Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 5 October 2020

SEARCH RESULTS FROM

Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
Select the database to search:
GENERA   SPECIES   REFERENCES
Include unavailable names

         Comments: ,

    Please look in Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes for authorships of sections, Families of Fishes (all), and related information.

Species in the genus Ophichthus: [ 158 ] records


algoensis, Ophichthys Barnard [K. H.] 1925:498 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9) v. 15 (no. 86) (art. 56); ref. 12730] Algoa Bay, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 55 fathoms. Holotype (unique): SAM 12776. Replacement name for Ophichthys triserialis Barnard 1923, secondarily preoccupied by Muraenopsis triserialis Kaup 1856. •Synonym of Ophichthus unicolor Regan 1908 -- (McCosker & Castle 1986:183 [ref. 5690], McCosker 1999:583 [ref. 23699]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus unicolor Regan 1908. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

alleni, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] 2010:6, Figs. 8-10 [Zootaxa No. 2505; ref. 30840] Off Newcastle, between 33°01'S, 151°59'E and 33°03'S, 152°01'E, New South Wales, Australia, depth 115-121 meters. Holotype: AMS I.36257. Paratypes: CAS 227496 [ex. AMS I.34211-001] (1), CSIRO H 1102-2 (1). •Valid as Ophichthus alleni McCosker 2010. Current status: Valid as Ophichthus alleni McCosker 2010. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Queensland and New South Wales, Australia. Habitat: marine.

altipennis, Microdonophis Kaup [J. J.] 1856:43 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Makassar, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Island, Indonesia. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2151 (1), ?RMNH 3740 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:107-108 [ref. 20810], Hibino & McCosker 2020:329 [ref. 37588]. Also appeared in Kaup 1856:6, Pl. 1 (fig. 3 [not 4]) [ref. 2573] as altipinnis. •Valid as Ophichthus altipennis (Kaup 1856) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836] as altipinnis, Bauchot et al. 1993:107 [ref. 20810], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715] as altipinnis, Randall et al. 2002:155 [ref. 26192], McCosker & Randall 2002:798 [ref. 26226], Allen & Adrim 2003:24 [ref. 26830] as altipinnis, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Randall 2005:32 [ref. 28239], McCosker et al. 2006:271 [ref. 29006], Ji & Kim 2011:66 [ref. 31152], Allen & Erdmann 2012:108 [ref. 31980], McCosker et al. 2012:7 [ref. 31982], Larson et al. 2013:27 [ref. 32988], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], McCosker & Ho 2015:73 [ref. 34123], Ho et al. 2015:171 [ref. 34130], Hibino et al. 2019:302 [ref. 36433], Hibino & McCosker 2020:329 [ref. 37588], McCosker et al. 2020:34 [ref. 37376]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus altipennis (Kaup 1856). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Maldives east to Marshall Islands and Society Islands, north to Japan, south to Western Australia and Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

aniptocheilos, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] 2010:9, Figs. 11-12 [Zootaxa No. 2505; ref. 30840] Tonga, 21°40.65'S, 175°19.37'W, depth 391-421 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 2001-1061. •Valid as Ophichthus aniptocheilos McCosker 2010 -- (Hibino et al. 2019:147 [ref. 37155]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus aniptocheilos McCosker 2010. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Tonga, western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

apachus, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] & Rosenblatt [R. H.] 1998:399, Figs. 1, 3a [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences v. 50 (no. 19); ref. 23645] Islas Tres Marias, northeastern side of Isla Maria Magdalena, 21°26.5'N, 106°22.0'W, depth 0-8 meters. Holotype: SIO 62-25. Paratypes: ANSP 126077 (16), CAS 97856 (2). •Valid as Ophichthus apachus McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], McCosker et al. 2012:11 [ref. 31982], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus apachus McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

aphotistos, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] & Chen [Y.-Y.] 2000:354, Fig. 1 [Ichthyological Research v. 47 (no. 4); ref. 25028] Tung-Kong [Tongkang] Channel, southwestern Taiwan, 22°22'N, 120°19'E, depth 700-800 meters. Holotype: CAS 209192. Paratypes: NSYU 3657 (1), USNM 356862 (1). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:23 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Ophichthus aphotistos McCosker & Chen 2000 -- (McCosker 2005:672 [ref. 28646], McCosker 2010:11 [ref. 30840], Zhang et al. 2010:331 [ref. 31511], Ho & Shao 2011:23 [ref. 31432], McCosker & Ho 2015:72 [ref. 34123], Ho et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:171 [ref. 34130], Hibino et al. 2016:119 [ref. 35050], Hibino et al. 2019:303 [ref. 36433]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus aphotistos McCosker & Chen 2000. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Japan to Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

apicalis, Ophisurus Anonymous [Bennett [E. T.]] 1830:692 [Memoir of the life and public services of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles; ref. 259] Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype: ? BMNH 1982.5.7.3. On Code recommendation 51D, the anonymous author is listed in square brackets. Kottelat (2013) disagrees; see p. xi and 629 (but the article still lacks an author, agreeing with square brackets). •Valid as Ophichthus apicalis (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830) -- (Kuang & Yu in Kuang et al. 1986:34 [ref. 26639] dated 1803 [sic], McCosker & Castle 1986:182 [ref. 5690], Zheng et al. 1989:37 [ref. 21202] as spicalis, Kuang in Pan et al. 1991:61 [ref. 23876] as Ophichthys, Randall 1995:60 [ref. 22896], Smith & McCosker 1999:1668 [ref. 24715], Mishra et al. 1999:83 [ref. 25315], McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], Tang & Zhang 2004:21 [ref. 27889], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:106 [ref. 28072], Zhang et al. 2010:340 [ref. 31511], McCosker et al. 2012:6 [ref. 31982], Kottelat 2013:46 [ref. 32989], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], McCosker & Ho 2015:73 [ref. 34123], Ho et al. 2015:171 [ref. 34130], Fricke et al. 2018:45 [ref. 35805], Hibino in Kimura et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36460], Eagderi et al. 2019:19 [ref. 37020], Vo et al. 2019:12 [ref. 37206], McCosker et al. 2020:34 [ref. 37376]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus apicalis (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa, Persian Gulf and Madagascar east to Philippines and Vietnam. Habitat: brackish, marine.

arneutes, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] & Rosenblatt [R. H.] 1998:400, Figs. 2, 3c [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences v. 50 (no. 19); ref. 23645] Isla Wolf, 1°22.9'N, 91°51.4'W, Galápagos Islands, depth 485 meters. Holotype: CAS 88004. Paratypes: CAS 94485 (1). •Valid as Ophichthus arneutes McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998 -- (McCosker & Ross 2007:785 [ref. 29436], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], McCosker et al. 2012:6 [ref. 31982]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus arneutes McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

asakusae, Ophichthus Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:872, Fig. 18 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1239); ref. 2508] Outside Bay of Tokyo, near Misaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 6478. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:50 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Ophichthus asakusae Jordan & Snyder 1901 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:32 [ref. 6441], Lee & Asano 1997:551 [ref. 23711], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Nakabo 2000:223 [ref. 25086], Sumida & Machida 2000:64 [ref. 26006], Nakabo 2002:223 [ref. 26001], Tang & Zhang 2004:21 [ref. 27889], Shinohara et al. 2005:400 [ref. 28370], Zhang et al. 2010:339 [ref. 31511], McCosker et al. 2012:7 [ref. 31982], Ji et al. 2013:595 [ref. 36300], McCosker & Ho 2015:73 [ref. 34123], Ho et al. 2015:171 [ref. 34130], Hibino in Kimura et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36460], Hibino et al. 2019:302 [ref. 36433], Vo et al. 2019:12 [ref. 37206]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus asakusae Jordan & Snyder 1901. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: northern Vietnam, China and Taiwan north to Korea and Japan. Habitat: marine.

ater, Ophichthys (Herpetoichthys) Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1866:525 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1866; ref. 3439] Chile. Holotype (unique): ZMB 3978. •Valid as Ophichthus ater Peters 1866 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Pequeño 1989:25 [ref. 14125]). •Synonym of Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:413 [ref. 23645]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

bangko, Ophisurus Bleeker [P.] 1853:67 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 5); ref. 339] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 1867.11.28.233 (1) Java (Bleeker coll.). •Synonym of Ophichthus apicalis (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830) -- (Kottelat 2013:46 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus apicalis (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

bennettai, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] 1986:2, Figs. 1-2 [The J.L.B Smith Institute of Ichthyology Special Publication No. 39; ref. 8074] Southeastern Atlantic, 32°14'S, 16°32'E. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 20033. •Valid as Ophichthus bennettai McCosker 1986 -- (McCosker & Castle 1986:182 [ref. 5690]). •Synonym of Ophichthus serpentinus Seale 1917 -- (Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:viii [ref. 21953], McCosker 2006:737 [ref. 29103], McCosker 2010:32 [ref. 30840]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus serpentinus Seale 1917. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

bicolor, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] & Ho [H.-C.] 2015:76, Figs. 4-6 [Zootaxa 4060 (no. 1); ref. 34123] Dong-gang, Pingtung, southwest Taiwan, depth ca. 200 meters. Holotype: NMMB-P18103. Paratypes: CAS, NMMB-P. •Valid as Ophichthus bicolor McCosker & Ho 2015 -- (Ho et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:171 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus bicolor McCosker & Ho 2015. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

biserialis, Ophichthys Garman [S.] 1899:311 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] San Cristóbal Island [Chatham Island], Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): MCZ 28454. •Synonym of Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:415 [ref. 23645]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

bleekeri, Ophichthys Volz [W.] 1903:418 [Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere (Jena) v. 19 (no. 4); ref. 21451] Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype: Not found. Replacement name for Ophichthys polyohthalmus when both are in Ophichthus [never used]. •Synonymy of Ophichthus polyophthalmus Bleeker 1864 -- (Kottelat 2013:46 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus polyophthalmus Bleeker 1864. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

bonaparti, Poecilocephalus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:43 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2755. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:111 [ref. 20810]. Also in Kaup 1856:5, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [ref. 2573]. •Valid as Ophichthus bonaparti (Kaup 1856) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:31 [ref. 6441], McCosker & Castle 1986:183 [ref. 5690], Anderson et al. 1998:21 [ref. 23611], Allen 1997:58 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:57 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:66 [ref. 24106], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Nakabo 2000:222 [ref. 25086], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:118 [ref. 25191], McCosker 2002:26 [ref. 25848], Nakabo 2002:222 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:24 [ref. 26830], Randall 2005:33 [ref. 28239], Randall et al. 2005:118 [ref. 28745], McCosker et al. 2006:271 [ref. 29006], Fricke et al. 2009:19 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342], Allen & Erdmann 2012:108 [ref. 31980], McCosker et al. 2012:7 [ref. 31982], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], McCosker & Ho 2015:72 [ref. 34123], Ho et al. 2015:172 [ref. 34130], Hibino et al. 2019:302 [ref. 36433], McCosker et al. 2020:33 [ref. 37376]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus bonaparti (Kaup 1856). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa and western Mascarenes east to Indonesia and Marshall Islands and Society Islands, north to Taiwan, south to New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

brachycephalus, Uranichthys Poey [F.] 1867:257 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 14079] Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:399 [ref. 13288], Leiby 1990:189 [ref. 13652]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

brachynotopterus, Ophichthus Karrer [C.] 1983:73, Figs. 22 A-B [Faune Tropicale v. 23 (for 1982); ref. 5679] Nosy Be [Nossi-Bé], Mozambique Channel, Madagascar, 12°40'S, 48°13.8'E, depth 370-355 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1979-0021. Paratypes: MNHN 1979-0022 and 0023 (1, 1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:109-110 [ref. 20810], Fricke et al. 2018:45 [ref. 35805]. •Valid as Ophichthus brachynotopterus Karrer 1983 -- (McCosker & Chen 2000:356 [ref. 25028], McCosker 2005:673 [ref. 28646], McCosker 2010:11 [ref. 30840], Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342], Fricke et al. 2018:45 [ref. 35805], Hibino et al. 2019:147 [ref. 37155] as brachinotopterus, McCosker et al. 2020:34 [ref. 37376]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus brachynotopterus Karrer 1983. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: Madagascar; southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia and Vanuatu. Habitat: marine.

brachyurus, Ophichthys Poey [F.] 1868:426 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Ophichthus gomesii (Castelnau 1855) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:389 [ref. 13288]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus gomesii (Castelnau 1855). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

brasiliensis, Centrurophis Kaup [J. J.] 1856:43 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [possibly erroneous]. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-8674. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:106 [ref. 20810]. Also in Kaup 1856:4 [ref. 2573]. •Valid as Ophichthus brasiliensis (Kaup 1856) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:382 [ref. 13288], Bauchot et al. 1993:106 [ref. 20810], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:62 [ref. 27192]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus brasiliensis (Kaup 1856). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

brevicaudatus, Ophichthys Chu [Y.-T.], Wu [H.-L.] & Jin [X.-B.] 1981:23 [English p. 27], Fig. 3 [Journal of Fisheries of China v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 21250] Sangou Fishing Ground, Taiwan Strait. Holotype: Shanghai Fish. Coll. A07185. •Valid as Ophichthus brevicaudatus Chu, Wu & Jin 1981 -- (Tang & Zhang 2002:855 [ref. 26492], Tang & Zhang 2004:21 [ref. 27889], Zhang et al. 2010:345 [ref. 31511]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus brevicaudatus Chu, Wu & Jin 1981. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: China and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

brevidorsalis, Ophichthus Chiu [Y.-C] & Hibino [Y.] in Hibino, Chiu, Chen & Shao 2019:148, Figs. 6-7 [Zootaxa 4702 (no. 1); ref. 37155] New Caledonia, depth 412 - 467 meters. Holotype (unique): ASIZP 61648. •Valid as Ophichthus brevidorsalis Chiu & Hibino 2019. Current status: Valid as Ophichthus brevidorsalis Chiu & Hibino 2019. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: New Caledonia, western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

brevirostris, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] & Ross [S. W.] 2007:783, Figs. 1-3 [Copeia 2007 (no. 4); ref. 29436] Off Cape Lookout, trawled between 34°13.13'N, 75°52.11'W and 34°14.00'N, 75°52.13'W, North Carolina, U.S.A., depth 406-440 meters. Holotype (unique): CAS 224335. •Valid as Ophichthus brevirostris McCosker & Ross 2007 -- (McCosker et al. 2012:6 [ref. 31982]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus brevirostris McCosker & Ross 2007. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Off North Carolina, U.S.A. [holotype]. Habitat: marine.

californiensis, Ophisurus Garrett [A.] 1863:66 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 1) v. 3; ref. 13928] Margarita Bay, Baja California. Holotype (unique): destroyed in fire in 1906. •Synonym of Ophichthus triserialis (Kaup 1856) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:418 [ref. 23645]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus triserialis (Kaup 1856). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

callaensis, Ophichthys Günther [A.] 1873:92 [12] [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 1 (no. 2); ref. 6424] Callao, Peru. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1873.6.23.7 [ex MGH 21]. On p. 12 of separate. •Valid as Ophichthus callaensis Günther 1873 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836] as callensis, Pequeño 1989:25 [ref. 14125], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:121 [ref. 24555]). •Synonym of Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:413 [ref. 23645]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

callisoma, Herpetoichthys Abbott [C. C.] 1860:475 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 12; ref. 15619] Pacific [probably in error]. Holotype (unique): ANSP 38148. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:133 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:399 [ref. 13288], Leiby 1990:189 [ref. 13652]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

celebicus, Ophisurus Bleeker [P.] 1856:70 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 1 (6); ref. 352] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 1867.11.28.329 (1) Manado. •Valid as Ophichthus celebicus (Bleeker 1856) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Randall 1995:60 [ref. 22896], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Tang & Zhang 2004:21 [ref. 27889], Zhang et al. 2010:347 [ref. 31511], Hibino in Kimura et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36460], Vo et al. 2019:12 [ref. 37206]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus celebicus (Bleeker 1856). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: northern Vietnam, southern China, Sulawesi (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

cephalozona, Ophichthys Bleeker [P.] 1864:49, Pl. 156 (fig. 2) [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises v. 4; ref. 4860] Singapore; Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.256 (1) Ambon. •Valid as Ophichthus cephalozona Bleeker 1864 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Allen & Swainston 1988:34 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:119 [ref. 12442], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:171 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:56 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:494 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:57 [ref. 23965], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:24 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:612 [ref. 27495], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:19 [ref. 27712], Randall et al. 2004:6 [ref. 27624], Tang & Zhang 2004:20 [ref. 27889], Randall 2005:33 [ref. 28239], McCosker et al. 2006:271 [ref. 29006], Zhang et al. 2010:334 [ref. 31511], Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342], Allen & Erdmann 2012:109 [ref. 31980], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], McCosker & Ho 2015:72 [ref. 34123], Ho et al. 2015:172 [ref. 34130], McCosker & Psomadakis 2018:78 [ref. 36333], Hibino et al. 2019:302 [ref. 36433], Vo et al. 2019:12 [ref. 37206], Psomadakis et al. 2020:277 [ref. 37272], McCosker et al. 2020:33 [ref. 37376]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus cephalozona Bleeker 1864. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Myanmar and Indonesia east to Marshall Islands and Society Islands, north to Vietnam and Taiwan, south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

chamensis, Ophichthus Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1923:155, Pl. 8 (fig. 2) [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 215); ref. 2963] Chame Point, (Pacific) Panama. Holotype: USNM 82216. Paratypes: USNM 82214-15 (1, 7), 82217 (2), 128398 (2). Type catalog: Smith 1994:34 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Ophichthus chamensis Meek & Hildebrand 1923 -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1337 [ref. 22830]). •Synonym of Ophichthus zophochir Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:421 [ref. 23645]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus zophochir Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

chilkensis, Ophichthus Chaudhuri [B. L.] 1916:445, Figs. 12-13 [Memoirs of the Indian Museum v. 5 (no. 5); ref. 15054] Rambha Bay, Chilka [Chilika] Lake, Orissa [Odisha], India. Holotype: ZSI F9177/1. Paratypes: ZSI F9182/1 (1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:134 [ref. 20743]. •Questionably a synonym of Pisodonophis cancrivorus (Richardson 1848) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:87 [ref. 20764], Kottelat 2013:47 [ref. 32989] without question). •Valid as Ophichthus chilkensis Chaudhury 1916 -- (Mishra et al. 2019:195 [ref. 36652], McCosker et al. 2020:33 [ref. 37376]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus chilkensis Chaudhuri 1916. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Northeastern Indian Ocean: east coast of India (Bay of Bengal). Habitat: brackish, marine.

chrysops, Ophisurus Poey [F.] 1860:321 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Holotype (unique): MCZ 27212. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:174 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Ophichthus gomesii (Castelnau 1855) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:389 [ref. 13288]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus gomesii (Castelnau 1855). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

chrysospilos, Ophisurus Bleeker [P.] 1857:8, 27, 88 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 2 (art. 7); ref. 356] Not available; appeared in list on p. 8 and p. 27, and as name in the synonymy of Ophisurus bonapartei Kaup on p. 88. •In the synonymy of Ophichthus bonaparti (Kaup 1856) -- (McCosker 2002:28 [ref. 25848]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus bonaparti (Kaup 1856). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae.

compar, Ophisurus Richardson [J.] 1848:105 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1982.5.7.3. •Synonym of Ophichthus apicalis (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830) -- (McCosker 1977:80 [ref. 6836], Kottelat 2013:46 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus apicalis (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

conger, Leptocephalus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1902:37, Figs. 1-14 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 21 [1901]; ref. 11102] Apparently not intended as a new species but as the doubtful name for the young of the conger eel, Conger conger (Linnaeus 1758) -- "The evidence that the eggs here described are those of Leptocephalus conger is circumstantial rather than positive." [Eddy Derijst email 11/8/08.]. This record can be deleted from further consideration. •In the synonymy of Ophichthus cruentifer (Goode & Bean 1896) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:384 [ref. 13288] who treated as an original description). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus cruentifer (Goode & Bean 1896). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae.

congroides, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] 2010:12, Figs. 13-15 [Zootaxa No. 2505; ref. 30840] Off Akiaki Island, 18°33'S, 139°12'W, Tuamotu Islands, Polynesia, depth (trap) 300 meters. Holotype: NMNZ P.41177. Paratypes: CAS 229328 (1). •Valid as Ophichthus congroides McCosker 2010. Current status: Valid as Ophichthus congroides McCosker 2010. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Tuamotu Islands [type series]. Habitat: marine.

cruentifer, Pisoodonophis Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1896:147, Pl. 44 (fig. 166) [Special Bulletin U. S. National Museum No. 2; ref. 1848] Off north-eastern U.S.A., 39°57'N, 69°28'W, Fish Hawk station 1035, depth 120 fathoms. Lectotype: USNM 28938. Paralectotypes: USNM 278183 [ex USNM 28398] (1). Additional non-type material: USNM 30233 (1), 31711 (3). Type catalog: Smith 1994:35 [ref. 21917]. Lectotype established in Jordan & Evermann 1900:3245 in caption to figure. Original genus should have been Pisodonophis. •Valid as Ophichthus cruentifer (Goode & Bean 1896) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Robins & Ray 1986:65 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:86 [ref. 25518], McCosker et al. 1989:384 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:809 [ref. 13285], Boschung 1992:35 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:273 [ref. 23897], McCosker & Chen 2000:355 [ref. 25028], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:149 [ref. 27754], Smith & Tighe in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:97 [ref. 26158], McCosker 2003:733 [ref. 26993], Moore et al. 2003:174 [ref. 27076], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], McCosker 2005:672 [ref. 28646]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus cruentifer (Goode & Bean 1896). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

cylindroideus, Conger Ranzani [C.] 1839:80 [16], Pl. 13 (figs. 2a-b) [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 4 [1840]; ref. 18606] Brazilian seas. Holotype (unique): MZUB 988. Appeared first without description as Ranzani in Alessandrini 1838:433 [ref. 25852]. Dates to publication in a separate, on p. 16 and Pl. 6 in 1839; journal version in 1840. •Mention -- (McCosker 1977:60 [ref. 6836]). •Valid as Ophichthus cylindroideus (Ranzani 1839) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:386 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:809 [ref. 13285], McCosker 2003:733 [ref. 26993], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:35 [ref. 27192] dated 1840, McCosker et al. 2012:11 [ref. 31982], Di Dario et al. 2013:262 [ref. 37503], Petry et al. 2016:300 [ref. 34966], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus cylindroideus (Ranzani 1839). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

derbyensis, Ophichthus Whitley [G. P.] 1941:14, Fig. 10 [Australian Zoologist v. 10 (pt 1); ref. 4701] Derby, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.840. Günther 1870:63 spelled the species rhytododerma [on ref. 29192]. •Valid as Ophichthus derbyensis Whitley 1941 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836] as derbeyensis). •Synonym of Ophichthus rutidodermatoides (Bleeker 1853) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:120 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Ophichthus rutidoderma (Bleeker 1852) -- (McCosker et al. 2006:272 [ref. 29006], McCosker 2007:6 [ref. 29192], Kottelat 2013:46 [ref. 32989], Vo et al. 2019:9 [ref. 37206]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus rutidoderma (Bleeker 1852). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dicellurus, Ophisurus Richardson [J.] 1845:no p., Pl. 48 (figs. 2-4) [Ichthyology.--Part 2. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur; ref. 20574] Chang Jiang [Yangtze River] apparently in error, probably eastern Pacific. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1848.3.18.94. Available from plate. Text in Richardson 1845:106 [ref. 20275]. •Valid as Ophichthus dicellurus Richardson 1845 -- (Pequeño 1989:25 [ref. 14125]). •Synonym of Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:413 [ref. 23645] with remarks on locality). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

diepenhorsti, Ophisurus Bleeker [P.] 1860:85 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 8 (art. 2); ref. 375] Priaman, Sumatra, Indonesia. Syntypes: (5) ?BMNH 1867.11.28.316 (1) no locality. •Synonym of Ophichthus apicalis (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830) -- (Kottelat 2013:46 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus apicalis (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

echeloides, Leptocephalus D'Ancona [U.] 1928:69, Pl. 4 (figs. 5-5b) [Memoria, Reale Comitato Talassografico Italiano No. 146; ref. 15917] Perim Island, Yemen, Bab el Mandeb Strait, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): MSNVE P-10. •Valid as Leptocephalus echeloides D'Ancona 1928 -- (Dor 1984:37 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:9 [ref. 25356]). •Valid as Ophichthus echeloides (D'Ancona 1928) -- (McCosker et al. 1993:166 [ref. 20811], Baranes & Golani 1993:302 [ref. 22372], McCosker 2010:15 [ref. 30840], Fricke et al. 2015:64 [ref. 33895], Golani & Fricke 2018:28 [ref. 36273], McCosker et al. 2020:34 [ref. 37376]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus echeloides (D'Ancona 1928). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

episcopus, Ophichthys Castelnau [F. L.] 1878:244 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 2 (pt 3); ref. 761] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:129 [ref. 20810]. •Valid as Ophichthus episcopus Castelnau 1878 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Paxton et al. 1989:119 [ref. 12442], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Johnson 1999:721 [ref. 25471]). •Synonym of Ophichthus bonaparti (Kaup 1856) -- (McCosker 2002:29 [ref. 25848], McCosker et al. 2006:271 [ref. 29006]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus bonaparti (Kaup 1856). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

erabo, Microdonophis Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:870, Fig. 17 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1239); ref. 2508] Misaki, Japan. Holotype: CAS-SU 6477. Paratypes: (6) ANSP 26224 (1), MCZ 29032 (1), CAS-SU 6667 (1), ?CAS-SU 6744 (1), USNM 49924 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:49 [ref. 12291], Böhlke 1984:133 [ref. 13621], Smith 1994:31 [ref. 21917]. Types: Shinohara & Williams 2006:550 [ref. 31656]. •Valid as Ophichthus erabo (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:31 [ref. 6441], McCosker & Castle 1986:183 [ref. 5690], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Nakabo 2000:222 [ref. 25086], McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], McCosker 2002:26 [ref. 25848], Nakabo 2002:222 [ref. 26001], Tang & Zhang 2004:20 [ref. 27889] as erado, Randall 2007:68 [ref. 30952], Zhang et al. 2010:336 [ref. 31511], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:60 [ref. 35264] as Ophichthys, McCosker et al. 2012:7 [ref. 31982], Fricke et al. 2015:64 [ref. 33895], Ho et al. 2015:172 [ref. 34130], McCosker & Ho 2015:72 [ref. 34123], Golani & Fricke 2018:28 [ref. 36273], Hibino et al. 2019:302 [ref. 36433], Kang et al. 2019:420 [ref. 36943], Vo et al. 2019:8 [ref. 37206], McCosker et al. 2020:33 [ref. 37376]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus erabo (Jordan & Snyder 1901). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: South Africa east to China and Taiwan, north to Korea and Japan; not Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

evermanni, Ophichthus Jordan [D. S.] & Richardson [R. E.] 1909:172, Pl. 67 (upper fig.) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 4 (no. 4); ref. 2493] Kaohsiung (Takao), Taiwan. Holotype: FMNH 52118 [ex CM 246]. Paratypes: CAS-SU 21260 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:53 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:50 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:62 [ref. 12367], Ho & Shao 2011:23 [ref. 31432]. Type designated in Pl. 67. •Valid as Ophichthus evermanni Jordan & Richardson 1909 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:31 [ref. 6441], Chen et al. 1997:22 [ref. 26476], Lee & Asano 1997:551 [ref. 23711], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Nakabo 2000:222 [ref. 25086], McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:222 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:143, 491 [ref. 26218], Tang & Zhang 2004:21 [ref. 27889], Zhang et al. 2010:335 [ref. 31511], Ji & Kim 2011:66 [ref. 31152]). •Synonym of Ophichthus lithinus (Jordan & Richardson 1908) -- (McCosker et al. 2006:272 [ref. 29006], Ho & Shao 2011:23 [ref. 31432], Ho et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:172 [ref. 34130], McCosker & Psomadakis 2018:79 [ref. 36333], Vo et al. 2019:9 [ref. 37206]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus lithinus (Jordan & Richardson 1908). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

exilis, Ophichthys Seale [A.] 1917:86 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 61 (no. 4); ref. 4001] Market in Santiago, Chile. Holotype: MCZ 28401. Paratypes: USNM 153611 [ex MCZ 28401] (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:34 [ref. 21917]. •Probably a synonym of Ophichthus ramiger (Valenciennes 1847) -- (McCosker in Smith 1994:34 [ref. 21917]). •Synonym of Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:413 [ref. 23645]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

exourus, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] 1999:575, Figs. 1, 2a [Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (N. S.) (Série A) Zoologie No. 180; ref. 23699] New Caledonia, 18°56.30'S, 163°12.90'E, depth 520 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1995-0425. Paratypes: CAS 57240 [not 89552] (1). •Valid as Ophichthus exourus McCosker 1999 -- (McCosker & Chen 2000:356 [ref. 25028], McCosker 2005:673 [ref. 28646], McCosker 2010:15 [ref. 30840], Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342], Hibino et al. 2019:302 [ref. 36433], Hibino et al. 2019:147 [ref. 37155]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus exourus McCosker 1999. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Ryukyu Islands, Saipan; New Caledonia; Fiji. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Microdonophis Chu [Y.-T.], Wu [H.-L.] & Jin [X.-B.] 1981:21 [English p. 26], Fig. 1 [Journal of Fisheries of China v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 21250] Pingtan Island, Fujian Province, China. Holotype: ASIZB [now NZMC] 73634 [ex A0823]. Type catalog: Ye et al. 2015:12 [ref. 33808]. •Valid as Ophichthus fasciatus (Chu, Wu & Jin 1981) -- (Tang & Zhang 2004:20 [ref. 27889] as fasciantus, Zhang et al. 2010:338 [ref. 31511], Ye et al. 2015:12 [ref. 33808], McCosker & Ho 2015:72 [ref. 34123], Ho et al. 2015:172 [ref. 34130]). •Synonym of Ophichthus zophistius (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Hibino & McCosker 2020:333 [ref. 37588]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus zophistius (Jordan & Snyder 1901). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: China and Taiwan [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

fowleri, Microdonophis Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:164 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Honolulu market, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50613. Type catalog: Smith 1994:31 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Ophichthus fowleri (Jordan & Evermann 1903) -- (Mundy 2005:134 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:68 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus fowleri (Jordan & Evermann 1903). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

frontalis, Ophichthys (Cryptopterus) Garman [S.] 1899:309 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] 7°16°45"-7°33'40"N, 79°17'15"-79°56'30"W, Albatross station 3386, 3389 and 3391, depth 153-242 fathoms. Syntypes: MCZ 28455 (1, lost) station 3389, 28456 (2, lost) station 3391, 28457 (4, lost) station 3386; USNM 57899 (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:34 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Ophichthus frontalis Garman 1899 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1338 [ref. 22830], McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:404 [ref. 23645], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:124 [ref. 24555], Tang & Zhang 2002:855 [ref. 26492], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708], Robertson et al. 2017:34 [ref. 35676]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus frontalis Garman 1899. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

garretti, Ophichthys Günther [A.] 1910:397, Pl. 163 (fig. A) [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 6 (no. 17); ref. 14460] Society Islands. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Ophichthus garretti Günther 1910 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715]). •Synonym of Ophichthus bonaparti (Kaup 1856) -- (McCosker 2002:29 [ref. 25848], Randall 2005:33 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:68 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus bonaparti (Kaup 1856). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

genie, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] 1999:577, Figs. 2b, 3 [Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (N. S.) (Série A) Zoologie No. 180; ref. 23699] New Caledonia, 18°57.00'S, 163°12.60'E, depth 485 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1998-43. Paratypes: ANSP 174853 (1), BPBM 34923 (1), CAS 89551 (1), MNHN 1998-0044 (1), 1998-45 (1). •Valid as Ophichthus genie McCosker 1999 -- (McCosker & Ross 2007:785 [ref. 29436], McCosker 2010:16 [ref. 30840], Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342], Sumod et al. 2019:116 [ref. 37023], McCosker et al. 2020:34 [ref. 37376]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus genie McCosker 1999. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Maldives and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

gomesii, Ophisurus Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:84, Pl. 44 (fig. 2) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2745. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:110 [ref. 20810]. •Valid as Ophichthus gomesii (Castelnau 1855) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Robins & Ray 1986:65 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:87 [ref. 25518] as gomesi, McCosker et al. 1989:389 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:814 [ref. 13285], McAllister 1990:48 [ref. 14674] as gomesi, Boschung 1992:35 [ref. 23239] as gomesi, Cervigón 1991:59 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:373 [ref. 23827] as gomesi, Andreata & Séret 1996:582 [ref. 16204] as gomesi, McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:274 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221] as gomesi, Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:101 [ref. 24550] as gomesi, Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:140 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:149 [ref. 27754], McCosker 2003:733 [ref. 26993], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:35 [ref. 27192], Moore et al. 2003:174 [ref. 27076], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], Figueroa & Ehrlich 2006:237 [ref. 29812], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708], Pinheiro et al. 2015:7 [ref. 34324], Nión et al. 2016:25 [ref. 35565], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:344 [ref. 36407], Spier et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus gomesii (Castelnau 1855). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

grandimaculata, Ophichthys Kner [R.] & Steindachner [F.] 1867:389 [34], Pl. 5 (fig. 13) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 54 (pt 3); ref. 2640] Coast of Peru. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1866.12.27.9 [ex MGH 2182]. On p. 34 of separate. •Valid as Ophichthus grandimaculatus Kner & Steindachner 1867 -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:121 [ref. 24555]). •Synonym of Ophichthus triserialis (Kaup 1856) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:418 [ref. 23645]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus triserialis (Kaup 1856). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

grandoculis, Ophiurus Cantor [T. E.] 1849:1306 [324], Pl. 5 (fig. 3) [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 18 (pt 2); ref. 715] Sea of Penang, Malaysia. Syntypes: BMNH 1860.3.19.552 (2, skins). On p. 324 of separate. •Valid as Ophichthus grandoculis (Cantor 1849) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus grandoculis (Cantor 1849). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

guttatus, Ophisurus Cuvier [G.] 1816:232 [Le Règne Animal v. 2; ref. 993] Not available, name only as "Ophisurus guttatus, Cuv. Espèce novelle de Surinam." •In the synonymy of Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:399 [ref. 13288]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae.

guttifer, Ophichthys Bean [T. H.] & Dresel [H. G.] 1884:100 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 2; ref. 16051] Off Pensacola, Florida, Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 32647. Type catalog: Smith 1994:34 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Ophichthus puncticeps (Kaup 1859). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus puncticeps (Kaup 1859). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

habereri, Ophichthus Franz [V.] 1910:13, Pl. 3 (fig. 12) [Abhandlungen der math.-phys. Klasse der K. Bayer Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 4 (Suppl.) (no. 1); ref. 1481] Yokohama, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZSM [old collection] destroyed in WW II. •Valid as Ophichthus habereri Franz 1910 -- (McCosker et al. 2012:14 [ref. 31982]). •Synonym of Ophichthus asakusae Jordan & Snyder 1901 -- (Hibino et al. 2019:302 [ref. 36433]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus asakusae Jordan & Snyder 1901. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

hauannensis, Muraena Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Parra) 1801:491 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Locality not stated [Havana, Cuba]. No types known. Spelled hauanensis in index (p. lv); evidently misprinted for havannensis. Based on the 'Innominado' of Parra 1787:96, Pl. 38 (fig. 2) [ref. 6840]. •Synonym of Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (McCosker 1977:80 [ref. 6836], McCosker et al. 1989:399 [ref. 13288], Leiby 1990:189 [ref. 13652]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

hijala, Ophisurus Hamilton [F.] 1822:20, 363, Pl. 5 (fig. 5) [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Bengal, India. No types known. Hamilton's original illustration reproduced by Britz 2019:Pl. 12a [ref. 37532]. •Questionably a synonym of Pisodonophis boro (Hamilton 1822) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:86 [ref. 20764]). •Valid as Pisodonophis hijala (Hamilton 1822) -- (McCosker 1977:83 [ref. 6836], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Ji & Kim 2011:61 [ref. 31152], Kottelat 2013:47 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Ophichthus hijala (Hamilton 1822) -- (McCosker et al. 2020:34 [ref. 37376]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus hijala (Hamilton 1822). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: India and Myanmar, Indian Ocean. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

hirritus, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] 2010:16, Figs. 16-18 [Zootaxa No. 2505; ref. 30840] Seychelles, 4°21'S, 56°19'E, depth (trap) 600 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1898-0747. Paratypes: CAS 229178 [ex MNHN 1989-0747] (1); MNHN 1989-0749 (1), •Valid as Ophichthus hirritus McCosker 2010 -- (McCosker et al. 2020:34 [ref. 37376]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus hirritus McCosker 2010. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Seychelles. Habitat: marine.

hispanus, Ophisurus Bellotti [C.] in Masserotti & Cantù 1858:56 [Atti Accademia Fisio-Medico-Statistica di Milano v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 21163] Barcelona, Spain, western Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: (3) MZUT 511 (1). Type catalog: Tortonese 1940:141 [ref. 21559], Conci & Michelangeli 1974:219 [ref. 21560]. Also appeared in Bellotti 1858 [ref. 26077] -- earliest not determined. •Synonym of Ophichthus rufus (Rafinesque 1810) -- (Blache et al. 1973:248 [ref. 7185]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus rufus (Rafinesque 1810). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

humanni, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] 2010:18, Figs. 19-21 [Zootaxa No. 2505; ref. 30840] Vanuatu, 15°08'S, 166°53'E, depth 254-300 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1997-0600. •Valid as Ophichthus humanni McCosker 2010. Current status: Valid as Ophichthus humanni McCosker 2010. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Vanuatu [holotype]. Habitat: marine.

hyposagmatus, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] & Böhlke [E. B.] 1984:24, Figs. 1-3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 136; ref. 10404] Gulf of Mexico south of Destin, Florida, 29°56'N, 86°38'W, U.S.A., depth 108 meters. Holotype: ANSP 152300. Paratypes: ANSP 152301 (1); CAS 53292 (1); FMNH 71764 (1); UF 231629 [ex UMML 31629] (1); USNM 263573 [ex UMML 22177] (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:62 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Ophichthus hyposagmatus McCosker & Böhlke 1984 -- (McCosker et al. 1989:393 [ref. 13288], Boschung 1992:36 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:275 [ref. 23897], McCosker 2003:733 [ref. 26993], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus hyposagmatus McCosker & Böhlke 1984. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

intermedius, Ophichthys Regan [C. T.] 1905:17 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 15 (no. 85) (art. 2); ref. 3624] Inland Sea, Japan. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1905.6.6.49. •Synonym of Ophichthus zophistius (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Hibino et al. 2019:301 [ref. 36433], Hibino & McCosker 2020:333 [ref. 37588]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus zophistius (Jordan & Snyder 1901). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

ishiyamorum, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] 2010:22, Figs. 22-25 [Zootaxa No. 2505; ref. 30840] Somalia, 10°51'40"N, 43°56'35"E, Gulf of Aden, depth 258-326 meters. Holotype: USNM 394260. Paratypes: CAS 227329 (1). •Valid as Ophichthus ishiyamorum McCosker 2010 -- (McCosker et al. 2020:34 [ref. 37376]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus ishiyamorum McCosker 2010. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Gulf of Aden, western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

johnmccoskeri, Ophichthus Mohapatra [A.], Ray [D.], Mohanty [S. R.] & Mishra [S. S.] 2018:252, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa 4462 (no. 2); ref. 36093] Shankarpur fishing harbor, West Bengal, India. Holotype: ZSI F 12811/2. Paratypes: EBRC/ZSI. Misspelled in Table 1 as mccoskeri. •Valid as Ophichthus johnmccoskeri Mohapatra, Ray, Mohanty & Mishra 2018 -- (Mohapatra et al. 2019:292 [ref. 36926], McCosker et al. 2020:34 [ref. 37376]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus johnmccoskeri Mohapatra, Ray, Mohanty & Mishra 2018. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Northeastern Indian Ocean: northern Bay of Bengal, India. Habitat: marine.

kailashchandrai, Ophichthus Mohapatra [A.], Ray [D.], Mohanty [S. R.] & Mishra [S. S.] 2020:284, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa 4728 (no. 2); ref. 37277] Shankarpur fishing harbour, northern Bay of Bengal, West Bengal, India. Holotype: ZSI F 13135/2. Paratypes: EBRC/ZSI F 10790 (1), F 10791 (1). •Valid as Ophichthus kailashchandrai Mohapatra, Ray, Mohanty & Mishra 2020 -- (McCosker et al. 2020:42 [ref. 37376]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus kailashchandrai Mohapatra, Ray, Mohanty & Mishra 2020. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Bay of Bengal, West Bengal, India. Habitat: marine.

karreri, Ophichthus Blache [J.] 1975:733, Figs. 10-11 [Bulletin de l'Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire (Serie A) Sciences Naturelles v. 37 (no. 3); ref. 7363] Southeastern Atlantic, 26°32'S, 14°13'E, depth 390 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMB 22065. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:129 [ref. 20810]. •Valid as Ophichthus karreri Blache 1975 -- (Leiby 1990:188 [ref. 13652]). •Synonym of Ophichthus serpentinus Seale 1917 -- (McCosker 2006:737 [ref. 29103], McCosker 2010:32 [ref. 30840]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus serpentinus Seale 1917. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

kunaloa, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] 1979:61, Figs. 3-4 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 42 (no. 2); ref. 8805] Southeast of Barber's Point, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands, depth 350 meters. Holotype: CAS 29136 [ex SIO 70-33]. Paratypes: BPBM 21086 (1), USNM 218274 (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:34 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Ophichthus kunaloa McCosker 1979 -- (McCosker 2002:26 [ref. 25848], Mundy 2005:134 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:58 [ref. 30952], McCosker 2010:25 [ref. 30840], Sumod et al. 2019:117 [ref. 37023], Hibino et al. 2019:147 [ref. 37155]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus kunaloa McCosker 1979. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands, central Pacific. Habitat: marine.

kusanagi, Ophichthus Hibino [Y.], McCosker [J. E.] & Tashiro [F.] 2019:290, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Research v. 66 (no. 2); ref. 36433] Suruga Bay, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan, 34°56.3'N, 138°44.3'E - 34°56.3'N, 138°42.4'E, depth 285-480 meters. Holotype: NSMT-P 46005. Paratypes: LFBKU, OMNH. •Valid as Ophichthus kusanagi Hibino, McCosker & Tashiro 2019. Current status: Valid as Ophichthus kusanagi Hibino, McCosker & Tashiro 2019. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Suruga Bay, Pacific coast of central Japan. Habitat: marine.

lentiginosus, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] 2010:25, Figs. 26-28 [Zootaxa No. 2505; ref. 30840] Vanuatu, 15°40'S, 167°01'E, depth 398-400 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1997-0601. Paratypes: MNHN 1987-1244 (1). •Valid as Ophichthus lentiginosus McCosker 2010 -- (Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus lentiginosus McCosker 2010. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Vanuatu and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

leonensis, Ophichthus Blache [J.] 1975:736, Figs. 12-13 [Bulletin de l'Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire (Serie A) Sciences Naturelles v. 37 (no. 3); ref. 7363] Coast of Sierra Leone, depth 180 meters (stomach content). Holotype (unique): MNHN 1975-0004 [ex IFAN 54-685]. •Valid as Ophichthus leonensis Blache 1975 -- (Leiby 1990:189 [ref. 13652], McCosker 2016:1663 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus leonensis Blache 1975. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Sierra Leone. Habitat: marine.

limbatus, Oxyodontichthys Poey [F.] 1880:254 [Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid v. 9 (for 7 July 1880); ref. 6524] Cuba. Unneeded new name for Ophichthys brachyurus Poey 1868. •Synonym of Ophichthus gomesii (Castelnau 1855) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:389 [ref. 13288]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus gomesii (Castelnau 1855). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

limkouensis, Ophichthys Chen [J. T. F.] 1929:23, Pl. 2 (figs. 2, 2A) [Bulletin of the Biology Department, Science College, Sun Yatsen University v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 16075] Limkou, Kwangtung, China. Holotype (unique): ZLSYU 2998. Spelled limkouensis on p. 2 as well as p. 8 of Chinese summary; limkounensis on p. 23 and plate caption; printed errata indicates limkouensis is correct spelling. •Valid as Ophichthus limkouensis Chen 1929 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus limkouensis Chen 1929. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: China. Habitat: marine.

lithinus, Leiuranus Jordan [D. S.] & Richardson [R. E.] 1908:238, Fig. 3 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 27(Doc. 640) (for 1907); ref. 2492] Cuyo, Philippines. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 20211. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:49 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Ophichthus lithinus (Jordan & Richardson 1908) -- (McCosker et al. 2006:272 [ref. 29006], Ho & Shao 2011:23 [ref. 31432], McCosker et al. 2012:7 [ref. 31982], Larson et al. 2013:27 [ref. 32988], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], Ho et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34116], McCosker & Ho 2015:72 [ref. 34123], Ho et al. 2015:172 [ref. 34130], McCosker & Psomadakis 2018:79 [ref. 36333], Hibino et al. 2019:302 [ref. 36433], Vo et al. 2019:9 [ref. 37206], Psomadakis et al. 2020:277 [ref. 37272], McCosker et al. 2020:33 [ref. 37376]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus lithinus (Jordan & Richardson 1908). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: India and Myanmar east to Philippines, north to Taiwan and Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

longipenis, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] & Rosenblatt [R. H.] 1998:405, Figs. 3b, 5 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences v. 50 (no. 19); ref. 23645] La Vieja, Panamá (Pacific), 9°00'N, 79°29'W. Holotype: SIO 63-295. Paratypes: ANSP 152296 (1), 175793 (1); CAS 97894 [ex LACM 32559, originally UCR 686.010] (3); LACM 32554-11 (1), 32575-11 (7); MCZ 44173 (2); SIO 63-295 (5), 64-744 (1), 65-160 (1), 73-276 (3). •Valid as Ophichthus longipenis McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], McCosker et al. 2012:11 [ref. 31982], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus longipenis McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

lucillae, Leptocephalus Fowler [H. W.] 1938:188, Pl. 6 (figs. 7-8) [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 2; ref. 1428] Kiritimati [formerly Christmas Island], Line Islands. Holotype: ANSP 68325 (with paratypes). Paratypes: ANSP 68326-41 (16). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:120 [ref. 13621]. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

lumbricoides, Ophisurus Bleeker [P.] 1852:32 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 5); ref. 339] No locality. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.300. Originally as lumbricoïdes. •Valid [these references are lumbricoides Bleeker 1864] as Yirrkala lumbricoides (Bleeker 1852) -- (McCosker 1977:69 [ref. 6836], McCosker & Castle 1986:185 [ref. 5690], Allen & Swainston 1988:34 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:56 [ref. 23977], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], McCosker 2006:374 [ref. 29014]). •Synonym of Ophichthus rutidoderma (Bleeker 1852) -- (McCosker 2007:6 [ref. 29192], Kottelat 2013:46 [ref. 32989], Vo et al. 2019:9 [ref. 37206]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus rutidoderma (Bleeker 1852). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

lupus, Ophichthus Hibino [Y.], McCosker [J. E.] & Tashiro [F.] 2019:292, Figs. 4-5 [Ichthyological Research v. 66 (no. 2); ref. 36433] East China Sea, 27°06.7'N, 125°46.8'E, depth 191 meters. Holotype: NSMT-P 128087 [ex SNFR 21016]. Paratypes: LFBKU. •Valid as Ophichthus lupus Hibino, McCosker & Tashiro 2019. Current status: Valid as Ophichthus lupus Hibino, McCosker & Tashiro 2019. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: East China Sea. Habitat: marine.

macclellandi, Ophisurus Bleeker [P.] 1852:33 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 5); ref. 339] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.278 (1) Jakarta. Appeared in original description as MacClellandi. •Synonym of Ophichthus rutidoderma (Bleeker 1852) -- (Vo et al. 2019:9 [ref. 37206]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus rutidoderma (Bleeker 1852). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

machidai, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.], Ide [S.] & Endo [H.] 2012:8, Figs. 4-6 [Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science (Ser. A) Supplement No. 6; ref. 31982] West of Tosa Bay, Saga fish market (33°04.48'N, 133°06.80'E), Kuroshio-chu, Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Holotype: NSMT-P 106572 [ex BSKU 68428]. Paratypes: many at AMS, BAKU, FAK, KAUM, NSMT-P, USNM. •Valid as Ophichthus machidai McCosker, Ide & Endo 2012 -- (McCosker & Ho 2015:73 [ref. 34123], Ho et al. 2015:173 [ref. 34130], Mohapatra et al. 2019:49 [ref. 36586], Hibino et al. 2019:303 [ref. 36433], McCosker et al. 2020:34 [ref. 37376]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus machidai McCosker, Ide & Endo 2012. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Bay of Bengal, India, Taiwan and Japan. Habitat: marine.

macrochir, Ophisurus Bleeker [P.] 1852:26 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 5); ref. 339] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7174. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.262 (1) Jakarta. •Valid as Ophichthus macrochir (Bleeker 1852) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Kottelat et al. 1993:12 [ref. 23448], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], Tang & Zhang 2004:21 [ref. 27889], Zhang et al. 2010:341 [ref. 31511], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1198 [ref. 31980], Kottelat 2013:46 [ref. 32989], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], McCosker & Ho 2015:72 [ref. 34123], Ho et al. 2015:173 [ref. 34130], Vo et al. 2019:12 [ref. 37206], McCosker et al. 2020:33 [ref. 37376]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus macrochir (Bleeker 1852). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: India, western Indonesia (Sumatra and Java) to Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam and Philippines. Habitat: brackish, marine.

macrops, Ophichthys Günther [A.] 1910:402, Pl. 166 (fig. A) [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 6 (no. 17); ref. 14460] Kingsmill Islands [= Gilbert Islands]. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Ophichthus macrops Günther 1910 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus macrops Günther 1910. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific (Gilbert Islands). Habitat: marine.

macrurus, Ophichthys Poey [F.] 1867:256 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 14079] Cuba. •Synonym of Ophichthus gomesii (Castelnau 1855) -- (McCosker 1977:80 [ref. 6836], McCosker et al. 1989:389 [ref. 13288]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus gomesii (Castelnau 1855). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Cogrus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:62 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:41 [ref. 3595]. •Valid as Ophichthus maculatus (Rafinesque 1810) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Parenti 2019:101 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus maculatus (Rafinesque 1810). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

magnioculis, Scytalophis Kaup [J. J.] 1856:46 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Brazil [St. Croix Island, Virgin Islands, West Indies in error]. Syntypes: MNHN A-8801 (1), B-2749 (1), B-2762 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:112 [ref. 20810]. Ophichthys magnoculus Günther 1870:60 [ref. 1995] is an unjustified emendation. •Valid as Ophichthus magnioculis (Kaup 1856) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836]). •Synonym of Ophichthus gomesii (Castelnau 1855) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:389 [ref. 13288], Bauchot et al. 1993:112 [ref. 20810]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus gomesii (Castelnau 1855). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

manilensis, Ophichthus Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1923:176, Pl. 5 [Philippine Journal of Science v. 23 (no. 2); ref. 2117] Cavite, southwestern Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype: BSMP 9477 (presumed destroyed). Paratypes: BSMP 9488 (1) presumed destroyed. •Valid as Ophichthus manilensis Herre 1923 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288] with question). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus manilensis Herre 1923. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Philippines. Habitat: marine.

marginatus, Muraenopsis Bleeker [P.] 1863:179 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 1; ref. 17005] Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Possibly a senior synonym of Ophichthus cephalozona Bleeker 1864 -- (McCosker & Psomadakis 2018:78 [ref. 36333]). Current status: Uncertain as Ophichthus cephalozona Bleeker 1864. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

marginatus, Omochelys Fowler [H. W.] 1948:1, Figs. 1-5 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 210; ref. 13051] "The gulley" off Barnegat, Ocean County, New Jersey, U.S.A., depth 50 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ANSP 72103. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:133 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Ophichthus cruentifer (Goode & Bean 1896) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836] with question, McCosker et al. 1989:384 [ref. 13288]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus cruentifer (Goode & Bean 1896). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

marginatus, Ophiurus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1855:460 [Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855; ref. 3449] Inhambane, Mozambique, Africa, 24°S. Holotype: ZMB 4030. Also described as new in Peters 1855:272 [ref. 13448]. •Valid as Ophichthus marginatus (Peters 1855) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], McCosker & Castle 1986:183 [ref. 5690], McCosker et al. 2020:33 [ref. 37376]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus marginatus (Peters 1855). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

markworti, Poecilocephalus Kaup [J. J.] 1859:10, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Naturwissenschaften herausgegeben von dem Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein in Hamburg v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 2586] No locality. No types known. Originally as Markworti. •Synonym of Ophichthus bonaparti (Kaup 1856) -- (McCosker 2002:29 [ref. 25848]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus bonaparti (Kaup 1856). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

mccoskeri, Ophichthus Sumod [K. S.], Hibino [Y.], Manjabrayakath [H.] & Sanjeevan [V. N.] 2019:113, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa 4686 (no. 1); ref. 37023] Off South Great Nicobar, Andaman Islands, India, 6°38'18"N, 93°41'4.81"E, depth 321 meters. Holotype: CMLRE IO/SS/FIS/00449. Paratypes: CMLRE. •Valid as Ophichthus mccoskeri Sumod, Hibino, Manjabrayakath & Sanjeevan 2019 -- (McCosker et al. 2020:34 [ref. 37376]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus mccoskeri Sumod, Hibino, Manjabrayakath & Sanjeevan 2019. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Continental slope of the Andaman Islands, India. Habitat: marine.

mecopterus, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] & Rosenblatt [R. H.] 1998:407, Figs. 6, 8a [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences v. 50 (no. 19); ref. 23645] Nayarit, west of Laguna de Agua Brava, Mexico, 22°13.0'N, 106°10.0'W, depth 74-79 meters. Holotype: SIO 62-76. Paratypes: CAS 58340 (1); LACM 32575 [ex UCR 702.008] (1), 47325-1 [ex UCR 2352.001] (1); SIO 73-276 (1). •Valid as Ophichthus mecopterus McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], McCosker et al. 2012:11 [ref. 31982], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus mecopterus McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

megalops, Ophichthus Asano [H.] 1987:135, Figs. 1-2 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 34 (no. 2); ref. 6705] Off Owase, Kumano-nada coast, Mie Prefecture, Japan, depth about 360 meters. Holotype (unique): FAKU 19057. •Valid as Ophichthus megalops Asano 1987 -- (Nakabo 2000:223 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:223 [ref. 26001], McCosker 2010:28 [ref. 30840], McCosker et al. 2012:7 [ref. 31982], McCosker & Ho 2015:72 [ref. 34123], Ho et al. 2015:173 [ref. 34130], Fricke et al. 2019:53 [ref. 36673], Hibino et al. 2019:302 [ref. 36433], Sumod et al. 2019:117 [ref. 37023], Hibino et al. 2019:141 [ref. 37155]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus megalops Asano 1987. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Japan and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

melanochir, Ophichthys Bleeker [P.] 1864:44 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 2; ref. 408] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.283. •Valid as Ophichthus melanochir Bleeker 1864 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Allen & Swainston 1988:34 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:119 [ref. 12442], Allen 1997:56 [ref. 23977], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Myers & Donaldson 2003:612 [ref. 27495]). •Synonym of Ophichthus altipennis (Kaup 1856) -- (Randall et al. 2002:155 [ref. 26192], McCosker & Randall 2002:798 [ref. 26226], Randall 2005:32 [ref. 28239], McCosker et al. 2006:271 [ref. 29006], Hibino et al. 2019:301 [ref. 36433], Hibino & McCosker 2020:329 [ref. 37588]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus altipennis (Kaup 1856). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

melanoporus, Ophichthus Kanazawa [R. H.] 1963:284, Figs. 2B, 3; Pl. 1 (right) [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 76; ref. 4901] Straits of Florida, west of Andros Island, Bahamas, 24°04'N, 79°15'W, Combat station 448, depth 250 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 191118. Paratypes: ?UF 97628 [ex TABL] (1), USNM 191119 (3). Type catalog: Smith 1994:34 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Ophichthus melanoporus Kanazawa 1963 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Robins & Ray 1986:65 [ref. 23100], McCosker et al. 1989:394 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:817 [ref. 13285], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:276 [ref. 23897], McCosker 2003:733 [ref. 26993], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus melanoporus Kanazawa 1963. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

melope, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] & Rosenblatt [R. H.] 1998:410, Figs. 7, 8b [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences v. 50 (no. 19); ref. 23645] Center of mouth of Golfo de Nicoya, off Puntarenas, Costa Rica, depth 224 meters. Holotype: LACM 47311-1 [ex UCR 2350-002]. Paratypes: ANSP 176292 [ex UMML 31933] (1), CAS 97857 [ex UCR 2377.002] (1). •Valid as Ophichthus melope McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998. Current status: Valid as Ophichthus melope McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

menezesi, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] & Böhlke [E. B.] 1984:29, Figs. 7-9 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 136; ref. 10404] Rio Grande do Sul, Prof. W. Besnard station 1702, 28°46'S, 47°48'W, Brazil, depth 177 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 12166. Paratypes: ANSP 152303 (1, c&s), 152304 (1); CAS 53291 (1), MNHN 1983-0679 [ex MZUSP 12174] (1); MZUSP 12162 (1), 12164-65 (1, 1), 12168-69 (1, 1), 12172-73 (1, 1); USNM 263574 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:110 [ref. 20810], Smith 1994:34 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Ophichthus menezesi McCosker & Böhlke 1984 -- (McCosker et al. 1989:396 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:818 [ref. 13285], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:277 [ref. 23897], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:149 [ref. 27754], McCosker 2003:733 [ref. 26993], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:35 [ref. 27192]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus menezesi McCosker & Böhlke 1984. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

microcephalus, Ophichthys Day [F.] 1878:665, Pl. 170 (fig. 2) [The fishes of India Part 4; ref. 4887] Malabar, India. Syntypes (3) and/or Day specimens: ZSI 2759 (figured specimen), AMS B.7843 (1, syntype). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:154 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:299 [ref. 25110]. •Valid as Ophichthus microcephalus Day 1878 -- (McCosker 2007:6 [ref. 29192], Vo et al. 2019:12 [ref. 37206], McCosker et al. 2020:33 [ref. 37376]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus microcephalus Day 1878. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Malabar, India and Vietnam. Habitat: marine.

microstictus, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] 2010:28, Figs. 29-31 [Zootaxa No. 2505; ref. 30840] Tonga, Nkotu Group, 19°25'29"S, 174°38'29"S, depth 362-388 meters. Holotype: MNHN 2001-0007. Paratypes: CAS 229179 (1); MNHN 2001-1095 (1), 2001-1096 (1), 2001-1069 (3). Plus non-type specimen. •Valid as Ophichthus microstictus McCosker 2010 -- (Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342], McCosker et al. 2012:11[ref. 31982]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus microstictus McCosker 2010. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia, Fiji and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

mictoscopus, Leptocephalus Fowler [H. W.] 1944:389, Fig. 51 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] Maria Madre Island, Tres Marias Islands [Islas Marias], Mexico. Holotype (unique): ANSP 70119. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:120 [ref. 13621]. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

mucronatus, Leptocephalus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Kennedy [C. H.] 1902:90, Figs. 11, 11a-b [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 21 (1901); ref. 11071] Atlantic off eastern U.S.A., 38°25'N, 72°40'W and 41°07'00"N, 65°26'30"W, Albatross. Syntypes: USNM 49746-47 (2, 1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:30-31 [ref. 21917] with remarks on locality. •Young of Ophichthus cruentifer (Goode & Bean 1896) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:384 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:809 [ref. 13285]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus cruentifer (Goode & Bean 1896). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

mystacinus, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] 1999:579, Figs. 2c, 4 [Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (N. S.) (Série A) Zoologie No. 180; ref. 23699] New Caledonia, 18°58.00'S, 163°10.50'E, depth 580 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1998-0046. Paratypes: BPBM 37308 (1), CAS 89552 (1), MNHN 1998-0047 (1). •Valid as Ophichthus mystacinus McCosker 1999 -- (McCosker 2010:31 [ref. 30840], Fricke et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31342], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], Hibino et al. 2019:147 [ref. 37155]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus mystacinus McCosker 1999. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga and Philippines. Habitat: marine.

naga, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] & Psomadakis [P. N.] 2018:75, Figs. 4-6 [Zootaxa 4526 (no. 1); ref. 36333] Off Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar, 14°03.73'N, 94°19.09'E, depth 455-459 meters. Holotype (unique): USNM 438246. •Valid as Ophichthus naga McCosker & Psomadakis 2018 -- (Psomadakis et al. 2020:277 [ref. 37272], McCosker et al. 2020:34 [ref. 37376]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus naga McCosker & Psomadakis 2018. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Northeastern Indian Ocean: Myanmar endemic. Habitat: marine.

nansen, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] & Psomadakis [P. N.] 2018:72, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa 4526 (no. 1); ref. 36333] Off Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar, 14°41.49'N, 95°29.32'E, depth 103-106 meters. Holotype (unique): USNM 438268. •Valid as Ophichthus nansen McCosker & Psomadakis 2018 -- (Psomadakis et al. 2020:278 [ref. 37272], McCosker et al. 2020:34 [ref. 37376]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus nansen McCosker & Psomadakis 2018. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Northeastern Indian Ocean: Myanmar. Habitat: marine.

obtusus, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.], Ide [S.] & Endo [H.] 2012:12, Figs. 7-9 [Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science (Ser. A) Supplement No. 6; ref. 31982] West of Tosa Bay, Irino fish market, Kuroshio-cho, Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Holotype: NSMT-P 106574 [ex BSKU 71725]. Paratypes: Many at AMS, BSKU, CAS, FAK, NSMT-P, USNM. •Valid as Ophichthus obtusus McCosker, Ide & Endo 2012 -- (McCosker & Ho 2015:73 [ref. 34123], Ho et al. 2015:173 [ref. 34130], Hibino et al. 2019:303 [ref. 36433]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus obtusus McCosker, Ide & Endo 2012. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Japan and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

oligosteus, Ophichthus Hibino [Y.], McCosker [J. E.] & Tashiro [F.] 2019:295, Figs. 6-8 [Ichthyological Research v. 66 (no. 2); ref. 36433] Kamikawaguchi fish landing port, Tosa Bay, Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Holotype (unique): BSKU 83173. •Valid as Ophichthus oligosteus Hibino, McCosker & Tashiro 2019. Current status: Valid as Ophichthus oligosteus Hibino, McCosker & Tashiro 2019. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Tosa Bay, Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Habitat: marine.

olivaceus, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] & Bogorodsky [S. V.] in McCosker, Bogorodsky, Mal & Alpermann 2020:34, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa 4750 (no. 1); ref. 37376] Off Jizan, Red Sea, Saudi Arabia, 16°45'10.3"N, 42°45'10.3"E, depth 35 - 41 meters. Holotype: SMF 35878. Paratypes: KAUMM 453 (1). •Valid as Ophichthus olivaceus McCosker & Bogorodsky 2020. Current status: Valid as Ophichthus olivaceus McCosker & Bogorodsky 2020. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

omorgmus, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] & Böhlke [E. B.] 1984:26, Figs. 4-6 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 136; ref. 10404] Gulf of Mexico off northern Florida, station 21, 29°16.6'N, 86°05.5'W, U.S.A., depth 183 meters. Holotype (unique): ANSP 152302. •Valid as Ophichthus omorgmus McCosker & Böhlke 1984 -- (McCosker et al. 1989:397 [ref. 13288], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:278 [ref. 23897], McCosker 2003:733 [ref. 26993], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus omorgmus McCosker & Böhlke 1984. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

ophis, Muraena Linnaeus [C.] 1758:244 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea [original: "in Oceano Europæo"]. No types known. Originally based on 4 pre-Linnaean sources including Artedi 1738:24 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:41 [ref. 30349] as Muraena teres gracilis maculosa, cauda tereti cuspidata apterygia; Willughby 1686:xix (appendix) [ref. 30164] and Ray 1713:37 [ref. 30231] as Serpens marinus, maculosus. •Valid as Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Blache et al. 1973:247 [ref. 7185], McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Bauchot in Whitehead et al. 1986:582 [ref. 13676], Robins & Ray 1986:65 [ref. 23100], McCosker et al. 1989:399 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:820 [ref. 13285], Leiby 1990:189 [ref. 13652], Cervigón 1991:60 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:373 [ref. 23827], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:279 [ref. 23897], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:140 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:82 [ref. 25466], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:149 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1643 [ref. 25634], McCosker 2003:733 [ref. 26993], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:35 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], Wirtz et al. 2007:25 [ref. 30263], Fricke 2008:15 [ref. 30182], McCosker et al. 2012:11 [ref. 31982], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:168 [ref. 32953], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:25 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:7 [ref. 34324], McCosker 2016:1665 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic; eastern Atlantic; Mediterranean Sea. Habitat: marine.

pacifici, Ophichthys Günther [A.] 1870:76 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Chile. Lectotype: BMNH 1866.12.27.5. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1868.1.11.16-18 (3). Lectotype selected by McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:415 [ref. 23645]. •Valid as Ophichthus pacifici Günther 1870 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Pequeño 1989:25 [ref. 14125], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:121 [ref. 24555]). •Synonym of Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:413 [ref. 23645]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

pallens, Ophisurus Richardson [J.] 1848:101 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] China. Holotype (unique): BMNH 2015.8.25.1 (Reeves coll.). •Valid as Ophichthus pallens (Richardson 1848) -- (Hibino et al. 2019:296 [ref. 36433]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus pallens (Richardson 1848). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: China to Japan. Habitat: marine.

parilis, Ophisurus Richardson [J.] 1848:105 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] West Indies or Cuba. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1985.11.27.2. •Valid as Ophichthus parilis (Richardson 1848) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Uyeno & Sasaki in Uyeno et al. 1983:121 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1991:58 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:374 [ref. 23827], Andreata & Séret 1996:582 [ref. 16204] as parilus dated 1844, Aguilera 1998:47 [ref. 24221] as parilus, Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:35 [ref. 27192]). •Synonym of Ophichthus cylindroideus (Ranzani 1839) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:386 [ref. 13288], and pers. comm. 1/2010). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus cylindroideus (Ranzani 1839). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

pauciporus, Ophichthys Poey [F.] 1867:255, Pl. 3 (fig. 5) [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 14079] Cuba. No types known. •Status uncertain -- (McCosker et al. 1989:380 [ref. 13288]). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

polyophthalmus, Ophichthys Bleeker [P.] 1864:43 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 2; ref. 408] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.261 (1) no locality. A secondary junior hymonym of Dalophis polyophthamus Bleeker 1853, but replacement name never used. •Valid as Ophichthus polyophthalmus Bleeker 1864 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:31 [ref. 6441], McCosker & Castle 1986:183 [ref. 5690], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:75 [ref. 22017], Myers 1999:57 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:66 [ref. 24106], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Nakabo 2000:222 [ref. 25086], McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], McCosker 2002:26 [ref. 25848], Nakabo 2002:222 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:24 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:612 [ref. 27495] as polyophthalma, Tang & Zhang 2004:20 [ref. 27889], Mundy 2005:135 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:68 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:19 [ref. 30213], Zhang et al. 2010:337 [ref. 31511], Allen & Erdmann 2012:109 [ref. 31980], McCosker et al. 2012:7 [ref. 31982], Kottelat 2013:46 [ref. 32989], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], McCosker & Ho 2015:72 [ref. 34123], Ho et al. 2015:173 [ref. 34130], Miesen et al. 2016:81 [ref. 34492], Hibino et al. 2019:302 [ref. 36433], McCosker et al. 2020:33 [ref. 37376]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus polyophthalmus Bleeker 1864. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Marquesas Islands, north to southern Japan and Taiwan. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

pullus, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] 2005:670, Figs. 1-3 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 56 (no. 36); ref. 28646] Angola, 12°24'S, 13°22'E, depth 106-107 meters. Holotype: CAS 222666. Paratypes: CAS 222667 (1). Plus one non-type specimen. •Valid as Ophichthus pullus McCosker 2005 -- (McCosker 2016:1663 [ref. 34558]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus pullus McCosker 2005. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Angola and Guinea-Bissau. Habitat: marine.

puncticeps, Cryptopterus Kaup [J. J.] 1859:11, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Naturwissenschaften herausgegeben von dem Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein in Hamburg v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 2586] Puerto Cabello, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): ZMH H192. Type catalog: Ladiges et al. 1958:161 [ref. 19181], Wilkens & Dohse 1993:404 [ref. 21161]. •Valid as Ophichthus puncticeps (Kaup 1859) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Leiby in Smith 1989:821 [ref. 13285], Boschung 1992:36 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:280 [ref. 23897], McCosker 2003:733 [ref. 26993], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708] dated 1860). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus puncticeps (Kaup 1859). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

ramiger, Ophisurus Valenciennes [A.] 1847:11 [Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale v. 5 (art. 2); ref. 5010] Eastern Pacific. Technically dates to plate that was published in 1837; the name was spelled remiger. The spelling ramiger is the synonym of Ophichthys remiger. •Valid as Ophichthys ramiger (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:42 [ref. 23101]). •Valid as Ophichthus ramiger (Valenciennes 1837) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1338 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:120 [ref. 24555]). •Synonym of Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

remicaudus, Centrurophis Kaup [J. J.] 1856:42 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN (2, not found). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:128 [ref. 20810]. Also in Kaup 1856:3 [ref. 2573]. •Synonym of Ophichthus rufus (Rafinesque 1810) -- (Blache et al. 1973:248 [ref. 7185], Bauchot in Whitehead et al. 1986:583 [ref. 13676]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus rufus (Rafinesque 1810). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

remiger, Ophisurus Valenciennes [A.] 1837:Pl. 12 (fig. 2) [Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale; ref. 20720] Valparaíso, Chile. Lectotype: MNHN B-2748 (largest of 3). Paralectotypes: MNHN B-2748 (2 of 3). Valenciennes specimens: BMNH 1866.12.27.5 (1), MNHN A-9955 (3). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:111 [ref. 20810]. Name available from plate as remiger, description in Valenciennes 1847:11 [ref. 5010] as Ophisurus ramiger. The spelling remiger should be used. The figured specimen cannot be identified as the holotype so McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:414-415 [ref. 23645] selected a lectotype from 3 "syntypes" in the Paris collection collected by d'Orbigny. Plate 12 published in 1837. •Valid as Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Pequeño 1989:25 [ref. 14125], McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:413 [ref. 23645], Tang & Zhang 2002:855 [ref. 26492], Barriga Salazar 2014:104 [ref. 35745], Robertson et al. 2017:35 [ref. 35676]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Nicaragua to Chile. Habitat: marine.

retifer, Ophichthus Fowler [H. W.] 1935:368, Fig. 9 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 87; ref. 1421] Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: ANSP 63915. Paratypes: ANSP 72145-47 (1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:134 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Ophichthus retifer Fowler 1935 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Dor 1984:36 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:9 [ref. 25356]). •Synonym of Ophichthus erabo (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (McCosker & Castle 1986:183 [ref. 5690], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:60 [ref. 35264], Golani & Fricke 2018:28 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus erabo (Jordan & Snyder 1901). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

retrodorsalis, Ophichthus Liu [D.], Tang [W.] & Zhang [C.] 2010:332 [417], Fig. 191 [ ref. 31081] Fuzhou City, Fujian Province, China, 26˚05'N, 119˚18'E. Holotype (unique): ASIZB [now NZMC] 50929. Type catalog: Ye et al. 2015:13 [ref. 33808]. Original description in Chinese; English translation on p. 417. •Valid as Ophichthus retrodorsalis Liu, Tang & Zhang 2010 -- (Ye et al. 2015:13 [ref. 33808], Ho et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36050]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus retrodorsalis Liu, Tang & Zhang 2010. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: China and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

retropinnis, Ophichthys Eigenmann [C. H.] 1887:116 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 10 (no. 613); ref. 18064] Snapper banks off Pensacola, Florida, Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 38054. Type catalog: Smith 1994:35 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Ophichthus retropinnis Eigenmann 1887 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836]). •Synonym of Ophichthus puncticeps (Kaup 1859) -- (authors). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus puncticeps (Kaup 1859). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

rex, Ophichthus Böhlke [J. E.] & Caruso [J. H.] 1980:239, Figs. 1-3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 132; ref. 8737] Northern Gulf of Mexico, 28°17'N, 90°30'W, depth 64 meters. Holotype: ANSP 136745. Paratypes: ANSP 133550 (1), 135555 (1), 136744 (1), 142201 (1), 142968-69 (1, 1 head), 143064 (1), 143071 (1); GCRL 3691 (2), 4745 (2); TU 82453 (1), 88498-502 (5), 88505-06 (2), 88507 (1, skull & parts), 88508 (1), 88510 (1); UF 73592 [ex FSU 23592] (1); USNM 133826 (1), 200495 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:134 [ref. 13621], Bart & Taylor 1993:50 [ref. 20906], Smith 1994:34 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Ophichthus rex Böhlke & Caruso 1980 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:65 [ref. 23100], McCosker et al. 1989:405 [ref. 13288], Leiby in Smith 1989:825 [ref. 13285], Boschung 1992:36 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:281 [ref. 23897], McCosker 2003:733 [ref. 26993], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus rex Böhlke & Caruso 1980. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

rhytidoderma, Ophichthys Günther [A.] 1870:63 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.226. Unjustified emendation of Ophisurus rutidoderma Bleeker 1853, taking the same type specimen. •Synonym of Ophichthus rutidoderma (Bleeker 1852) -- (McCosker 2007:6 [ref. 29192]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus rutidoderma (Bleeker 1852). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rhytidodermatoides, Ophichthys Günther [A.] 1870:62 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.292. Unjustified emendation of Ophisurus rutidodermatoides Bleeker 1853, taking the same type specimen. •Synonym of Ophichthus rutidoderma (Bleeker 1852) -- (McCosker 2011:6 [ref. 29192]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus rutidoderma (Bleeker 1852). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae.

ribeiroi, Antobrantia Pinto [S. Y.] 1970:13, Figs. 1-2 [Atas da Sociedade de biologia do Rio de Janeiro v. 14 (no. 1-2); ref. 3482] Coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNRJ 9367. •Synonym of Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (McCosker 1977:80 [ref. 6836], McCosker et al. 1989:399 [ref. 13288]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

roseus, Ophichthus Tanaka [S.] 1917:39 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 29 (no. 340); ref. 17353] Tokyo fish market, Japan. Syntypes and/or holotype: ZUMT 7485 (1, described spec.). •Valid as Ophichthus roseus Tanaka 1917 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus roseus Tanaka 1917. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan. Habitat: marine.

rotundus, Ophichthus Lee [C.-L.] & Asano [H.] 1997:549, Figs. 1-4 [Korean Journal of Biological Sciences v. 1 (no. 14); ref. 23711] Kyehwado, Puan-gun, Chollabuk-do, 35°48'N, 126°36', south Korea. Holotype: BKNU 3001. Paratypes: BKNU 3002-3018 (17, 2 c&s). •Valid as Ophisurus rotundus (Lee & Asano 1997) -- (Choi et al. 2003:143, 492 [ref. 26218]). •Valid as Ophichthus rotundus Lee & Asano 1997 -- (McCosker & Chen 2000:356 [ref. 25028], Zhang et al. 2010:333 [ref. 31511] with authors as Lee & Hirotochi, Ji & Kim 2011:66 [ref. 31152]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus rotundus Lee & Asano 1997. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: China, Korea (Yellow Sea). Habitat: marine.

rufus, Echelus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:65, Pl. 16 (fig. 2) [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:42 [ref. 3595]. •Valid as Ophichthus rufus (Rafinesque 1810) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Blache et al. 1973:248 [ref. 7185], Bauchot in Whitehead et al. 1986:583 [ref. 13676], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:32 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:17 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:24 [ref. 29533], Wirtz et al. 2007:6, 25 [ref. 30263], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:18 [ref. 36649], Parenti 2019:101 [ref. 37117], Gomes et al. 2020:228 [ref. 37550], Kovačić et al. 2020:12 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus rufus (Rafinesque 1810). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Portugal south to Morocco; São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

rugifer, Ophichthus Jordan [D. S.] & Bollman [C. H.] 1890:155 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 12 (no. 770); ref. 2433] Santa María Island [Charles Island], Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 41428. Type catalog: Smith 1994:34 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Ophichthus triserialis (Kaup 1856) -- (authors). •Valid as Ophichthus rugifer Jordan & Bollman 1890 -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:415 [ref. 23645], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], McCosker et al. 2012:11 [ref. 31982], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36248]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus rugifer Jordan & Bollman 1890. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands and Cocos Island. Habitat: marine.

rutidoderma, Ophisurus Bleeker [P.] 1852:30 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 5); ref. 339] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.226. Ophichthys rhytidoderma Günther 1870:63 [ref. 1995] is an unjustified emendation. •Valid as Ophichthus rutidoderma (Bleeker 1852) (often seen as 1853) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Rainboth 1996:58 [ref. 22772], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], McCosker & Chen 2000:356 [ref. 25028], McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], McCosker et al. 2006:272 [ref. 29006], McCosker 2007:6 [ref. 29192], Larson et al. 2013:27 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:46 [ref. 32989], Vo et al. 2019:9 [ref. 37206]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus rutidoderma (Bleeker 1852). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rutidodermatoides, Ophisurus Bleeker [P.] 1852:31 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 5); ref. 339] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.292. Original as rutidodermatoïdes. Ophichthys rhytidodermatoides Günther 1870:62 [ref. 1995] is an unjustified emendation. •Valid as Ophichthus rutidodermatoides (Bleeker 1853) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Allen & Swainston 1988:34 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:120 [ref. 12442], Allen 1997:56 [ref. 23977] as rutiodermatoides, Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847]). •Synonym of Ophichthus rutidoderma (Bleeker 1852) -- (McCosker et al. 2006:272 [ref. 29006], McCosker 2007:6 [ref. 29192], Kottelat 2013:46 [ref. 32989], Vo et al. 2019:9 [ref. 37206]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus rutidoderma (Bleeker 1852). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sangjuensis, Pisodonophis Ji [H.-S.] & Kim [J.-K.] 2011:59, Figs. 2-4 [Zootaxa No. 2758; ref. 31152] Sangju, South Sea of Korea, 34°37'04"N. 128°06'18"E, depth 40 meters. Holotype: PKU 3693. Paratypes: PKU 840 (1), 3483-3484 (2), 3864 (1), 3865-3872 (8), 3873 (1), 3874-3876 (3), 3877 (1), 3878-3879 (2), 3880 (1), 4213 (1). •Valid as Ophichthus sangjuensis (Ji & Kim 2011) -- (Hibino et al. 2019:301 [ref. 36433], Mohapatra et al. 2020:[1] [ref. 37690]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus sangjuensis (Ji & Kim 2011). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, northwestern Pacific: West Bengal (India); southern Korea and Japan. Habitat: marine.

semilunatus, Ophichthus Hibino [Y.] & Chiu [Y.-C] in Hibino, Chiu, Chen & Shao 2019:144, Figs. 3-5A [Zootaxa 4702 (no. 1); ref. 37155] Da-xi, Yi-lan, northeastern Taiwan. Holotype (unique): NMMB-P17751. •Valid as Ophichthus semilunatus Hibino & Chiu 2019. Current status: Valid as Ophichthus semilunatus Hibino & Chiu 2019. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Northeastern Taiwan, northwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

serpens, Anguilla Shaw [G.] 1803:23 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Mediterranean Sea, [northern seas] northeastern Atlantic Ocean. No types known. •Synonym of Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

serpentinus, Ophichthys Seale [A.] 1917:84 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 61 (no. 4); ref. 4001] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Holotype (unique): MCZ 9200. •Valid as Ophichthus serpentinus Seale 1917 -- (Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:viii [ref. 21953], McCosker & Chen 2000:356 [ref. 25028], McCosker 2005:672 [ref. 28646], McCosker 2006:737 [ref. 29103], McCosker 2010:32 [ref. 30840], McCosker 2016:1663 [ref. 34558], McCosker et al. 2020:34 [ref. 37376]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus serpentinus Seale 1917. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: South Africa and Namibia. Habitat: marine.

shaoi, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] & Ho [H.-C.] 2015:80, Figs. 7-9 [Zootaxa 4060 (no. 1); ref. 34123] Da-xi fish market, Yilan, northeast Taiwan, depth ca. 200 meters. Holotype: NMMB-P 12228. Paratypes: CAS, NMMB-P. •Valid as Ophichthus shaoi McCosker & Ho 2015 -- (Ho et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:174 [ref. 34130], Hibino in Kimura et al. 2018:24 [ref. 36460], Vo et al. 2019:12 [ref. 37206]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus shaoi McCosker & Ho 2015. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: northern Vietnam; Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

singapurensis, Ophichthys Bleeker [P.] 1864-65:52, Pl. 188 (fig. 1) [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises v. 4; ref. 4860] Singapore. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.? (1) Singapore, NMV 46373 (1). •Valid as Ophichthus singapurensis Bleeker 1864-65 -- (McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], Hibino in Kimura et al. 2018:24 [ref. 36460], Vo et al. 2019:12 [ref. 37206]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus singapurensis Bleeker 1864-65. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Singapore; northern Vietnam. Habitat: marine.

spadiceus, Ophisurus Richardson [J.] 1846:313 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1982.5.7.6. •Synonymy of Ophichthus apicalis (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830) -- (Kottelat 2013:46 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2018:45 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus apicalis (Anonymous [Bennett] 1830). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

spinicauda, Acanthenchelys Norman [J. R.] 1922:296, Fig. [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9) v. 10 (no. 57); ref. 3211] Tobago Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1922.6.22.5. •Valid as Ophichthus spinicauda (Norman 1922) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], McCosker et al. 1989:407 [ref. 13288], Cervigón 1991:60 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:374 [ref. 23827], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221], McCosker 2003:733 [ref. 26993], Bunkley-Williams & Williams 2004:98 [ref. 27795]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus spinicauda (Norman 1922). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Antilles and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

stenopterus, Ophichthys Cope [E. D.] 1871:482 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] Japan. Syntypes: ANSP 1043-44 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:134 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Ophichthus stenopterus Cope 1871 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Tang & Zhang 2004:21 [ref. 27889], Zhang et al. 2010:346 [ref. 31511], McCosker et al. 2012:7 [ref. 31982], McCosker & Ho 2015:72 [ref. 34123]). •Synonym of Ophichthus pallens (Richardson 1848) -- (Hibino et al. 2019:296 [ref. 36433]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus pallens (Richardson 1848). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

sulcatus, Herpetoichthys Kaup [J. J.] 1856:44 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: MNHN B-2758. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:107 [ref. 20810]. Also in Kaup 1856:8, Pl. 1 (fig. 5) [ref. 2573]. •Synonym of Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:399 [ref. 13288], Leiby 1990:189 [ref. 13652]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus ophis (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

tchangi, Ophichthus Tang [W.-Q.] & Zhang [C.-G.] 2002:854, Figs. 1-3 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 27 (no. 4); ref. 26492] Pingtan County, Fujian Province, China. Holotype (unique): IZCAS (now ASIZB) 67880. No other locality information (Zhang, pers. comm., 31 Dec. 2002). •Valid as Ophichthus tchangi Tang & Zhang 2002 -- (Tang & Zhang 2004:21 [ref. 27889] as tczhangi, Zhang et al. 2010:348 [ref. 31511]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus tchangi Tang & Zhang 2002. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: China. Habitat: marine.

tetratrema, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] & Rosenblatt [R. H.] 1998:417, Figs. 8c, 11 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences v. 50 (no. 19); ref. 23645] 12 kilometers south of Isla Blanca, Costa Rica, 9°24.5'N, 85°06.0'W, depth 900 meters. Holotype: SIO 73-294. Paratypes: CAS 57864 (1), ZMUC P32692 (1). •Valid as Ophichthus tetratrema McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998. Current status: Valid as Ophichthus tetratrema McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

tomioi, Ophichthus McCosker [J. E.] 2010:32, Figs. 32-35 [Zootaxa No. 2505; ref. 30840] San Bernadino Strait, Philippines, 12°54'29"N, 124°23'36"E, depth 376-382 meters. Holotype: CAS 214208. Paratypes: CAS 229180 [ex MNHN 2001-10060] (1); MNHN 1989-0748 (1), 2001-1060 (1), 2001-1065 (1). •Valid as Ophichthus tomioi McCosker 2010 -- (McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], Hibino et al. 2019:147 [ref. 37155], McCosker et al. 2020:34 [ref. 37376]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus tomioi McCosker 2010. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Philippines, Marquesas, Fiji and Seychelles. Habitat: marine.

triserialis, Muraenopsis Kaup [J. J.] 1856:12 [Catalogue of the apodal fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2573] Pacific. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1855.9.19.1276. •Valid as Ophichthys triserialis (Kaup 1856) -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:42 [ref. 23101]). •Valid as Ophichthus triserialis (Kaup 1856) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:65 [ref. 9277], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1338 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:166 [ref. 24023], McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:413 [ref. 23645], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:121 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:101 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:20 [ref. 37547], McCosker et al. 2012:11 [ref. 31982], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34871], Kells et al. 2016:90 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:35 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus triserialis (Kaup 1856). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: northern California (U.S.A.) south to Peru, including Gulf of California (Mexico) and Galápagos Islands (Ecuador). Habitat: marine.

triserialis, Ophichthys Barnard [K. H.] 1923:444 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 13 (pt 8, no. 14); ref. 191] Algoa Bay, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 55 fathoms [101 meters]. Holotype (unique): SAM 12776. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Ophichthus by Mureanopsis triserialis Kaup 1856; replaced by Ophichthys algoensis Barnard 1925. •Objective synonym of Ophichthus algoensis Barnard 1925 [= Synonym of Ophichthus unicolor Regan 1908]. Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus unicolor Regan 1908. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

tsuchidae, Ophichthus Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:873, Fig. 19 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1239); ref. 2508] Misaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 6479. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:50 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Ophichthus tsuchidae Jordan & Snyder 1901 -- (Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:32 [ref. 6441], Lee & Asano 1997:551 [ref. 23711], Nakabo 2000:223 [ref. 25086], McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:293 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:223 [ref. 26001], Tang & Zhang 2004:21 [ref. 27889], Zhang et al. 2010:344 [ref. 31511]). •Synonym of Ophichthus urolophus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Vo et al. 2019:11 [ref. 37206]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus tsuchidae Jordan & Snyder 1901. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: China (East China Sea) to Japan. Habitat: marine.

unicolor, Ophichthys Regan [C. T.] 1908:250, Fig. 1 [Annals of the Natal Museum v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 14355] 16 miles northeast of Bird Island, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean,depth 40 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1906.11.19.39. •Valid as Ophichthus unicolor Regan 1908 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], McCosker & Castle 1986:183 [ref. 5690]). •Valid as Rhinophichthus unicolor (Regan 1908) -- (authors). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus unicolor Regan 1908. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: South Africa. Habitat: marine.

uniserialis, Ophichthys Cope [E. D.] 1877:47 [31] [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 17; ref. 18033] Peru (probably Pacasmayo Bay). Holotype (unique): ANSP 21152. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:134 [ref. 13621]. On p. 31 of separate. •Synonym of Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:413 [ref. 23645]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus remiger (Valenciennes 1837). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

urolophus, Conger Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:260, Pl. 114 (fig. 1) [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 3688a. Paralectotypes: RMNH 3688b (1). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:187 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Ophichthus urolophus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Ida in Okamura et al. 1982:63, 319 [ref. 8256] as Ophichthys, Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:32 [ref. 6441], Machida in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:103, 324 [ref. 8057], Lee & Asano 1997:551 [ref. 23711], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Nakabo 2000:223 [ref. 25086], McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:586 [ref. 25122], Sumida & Machida 2000:54 [ref. 26006], Shinohara et al. 2001:293 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:223 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:143, 492 [ref. 26218], Tang & Zhang 2002:855 [ref. 26492], Tang & Zhang 2004:21 [ref. 27889], Shinohara et al. 2005:400 [ref. 28370], McCosker et al. 2006:272 [ref. 29006], McCosker 2010:37 [ref. 30840], Zhang et al. 2010:343 [ref. 31511], McCosker et al. 2012:7 [ref. 31982], McCosker 2014:339 [ref. 33288], Shinohara et al. 2014:236 [ref. 33330], McCosker & Ho 2015:73 [ref. 34123], Ho et al. 2015:174 [ref. 34130], Hibino et al. 2019:303 [ref. 36433], Vo et al. 2019:10 [ref. 37206], Sonoyama et al. 2020:17 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus urolophus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, and northwestern Australia. Habitat: marine.

vietnamensis, Ophichthus Vo [Q. V.], Hibino [Y.] & Ho [H.-C.] 2019:2, Figs. 1-2 [Zoological Studies v. 58: 43; ref. 37206] Fish landing ground, Ky Ha, Tam Quang commune, Tam Ky district, Quang Nam province, central Vietnam, depth 40 ‒ 60 meters. Holotype: OIM E.55769. Paratype: OIM E.55768 (1). •Valid as Ophichthus vietnamensis Vo, Hibino & Ho 2019. Current status: Valid as Ophichthus vietnamensis Vo, Hibino & Ho 2019. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Off Quang Nam province, central Vietnam. Habitat: marine.

woosuitingi, Ophichthys Chen [J. T. F.] 1929:22, Pl. 2 (figs. 1, 1A) [Bulletin of the Biology Department, Science College, Sun Yatsen University v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 16075] Ying Khou, Kwangtung, China. Holotype: ZLSYU 3079. Spelled woosuiting on text p. 22, woosuitingi on p. 2, and wooshuitingi on plate caption and in Chinese summary. Printed errata indicates woosuitingi as correct spelling. •Valid as Ophichthus woosuitingi Chen 1929 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus woosuitingi Chen 1929. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: China. Habitat: marine.

yamakawai, Ophichthus Hibino [Y.], McCosker [J. E.] & Tashiro [F.] 2019:299, Figs. 11-13 [Ichthyological Research v. 66 (no. 2); ref. 36433] Off Mimase (Mimase fish market), Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Holotype (unique): NSMT-P 128088 [ex KSHS 5337]. •Valid as Ophichthus yamakawai Hibino, McCosker & Tashiro 2019. Current status: Valid as Ophichthus yamakawai Hibino, McCosker & Tashiro 2019. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Kochi Prefecture, Pacific coast of Japan. Habitat: marine.

zonatus, Ophichthus Howell Rivero [L.] 1932:11 [Proceedings of the New England Zoölogical Club v. 13; ref. 3765] In deep water off Cojimar, near Havana, Cuba. Holotype (unique): MCZ 32788. •Synonym of Ophichthus spinicauda (Norman 1922) -- (McCosker et al. 1989:407 [ref. 13288], Bunkley-Williams & Williams 2004:96 [ref. 27795]). Current status: Synonym of Ophichthus spinicauda (Norman 1922). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Habitat: marine.

zophistius, Pisoodonophis Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:868, Fig. 15 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1239); ref. 2508] Outside Bay of Tokyo, near Misaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): CAS 106475 [ex CAS-SU 6475]. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:50 [ref. 12291], Hibino & McCosker 2020:333 [ref. 37588]. Original genus should have been Pisodonophis. •Valid as Pisodonophis zophistius Jordan & Snyder 1901 -- (McCosker 1977:83 [ref. 6836] as zophistus, Yogo 1997:4 [ref. 24371], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Nakabo 2000:224 [ref. 25086], Shimizu 2001:20 [ref. 25799], Nakabo 2002:224 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:143, 492 [ref. 26218] as Pisoodonophis, Shinohara et al. 2005:400 [ref. 28370]). •Synonym of Ophichthus altipennis (Kaup 1856) -- (Randall 2005:32 [ref. 28239], Ji & Kim 2011:61 [ref. 31152]). •Valid as Ophichthus zophistius (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Hibino et al. 2019:302 [ref. 36433], Shitamitsu & Sunobe 2019:2 [ref. 36767], Hibino & McCosker 2020:332 [ref. 37588], Sonoyama et al. 2020:18 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus zophistius (Jordan & Snyder 1901). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, and one specimen pelagic in central northwestern Pacific Ocean at 28°21.5’N 135°01.7’E. Habitat: marine.

zophochir, Ophichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:347 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 237); ref. 2470] Rocks near Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Lectotype: USNM 28277. Paralectotypes: USNM 28280 (1), 29220 (1, not found in 1980), 29239 (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:35 [ref. 21917]. Lectotype selected by McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:421 [ref. 23645]. •Valid as Ophichthys zophochir Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:42 [ref. 23101]). •Valid as Ophichthus zophochir Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (McCosker 1977:81 [ref. 6836], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:66 [ref. 9277], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1339 [ref. 22830], McCosker & Rosenblatt 1998:421 [ref. 23645], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:120 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:102 [ref. 24550], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:120 [ref. 25206], Nelson et al. 2004:63 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:20 [ref. 37547], Page et al. 2013:63 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:90 [ref. 35888], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:88 [ref. 35859], Burton & Lea 2019:35 [ref. 37205], González-Murcia et al. 2019:289 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Ophichthus zophochir Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: northern California (U.S.A.) south to Peru, including Gulf of California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.