Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 2 June 2020

SEARCH RESULTS FROM

Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
Select the database to search:
GENERA   SPECIES   REFERENCES
Include unavailable names

         Comments: ,

    Please look in Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes for authorships of sections, Families of Fishes (all), and related information.

Species in the family or subfamily Triakidae: [ 90 ] records


abbotti, Mustelus Evermann [B. W.] & Radcliffe [L.] 1917:6, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 95; ref. 1284] La Ventanilla between Ancon and Callao, Peru. Holotype: USNM 77696. Paratypes: USNM 77543 (1), plus 1 not found. Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:2 [ref. 21812]. •Synonym of Mustelus mento Cope 1877 -- (Compagno 1984:417 [ref. 6846]). Current status: Synonym of Mustelus mento Cope 1877. Triakidae: Triakinae. Habitat: marine.

abdita, Hemitriakis Compagno [L. J. V.] & Stevens [J. D.] 1993:204, Fig. 7 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 45 (no. 2); ref. 20845] Coral Sea Plateau off northeastern Queensland, Australia, 17°38'S, 150°11'E, depth 225 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 1365-03. Paratypes: CSIRO H 1365-01 (1), H 1365-02 (1), H 1366-01 (1), H 1368-01 (1). •Valid as Hemitriakis abdita Compagno & Stevens 1993 -- (Compagno & Niem 1998:1301 [ref. 23787], Compagno 1999:481 [ref. 25589], Takahashi & Nakaya 2004:254 [ref. 28004], Hoese et al. 2006:91 [ref. 28999], White et al. 2009:56 [ref. 30195], Weigmann 2016:46 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Hemitriakis abdita Compagno & Stevens 1993. Triakidae: Galeorhininae. Distribution: Western Pacific: eastern Australia. Habitat: marine.

acutipinna, Triakis Kato [S.] 1968:320, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 1968 (no. 2); ref. 19763] Isla de la Plata, Ecuador. Holotype (unique): USNM 201409. Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:2 [ref. 21812]. •Valid as Triakis acutipinna Kato 1968 -- (Compagno 1984:428 [ref. 6846], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:741 [ref. 22829], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:48 [ref. 24555], Compagno 1999:482 [ref. 25589], Weigmann 2016:50 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Triakis acutipinna Kato 1968. Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Ecuador. Habitat: marine.

albipinnis, Mustelus Castro-Aguirre [J. L.], Antuna-Mendiola [A.], González-Acosta [A. F.] & De la Cruz-Agüero [J.] 2005:126, Figs. 1-3 [Hidrobiológica v. 15 (2nd especial); ref. 28590] Northwest of Puerto Adolfo López Mateos, off bahía Magdalena, 25°26.9'N, 113°03.4'W, Baja Calfornia Sur, Mexico, depth 111 meters. Holotype: CICIMAR-Cl 5692. Paratypes: CICIMAR-Cl 5692 (1), 5693 (2), 5694 (1); CNP-IBUNAM 12738 (1), •Valid as Mustelus albipinnis Castro-Aguirre, Antuna-Mendiola, González-Acosta & De la Cruz-Agüero 2005 -- (Castro 2011:364 [ref. 31457], Naylor et al. 2012:37 [ref. 32267], Page et al. 2013:51 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:85 [ref. 34398], Ehemann et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Mustelus albipinnis Castro-Aguirre, Antuna-Mendiola, González-Acosta & De la Cruz-Agüero 2005. Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

albomaculatus, Squalus Plucàr [E.] 1846:7 [Der Fischplatz zu Triest; ref. 18559] Trieste, Italy, Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. •Synonym of Mustelus asterias Cloquet 1819 -- (Compagno 1984:402 [ref. 6846]). Current status: Synonym of Mustelus asterias Cloquet 1819. Triakidae: Triakinae. Habitat: marine.

antarcticus, Mustelus Günther [A.] 1870:387 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] New South Wales and Tasmania, Australia; New Zealand. Syntypes: (at least 7) BMNH 1823.2.10.12 (1) New Zealand, 1843.11.20.2-4 (3) Land of Admiralty, 1868.8.18.5 (1, with fetus) Tasmania, 1869.6.7.1 (1) New South Wales. •Valid as Mustelus antarcticus Günther 1870 -- (Compagno 1984:401 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:82 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:10 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:128 [ref. 22532], Last & Stevens 1994:215 [ref. 23873], Compagno & Niem 1998:1304 [ref. 23787], Johnson 1999:719 [ref. 25471], Compagno 1999:481 [ref. 25589], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Gardner & Ward 2002:356 [ref. 26041], Hoese et al. 2006:92 [ref. 28999], White & Last 2008:189 [ref. 29687], White 2008:66 [ref. 30617], Weigmann 2016:47 [ref. 34211], Hoschke et al. 2019:153[ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Mustelus antarcticus Günther 1870. Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: Southern Australia and New Zealand. Habitat: marine.

asterias, Mustelus Cloquet [H.] 1819:407 (v. 14) [Dictionnaire des sciences Naturelles; ref. 852] Europe (including Marseille, France and Lesbos, Greece, Mediterranean Sea). No types known. •Valid as Mustelus asterias Cloquet 1819 -- (Compagno 1973:28 [ref. 7163], Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:119 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:402 [ref. 6846], Springer 1990:97 [ref. 19320], Compagno 1999:481 [ref. 25589], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:13 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:9 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:13 [ref. 29533], George 2009:55 [ref. 30539], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:8 [ref. 36649], Weigmann 2016:47 [ref. 34211], Compagno 2016:1278 [ref. 34544], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:76 [ref. 37302], Carneiro et al. 2019:23 [ref. 37250], Bariche & Fricke 2020:12 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:6 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Mustelus asterias Cloquet 1819. Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: North Sea; Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: British Isles south to Mauritania, including Madeira and Canary Islands. Habitat: marine.

australis, Galeus Macleay [W.] 1881:354 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 6222] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. No types known. •Synonym of Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:118 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:386 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:81 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:128 [ref. 22532], Last & Stevens 1994:209 [ref. 23873], Hoese et al. 2006:90 [ref. 28999], Castro 2011:361 [ref. 31457], Dyldin 2015:51 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus 1758). Triakidae: Galeorhininae. Habitat: marine.

californica, Triakis Gray [J. E.] 1851:56 [List of the specimens of fish in the collection of the British Museum.; ref. 4939] Not available, no distinguishing features provided; from California, U.S.A. •In the synonymy of Triakis semifasciata Girard 1855 -- (Compagno 1984:433 [ref. 6846], Castro 2011:384 [ref. 31457]). Current status: Synonym of Triakis semifasciata Girard 1855. Triakidae: Triakinae.

californicus, Mustelus Gill [T. N.] 1864:148 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 16 (no. 3); ref. 1697] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Mustelus californicus Gill 1864 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:34 [ref. 9277], Compagno 1984:403 [ref. 6846], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:735 [ref. 22829], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:48 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:50 [ref. 24550], Compagno 1999:482 [ref. 25589], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:39 [ref. 27705], Nelson et al. 2004:52 [ref. 27807], Pérez Jiménez et al. 2005:836 [ref. 28524], Castro-Aguirre et al. 2006:124 [ref. 28590], White & Last 2006:245 [ref. 29422], Castro 2011:366 [ref. 31457], Page et al. 2013:51 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:85 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:47 [ref. 34211], Kells et al. 2016:68 [ref. 35888], Ebert et al. 2017:55 [ref. 35618], Ehemann et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36194], Burton & Lea 2019:29 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Mustelus californicus Gill 1864. Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: northern California (U.S.A.) south to Gulf of California and Mexico. Habitat: marine.

canis, Galeus Bonaparte [C. L.] 1834:fasc. 8, punt. 43, Pl. 132 (fig. 3) [Iconografia della fauna italica; ref. 517] Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: ANSP 605-608 (4, missing). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:162 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1973:27 [ref. 7163], Compagno 1984:386 [ref. 6846], Springer 1990:97 [ref. 19320], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:12 [ref. 26753], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:8 [ref. 36649], Dyldin 2015:51 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus 1758). Triakidae: Galeorhininae. Habitat: marine.

canis, Squalus Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:486 [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Valid as Mustelus canis (Mitchill 1815) -- (Uyeno & Sasaki in Uyeno et al. 1983:57 [ref. 14275], Compagno 1984:404 [ref. 6846], Menni 1986:433 [ref. 11487], Robins & Ray 1986:28 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:26 [ref. 25518], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:222 [ref. 36138], McAllister 1990:32 [ref. 14674], Boschung 1992:23 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:191 [ref. 23827], Heemstra 1997:899 [ref. 22976], Murdy et al. 1997:33 [ref. 23144], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:69 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:45 [ref. 24221], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:108 [ref. 24490], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:51 [ref. 24550], Compagno 1999:482 [ref. 25589], Van der Molen & Caille 2001:851 [ref. 25798], Soto 2001:64, 70 [ref. 26637], Camargo & Isaac 2001:139 [ref. 27639], Banstetter in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:37 [ref. 26158], López et al. 2002:62 [ref. 26808], Compagno 2003:461 [ref. 26984], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27192], Kiraly et al. 2003:17 [ref. 28226], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:40 [ref. 27705], Nelson et al. 2004:52 [ref. 27807], Castro 2011:369 [ref. 31457], Naylor et al. 2012:37 [ref. 32267] see remarks, Page et al. 2013:51 [ref. 32708], Pinheiro et al. 2015:2 [ref. 34324], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:86 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:48 [ref. 34211] with two subspecies, Nión et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35565], Ehemann et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36194], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:344 [ref. 36407], Spier et al. 2018:4 [ref. 36103], Carneiro et al. 2019:23 [ref. 37250], Ehemann et al. 2019:[3] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Mustelus canis (Mitchill 1815). Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic (including Caribbean Sea). Habitat: marine.

chilensis, Galeus Pérez Canto [C.] 1886:3 [Anales de la Universidad de Chile Sec. 1, v. 69; ref. 18531] Chile. ?MHNV (possibly lost). See also Philippi 1887:543 [p. 11 of separate], Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [ref. 3464]. •Synonym of Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1984:386 [ref. 6846], Dyldin 2015:51 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus 1758). Triakidae: Galeorhininae. Habitat: marine.

communis, Galeus Owen [R.] 1853:92, 93 [Descriptive catalogue of the osteological series; ref. 4988] •Synonym of Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1984:386 [ref. 6846], Dyldin 2015:51 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus 1758). Triakidae: Galeorhininae. Habitat: marine.

complicofasciata, Hemitriakis Takahashi [M.] & Nakaya [K.] 2004:248, Figs. 1-6, 7A, 8A, 10A [Ichthyological Research v. 51 (no. 3); ref. 28004] 24°40' - 25°30'N, 125°50'-126°40'E, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Holotype: HUMZ 165226. Paratypes: HUMZ 165220 (1), 165228 (1), 165231 (1), 165243 (1), 165246 (1), 165249 (1); OCA-P 20010218 (1), 200110218-01-E1-6 (6 embryos); URM-P 1772, P-39369 (1), P-39370 (1). •Valid as Hemitriakis complicofasciata Takahashi & Nakaya 2004 -- (Compagno et al. 2005:30 [ref. 29145] as near complicofasciata, Compagno et al. 2005:33 [ref. 29145], White et al. 2009:56 [ref. 30195], Ebert et al. 2013:323 [ref. 33045], Weigmann 2016:46 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Hemitriakis complicofasciata Takahashi & Nakaya 2004. Triakidae: Galeorhininae. Distribution: Ryukyu Islands to southwestern Taiwan, Philippines (?). Habitat: marine.

cyrano, Carcharhinus Whitley [G. P.] 1930:93, Fig. [Australian Museum Magazine v. 4 (no. 3) (for July-Sept. 1930); ref. 17892] Off Port Stephens, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype: AMS IA.3983 (jaws). Non-types: AMS IA.3936 (1, fetus from AMS IA.3983). Apparently appeared only in the caption to the figure showing jaws of the holotype. •Synonym of Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1984:386 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:81 [ref. 12442], Last & Stevens 1994:209 [ref. 23873], Hoese et al. 2006:90 [ref. 28999], Castro 2011:361 [ref. 31457], Dyldin 2015:51 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus 1758). Triakidae: Galeorhininae. Habitat: marine.

dissutus, Allomycter Guitart Manday [D. J.] 1972:2, Fig. 1 [Poeyana, Series A, Instituto de Biologia No. 99; ref. 1954] Matanzas, Cuba, depth 366 meters. Holotype (unique): lost. Type catalog: Gutiérrez de los Reyes et al. 2015:44 [ref. 36079]. •Synonym of Mustelus canis (Mitchill 1815) -- (Compagno 1984:404 [ref. 6846], Compagno 2003:461 [ref. 26984], Castro 2011:369 [ref. 31457]). Current status: Synonym of Mustelus canis (Mitchill 1815). Triakidae: Triakinae. Habitat: marine.

dorsalis, Mustelus Gill [T. N.] 1864:149 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 16 (no. 3); ref. 1697] Panama. Syntypes: USNM 8068 (3, lost). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:7 [ref. 21812], Smith 2018:67 [ref. 36061]. •Valid as Mustelus dorsalis Gill 1864 -- (Compagno 1984:407 [ref. 6846], Bussing & López S. 1994:20 [ref. 23101], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:736 [ref. 22829], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:49 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:50 [ref. 24550], Compagno 1999:482 [ref. 25589], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:41 [ref. 27705], Nelson et al. 2004:52 [ref. 27807], Pérez Jiménez et al. 2005:836 [ref. 28524], Castro-Aguirre et al. 2006:124 [ref. 28590], Castro 2011:372 [ref. 31457], Page et al. 2013:51 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:86 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:48 [ref. 34211], Ehemann et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Mustelus dorsalis Gill 1864. Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

edentulus, Squalus Chiereghini [A. P.] in Ninni 1872:11 [Rivista critica delle specie dei pesci adriatici descritti nell'opera manoscritta dell'Ab. Stefano Chiereghini di Chioggia.; ref. 17995] Not available, description quoted from Chiereghini but species not treated as valid by Ninni; also unavailable in other publications at about this time; from Venice, Italy. •In the synonymy of Mustelus asterias Cloquet 1819 -- (Compagno 1984:402 [ref. 6846]). Current status: Synonym of Mustelus asterias Cloquet 1819. Triakidae: Triakinae.

edulis, Mustelus Pérez Canto [C.] 1886:4 [Anales de la Universidad de Chile Sec. 1, v. 69; ref. 18531] Chile. ?MHNV (possibly lost). Syntypes: MHNV (2). See also Philippi 1887:547 [p. 15 of separate] [ref. 3464]. •Synonym of Mustelus mento Cope 1877 -- (Compagno 1984:417 [ref. 6846]). Current status: Synonym of Mustelus mento Cope 1877. Triakidae: Triakinae. Habitat: marine.

equestris, Mustelus Bonaparte [C. L.] 1834:fasc. 8, punt. 43, Pl. 132 (fig. 2) [Iconografia della fauna italica; ref. 517] Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Lectotype: ANSP 617. Paralectotypes: ANSP 618-620 (3, in jar with lectotype). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:162 [ref. 13621]. Lectotype from collection records, not designated here. •Synonym of Mustelus mustelus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1973:28 [ref. 7163], Compagno 1984:419 [ref. 6846], Springer 1990:98 [ref. 19320]). Current status: Synonym of Mustelus mustelus (Linnaeus 1758). Triakidae: Triakinae. Habitat: marine.

falcata, Hemitriakis Compagno [L. J. V.] & Stevens [J. D.] 1993:198, Figs. 1-5, 6A, C, E [Records of the Australian Museum v. 45 (no. 2); ref. 20845] Outer continental shelf, Western Australia, 16°54'S, 120°50'E, depth 150 meters. Holotype: WAM P.26271-001. Paratypes: CSIRO CA 4056 (1), H 977-01 (1), H 1035-16 (1), H 1035-17 (1), H 1035-18 (1), H 1036-26 (1), H 1036-27 (1), H 1094-01 (1); WAM P.26274-007 (1). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:4 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Hemitriakis falcata Compagno & Stevens 1933 -- (Compagno 1999:481 [ref. 25589], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Takahashi & Nakaya 2004:254 [ref. 28004], Hoese et al. 2006:91 [ref. 28999], White et al. 2009:56 [ref. 30195], Weigmann 2016:46 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Hemitriakis falcata Compagno & Stevens 1993. Triakidae: Galeorhininae. Distribution: Australia: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Galeorhinus Garman [S.] 1913:172 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 36; ref. 1545] Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Syntypes: MCZ 154-S (1), 315-S (1). Type catalog: Hartel & Dingerkus 1997:xxxviii-xxxix [ref. 23119]. •Valid as Mustelus fasciatus (Garman 1913) -- (Compagno 1984:408 [ref. 6846], Menni 1986:433 [ref. 11487], Heemstra 1997:905 [ref. 22976], Compagno 1999:482 [ref. 25589], Van der Molen & Caille 2001:851 [ref. 25798], Soto 2001:64, 70 [ref. 26637], López et al. 2002:62 [ref. 26808], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27192], Weigmann 2016:48 [ref. 34211], Nión et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Mustelus fasciatus (Garman 1913). Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: southern Brazil to Argentina. Habitat: marine.

felis, Mustelus Ayres [W. O.] 1854:6 [The Pacific [newspaper] v. 3 and 4 (thru no. 6); ref. 157] Entrance to San Francisco Bay, California, U.S.A. Holotype: No types known. Appeared first as above, "The Pacific" 8 Dec. 1854:6 [see ref. 157], then p. 17 [ref. 18923]. A senior synonym of Triakis semifasciata Girard 1855, but felis is an unused senior synonym subject to Reversal of Precedence (Art. 23.9.1). •Synonym of Triakis semifasciata Girard 1855 -- (Compagno 1984:433 [ref. 6846] with wrong date, Castro 2011:384 [ref. 31457]). •Nomen oblitum, synonym of Triakis semifasciata Girard 1855 -- (Pietsch et al. 2012:98 [ref. 31825]). Current status: Synonym of Triakis semifasciata Girard 1855. Triakidae: Triakinae. Habitat: marine.

filewoodi, Gogolia Compagno [L. J. V.] 1973:394, Figs. 1-7 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 39 (no. 19); ref. 898] Astrolabe Bay, about 1 mile north of Gogal River mouth, 5°18'S, 145°50'E, northern New Guinea, depth 40 fathoms. Holotype: AMS I.16858-001. Paratypes: CAS 27588 (1 fetus, not found), KFRS E414 (1, late-term embryo). •Valid as Gogolia filewoodi Compagno 1973 -- (Compagno 1984:389 [ref. 6846], Compagno & Niem 1998:1302 [ref. 23787], Compagno 1999:481 [ref. 25589], Fricke et al. 2014:13 [ref. 33932], Weigmann 2016:46 [ref. 34211], White et al. 2017:116 [ref. 35860], White & Ko'ou 2018:28 [ref. 35922]). Current status: Valid as Gogolia filewoodi Compagno 1973. Triakidae: Galeorhininae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Madang District, Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

galeus, Squalus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:234 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea and Northeastern Atlantic [original: "in Oceano Europe"]; localities include Penzance, Cornwall, England, Northeastern Atlantic; Marseille, France; Liguria and Rome, Italy; Lesbos Island, Greece; Syria, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Neotype designated by Fricke 1999:16 [ref. 24101], but withdrawn in Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Originally based on at least 19 pre-Linnaean sources including Artedi 1738:68 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:97 [ref. 30349] as Squalus naribus ori vicinis; Rondelet 1554:377 [ref. 30354] as Gale(us) can(is), Salviani 1558:132, Pl. (p. 130) [ref. 30229] as Can(is) gale(us), Willughby 1686:51 [ref. 30164] and Ray 1713:20 [ref. 30231] as Canis galeus. •Valid as Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1973:27 [ref. 7163], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:34 [ref. 9277], Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:118 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:386 [ref. 6846], Menni 1986:433 [ref. 11487], Bass et al. 1986:78 [ref. 5638], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:223 [ref. 36138], Paxton et al. 1989:81 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:13 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:24 [ref. 24556], Nakaya in Amaoka et al. 1990:63 [ref. 16024], Springer 1990:97 [ref. 19320], Compagno et al. 1991:84 [ref. 21083], Kuiter 1993:10 [ref. 23929], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:76 [ref. 25472], Gomon et al. 1994:127 [ref. 22532], Last & Stevens 1994:208 [ref. 23873], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:734 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:25 [ref. 22896], Santos et al. 1997:8 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:18 [ref. 24952], Compagno & Niem 1998:1302 [ref. 23787], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:47 [ref. 24555], Johnson 1999:719 [ref. 25471], Fricke 1999:16 [ref. 24101], Compagno 1999:481 [ref. 25589], Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:32 [ref. 25942], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Soto 2001:64, 72 [ref. 26637], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:12 [ref. 26753], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:73 [ref. 25968], López et al. 2002:62 [ref. 26808], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27192], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:37 [ref. 27705], Nelson et al. 2004:52 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:63 [ref. 28072], Mundy 2005:88 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:90 [ref. 28999], Fricke 2007:25 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:13 [ref. 29533], White 2008:64 [ref. 30617], George 2009:55 [ref. 30539], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:8 [ref. 36649], Castro 2011:361 [ref. 31457], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800], Naylor et al. 2012:40 [ref. 32267] see remarks, Page et al. 2013:51 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:115 [ref. 32972], Parin et al. 2014:22 [ref. 33547], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:106 [ref. 36167], Dyldin 2015:51 [ref. 34524], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:85 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:46 [ref. 34211], Compagno 2016:1276 [ref. 34544], Fourriére et al. 2016:452 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:605 [ref. 34923], Nión et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35565], Kells et al. 2016:68 [ref. 35888], Ebert et al. 2017:55 [ref. 35618], Ehemann et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36194], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:75 [ref. 37302], Burton & Lea 2019:29 [ref. 37205], Carneiro et al. 2019:23 [ref. 37250], Hoschke et al. 2019:153[ref. 36626], Kovačić et al. 2020:6 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus 1758). Triakidae: Galeorhininae. Distribution: Northwestern Atlantic; western Baltic Sea; North Sea; Mediterranean Sea; northeastern Atlantic: Norway south to Senegal, including Azores and Caoe Verde Islands; North Pacific; temperate waters of Southern Hemisphere. Habitat: marine.

ganearum, Emissola Whitley [G. P.] 1945:11, Fig. 6 [Australian Zoologist v. 11 (pt 1); ref. 4707] Bald Head, off Albany, Western Australia. Holotype: AMS IB.1630 (teeth and denticles). Paratypes: AMS E.2316 (1), IA.672 (1). •Synonym of Mustelus antarcticus Günther 1870 -- (Compagno 1984:401 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:82 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:129 [ref. 22532], Last & Stevens 1994:216 [ref. 23873], Hoese et al. 2006:92 [ref. 28999]). Current status: Synonym of Mustelus antarcticus Günther 1870. Triakidae: Triakinae. Habitat: marine.

garricki, Iago Fourmanoir [P.] & Rivaton [J.] 1979:434, Fig. 22 [Cahiers de l'Indo-Pacifique v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 8833] Northwest of Efate, Vanuatu, depth 320 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1978-0694. Paratypes: (4). •Valid as Iago garricki Fourmanoir & Rivaton 1979 -- (Compagno 1984:395 [ref. 6846], Last & Stevens 1994:212 [ref. 23873], Compagno & Niem 1998:1303 [ref. 23787], Compagno 1999:481 [ref. 25589], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Compagno et al. 2005:31 [ref. 29145], Hoese et al. 2006:92 [ref. 28999], Larson et al. 2013:7 [ref. 32988], Weigmann 2016:46 [ref. 34211], White et al. 2017:120 [ref. 35860], White & Ko'ou 2018:29 [ref. 35922], Fricke et al. 2019:39 [ref. 36673], Psomadakis et al. 2020:170 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Iago garricki Fourmanoir & Rivaton 1979. Triakidae: Galeorhininae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Myanmar; Philippines and New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) south to northern Australia and Vanuatu. Habitat: marine.

griseus, Mustelus Pietschmann [V.] 1908:132 [1] [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 45 (no. 10); ref. 18555] Japan. Holotype (unique): NMW 85501. On p. 1 of separate. Apparently appeared first as above, and later illustrated and described in more detail in Pietschmann 1908:694, Pl. 2 (figs. 1, 3-3b) [ref. 14332]. •Valid as Mustelus griseus Pietschmann 1908 -- (Compagno 1984:409 [ref. 6846], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:5 [ref. 6441], Chen et al. 1997:3 [ref. 26476], Cheng & Zhou 1997:29 [ref. 26385], Compagno & Niem 1998:1304 [ref. 23787], Compagno 1999:482 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:133 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:579 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:287 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:133 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:52, 472 [ref. 26218], Shinohara et al. 2005:394 [ref. 28370], Compagno et al. 2005:32 [ref. 29145] as cf. griseus, White & Last 2006:245 [ref. 29422], Yamashita et al. 2012:123 [ref. 32408], Ebert et al. 2013:324 [ref. 33045], Shinohara et al. 2014:232 [ref. 33330], Dyldin 2015:51 [ref. 34524], Weigmann 2016:48 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Mustelus griseus Pietschmann 1908. Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

hacat, Mustelus Pérez-Jiménez [J. C.], Nichizaki [O. S.] & Castillo Geniz [J. L.] 2005:836, Fig. 2 [Copeia 2005 (no. 4); ref. 28524] Northeast of Angel de la Guarda Island, Gulf of California, 29°58.5'N, 113°37.8'W. Holotype: SIO 04-187. Paratypes: SIO 65-247-5A (1), 65-292-5 (1), 65-344-5A (3), •Synonym of Mustelus albipinnis Castro-Aguirre, Antuna-Mendiola, González-Acosta & de la Cruz-Agüero 2005 described in the same year -- (Castro 2011:364 [ref. 31457], Naylor et al. 2012:37 [ref. 32267] see remarks, Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:85 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:47 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Synonym of Mustelus albipinnis Castro-Aguirre, Antuna-Mendiola, González-Acosta & de la Cruz-Agüero 2005. Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Eastern North Pacific: Gulf of California [also reported from Ecuador and the Galápagos Islands] [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

henlei, Rhinotriacis Gill [T. N.] 1863:486 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 14 (for 1862); ref. 1671] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 4487. Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:7 [ref. 21812]. •Valid as Triakis henlei (Gill 1863) -- (Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:222 [ref. 36138]). •Valid as Mustelus henlei (Gill 1863) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:35 [ref. 9277], Compagno 1984:410 [ref. 6846], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:737 [ref. 22829], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:49 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:50 [ref. 24550], Compagno 1999:482 [ref. 25589], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:41 [ref. 27705], Nelson et al. 2004:53 [ref. 27807], Pérez Jiménez et al. 2005:836 [ref. 28524], Castro-Aguirre et al. 2006:124 [ref. 28590], Cubelio et al. 2011:29 [ref. 31250], Castro 2011:374 [ref. 31457], Page et al. 2013:51 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:86 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:48 [ref. 34211], Kells et al. 2016:68 [ref. 35888], Ebert et al. 2017:55 [ref. 35618], Ehemann et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36194], Burton & Lea 2019:29 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Mustelus henlei (Gill 1863). Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: nothern Washington (U.S.A) south to Gulf of California (Mexico); Ecuador south to Peru. Habitat: marine.

higmani, Mustelus Springer [S.] & Lowe [R. H.] 1963:245, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1963 (no. 2); ref. 5328] Northeast of Parimaribo, Suriname, Coquette station 155, depth 12 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 156930. Paratypes or possible paratypes: USNM 187693 (1), 187695 (1), 187697-98 (4, 2), 187720-21 (13, 4), 187723 (6), 187938 (3), 196546 (4), 221724 (1). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:7-8 [ref. 21812] with USNM paratypes surmised from collection information. •Valid as Mustelus higmani Springer & Lowe 1963 -- (Uyeno & Sasaki in Uyeno et al. 1983:58 [ref. 14275], Compagno 1984:412 [ref. 6846], Cervigón 1992:191 [ref. 23827], Aguilera 1998:45 [ref. 24221], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:112 [ref. 24490], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:51 [ref. 24550], Compagno 1999:482 [ref. 25589], Soto 2001:64, 71 [ref. 26637], Compagno 2003:462 [ref. 26984], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27192], Kiraly et al. 2003:18 [ref. 28226], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:42 [ref. 27705], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:14 [ref. 28815], Cubelio et al. 2011:29 [ref. 31250], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:86 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:48 [ref. 34211], Ehemann et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36194], Ehemann et al. 2019:[3] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Mustelus higmani Springer & Lowe 1963. Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic (including Caribbean Sea). Habitat: marine.

hinnulus, Squalus Blainville [H. de] 1825:83, Pl. 20 (fig. 2) [Faune Française; ou histoire naturelle Livr. 13 & 14; ref. 4991] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Mustelus asterias Cloquet 1819 -- (Compagno 1973:28 [ref. 7163], Compagno 1984:402 [ref. 6846]). Current status: Synonym of Mustelus asterias Cloquet 1819. Triakidae: Triakinae. Habitat: marine.

hyugaensis, Eugaleus Miyosi [Y.] 1939:91, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the Biogeographical Society of Japan v. 9 (no. 5); ref. 17204] Off Hyuga Nada, east coast of Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan, depth 40-60 meters. Holotype (unique): MGHSJ (whereabouts unknown). •Valid as Hypogaleus hyugaensis (Miyosi 1939) -- (Compagno 1984:394 [ref. 6846], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:5 [ref. 6441], Bass et al. 1986:79 [ref. 5638], Paxton et al. 1989:81 [ref. 12442], Last & Stevens 1994:211 [ref. 23873], Compagno & Niem 1998:1303 [ref. 23787], Compagno 1999:481 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:134 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:579 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:134 [ref. 26001], Simpfendorfer et al. 2002:781 [ref. 26264], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:64 [ref. 28072], Hoese et al. 2006:91 [ref. 28999], White 2008:65 [ref. 30617], Ebert et al. 2013:324 [ref. 33045], Weigmann 2016:46 [ref. 34211], Ali et al. 2018:300 [ref. 36183]). Current status: Valid as Hypogaleus hyugaensis (Miyosi 1939). Triakidae: Galeorhininae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Japan and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

indroyonoi, Hemitriakis White [W. T.], Compagno [L. J. V.] & Dharmadi [no initials] 2009:45, Figs. 1-4, 5C [Zootaxa No. 2110; ref. 30195] Kedonganan fish market, Bali, Indonesia, 8°45'S, 115°10'E. Holotype: MZB 16672. Paratypes: CSIRO H 5873-05 (1), H 6817-01 to 03 (3), 6818 -01 (3 embryos), 6819 -01 (1 embryo). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Hemitriakis indroyonoi White, Compagno & Dharmadi 2009 -- (Weigmann 2016:46 [ref. 34211], Kumar et al. 2018:296 [ref. 36178], Tyabji et al. 2018:15 [ref. 36598]). Current status: Valid as Hemitriakis indroyonoi White, Compagno & Dharmadi 2009. Triakidae: Galeorhininae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: Andaman Island to western Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

insularis, Mustelus canis Heemstra [P. C.] 1997:903, Fig. 5 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 60 (no. 3); ref. 22976] Cay Sal Bank, 5 miles northwest of Cay Sal Island, Bahamas, depth 214 meters. Holotype: USNM 208012. Paratypes: ANSP 19475 (2), 103924 (1), 124249 (1, cranium); BMNH 1879.1.8.1 (1), 1972.10.3.1 (1); CAS 15051 (1); FMNH 71555 (1); MCZ 35233 (1); UF 19141 (1), 46039 (1), 46075-77 (1, 1, 1), 101336 (1), 203360 (1), 224064 (1), 228458 (1); USNM 154808 (1), 20813 (1), 21376 (2), 25234 (1), 37679 (1); ZMA 110193 (1). •Synonym of Mustelus canis (Mitchill 1815), but a valid subspecies insularis Heemstra 1997 as described -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:51 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:110 [ref. 25013], Collette et al. 2003:98 [ref. 26784], Compagno 2003:461 [ref. 26984], Kiraly et al. 2003:18 [ref. 28226], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:19 [ref. 33341] as Mustelus canis, Weigmann 2016:48 [ref. 34211] with two subspecies). Current status: Synonym of Mustelus canis (Mitchill 1815). Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic Habitat: marine.

japanicus, Galeus Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1839:58, [Pl. 22] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Japan. Holotype (unique): RMNH (dry). •Valid as Hemitriakis japanica (Müller & Henle 1839) -- (Compagno 1984:391 [ref. 6846], Nakaya in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:49, 299 [ref. 8057], Compagno & Stevens 1993:197 [ref. 20845], Yokogawa & Yamaguchi 1997:2 [ref. 24376], Compagno & Niem 1998:1301 [ref. 23787], Compagno 1999:481 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:134 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:579 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:134 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:52, 471 [ref. 26218], Takahashi & Nakaya 2004:254 [ref. 28004], Shinohara et al. 2005:393 [ref. 28370] as japonica, Compagno et al. 2005:30 [ref. 29145] as cf. Japonica, White et al. 2009:56 [ref. 30195], Fricke et al. 2011:345 [ref. 31242], Yamashita et al. 2012:123 [ref. 32408], Ebert et al. 2013:323 [ref. 33045], Dyldin 2015:51 [ref. 34524], Weigmann 2016:46 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Hemitriakis japanica (Müller & Henle 1839). Triakidae: Galeorhininae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Japan, China, Korea, Taiwan; Chesterfield Islands, New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

kanekonis, Cynias Tanaka [S.] 1916:27 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 28 (no. 327); ref. 15074] Nagasaki fish market, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT (lost). •Synonym of Mustelus griseus Pietschmann 1908 -- (Compagno 1984:409 [ref. 6846]). •Valid as Mustelus kanekonis (Tanaka 1916) -- (Chen et al. 1997:3 [ref. 26476]). Current status: Valid as Mustelus kanekonis (Tanaka 1916). Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

laevis, Galeus Risso [A.] 1820:242 [Journal de Physique, de Chimie et d'Histoire Naturelle v. 91; ref. 18636] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. As Mustellus levis in Risso 1827:127 [ref. 3757]. •Synonym of Mustelus mustelus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1973:28 [ref. 7163], Compagno 1984:419 [ref. 6846], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:8 [ref. 36649]). Current status: Synonym of Mustelus mustelus (Linnaeus 1758). Triakidae: Triakinae. Habitat: marine.

laevis, Mustelus Cetti [F.] 1777:67 [Anfibi e pesci di Sardegna; ref. 18872] Not available, name only, no diagnosis, from [Sardegna] Sardinia, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. •In the synonymy of Mustelus mustelus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Mustelus mustelus (Linnaeus 1758). Triakidae: Triakinae.

laevis, Mustelus Linck [H. F.] 1790:31 [Magazin für das Neueste aus der Physik und Naturgeschichte, Gotha v. 6 (no. 3) (art. 3); ref. 4985] European seas. No types known. •Unneeded replacement name for and objective synonym of Mustelus mustelus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1973:28 [ref. 7163], Compagno 1984:419 [ref. 6846]). •Synonym of Mustelus mustelus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:13 [ref. 26753]). Current status: Synonym of Mustelus mustelus (Linnaeus 1758). Triakidae: Triakinae. Habitat: marine.

laevis, Mustelus Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1841:190, [Pl. 24 (lower)] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Perhaps described independently of (but preoccupied by) Mustelus laevis Linck 1790; objectively invalid. Triakidae: Triakinae. Habitat: marine.

lenticulatus, Mustelus Phillipps [W. J.] 1932:226 [The New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology v. 13 (no. 4); ref. 16393] Wellington Harbor, New Zealand. Holotype (unique): NMNZ. •Valid as Mustelus lenticulatus Phillipps 1932 -- (Compagno 1984:413 [ref. 6846], Paulin et al. 1989:24 [ref. 24556], Nakaya in Amaoka et al. 1990:64 [ref. 16024], Francis 1993:157 [ref. 25479], Compagno 1999:482 [ref. 25589], Gardner & Ward 2002:356 [ref. 26041], White & Last 2008:194 [ref. 29687], White 2008:66 [ref. 30617], Weigmann 2016:48 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Mustelus lenticulatus Phillipps 1932. Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

leucoperiptera, Hemitriakis Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1923:71, Pl. 1 [Philippine Journal of Science v. 23 (no. 1); ref. 2116] Dumaguete, Philippines. Holotype (unique): BSMP (presumed destroyed). •Valid as Hemitriakis leucoperiptera Herre 1923 -- (Compagno 1984:392 [ref. 6846], Compagno & Stevens 1993:197 [ref. 20845], Compagno & Niem 1998:1302 [ref. 23787], Compagno 1999:481 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:579 [ref. 25122], Takahashi & Nakaya 2004:254 [ref. 28004], Compagno et al. 2005:30 [ref. 29145], White et al. 2009:56 [ref. 30195], Weigmann 2016:46 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Hemitriakis leucoperiptera Herre 1923. Triakidae: Galeorhininae. Distribution: Philippines. Habitat: marine.

linnei, Galeus Malm [A. W.] 1877:618 [ ref. 2881] Sweden; Penzance, Cornwall, England, Northeastern Atlantic; Marseille, France; Liguria and Rome, Italy; Lesbos Island, Greece; Syria, Mediterranean Sea. Original as Linnéi. Tentatively regarded as an unneeded replacement name for Squalus galeus Linnaeus 1758 (to avoid "Strickland tautonomy"). Locality Sweden. •Synonym of Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1973:27 [ref. 7163], Compagno 1984:386 [ref. 6846], Dyldin 2015:51 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus 1758). Triakidae: Galeorhininae. Habitat: marine.

lunulatus, Mustelus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:108 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 268); ref. 10603] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Syntypes: USNM 29211 (orig. 2, now 1). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:9 [ref. 21812]. •Valid as Mustelus lunulatus Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:35 [ref. 9277], Compagno 1984:414 [ref. 6846], Bussing & López S. 1994:20 [ref. 23101], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:738 [ref. 22829], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:48 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:50 [ref. 24550], Compagno 1999:482 [ref. 25589], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:42 [ref. 27705], Nelson et al. 2004:53 [ref. 27807], Pérez Jiménez et al. 2005:836 [ref. 28524], Castro-Aguirre et al. 2006:124 [ref. 28590], Castro 2011:377 [ref. 31457], Naylor et al. 2012:36 [ref. 32267] see remarks, Page et al. 2013:51 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:87 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:48 [ref. 34211], Kells et al. 2016:68 [ref. 35888], Ebert et al. 2017:55 [ref. 35618], Ehemann et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Mustelus lunulatus Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) south to Peru. Habitat: marine.

macki, Fur Whitley [G. P.] 1943:168, Fig. 1 [Australian Zoologist v. 10 (pt 2); ref. 4703] Mordialloc, Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia. Holotype (unique): NMV R.13258. •Valid as Furgaleus macki (Whitley 1943) -- (Compagno 1984:385 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:80 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:126 [ref. 22532], Last & Stevens 1994:207 [ref. 23873], Compagno 1999:481 [ref. 25589], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Hoese et al. 2006:90 [ref. 28999], White 2008:63 [ref. 30617], Weigmann 2016:46 [ref. 34211], Hoschke et al. 2019:153[ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Furgaleus macki (Whitley 1943). Triakidae: Galeorhininae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia and Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Triakis scyllium Kner [R.] & Steindachner [F.] (ex Dumeril) 1867:391 [36] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 54 (pt 3); ref. 2640] Locality unknown. Possible types: BMNH 1865.5.24.8 (1), ZMH 468 (1). Type catalog: Ladiges 1958:170 [ref. 19182], Wilkens & Dohse 1993:409 [ref. 21161] with 468 as holotype, Thiel et al. 2009:14 [ref. 30918] with 468 as holotype. On p. 36 of separate. •Valid as Triakis maculata Kner & Steindachner 1867 -- (Compagno 1984:429 [ref. 6846], Pequeño 1989:13 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:21 [ref. 22193], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:742 [ref. 22829], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:94 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:47 [ref. 24555], Compagno 1999:482 [ref. 25589], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:187 [ref. 30957], Weigmann 2016:50 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Triakis maculata Kner & Steindachner 1867. Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

manazo, Mustelus Bleeker [P.] 1854:422 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 13964] Nagasaki, Japan; Northwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: (3) RMNH 7396 (2). Also appeared in Bleeker 1855:126 [ref. 357]. •Valid as Mustelus manazo Bleeker 1854 (often dated 1855) -- (Nakaya in Okamura et al. 1982:45, 310 [ref. 8256], Compagno 1984:416 [ref. 6846], Dor 1984:8 [ref. 29757], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:5 [ref. 6441], Nakaya in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:49, 299 [ref. 8057], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:222 [ref. 36138], Goren & Dor 1994:3 [ref. 25356], Chen et al. 1997:4 [ref. 26476], Cheng & Zhou 1997:28 [ref. 26385] dated 1857, Adam et al. 1998:5 [ref. 23610], Compagno & Niem 1998:1304 [ref. 23787], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:7 [ref. 24670], Compagno 1999:482 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:133 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:579 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:288 [ref. 25995], Wang et al. 2001:30 [ref. 26566] dated 1857, Nakabo 2002:133 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:52, 471 [ref. 26218], Shinohara et al. 2005:394 [ref. 28370], Compagno et al. 2005:32 [ref. 29145] as cf. manazo, White & Last 2008:194 [ref. 29687], White 2008:66 [ref. 30617], Last el al. 2010:74 [ref. 32461], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:57 [ref. 35264], Fricke et al. 2011:345 [ref. 31242], Ebert et al. 2013:325 [ref. 33045], Shinohara et al. 2014:232 [ref. 33330], Parin et al. 2014:22 [ref. 33547], Dyldin 2015:52 [ref. 34524], Motomura et al. 2015:12 [ref. 34709], Weigmann 2016:48 [ref. 34211], Motomura et al. 2017:20 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:300 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:11 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Mustelus manazo Bleeker 1855. Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa east to Philippines, north to Japan, south to Queensland (Australia), Chesterfield Islands and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

mangalorensis, Mustelus Cubelio [S. S.], Remya [R.] & Kurup [B. M.] 2011:28, Figs. 2-5 [Indian Journal of Geo Marine Sciences v. 40 (no. 1); ref. 31250] Mangalore, 12°28'02"N, 74°09'05"E, southern India, depth 200 meters. Holotype (unique): CUSAT [= SHK] 1/1 (lost). •Valid as Iago mangalorensis (Cubelio, Remya & Kurup 2011) -- (Weigmann 2016:47 [ref. 34211] see remarks). Current status: Valid as Iago mangalorensis (Cubelio, Remya & Kurup 2011). Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Southern India (holotype). Habitat: marine.

maugeana, Emissola Whitley [G. P.] 1939:238, Fig. 10 [Australian Zoologist v. 9 (pt 3); ref. 4695] Off Flinders Island, Bass Strait, Tasmania, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.1922. •Synonym of Mustelus antarcticus Günther 1870 -- (Compagno 1984:401 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:82 [ref. 12442], Last & Stevens 1994:216 [ref. 23873], Hoese et al. 2006:92 [ref. 28999]). Current status: Synonym of Mustelus antarcticus Günther 1870. Triakidae: Triakinae. Habitat: marine.

mediterraneus, Mustelus Quignard [J.-P.] & Capapé [C.] 1972:23, Figs. 3, 10 [Revue des Travaux de l'Institut des Pêches Maritimes v. 36 (no. 1); ref. 7638] Mediterranean Sea. Holotype: MNHN 1978-0036. •Valid as Mustelus mediterraneus Quignard & Capapé 1827 -- (Compagno 1973:29 [ref. 7163]). •Synonym of Mustelus punctulatus Risso 1827 -- (Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:121 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:423 [ref. 6846], Springer 1990:98 [ref. 19320], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:14 [ref. 26753] dated 1826, Lipej & Dulčić 2010:8 [ref. 36649], Compagno 2016:1282 [ref. 34544]). Current status: Synonym of Mustelus punctulatus Risso 1827. Triakidae: Triakinae. Habitat: marine.

megalopterus, Mustelus Smith [A.] 1839:no pagination, Pl. 2 [Illustrations of the zoology of South Africa v. 4; ref. 4035] Cape Town, South Africa, southeastern Atlantic. Smith specimens: BMNH 1845.7.3.149 (1), 1845.7.3.159 (1). •Valid as Triakis megalopterus (Smith 1839) [perhaps megaloptera is correct] -- (Compagno 1984:430 [ref. 6846], Bass et al. 1986:86 [ref. 5638], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:222 [ref. 36138], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:77 [ref. 25472], Compagno 1999:482 [ref. 25589], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:65 [ref. 28072], Naylor et al. 2012:39 [ref. 32267] see remarks, Weigmann 2016:50 [ref. 34211], Compagno 2016:1283 [ref. 34544], Fricke et al. 2018:11 [ref. 35805] as melanopterus, Almeida & Biscoito 2019:75 [ref. 37302]). Current status: Valid as Triakis megalopterus (Smith 1839). Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, southwestern Indian Ocean: Angola south to South Africa, east to Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

mento, Mustelus Cope [E. D.] 1877:47 [31] [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 17; ref. 18033] Pacific at Pacasmayo, Peru. Holotype (unique): ANSP 21104. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:162 [ref. 13621]. On p. 31 of separate. •Valid as Mustelus mento Cope 1877 -- (Compagno 1984:417 [ref. 6846], Pequeño 1989:13 [ref. 14125], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:739 [ref. 22829], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:91 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:48 [ref. 24555], Compagno 1999:482 [ref. 25589], Castro-Aguirre et al. 2006:124 [ref. 28590], White & Last 2006:245 [ref. 29422], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:187 [ref. 30957], Weigmann 2016:48 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Mustelus mento Cope 1877. Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

minicanis, Mustelus Heemstra [P. C.] 1997:910, Fig. 11 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 60 (no. 3); ref. 22976] Between Peninsula de Paraguaná Venezuela and Aruba, 12°19'N, 70°34'W, R/V Oregon station 4402, depth 73 meters. Holotype: USNM 207961. Paratypes: ANSP 120342 (1); UF 19140 (1), 230376 (1); USNM 207962 (2), 208016-17 (1, 2). •Valid as Mustelus minicanis Heemstra 1997 -- (Compagno 1999:482 [ref. 25589], Compagno 2003:463 [ref. 26984], Lasso-Alcalá et al. 2005:169 [ref. 28938], Weigmann 2016:48 [ref. 34211], Ehemann et al. 2019:[3] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Mustelus minicanis Heemstra 1997. Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic (including Caribbean Sea). Habitat: marine.

molinae, Galeus Philippi [R. A.] 1887:544 [12], Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [Anales de la Universidad de Chile Sec. 1, v. 71; ref. 3464] Valparaíso, Chile. Syntypes: DBCUCH (several). On p. 12 of separate. •Synonym of Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1984:386 [ref. 6846], Dyldin 2015:51 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus 1758). Triakidae: Galeorhininae. Habitat: marine.

mosis, Mustelus Hemprich [F. W.] & Ehrenberg [C. G.] 1899:8, Pl. 7 (fig. 3 + a-d) [Symbolae physicae; ref. 4977] Red Sea. Syntypes: ZMB 4501 (1). Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:170 [ref. 21041] but dated to 1899 and with syntypes ZMB 4501 (1). Appeared first as Klunzinger (ex Ehrenberg) 1871:668 [ref. 2622] as name in synonymy and not available. Appeared as above as name in synonymy of Mustelus laevis (as assigned by Hilgendorf). Validation back to 1899 not researched, but was established and apparently with ZMB 4501 as type; but probably that action in fact validates the name back to 1871 (the date used by Dor 1984 but not by subsequent authors through 1999). •Valid as Mustelus mosis Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1899 -- (Dor 1984:9 [ref. 29757], Compagno 1984:418 [ref. 6846], Bass et al. 1986:82 [ref. 5638], Baranes & Golani 1993:301 [ref. 22372], Goren & Dor 1994:3 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:25 [ref. 22896], Fricke 1999:17 [ref. 24106], Compagno 1999:482 [ref. 25589], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:24 [ref. 27735], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:64 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2009:8 [ref. 30213], Cubelio et al. 2011:29 [ref. 31250], Moore et al. 2012:6 [ref. 31771], Psomadakis et al. 2015:78 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:49 [ref. 34211], Ali et al. 2018:300 [ref. 36183], Golani & Fricke 2018:12 [ref. 36273], Kumar et al. 2018:296 [ref. 36178], Tyabji et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36598], Eagderi et al. 2019:8 [ref. 37020], Zajonz et al. 2019:58 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:171 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Mustelus mosis Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1899. Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indian Ocean: East Africa and Persian Gulf east to Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Andaman Islands. Habitat: marine.

mustela, Petromyzon Fabricius [J. C.] in Niebuhr (ex Forsskål) 1775:xviii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Melita (La Valletta, Malta, Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Not available, name only. •Uncertain in genus Mustelus Linck 1790, based on either Mustelus asterias Cloquet 1821, M. mustelus (Linnaeus, 1758), or M. punctulatus Risso, 1827 -- (Fricke 2008:9 [ref. 30182]). Triakidae: Triakinae. Habitat: marine.

mustelus, Squalus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:235 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea, Northeastern Atlantic [original: "in Europa"]; localities include Cornwall, England, Northeastern Atlantic; Marseille, France; Rome, Italy; Lesbos Island, Greece; Syria, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Lectotype or neotype fixation needed. Neotype designated by Fricke 1999:17 [ref. 24101], but withdrawn in Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Originally based on multiple species and at least 42 pre-Linnaean sources including Artedi 1738:66 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:93 [ref. 30349] as Squalus dentibus obtusis seu granulosis; Rondelet 1554:375, 376 [ref. 30354] as Gale(us) læu(is) and Gale(us) asteri(as), Gesner 1558:717 [ref. 30350] as Gale(us) laev(is) and Gale(us) asteri(as), Salviani 1558:137, Pl. (p. 135) [ref. 30229] as Mustelus lævis, Jonston 1649:Pl. 8 (fig. 8) [ref. 30579] as Mustelus lævis, Charleton 1668:128 [ref. 30580] as Galeus lævis , Willughby 1686:60, 61 [ref. 30164] and Ray 1713:22 [ref. 30231] as Mustelus lævis primus and Galeus asterias. •Valid as Mustelus mustelus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1973:28 [ref. 7163], Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:120 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:419 [ref. 6846], Bass et al. 1986:82 [ref. 5638], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:222 [ref. 36138], Springer 1990:98 [ref. 19320], Compagno et al. 1991:85 [ref. 21083], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:76 [ref. 25472], Santos et al. 1997:117 [ref. 23531], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:111 [ref. 25013], Compagno 1999:482 [ref. 25589], Fricke 1999:16 [ref. 24101], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:13 [ref. 26753], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:64 [ref. 28072], Golani 2005:9 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:13 [ref. 29533], George 2009:55 [ref. 30539], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:8 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2013:115 [ref. 32972], Goren & Galil 2015:521 [ref. 33910], Weigmann 2016:49 [ref. 34211], Compagno 2016:1279 [ref. 34544], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:77 [ref. 37302], Carneiro et al. 2019:24 [ref. 37250], Bariche & Fricke 2020:13 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:6 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Mustelus mustelus (Linnaeus 1758). Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: British Isles south to South Africa, including Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands and Cape Verde Islands; southwestern Indian Ocean: South Africa north to Durban (KwaZulu-Natal). Habitat: marine.

natalensis, Mustelus Steindachner [F.] 1866:54 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe v. 3 (no. 7); ref. 20460] Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): not found at NMW. Appeared first as above in abstract for Steindachner 1866 [ref. 4210]; then in Steindachner 1866:482, Pl. 1 (figs. 1-3) [ref. 18760]. On p. 1 of separate for ref. 18760. •Synonym of Triakis natalensis (Steindachner 1866) -- (Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:222 [ref. 36138]). •Synonym of Triakis megalopterus (Smith 1839) -- (Compagno 1984:430 [ref. 6846], Bass et al. 1986:86 [ref. 5638], Compagno 2016:1283 [ref. 34544]). Current status: Synonym of Triakis megalopterus (Smith 1839). Triakidae: Triakinae. Habitat: marine.

nigromaculatus, Mustelus Evermann [B. W.] & Radcliffe [L.] 1917:9, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 95; ref. 1284] Lobos de Tierra Island, Peru. Holotype: USNM 77699. Paratypes: (1) whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:10 [ref. 21812]. •Synonym of Triakis maculata Kner & Steindachner 1867 -- (Compagno 1984:429 [ref. 6846]). Current status: Synonym of Triakis maculata Kner & Steindachner 1867. Triakidae: Triakinae. Habitat: marine.

nigropunctatus, Mustelus Smith [J. L. B.] 1952:223, Pl. 13 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 5 (no. 51) (art. 24); ref. 12805] South Africa. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 424. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] (1) not researched. •Synonym of Triakis megalopterus (Smith 1839) -- (Compagno 1984:430 [ref. 6846], Bass et al. 1986:86 [ref. 5638], Compagno 2016:1283 [ref. 34544]). Current status: Synonym of Triakis megalopterus (Smith 1839). Triakidae: Triakinae. Habitat: marine.

nilssoni, Galeus Bonaparte [C. L.] 1846:19 [Atti della Settima Adunanza degli Scienziati Italiani Sesta Riunione, Milano 7a Adunanza, Napoli, Part 2; ref. 519] Northern Ocean. •Synonym of Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1984:386 [ref. 6846], Dyldin 2015:51 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus 1758). Triakidae: Galeorhininae. Habitat: marine.

norrisi, Mustelus Springer [S.] 1939:462, Figs. 53, 55 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 86 (no. 3058); ref. 10180] Off Englewood, Florida, U.S.A., depth about 3 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 106639. Paratypes: BMNH 1939.5.5.1 (1), Bass Biol. Lab. 317, 319-321 (whereabouts unknown), MCZ 35222 [ex 318] (1); UMMZ 117094 (2); USNM 57369 (1), USNM 104333 (1), 317610 [ex USNM 57369] (6 embryos). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:10 [ref. 21812]. •Valid as Mustelus norrisi Springer 1939 -- (Compagno 1984:421 [ref. 6846], Robins & Ray 1986:29 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:23 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:192 [ref. 23827], Heemstra 1997:911 [ref. 22976], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:70 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:45 [ref. 24221], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:116 [ref. 24490], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:51 [ref. 24550], Compagno 1999:482 [ref. 25589], Soto 2001:64, 71 [ref. 26637], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27192], Compagno 2003:464 [ref. 26984], Kiraly et al. 2003:18 [ref. 28226], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:43 [ref. 27705], Nelson et al. 2004:53 [ref. 27807], Castro 2011:379 [ref. 31457], Page et al. 2013:51 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:87 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:49 [ref. 34211], Ehemann et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36194], Ehemann et al. 2019:[3] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Mustelus norrisi Springer 1939. Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico south to Brazil, including Caribbean Sea Habitat: marine.

omanensis, Eugaleus Norman [J. R.] 1939:11, Fig. 3 [Scientific Reports, John Murray Expedition v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 6556] Gulf of Oman, station 75, depth 210 meters. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1939.5.24.9. •Valid as Iago omanensis (Norman 1939) -- (Compagno & Springer 1971:619 [ref. 899], Dor 1984:8 [ref. 29757], Compagno 1984:396 [ref. 6846], Bass et al. 1986:80 [ref. 5638], Baranes & Golani 1993:301 [ref. 22372], Klausewitz 1994:464 [ref. 23564], Goren & Dor 1994:3 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:25 [ref. 22896], Morón et al. 1999:145 [ref. 24253], Compagno 1999:481 [ref. 25589], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:24 [ref. 27735], Naylor et al. 2012:39 [ref. 32267] see remarks, Psomadakis et al. 2015:78 [ref. 34104] and Iago sp. A, Weigmann 2016:47 [ref. 34211], Golani & Fricke 2018:12 [ref. 36273], Psomadakis et al. 2020:170 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Iago omanensis (Norman 1939). Triakidae: Galeorhininae. Distribution: Red Sea, western and northern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

palumbes, Mustelus Smith [J. L. B.] 1957:358, Figs. 1E-F [South African Journal of Science v. 53 (no. 14); ref. 12172] Knysna Estuary, Cape Province, South Africa. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 24. Paratypes or additional material: not researched. •Valid as Mustelus palumbes Smith 1957 -- (Compagno 1984:422 [ref. 6846], Bass et al. 1986:82 [ref. 5638], Compagno et al. 1991:85 [ref. 21083], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:76 [ref. 25472], Compagno 1999:482 [ref. 25589], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:64 [ref. 28072], Weigmann 2016:49 [ref. 34211], Compagno 2016:1281 [ref. 34544], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:76 [ref. 37302]). Current status: Valid as Mustelus palumbes Smith 1957. Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, southwestern Indian Ocean: Namibia, South Africa and southern Mozambique. Habitat: marine.

pingi, Hemigaleus Evermann [B. W.] & Shaw [T.] 1927:99 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 1286] Wenchow, China. Holotype (unique): CAS 500. •Synonym of Triakis scyllium Müller & Henle 1839 -- (Compagno 1984:432 [ref. 6846], Dyldin 2015:52 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Triakis scyllium Müller & Henle 1839. Triakidae: Triakinae. Habitat: marine.

platyrynchus, Squalus Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:521 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated. Triakidae. Habitat: marine.

plebejus, Mustelus Bonaparte [C. L.] 1834:fasc. 8, punt. 43, Pl. 132 (fig. 1) [Iconografia della fauna italica; ref. 517] Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:162 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Mustelus asterias Cloquet 1819 -- (Compagno 1973:28 [ref. 7163], Compagno 1984:402 [ref. 6846], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:13 [ref. 26753], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:8 [ref. 36649]). Current status: Synonym of Mustelus asterias Cloquet 1819. Triakidae: Triakinae. Habitat: marine.

punctulatus, Mustellus Risso [A.] 1827:128 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Correct spelling of original genus is Mustelus. •Valid as Mustelus punctulatus Risso 1827 -- (Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:121 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:423 [ref. 6846], Springer 1990:98 [ref. 19320], Compagno 1999:482 [ref. 25589], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:14 [ref. 26753] dated 1826, Fricke et al. 2007:13 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:8 [ref. 36649], Compagno 2016:1282 [ref. 34544], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:77 [ref. 37302], Carneiro et al. 2019:24 [ref. 37250], Kovačić et al. 2020:6 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Mustelus punctulatus Risso 1827. Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Morocco south to Western Sahara, including Madeira, Selvagens Islands and Canary Islands. Habitat: marine.

quecketti, Scylliogaleus Boulenger [G. A.] 1902:51, Pl. 4 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 10 (no. 55) (art. 7); ref. 566] Off rocks at Umkomaas, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 40 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1903.2.6.21. •Valid as Scylliogaleus quecketti Boulenger 1902 -- (Compagno 1984:427 [ref. 6846], Bass et al. 1986:85 [ref. 5638], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:222 [ref. 36138], Compagno 1999:482 [ref. 25589], Weigmann 2016:50 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Scylliogaleus quecketti Boulenger 1902. Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

ravidus, Mustelus White [W. T.] & Last [P. R.] 2006:241, Figs. 5-7 [Cybium v. 30 (no. 3); ref. 29422] Off Port Hedland, Western Australia, 18°30'S, 118°43'E. Holotype: CSIRO H 4072-06. Paratypes: CSIRO CA 3037 (1), CA 3038 (1), CA 3319 (1), CA 3367 (1), CA 3368 (1). •Valid as Mustelus ravidus White & Last 2006 -- (Weigmann 2016:49 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Mustelus ravidus White & Last 2006. Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Australia: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

rhinophanes, Squalus Péron [F.] 1807:337 [Voyage de Découvertes aux Terres Australes; ref. 18533] Adventure Bay, Tasmania, Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Questionably a synonym of Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1984:386 [ref. 6846]). •Status uncertain -- (Paxton et al. 1989:84 [ref. 12442], Hoese et al. 2006:107 [ref. 29001]). •Synonym of Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Last & Stevens 1994:209 [ref. 23873], Dyldin 2015:51 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus 1758). Triakidae: Galeorhininae. Habitat: marine.

schmitti, Mustelus Springer [S.] 1939:465 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 86 (no. 3058); ref. 10180] Coast of Uruguay, southwestern Atlantic. Holotype: USNM 106640 [ex USNM 87680]. Paratypes: USNM 55582 (1), 87680 (2), 87782 (1). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:12-13 [ref. 21812]. Spelled schmidti by Bigelow & Schroeder 1940:420 [ref. 19762]. •Valid as Mustelus schmitti Springer 1939 -- (Compagno 1984:424 [ref. 6846], Menni 1986:429 [ref. 11487], Heemstra 1997:915 [ref. 22976], Compagno 1999:482 [ref. 25589], Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:34 [ref. 25942], Van der Molen & Caille 2001:851 [ref. 25798], Soto 2001:64, 71 [ref. 26637], López et al. 2002:62 [ref. 26808], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27192], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800], Weigmann 2016:49 [ref. 34211], Petry et al. 2016:299 [ref. 34966], Nión et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35565], Spier et al. 2018:4 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Mustelus schmitti Springer 1939. Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

scyllium, Triakis Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1839:63, [Pl. 26] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Japan. Holotype (unique): RMNH D2578 (dry). As Triakis scyllia in Bigelow & Schroeder 1948:236 [ref. 16817]; Triakis is feminine but scyllium is a noun in apposition and therefore does not change its ending. •Valid as Triakis scyllium Müller & Henle 1839 -- (Compagno 1984:432 [ref. 6846], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:5 [ref. 6441] as scyllia, Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:222 [ref. 36138] as scyllia, Cheng & Zhou 1997:27 [ref. 26385] dated 1841, Senou & Masuda 1998:5 [ref. 24388], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:7 [ref. 24670], Compagno 1999:482 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:134 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:579 [ref. 25122], Shimizu 2001:19 [ref. 25799], Wang et al. 2001:29 [ref. 26566] dated 1841, Nakabo 2002:134 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:52, 472 [ref. 26218], Compagno et al. 2005:33 [ref. 29145] with question, Ebert et al. 2013:326 [ref. 33045], Parin et al. 2014:22 [ref. 33547], Dyldin 2015:52 [ref. 34524], Weigmann 2016:50 [ref. 34211], Dyldin & Orlov 2018:164 [ref. 35920]). Current status: Valid as Triakis scyllium Müller & Henle 1839. Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

semifasciatum, Triakis Girard [C. F.] 1855:196 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7 (no. 6); ref. 18001] Near Presidio, San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 988 (1, not found in 1980). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:13 [ref. 21812]. See Mustelus felis Ayres 1854. Mustelus felis is a senior synonym of Triakis semifasciata Girard 1855, but felis is an unused senior synonym subject to Reversal of Precedence (Art. 23.9.1). Triakis is feminine, so the spelling semifasciata is used. •Valid as Triakis semifasciata Girard 1855 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:35 [ref. 9277], Compagno 1984:433 [ref. 6846], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:743 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:33 [ref. 24545], Compagno 1999:482 [ref. 25589], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:44 [ref. 27705] dated to 1854, Nelson et al. 2004:53 [ref. 27807], Castro 2011:384 [ref. 31457], Pietsch et al. 2012:98 [ref. 31825], Page et al. 2013:51 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:15 [ref. 34694], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:88 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:51 [ref. 34211], Kells et al. 2016:68 [ref. 35888], Ebert et al. 2017:55 [ref. 35618], Ehemann et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36194], Burton & Lea 2019:29 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Triakis semifasciata Girard 1855. Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Washington (U.S.A.) south to Gulf of California and Mexico. Habitat: marine.

sinusmexicanus, Mustelus Heemstra [P. C.] 1997:918, Figs. 17, 18C, 22 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 60 (no. 3); ref. 22976] South of Dauphin Island, Alabama, U.S.A., 29°15'N, 88°11'30"W, depth 91 meters. Holotype: USNM 208345. Paratypes: ANSP 103925 (1); BMNH 1972.10.3.2-4 (3); CAS 14978 (1); FMNH 71556 (2); GCRL 288 (1), 1183 (1); MCZ 35853 (2); CAS-SU 38654 (1), 38659-60 (1, 2); TU 16544 (1), 164146 (1); UF 27999 (1), 46036 (1), 46038 (1), 230476 (2); USNM 116443 (1), 158585 (1), 179120 (3). •Valid as Mustelus sinusmexicanus Heemstra 1997 -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:51 [ref. 24550], Compagno 1999:482 [ref. 25589], Compagno 2003:465 [ref. 26984], Kiraly et al. 2003:19 [ref. 28226], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:43 [ref. 27705], Nelson et al. 2004:53 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:14 [ref. 28815], Castro 2011:382 [ref. 31457], Page et al. 2013:51 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:87 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:50 [ref. 34211], Ehemann et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Mustelus sinusmexicanus Heemstra 1997. Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

stellatus, Mustelus Risso [A.] 1827:126 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France; Marseille, France; Lesbos Island, Greece, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Mustelus asterias Cloquet 1819 -- (Compagno 1973:28 [ref. 7163], Compagno 1984:402 [ref. 6846], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:13 [ref. 26753], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:8 [ref. 36649]). Current status: Synonym of Mustelus asterias Cloquet 1819. Triakidae: Triakinae. Habitat: marine.

stevensi, Mustelus White [W. T.] & Last [P. R.] 2008:190, Figs. 1-2, 5A [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 022; ref. 29687] North of Dampier Archipelago, Western Australia, 19°08'S, 116°54'E, depth 196-198 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 1035-13. Paratypes: 14 specimens at CSIRO. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Mustelus stevensi White & Last 2008 --- (Larson et al. 2013:7 [ref. 32988], Weigmann 2016:50 [ref. 34211], Psomadakis et al. 2020:171 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Mustelus stevensi White & Last 2008. Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: Myanmar; northern Western Australia, Timor and Arafura seas. Habitat: marine.

striatus, Mustelus Devincenzi [G. J.] 1920:122, Pl. 12 [Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Montevideo (Serie 2) v. 1 (pt 4); ref. 15235] Río de la Plata, Montevideo, Uruguay. Holotype (unique): MHNM CI 135. Type catalog: Olazarri et al. 1970:2 [ref. 23527], Loureiro et al. 2016:413 [ref. 35150]. Appeared as Mustelus estriatus in Serrano 1929:3 [ref. 34188]. •Synonym of Mustelus fasciatus (Garman 1913) -- (Compagno 1984:408 [ref. 6846], Heemstra 1997:906 [ref. 22976]). Current status: Synonym of Mustelus fasciatus (Garman 1913). Triakidae: Triakinae. Habitat: marine.

ventralis, Fur Whitley [G. P.] 1943:397 [Records of the South Australian Museum (Adelaide) v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 13227] Off Bunbury, Western Australia. Holotype: WAM P.2451-001. Paratypes: SAMA F2069 (1, cast, missing), F2070 (1, mounted skin, missing); WAM P.26679-001 (1, mounted skin). Type catalog: Glover 1976:169 [ref. 19449], Hutchins & Smith 1991:6 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:4 [ref. 30117]. Species is later illustrated and described in more detail in Whitley 1948:259, Figs. 1-2 [ref. 4709]. •Synonym of Furgaleus macki (Whitley 1943) -- (Compagno 1984:385 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:80 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:127 [ref. 22532], Last & Stevens 1994:207 [ref. 23873], Hoese et al. 2006:90 [ref. 28999], Moore et al. 2009:4 [ref. 30117]). Current status: Synonym of Furgaleus macki (Whitley 1943). Triakidae: Galeorhininae. Habitat: marine.

vitaminicus, Galeorhinus de Buen [F.] 1950:156, Fig. 1 [Publicaciones Cientificas, Servicio Oceanografico y de Pesca, Ministerio de Industrias y Trabajo, Montevideo No. 4; ref. 12929] 60 miles east-southeast of Lobos Island, Peru, depth 67 meters. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Olazarri et al. 1970:2 [ref. 23527]. •Synonym of Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1984:386 [ref. 6846], Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:32 [ref. 25942], Castro 2011:361 [ref. 31457], Dyldin 2015:51 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus 1758). Triakidae: Galeorhininae. Habitat: marine.

vulgaris, Galeus Fleming [J.] 1828:165 [A history of British animals; ref. 1339] Coast of Great Britain, Northeastern Atlantic. No types known. Based in part on Squalus galeus Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1973:27 [ref. 7163], Compagno 1984:386 [ref. 6846], Springer 1990:97 [ref. 19320], Mundy 2005:88 [ref. 28379], Dyldin 2015:51 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus 1758). Triakidae: Galeorhininae. Habitat: marine.

vulgaris, Mustelus Cloquet [H.] 1819:406 (v. 14) [Dictionnaire des sciences Naturelles; ref. 852] European Seas (Cornwall, England, Northeastern Atlantic; Marseille, France; Rome, Italy; Lesbos Island, Greece; Syria, Mediterranean Sea), Indian Ocean, Pacific. No types known. Unnecessary replacement name for Squalus mustelus Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Mustelus mustelus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1973:28 [ref. 7163], Compagno 1984:419 [ref. 6846] with question, Springer 1990:98 [ref. 19320], Golani 2005:10 [ref. 37112]). Current status: Synonym of Mustelus mustelus (Linnaeus 1758). Triakidae: Triakinae. Habitat: marine.

vulgaris, Mustelus Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1839:64, 190, [Pl. 27 (upper)] [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Mediterranean Sea; Atlantic; Japan; Australia. Syntypes: ZMB 4502 (1, dry), 31649-51 (1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:170 [ref. 21041]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Mustelus vulgaris Cloquet 1821. •Synonym of Mustelus asterias Cloquet 1819 -- (Compagno 1973:28 [ref. 7163] in part, Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:13 [ref. 26753], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:8 [ref. 36649]). Current status: Synonym of Mustelus asterias Cloquet 1819. Triakidae: Triakinae. Habitat: marine.

walkeri, Mustelus White [W. T.] & Last [P. R.] 2008:194, Figs. 3-4, 5B [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 022; ref. 29687] Northeast of Hinchinbrook Island, Queensland, Australia, 17°57'S, 147°02'E, depth 298-306 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 460-02. Paratypes: 16 specimens at CSIRO and QM. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Mustelus walkeri White & Last 2008 -- (Weigmann 2016:50 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Mustelus walkeri White & Last 2008. Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Northeastern Australia. Habitat: marine.

whitneyi, Mustelus Chirichigno F. [N.] 1973:7, Fig. 1 [Informes, Especiales, Instituto del Mar del Perú. Callao No. 42; ref. 7559] Off Paita, Peru, depth 50 fathoms. Holotype: IMARPE 1210. Paratypes: IMARPE 10 (1), 842 (1), 1140 (1), 1144 (1), 1192 (1), 1211 (1). •Valid as Mustelus whitneyi Chirichigno F. 1973 -- (Compagno 1984:425 [ref. 6846], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:740 [ref. 22829], Pequeño 1997:79 [ref. 23536], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:49 [ref. 24555], Compagno 1999:482 [ref. 25589], Castro-Aguirre et al. 2006:124 [ref. 28590], White & Last 2006:245 [ref. 29422], Weigmann 2016:50 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Mustelus whitneyi Chirichigno F. 1973. Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Peru and Chile. Habitat: marine.

widodoi, Mustelus White [W. T.] & Last [P. R.] 2006:237, Figs. 1-3 [Cybium v. 30 (no. 3); ref. 29422] Kedonganan fish market, 8°45'S, 115°10'E, Bali, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB 13591. Paratypes: MZB 12903 (1); CSIRO H 5693-01 to -04 (1, 1, 1, 1, 1), H 5870 (1), H 5870-02 (1), H 5872-09 (1), H 5889-11 (1), H 5889-13 (1), H 5889-27 (1). •Valid as Mustelus widodoi White & Last 2006 -- (Last el al. 2010:76 [ref. 32461], Weigmann 2016:50 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Mustelus widodoi White & Last 2006. Triakidae: Triakinae. Distribution: Indonesia and off Malaysian Borneo. Habitat: marine.

zanzibarensis, Galeorhinus (Hypogaleus) Smith [J. L. B.] 1957:589, Pl. 19 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 10 (no. 116); ref. 4115] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 20. Additional material: not researched. •Valid as Galeorhinus zanzibarensis Smith 1957 -- (Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:223 [ref. 36138]). •Synonym of Hypogaleus hyugaensis (Miyosi 1939) -- (Compagno 1984:394 [ref. 6846], Bass 1986:79 [ref. 5635], Hoese et al. 2006:91 [ref. 28999]). Current status: Synonym of Hypogaleus hyugaensis (Miyosi 1939). Triakidae: Galeorhininae. Habitat: marine.

zyopterus, Galeorhinus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1883:871 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 16; ref. 2476] San Francisco to Cedros Island, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: ANSP 582 (1); BMNH 1881.3.14.255 [ex USNM] (1); MCZ 35949 [ex USNM 26973] (1); USNM 26927 (2), 26973 (6), 27190 (now 1 [original in error]), 27191 (1); ZMUC [ex USNM] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:162 [ref. 13621] as paratypes, Howe & Springer 1993:15 [ref. 21812]. •Valid as Galeorhinus zyopterus Jordan & Gilbert 1883 -- (McAllister 1990:32 [ref. 14674]). •Synonym of Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Branstetter in Whitehead et al. 1984:118 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:386 [ref. 6846], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:47 [ref. 24555], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:73 [ref. 25968], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:37 [ref. 27705], Mundy 2005:88 [ref. 28379], Castro 2011:361 [ref. 31457], Dyldin 2015:51 [ref. 34524], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:85 [ref. 34398]). Current status: Synonym of Galeorhinus galeus (Linnaeus 1758). Triakidae: Galeorhininae. Habitat: marine.