18462] Red Sea. Lectotype: ZMB 4560. Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:172 [ref. 21041]. Types given by Klausewitz 1960:289 [ref. 21330] are not types of Torpedo panthera. Lectotype selected by Carvalho et al. 2002:16 [ref. 26091]. •Valid as Torpedo panthera Olfers 1831 -- (Dor 1984:16 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:5 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:40 [ref. 22896], Compagno 1999:488 [ref. 25589], Carvalho et al. 2002:15, 16 [ref. 26091], Sujatha 2002:157 [ref. 26899], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S93 [ref. 27377], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:44 [ref. 27735], Khalaf & Zajonz 2007:423 [ref. 31739], Psomadakis et al. 2015:96 [ref. 34104] as cf. panthera, Weigmann 2016:80 [ref. 34211], Carvalho et al. 2016:200 [ref. 34999] with author as von Olfers, Ali et al. 2018:303 [ref. 36183], Golani & Fricke 2018:14 [ref. 36273], Eagderi et al. 2019:16 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Valid as Torpedo panthera Olfers 1831. Torpedinidae. Distribution: Red Sea, northern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman and Persian Gulf east to Bay of Bengal (India). Habitat: marine.

pardalis, Torpedo Olfers [J. F. M. von] 1831:15, 16 [Die Gattung Torpedo; ref. 18462] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Listed as a variety of Torpedo marmorata but named Torpedo pardalis. •Synonym of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810 by inference. Current status: Synonym of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810. Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

peruana, Torpedo tremens Chirichigno F. [N.] 1963:4, Fig. 1 [Serie de Divulgación Cientifica, Servicio de Pesquería, Ministerio de Agricultura, Lima, No. 20; ref. 4484] Paita Bay, Peru. Holotype: MHNJP [MUSM] P 1354. Paratypes: MHNJP P 1073 (1), ?MHNJP [SP 601] (1). •Valid as Torpedo peruana Chirichigno F. 1963 -- (Parin & Kotlyar 1985:716 [ref. 17260], Angula & Acero P. 1999:185 [ref. 25053], Compagno 1999:487 [ref. 25589], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:187 [ref. 30957]). •Valid as Tetronarce peruana (Chirichigno F. 1963) -- (Ebert et al. 2015:245 [ref. 33710], Weigmann 2016:78 [ref. 34211]). •Synonym of Torpedo tremens de Buen 1959 -- (Carvalho et al. 2002:31 [ref. 26091] with question). •Synonym of Tetronarce tremens (de Buen 1859) -- (Carvalho et al. 2016:193 [ref. 34999]). Current status: Synonym of Tetronarce tremens (de Buen 1959). Torpedinidae. Distribution: Peru and Galápagos Islands [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

picta, Torpedo Lowe [R. T.] 1843:93 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1843 (pt 11); ref. 2832] Madeira, eastern Atlantic. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810 -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:56 [ref. 7167]). Current status: Synonym of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810. Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

polleni, Narcacion Bleeker [P.] 1865:171 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 3; ref. 420] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7247. •Synonym of Torpedo fuscomaculata Peters 1855 -- (Fricke 1999:29 [ref. 24106], Fricke et al. 2009:12 [ref. 30213]). •Questionably valid as Torpedo polleni (Bleeker 1865) -- (Compagno 1999:488 [ref. 25589]). •Tentatively a synonym of Torpedo sinuspersici Olfers 1831 -- (Carvalho et al. 2002:29 [ref. 26091]). •Questionably valid as Torpedo polleni (Bleeker 1865) -- (Weigmann 2016:80 [ref. 34211] see remarks). Current status: Uncertain as Torpedo sinuspersici Olfers 1831. Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

puelcha, Torpedo Lahille [F.] 1926:408 [Physis (Buenos Aires) v. 8 (no. 28); ref. 24910] Off Buenos Aires, Argentina. No types known (cast possible present). Based first on the description of the brain in 1926. Appeared in more detail in Lahille 1928:330, Pl. 5 [ref. 17487]. •Valid as Torpedo puelcha Lahille 1926 -- (Compagno 1999:487 [ref. 25589], Menni & Stehmann 2000:72 [ref. 24909], Gomes & Gadig in Menezes et al. 2003:28 [ref. 27192], Nión et al. 2016:22 [ref. 35565]). •Valid as Tetronarce puelcha (Lahille 1926) -- (Ebert et al. 2015:237 [ref. 33710], Weigmann 2016:78 [ref. 34211], Petry et al. 2016:299 [ref. 34966], Carvalho et al. 2016:191 [ref. 34999]). Current status: Valid as Tetronarce puelcha (Lahille 1926). Torpedinidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

punctata, Torpedo Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:48, 61 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] [Sicilia] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. •Synonym of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810 -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:56 [ref. 7167], Parenti 2019:104 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810. Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

semipelagica, Torpedo Parin [N. V.] & Kotlyar [A. N.] 1985:714, Figs. 1c, 5 [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 25 (no. 5); ref. 17260] Junction of Naska and Sala y Gomez ridges, southeastern Pacific, 25°27'[or 25°42']S, 85°27'W, depth 175-210 meters. Holotype: ZIN 47253. Paratypes: IOM uncat. (1); ZIN 47253a (1), 47254 (1); ZMMU P-16301-02 (1, 2). Type catalog: Vasil'eva et al. 2001:13 [ref. 25714]. •Valid as Torpedo semipelagica Parin & Kotlyar 1985 -- (Pequeño 1997:79 [ref. 23536], Compagno 1999:487 [ref. 25589]). •Questionably a synonym of Torpedo tremens de Buen 1959 -- (Carvalho et al. 2002:31 [ref. 26091]). •Valid as Tetronarce semipelagica (Parin & Kotlyar 1985) -- (Weigmann 2016:78 [ref. 34211] see remarks). •Synonym of Tetronarce tremens (de Buen 1959) -- (Carvalho et al. 2016:193 [ref. 34999]). Current status: Synonym of Tetronarce tremens (de Buen 1959). Torpedinidae. Distribution: Chile [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

sinuspersici, Torpedo Olfers [J. F. M. von] 1831:15, 17 [Die Gattung Torpedo; ref. 18462] Persian Gulf. No types known. •Valid as Torpedo sinuspersici Olfers 1831 -- (Dor 1984:16 [ref. 29757], Compagno 1986:113 [ref. 5648], Baranes & Golani 1993:302 [ref. 22372], Goren & Dor 1994:5 [ref. 25356], Compagno 1995:114 [ref. 21955], Randall 1995:41 [ref. 22896], Vossoughi & Vosoughi 1999:302 [ref. 25467], Compagno 1999:488 [ref. 25589], Carvalho et al. 2002:21 [ref. 26091], Sujatha 2002:157 [ref. 26899], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S93 [ref. 27377], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:44 [ref. 27735], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:76 [ref. 28072], Psomadakis et al. 2012:15 [ref. 33457], Ebert et al. 2015:237 [ref. 33710], Psomadakis et al. 2015:97 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:80 [ref. 34211], Carvalho et al. 2016:201 [ref. 34999] with author as von Olfers, Fricke et al. 2018:22 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:14 [ref. 36273], Eagderi et al. 2019:17 [ref. 37020], Roy et al. 2019:481 [ref. 37256]). Current status: Valid as Torpedo sinuspersici Olfers 1831. Torpedinidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indian Ocean: East Africa, South Africa, Persian Gulf and Madagascar east to western India; Odisha (India). Habitat: marine.

smithii, Torpedo Günther [A.] 1870:451 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Probably South Africa. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1852.8.12.46. •Synonym of Torpedo fuscomaculata Peters 1855 -- (Compagno 1986:112 [ref. 5648], Carvalho et al. 2002:22 [ref. 26091], Weigmann 2016:79 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Synonym of Torpedo fuscomaculata Peters 1855. Torpedinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

suessii, Torpedo Steindachner [F.] 1898:199 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 35 (no. 19) (for 14July 1898); ref. 20495] Perim Harbour, Perim Island, Yemen, Bab el Mandeb, Red Sea; Mocha, Yemen, Red Sea. Syntypes: (3) NMW 78016 (1), 88240 (1). Later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1898:784, pl. 2 [ref. 14693]. •Synonym of Torpedo sinuspersici Olfers 1831 -- (Dor 1984:16 [ref. 29757]). •Questionably valid as Torpedo suissi [sic] Steindachner 1989 -- (Compagno 1999:488 [ref. 25589]). •Valid as Torpedo suessii Steindachner 1898 -- (Carvalho et al. 2002:24 [ref. 26091] as suessi, Weigmann 2016:80 [ref. 34211], Carvalho et al. 2016:202 [ref. 34999], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[4] 242 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:14 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Torpedo suessii Steindachner 1898. Torpedinidae. Distribution: Southern Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

tokionis, Tetronarce Tanaka [S.] 1908:2, Figured [Journal of the College of Science. Imperial University, Tokyo v. 23 (art. 7); ref. 6032] Tokyo fish market, Japan. Holotype: ZUMT 917 (lost). Paratypes: ZUMT (2, lost). •Valid as Torpedo tokionis (Tanaka 1908) -- (Nakaya in Amaoka et al. 1983:51, 167 [ref. 8379], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:12 [ref. 6441], Nakaya in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:61, 305 [ref. 8057], Compagno 1999:487 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:162 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:581 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:290 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:162 [ref. 26001], Carvalho et al. 2002:31 [ref. 26091], Shinohara et al. 2005:397 [ref. 28370], Haas & Ebert 2006:2 [ref. 28818], Shinohara et al. 2014:234 [ref. 33330]). •Valid as Tetronarce tokionis Tanaka 1908 -- (Ebert et al. 2013:342 [ref. 33045], Ebert et al. 2015:245 [ref. 33710], Last & Stewart 2015:171 [ref. 34224] as cf. tokionis, Dyldin 2015:59 [ref. 34524], Weigmann 2016:78 [ref. 34211], Carvalho et al. 2016:192 [ref. 34999]). Current status: Valid as Tetronarce tokionis Tanaka 1908. Torpedinidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific and eastern Indian Ocean [Ebert 2014]. Japan to Taiwan [ref. 34999]. Habitat: marine.

torpedo, Raia Stephan [C. F.] 1779:20 [De rajis, schediasma primum; ref. 18818] •Synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 2010:65 [ref. 30995]). Current status: Synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758). Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

torpedo, Raja Linnaeus [C.] 1758:231 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea, Persian Gulf [original: "in Sinu Persico, M. Mediterraneo"]; localities include Lesbos Island, Greece; Genoa, Rome and Venice, Italy; Marseille, France; Nile River, Egypt; Iran, Persian Gulf (Arabian Gulf). No types known. Lectotype or neotype fixation needed: the type locality should be restricted to Mediterranean Sea according to current usage. Originally based on multiple species and at least 52 pre-Linnaean sources including Artedi 1738:73 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:102 [ref. 30349] as Raja tota lævis; Rondelet 1554:358 [ref. 30354] as Torpedo, Salviani 1558:143, Pl. 48 [ref. 30229] as Torpedo, Jonston 1649:30, Pl. 9 (fig. 4) [ref. 30579] as Torpedo maculosa and Torpedo, Charleton 1668:129 [ref. 30580] as Torpedo, Kempfer 1712:509, Pl. (p. 510) [ref. 30581] as Torpedo Sinûs Persici. •Valid as Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:55 [ref. 7167], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:55 [ref. 19317], Santos et al. 1997:119 [ref. 23531], Capapé et al. 1999:52 [ref. 25276], Afonso et al. 1999:82 [ref. 25466], Compagno 1999:488 [ref. 25589], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:20 [ref. 26753], Carvalho et al. 2002:30 [ref. 26091], Golani 2005:13 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:17 [ref. 29533], Wirtz et al. 2007:24 [ref. 30263], Fricke 2008:10 [ref. 30182], Welter-Schultes & Feuerstein 2008:141 [ref. 30327], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:12 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32972], Weigmann 2016:80 [ref. 34211], Carvalho & Séret 2016:1378 [ref. 34550], Carvalho et al. 2016:203 [ref. 34999], Biscoito et al. 2018:475 [ref. 37562], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:129 [ref. 37302], Carneiro et al. 2019:41 [ref. 37250], Bariche & Fricke 2020:29 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:7 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758). Torpedinidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to Angola. Habitat: marine.

tremens, Torpedo de Buen [F.] 1959:259, Fig. 1 [Revista de Biologia Marina, Valparaiso v. 9 (nos 1-3); ref. 11964] Near Valparaíso, Chile. Holotype (unique): EMBC?. •Valid as Torpedo tremens de Buen 1959 -- (Parin & Kotlyar 1985:712 [ref. 17260], Pequeño 1989:17 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:33 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:32 [ref. 23101], McEachran & Notarbartolo-di-Sciara in Fischer et al. 1995:784 [ref. 22829], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:78 [ref. 24555], Compagno 1999:487 [ref. 25589], Carvalho et al. 2002:31 [ref. 26091]). •Valid as Tetronarce tremens (de Buen 1959) -- (Ebert et al. 2015:245 [ref. 33710], Weigmann 2016:78 [ref. 34211], Carvalho et al. 2016:193 [ref. 34999]). Current status: Valid as Tetronarce tremens (de Buen 1959). Torpedinidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Costa Rica to Chile and offshore islands. Habitat: marine.

trepidans, Torpedo Valenciennes [A.] 1843:[101], Pl. 23 (fig. 2) [Ichthyologie des îles Canaries v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 4502] Canary Islands, eastern Atlantic. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-8686. Type catalog: Bertin 1939:82 [ref. 20739], Séret & McEachran 1987:27 [ref. 9312]. Pl. 23 (fig. 2) is under the name Torpedo hebetans by error. Dates to Pl. 23 in 1843, p. 101 published in 1844. •Synonym of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810 -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:56 [ref. 7167], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:56 [ref. 19317]). Current status: Synonym of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810. Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

unimaculata, Torpedo Risso [A.] 1810:19, Pl. 3 (fig. 3) [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:35 [ref. 9312]. •Synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:55 [ref. 7167]). Current status: Synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758). Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

variegata, Torpedo Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:65 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. •Synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Döderlein 1884:140 [ref. 17416], Parenti 2019:104 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758). Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

vulgaris, Torpedo Fleming [J.] 1828:169 [A history of British animals; ref. 1339] English and Irish coasts, northeastern Atlantic. •Synonym of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810 -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:56 [ref. 7167]). Current status: Synonym of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810. Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

walshii, Torpedo Thompson [W.] 1856:256 [Fishes of Ireland; ref. 4390] Ireland, northeastern Atlantic. Original not seen. Description appeared first in Thompson 1840:292 [ref. 21146] without a Latinized specific name; apparently dates to Thompson 1856 as above. •Synonym of Torpedo nobiliana Bonaparte 1835 -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:57 [ref. 7167]). •Synonym of Tetronarce nobilinia (Bonaparte 1835). Current status: Synonym of Tetronarce nobiliana (Bonaparte 1835). Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

zugmayeri, Torpedo Engelhardt [R.] 1912:647 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 39 (nos 21/22); ref. 17459] Gwadar, Baluchistan Province, southwestern Pakistan. Holotype (unique): ZSM [old collection] destroyed in WWII. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:282 [ref. 28925]. •Questionably valid as Torpedo zugmayeri Engelhardt 1912 -- (Compagno 1999:488 [ref. 25589]). •Mention -- (Carvalho et al. 2002:29 [ref. 26091]). •Valid as Torpedo zugmayeri Engelhardt 1912 -- (Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S93 [ref. 27377], Weigmann 2016:80 [ref. 34211] see remarks). Current status: Valid as Torpedo zugmayeri Engelhardt 1912. Torpedinidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.