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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the genus Squalius: [ 87 ] records


adanaensis, Squalius Turan [D.], Kottelat [M.] & Doğan [E.] 2013:310, Figs. 2, 3 [Zootaxa 3637 (no. 3); ref. 32584] Üçürge Stream at Karaisalı, Seyhan River drainage, Adana Province, Turkey. Holotype: FFR 1994. Paratypes: CMK 22403 (4), FFR 1995 (16). •Valid as Squalius adanaensis Turan, Kottelat & Doğan 2013 -- (Çiçek et al. 2015:147 [ref. 35151], Turan et al. 2017:2 [ref. 35136], Çiçek et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36267]). Current status: Valid as Squalius adanaensis Turan, Kottelat & Doğan 2013. Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Turkey: Seyhan River basin (Mediterranean tributary), Adana Province. Habitat: freshwater.

agdamicus, Squalius Kamensky [S. N.] 1901:49 [German p. 160] [Die Cypriniden der Kaukasusländer und ihrer angrenzenden Meere. 2.; ref. 14761] Near Agdam, Kuyra River basin, Azerbaijan. Holotype (unique): ?ZMT (not at ZIN). •Valid as Leuciscus agdamicus (Kamensky 1901) -- (Berg 1949:563 [ref. 20661]). •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Coad 1995:19 [ref. 23608], Kottelat 1997:66 [ref. 22952], Bogutskaya 1997:172 [ref. 23566], Bogutskaya 1998:63 [ref. 23589], Fricke et al. 2007:41 [ref. 29533]). •Valid as Squalius agdamicus Kamensky 1901 -- (Doadrio & Carmona 2006:200 [ref. 28975]). Current status: Valid as Squalius agdamicus Kamensky 1901. Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Kura basin, Azerbaijan. Habitat: freshwater.

albiensis, Leuciscus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1844:194 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 17; ref. 1010] Elbe River, Germany. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:65 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

albula, Cyprinus Nardo [G. D.] 1827:482, 488 [Isis (Oken) v. 20 (no. 6); ref. 19740] Adriatic Sea basin and France. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. Kottelat 1997:64 [ref. 22952] "restricted" the type description on one source with a locality to France, but the Code does not provide for such restriction in that manner. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:64 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). •? Synonym of Squalius squalus (Bonaparte 1837). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

alburnoides, Leuciscus Steindachner [F.] 1866:263 [3], Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [Sitzungsberichte der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 54 (1. Abth.); ref. 18777] Stream near Merida, Spain. Lectotype: NMW 49749:2. Paralectotypes: NMW 49749:1, 3-15 (13), 49778 (12). Species not listed in earlier abstract (Steindachner 1866 [ref. 21716]). Also in Steindachner 1866:5 [ref. 18757]. Lectotype selected by Bogutskaya 2000:20 [ref. 24891]. •Valid as Rutilus alburnoides (Steindachner 1866) -- (Kottelat 1997:76 [ref. 22952]). •See Doadrio & Carmona 2006:200 [ref. 28975]. •Valid as Iberocypris alburnoides (Steindachner 1866) -- (Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:199 [ref. 29996]). •Valid as Tropidophoxinellus alburnoides (Steindachner 1866) -- (Bogutskaya 2000:20 [ref. 24891], Bogutskaya et al. 2000:62 [ref. 24445], Bogutskaya & Coad 2009:171 [ref. 30270]). •Valid as Squalius alburnoides (Steindachner 1866) -- (Alves et al. 2002:649 [ref. 28744], Collares-Pereira & Coelho 2010:707 [ref. 31439]). Current status: Valid as Squalius alburnoides (Steindachner 1866). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Portugal and Spain. Habitat: freshwater.

albus, Leuciscus Bonaparte [C. L.] 1838:fasc. 22, punt. 104, Pl. 113 (fig. 2) [Iconografia della fauna italica; ref. 4894] Lake Trasimeno, Italy. Syntypes: ANSP 6335-36 (2), MNHN 0000-3903 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:61-62 [ref. 19574], Almaça 1969:1127 [ref. 20712], Böhlke 1984:68 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Bianco & Taraborelli 1984:114 [ref. 21915], Mrakovcic et al. 1995:184 [ref. 23079]). •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:65 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Doadrio & Carmona 2006:200 [ref. 28975]). •Valid as Squalius albus (Bonaparte 1837) -- (Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:261 [ref. 29996], Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Perea et al. 2010:14 [ref. 31802], Buj et al. 2019:[16] [ref. 37174]). •Synonym of Squalius squalus (Bonaparte 1837) -- (Bianco 2013:6 [ref. 32897]). Current status: Synonym of Squalius squalus (Bonaparte 1837). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Lake Trasimeno, Italy (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

anatolicus, Leuciscus lepidus Bogutskaya [N. G.] 1997:173 [Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut v. 94; ref. 23566] Beyşehir Gölü, central Turkey. Holotype: ZMH 8864. Paratypes: ZMH 1134 (1), 2463 (8), 6635 (1), 6638 (1), 22787 (2). •Synonym of Leuciscus lepidus (Heckel 1843), but presumed valid as a subspecies as described. •Valid as Leuciscus anatolicus Bogutskaya 1997 -- (Fricke et al. 2007:41 [ref. 29533]). •Valid as Squalius anatolicus (Bogutskaya 1997) -- (Turan et al. 2009:57 [ref. 30540], Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011:114 [ref. 31360], Çiçek et al. 2015:147 [ref. 35151], Çiçek et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36267]). Current status: Valid as Squalius anatolicus (Bogutskaya 1997). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Turkey: Beyşehir Gölü and Beyşehir Gölü tributaries, Isparta and Konya provinces. Habitat: freshwater.

aradensis, Leuciscus Coelho [M. M.], Bogutskaya [N. G.], Rodrigues [J. A.] & Collares-Pereira [M. J.] 1998:943, Fig. 2 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 52 (no. 5); ref. 24127] Arade River, Silves, Arade basin, Portugal. Holotype: MB 23296/05-1219a. Paratypes: MB 23296/05-1219b (10), 7193/05-325 (2). •Valid as Leuciscus aradensis Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues & Collares-Pereira 1998. •Valid as Squalius aradensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues & Collares-Pereira 1998) -- (Sanjur et al. 2003:21 [ref. 2874], Freyhof et al. 2006:418 [ref. 28484], Doadrio & Carmona 2006:200 [ref. 28975], Doadrio et al. 2007:96 [ref. 29250], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:263 [ref. 29996], Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Perea et al. 2010:14 [ref. 31802], Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011:107 [ref. 31360], Buj et al. 2019:[16] [ref. 37174]). Current status: Valid as Squalius aradensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues & Collares-Pereira 1998). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Southern Portugal. Habitat: freshwater.

aralychensis, Leuciscus cephalus orientalis natio Barach [G. P.] 1934:109 [Trudy Instytufu Zoolohii i Biolohii = Reports of the Institute of Zoology and Biology = Travaux de l'institut de Zoologie et Biologie, Akademija Nauk URSR. v. 1; ref. 21471] Syntypes: ZMT 22-11 (10). Not available, infrasubspecific; from Karasu River, near town of Aralyky, Turkey. Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae.

ardebilicus, Leuciscus cephalus orientalis natio Barach [G. P.] 1934:114 [Trudy Instytufu Zoolohii i Biolohii = Reports of the Institute of Zoology and Biology = Travaux de l'institut de Zoologie et Biologie, Akademija Nauk URSR. v. 1; ref. 21471] Not available, infrasubspecific; from Balyk-tchai River, trib. of Karasu, near Ardabil, Iran. •In the synonymy of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) subspecies orientalis Nordmann 1840 -- (Berg 1949:557 [ref. 20661]). •In the synonymy of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:66 [ref. 22952]). •In the synonymy of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae.

aristotelis, Squalius Özuluğ [M.] & Freyhof [J.] 2011:118, Figs. 8-10 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 22 (no. 2); ref. 31360] Stream Behramkale north of Assos, Biga Peninsula, 39°29.91'N, 26°19.99'E, Çanakkale Province, Turkey. Holotype: IUSHM 2009-944. Paratypes: FSJF 2355 (5); IUSHM 2009-945 (10), 2009-946 (3). Type catalog: Özuluğ & Saç 2018:47 [ref. 35782]. •Valid as Squalius aristotelis Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011 -- (Çiçek et al. 2015:147 [ref. 35151], Çiçek et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36267]). Current status: Valid as Squalius aristotelis Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011. Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Turkey: Çanakkale Province (Aegean Sea tributary). Habitat: freshwater.

athurensis, Squalius cephalus var. Roule [L.] & Cardaillac de Saint-Paul [G. del P. de] 1903:732 [Comptes rendus de la ... session, Association Française pour l'Avancement des Sciences. Paris v. 31 (pt 2); ref. 18642] Adour River, southwestern France. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:66 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Habitat: freshwater.

berak, Squalius Heckel [J. J.] 1843:1078 [88] [Ichthyologie [von Syrien]. In Russegger v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 2066] Aleppo, Syria. Syntypes: NMW 48915 (6), SMF 469 [ex NMW] (3). Illustrated by Heckel 1843, Pl. 10 (fig. 1) [ref. 2067]. On p. 88 of separate [ref. 2067]. Appeared as name only and spelled Berag on p. 1041 [51]. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Coad 1991:18 [ref. 15702], Coad 1995:19 [ref. 23608], Bogutskaya 1997:172 [ref. 23566], Fricke et al. 2007:41 [ref. 29533]). •Valid as Squalius berak Heckel 1843 -- (Doadrio & Carmona 2006:200 [ref. 28975], Turan et al. 2009:60 [ref. 30540], Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011:108 [ref. 31360], Turan et al. 2013:322 [ref. 32584], Çiçek et al. 2015:147 [ref. 35151], Khaefi et al. 2016:155 [ref. 34748], Esmaeili et al. 2016:119 [ref. 34985], Turan et al. 2017:2 [ref. 35136], Esmaeili et al. 2017:58 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:38 [ref. 36089]). Current status: Valid as Squalius berak Heckel 1843. Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Euphrates and Tigris River basin: Turkey, Syria, Iraq and Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

brutius, Leuciscus Costa [O. G.] 1838:Cyprinoides p. 22, Pl. 18 [Fauna del regno di Napoli Part 1; ref. 976] Crati River near Cosenza, Italy. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-0198. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-2590 [ex MNHN 0000-0198] (1), MZUF 5673 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:61 [ref. 19574], Almaça 1969:1126 [ref. 20712], Vanni 1991:221 [ref. 20099]. Lectotype selected by Almaça 1969:1126 [ref. 20712]. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:65 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). •? Synonym of Squalius squalus (Bonaparte 1837). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

cabeda, Leuciscus Risso [A.] 1827:438 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Lectotype: MNHN B-0846. Type catalog: Bertin 1945:375 [ref. 21554], Bertin & Estève 1948:61 [ref. 19574], Almaça 1969:1124 [ref. 20712]. Lectotype selected by Almaça 1969:1124 [ref. 20712]. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:64 [ref. 22952]). •Valid as Squalius cabeda, subspecies cabeda (Risso 1827) -- (Sanjur et al. 2003:22 [ref. 28742], Doadrio & Carmona 2006:200 [ref. 28975]). •Synonym of Squalius squalus (Bonaparte 1837) -- (Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:275 [ref. 29996]). Current status: Synonym of Squalius squalus (Bonaparte 1837). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Habitat: freshwater.

capito, Cyprinus Scopoli [J. A.] 1786:73 [Deliciae florae et faunae Insubricae; ref. 18712] Lakes of Insubria, northern Italy. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Cyprinus capito Güldenstädt 1772. •Questionably a synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:64 [ref. 22952]). •Questionably a synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). •? Synonym of Squalius squalus (Bonaparte 1837). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

cappadocicus, Squalius Özuluğ [M.] & Freyhof [J.] 2011:119, Figs. 11-13 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 22 (no. 2); ref. 31360] Stream Melendiz at Ihlara, 38°14.15'N, 34°18.71'E, Aksaray Province, Turkey. Holotype: IUSHM 2011-1035. Paratypes: IUSHM 2011-1009 (3), 2011-1010 (27, now 22), 2011-1011 (25). Type catalog: Özuluğ & Saç 2018:47 [ref. 35782]. •Valid as Squalius cappadocicus Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011 -- (Çiçek et al. 2015:147 [ref. 35151], Çiçek et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36267]). Current status: Valid as Squalius cappadocicus Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011. Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Turkey: Tuz Gölü tributary, Aksaray Province. Habitat: freshwater.

carinus, Squalius Özuluğ [M.] & Freyhof [J.] 2011:123, Figs. 14-16 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 22 (no. 2); ref. 31360] Spring Işikli, 38°19.29'N, 29°51.07'E, Denizli Province, Turkey. Holotype: IUSHM 2009-947. Paratypes: IUSHM 2011-1018 (16). Type catalog: Özuluğ & Saç 2018:47 [ref. 35782]. •Valid as Squalius carinus Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011 -- (Turan et al. 2013:322 [ref. 32584], Çiçek et al. 2015:147 [ref. 35151], Çiçek et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36267]). Current status: Valid as Squalius carinus Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011. Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Turkey: Büyük Menderes River system (Aegean Sea tributary), Denizli Province. Habitat: freshwater.

carolitertii, Leuciscus Doadrio [I.] 1988:302, Figs. 1, 2.9, 3.9, 4.7 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 68 (nos 4/6); ref. 16235] Cega River, Rebollo, Segovia, Spain, elevation 900 meters. Holotype: MNCN 82050157. Paratypes: MNCN 81081401-34 (34), SMF 21214-15 (2). •Valid as Leuciscus carolitertii Doadrio 1988 -- (Kottelat 1997:64 [ref. 22952], Briolay et al. 1998:101 [ref. 25586], Coelho et al. 1998:945 [ref. 24127]). •Valid as Squalius carolitertii (Doadrio 1988) -- (Sanjur et al. 2003:21 [ref. 28742], Alves et al. 2002:649 [ref. 28744], Doadrio & Carmona 2006:200 [ref. 28975], Doadrio et al. 2007:96 [ref. 29250], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:263 [ref. 29996], Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Perea et al. 2010:14 [ref. 31802], Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011:107 [ref. 31360]). Current status: Valid as Squalius carolitertii (Doadrio 1988). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Spain and Portugal. Habitat: freshwater.

castellanus, Squalius Doadrio [I.], Perea [S.] & Alonso [F.] 2007:93, Figs. 1 and 3 [Graellsia, Revista de Zoologia, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid. v. 63 (no. 1); ref. 29250] Gallo River, Ventosa, Guadalajara, Spain. Holotype: MNCN 212727. Paratypes: MNCN 34147-48 (2), 42066-73 (8), 136311-13 (3), 136320-21 (2), 137042-45 (4), 138857 (1). •Valid as Squalius castellanus Doadrio, Perea & Alonso 2007 -- (Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Perea et al. 2010:14 [ref. 31802], Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011:107 [ref. 31360]). Current status: Valid as Squalius castellanus Doadrio, Perea & Alonso 2007. Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Tagus River basin, Spain. Habitat: freshwater.

cavedanus, Leuciscus Bonaparte [C. L.] 1838:fasc. 22, punt. 104, Pl. 113 (fig. 3) [Iconografia della fauna italica; ref. 4894] Piccolo Reno stream, Bologna, Italy. Syntypes and/or Bonaparte specimens: ANSP 6313-18 (6), ?MNHN 0000-2623 (1) Rome. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:62 [ref. 19574], Almaça 1969:1124 [ref. 20712], Böhlke 1984:72 [ref. 13621]. See Kottelat 1997:67 [ref. 22952] for note on types. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:65 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). •? Synonym of Squalius squalus (Bonaparte 1837). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

cephaloides, Leuciscus Battalgil [F.] 1942:298, Fig. 8 [Revue de la Faculté des Sciences de l'Université d'Instanbul, Série B: Sciences Naturelles v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 13190] Armutlu, near Mudanya, northwestern Turkey. Syntypes: IUSHM 2009-982 (6). Type catalog: Özuluğ & Saç 2018:47 [ref. 35782]. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Bogutskaya 1997:173 [ref. 23566]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). •Valid as Squalius cephaloides (Battalgil 1942) -- (Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011:127 [ref. 31360], Turan et al. 2013:322 [ref. 32584], Çiçek et al. 2015:147 [ref. 35151], g9#!jwe34Q7s). Current status: Valid as Squalius cephaloides (Battalgil 1942). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Turkey: Marmara Sea tributary, Bursa Province. Habitat: freshwater.

cephalopsis, Squalius Heckel [J. J.] 1843:1080 [90] [Ichthyologie [von Syrien]. In Russegger v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 2066] Aleppo, Syria. Syntypes: NMW 49438 (3), 49440 (2). On p. 90 of separate [ref. 2067]. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Coad 1991:18 [ref. 15702], Coad 1995:19 [ref. 23608], Kottelat 1997:65 [ref. 22952], Bogutskaya 1997:172 [ref. 23566], Fricke et al. 2007:41 [ref. 29533]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus Linnaeus 1758. Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Habitat: freshwater.

cephalus, Cyprinus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:322 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Northern Europe. Syntypes: NRM 51 (1), ZMUU Linn. coll. 213 (1). Type catalog: Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:212-213 [ref. 20707], Wheeler 1991:163 [ref. 20102]. Kottelat 1997:66 [ref. 22952] "restricted" the name to the species described by Artedi, but the Code does not provide for such restriction in that manner. •Valid as Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berg 1949:555 [ref. 20661], Bianco & Knezevic 1987:53 [ref. 21912], Bianco 1988:4 [ref. 22381], Bianco 1988:151 [ref. 22383], Coad 1991:18 [ref. 15702], Bogutskaya 1994:617 [ref. 23569], Coad 1995:18 [ref. 23608], Chereshnev 1996:600 [ref. 24659], Coad 1996:71 [ref. 25297], Bianco et al. 1996:50 [ref. 26724], Kottelat 1997:64 [ref. 22952], Bogutskaya 1997:172 [ref. 23566], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:738 [ref. 24702], Bianco 1997:616 [ref. 26725], Bogutskaya 1998:63 [ref. 23589], Ketmaier et al. 1998:47 [ref. 23809], Coad 1998:102 [ref. 23869], Briolay et al. 1998:101 [ref. 25586], Gabrielyan 2001:27 [ref. 25867], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:43 [ref. 26178], Bianco & Ketmaier 2001:194 [ref. 26728], Hanel 2003:48 [ref. 27894], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:169 [ref. 28369], Hanel & Lusk 2005:195 [ref. 28804], Fricke 2007:28 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:41 [ref. 29533]). •Valid as Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Sanjur et al. 2003:212 [ref. 28742], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:89 [ref. 28183], Kottelat & Economidis 2006:181 [ref. 28769], Doadrio & Carmona 2006:200 [ref. 28975], Doadrio et al. 2007:252 [ref. 29342], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:264 [ref. 29996], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:167 [ref. 31251], Turan et al. 2009:60 [ref. 30540], Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Coad 2010:193 [ref. 36620], Esmaeili et al. 2010:371 [ref. 33391], Perea et al. 2010:14 [ref. 31802], Zupančič et al. 2010:155 [ref. 31002], Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011:107 [ref. 31360], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:880 [ref. 34062], Çiçek et al. 2015:147 [ref. 35151], Al-Moussawi & Afrasiab 2019:37 [ref. 37204], Ćaleta et al. 2019:166 [ref. 37026], Lorenzoni et al. 2019:252 [ref. 37108], Özuluğ & Saç 2019:31 [ref. 36599], Buj et al. 2019:[16] [ref. 37174]). Current status: Valid as Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Europe and Middle East. Introduced in Italy. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

chub, Cyprinus Bonnaterre [J. P.] (ex Pennant) 1788:195, Pl. 77 (fig. 323) [Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature... Ichthyologie; ref. 4940] Rivers of Europe. No types known. Not available, described in synonymy of Cyprinus cephalus Linnaeus 1758. Based on 'The Chub' of Pennant 1769:313 [ref. 18527]. •In the synonymy of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:64 [ref. 22952]). •In the synonymy of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae.

cii, Leuciscus Richardson [J.] 1857:375 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1856 (pt 24) (art. 2); ref. 18632] Gemlek [Gemelik] River, north of Bursa, northwestern Turkey. Lectotype: BMNH 1865.5.2.8-9 (99.5 mm SL specimen). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1856.5.2.8-9 (1 of 2). •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:65 [ref. 22952], Bogutskaya 1997:172 [ref. 23566]). •Valid as Squalius cii (Richardson 1857) -- (Stoumboudi et al. 2006:133 [ref. 28767], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:265 [ref. 29996] as cf. cii, Turan et al. 2009:61 [ref. 30540], Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011:130 [ref. 31360], Turan et al. 2013:322 [ref. 32584], Barbieri et al. 2015:67 [ref. 35029] as cf. cii dated 1856, Çiçek et al. 2015:147 [ref. 35151]). Current status: Valid as Squalius cii (Richardson 1857). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Greece and Turkey. Habitat: freshwater.

clathratus, Squalius Blanchard [C. E.] 1866:398, Fig. 94 [Les poissons des eaux douces de la France; ref. 310] Lot River in Cahors, France. Lectotype: MNHN A-2260. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-2589 [ex MNHN A-2260] (1), A-2261 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:63 [ref. 19574], Almaça 1969:1125 [ref. 20712]. Lectotype selected by Almaça 1969:1125 [ref. 20712]. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:65 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

fellowesii, Leuciscus Günther [A.] 1868:224, Fig. [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 7; ref. 1990] Xanthos, Turkey. Syntypes: BMNH 1845.7.9.58-59 (2). •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Bogutskaya 1997:172 [ref. 23566]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). •Valid as Squalius fellowesii (Günther 1868) -- (Turan et al. 2009:61 [ref. 30540], Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011:134 [ref. 31360], Turan et al. 2013:322 [ref. 32584], Barbieri et al. 2015:64 [ref. 35029], Çiçek et al. 2015:147 [ref. 35151], Çiçek et al. 2018:15 [ref. 36267]). Current status: Valid as Squalius fellowesii (Günther 1868). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Turkey: Eşen Çayı (Mediterranean tribitary), Antalya Province. Habitat: freshwater.

frigidus, Leuciscus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1844:234 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 17; ref. 1010] Probably Germany. Based on one specimens and Cyprinus idus Bloch. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:65 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

illyricus, Squalius Heckel [J. J.] & Kner [R.] 1857:195, Fig. 108 [Die Süsswasserfische der Österreichischen Monarchie; ref. 2078] Isonzo, Knin and Sign rivers, Dalmatia, Croatia. Syntypes: NMW 49313 (7), 49315 (3), 49322 (1), 49324 (1), 49331 (2), 49339-41 (1, 1, 1), . •Doubtfully valid as Leuciscus illyricus -- (Bianco & Knezevic 1987:49 [ref. 21912]). •Valid as Leuciscus ilyricus (Heckel & Kner 1857) -- (Mrakovcic et al. 1995:184 [ref. 23079], Kottelat 1997:67 [ref. 22952], Doadrio & Carmona 2006:200 [ref. 28975]). •Valid as Squalius illyricus Heckel & Kner 1857 -- (Bogutskaya 1994:617 [ref. 23569], Sanjur et al. 2003:22 [ref. 28742], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:266 [ref. 29996], Zupančič 2008:42 [ref. 29926], Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Zupančič et al. 2010:155 [ref. 31002], Perea et al. 2010:13 [ref. 31802], Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011:107 [ref. 31360], Ćaleta et al. 2015:93 [ref. 34877], Ćaleta et al. 2019:166 [ref. 37026], Buj et al. 2019:[16] [ref. 37174]). Current status: Valid as Squalius illyricus Heckel & Kner 1857. Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Southeastern Europe: Croatia. Habitat: freshwater.

irideus, Leucaspius Ladiges [W.] 1960:138, Fig. 11 [Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut v. 58; ref. 9361] Marmaris Mugla-arasi, Turkey. Holotype: ZMH H1085. Paratypes: ZMH H1086 (2). Type catalog: Wilkens 1977:158 [ref. 22013]. •Synonym of Leucaspius delineatus (Heckel 1843) or a valid species -- (Lelek 1987:200 [ref. 22962]). •Synonym of Ladigesocypris ghigii (Gianferrari 1927) -- (Bogutskaya 1996:40 [ref. 22945], Bogutskaya 1997:171 [ref. 23566], Fricke et al. 2007:40 [ref. 29533]). •Valid as Pseudophoxinus irideus (Ladiges 1960) -- (Bogutskaya et al. 2006:335 [ref. 29055]). •Valid as Ladigesocypris irideus (Ladiges 1960) -- (Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:203 [ref. 29996], Barbieri et al. 2015:54 [ref. 35029]). •Valid as Squalius irideus (Ladiges 1960) -- (Perea et al. 2010:14 [ref. 31802], Çiçek et al. 2016:116 [ref. 35152], Çiçek et al. 2018:15 [ref. 36267]). Current status: Valid as Squalius irideus (Ladiges 1960). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Turkey: Mediterranean Sea tributary, Muğla Province. Habitat: freshwater.

janae, Squalius Bogutskaya [N. G.] & Zupančič [P.] 2010:56, Figs. 2-4a, 8a [Zootaxa No. 2536; ref. 30905] Dragonja River about 2 kilometers upstream from bridge on road from Zupančiči, 45°28'N, 13°46'E, Slovenia. Holotype: SMNH 207. Paratypes: PZC 452 (6), 453 (6), 454 (19), 455 (7), 456 (8), 475 (6), 476 (4); ZISP 54690 (11). •Valid as Squalius janae Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010 -- (Zupančič et al. 2010:155 [ref. 31002]), Ćaleta et al. 2015:93 [ref. 34877]. •Synonym of Squalius squalus (Bonaparte 1837) -- (Buj et al. 2019:[17] [ref. 37174]). Current status: Synonym of Squalius squalus (Bonaparte 1837). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Habitat: freshwater.

kaznakovi, Leuciscus cephalus orientalis natio Berg [L. S.] 1912:143, Pl. 2 (fig. 3) [v. 3 (pt 1); ref. 5874] Not available, infrasubspecific; from Lake Nour near Vandam, Nukha Dist., Azerbaijan. •In the synonymy of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Coad 1995:19 [ref. 23608], Kottelat 1997:66 [ref. 22952]). •In the synonymy of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae.

keadicus, Leuciscus (Telestes) souffia Stephanidis [A.] 1971:198, Fig. 9 [Biologia Gallo-Hellenica v. 3 (no. 2) (for 1970); ref. 7540] Evrotas River, Peloponnese, Greece. Syntypes: (21) MZUTH. •Valid as Leuciscus keadicus Stephanidis 1971 -- (Lelek 1987:210 [ref. 22962] as kaedicus, Economidis 1996:303 [ref. 22592], Kottelat 1997:67 [ref. 22952], Ketmaier et al. 1998:47 [ref. 23809]). •Valid as Squalius keadicus (Stephanidis 1971) -- (Sanjur et al. 2003:23 [ref. 28742], Freyhof et al. 2006:418 [ref. 28484], Doadrio & Carmona 2006:200 [ref. 28975], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:266 [ref. 29996], Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011:107 [ref. 31360], Perea et al. 2010:4 [ref. 31802], Barbieri et al. 2015:65 [ref. 35029], Buj et al. 2019:[16] [ref. 37174]). Current status: Valid as Squalius keadicus (Stephanidis 1971). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Greece. Habitat: freshwater.

kietaibeli, Cyprinus Reisinger [J.] 1830:77 [Specimen ichthyologiae sistens pisces aquarium dulcium Hungariae; ref. 18620] Lake Balaton, Hungary. No types known. •Mentioned as kittaibeli by Valenciennes 1844:380 [ref. 1010]. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:65 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

kosswigi, Leuciscus Karaman [M. S.] 1972:146, Fig. 12 [Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut v. 69; ref. 2561] Gumuldur [Gümüldür], south from Izmir, Turkey. Holotype: ZMH H4555. Paratypes: ZMH H4556 (2). Type catalog: Wilkens 1977:158 [ref. 22013]. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Bogutskaya 1997:173 [ref. 23566]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). •Valid as Squalius kosswigi (Karaman 1972) -- (Turan et al. 2009:60 [ref. 30540], Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Perea et al. 2010:14 [ref. 31802], Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011:108 [ref. 31360], Çiçek et al. 2015:147 [ref. 35151], Çiçek et al. 2018:15 [ref. 36267]). Current status: Valid as Squalius kosswigi (Karaman 1972). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Turkey: Mediterranean Sea tributary, Izmir Province. Habitat: freshwater.

kottelati, Squalius Turan [D.], Yilmaz [B. T.] & Kaya [C.] 2009:54, Figs. 1, 2b [Zootaxa No. 2270; ref. 30540] Tahtaköprü Reservoir, Orontes River drainage, Gaziantep Province, Turkey. Holotype: FFR 1991. Paratypes: FFR 768 (5), 769 (5), 1567 (13). •Valid as Squalius kottelati Turan, Yilmaz & Kaya 2009 -- (Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Perea et al. 2010:14 [ref. 31802], Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011:108 [ref. 31360], Turan et al. 2013:322 [ref. 32584], Çiçek et al. 2015:147 [ref. 35151], Turan et al. 2017:2 [ref. 35136], Çiçek et al. 2018:15 [ref. 36267]). Current status: Valid as Squalius kottelati Turan, Yilmaz & Kaya 2009. Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Turkey: Asi Nehri tributary [Orontes] (Mediterranean tributary), Gaziantep Province. Habitat: freshwater.

laietanus, Squalius Doadrio [I.], Kottelat [M.] & de Sostoa [A.] 2007:249, Figs. 1-3, 4b [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 18 (no. 3); ref. 29342] River Matarraña at Nonaspe, close to confluence with Ebro, 41°12'31.34"N, 0°15'34.02"E, Ebro drainage, Teruel Province, Spain. Holotype: MNCN 255486. Paratypes: CMK 17564 (7); MNCN 255457-480, 255482-85, 255487-494 (36), 255501-04 (4), MNCN uncat. (2). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Squalius laietanus Doadrio, Kottelat & de Sostoa 2007 -- (Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:267 [ref. 29996], Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Perea et al. 2010:13 [ref. 31802], Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011:108 [ref. 31360], Buj et al. 2019:[16] [ref. 37174]). Current status: Valid as Squalius laietanus Doadrio, Kottelat & de Sostoa 2007. Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Spain and France. Habitat: freshwater.

latifrons, Leuciscus Nilsson [S.] 1855:309 [Skandinavisk fauna; ref. 3205] Sweden; Finland. Syntypes: NRM (not found). •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:65 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

lepidus, Squalius Heckel [J. J.] 1843:1079 [89] [Ichthyologie [von Syrien]. In Russegger v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 2066] Tigris River, Mosul, Iraq. Lectotype: NMW 49342 (spec. 1). Paralectotypes: NMW 49342 (spec. 2), 49343-44 (2, 1); SMF 847 [ex NMW in 1844] (1). Illustrated by Heckel 1843, Pl. 10 (fig. 2) [ref. 2067]. On p. 89 of separate [ref. 2067]. Lectotype selected by Bogutskaya 1994:603 [ref. 23569]. •Valid as Leuciscus lepidus (Heckel 1843) -- (Coad 1991:18 [ref. 15702], Bogutskaya 1994:603 [ref. 23569], Coad 1995:19 [ref. 23608], Bogutskaya 1997:173 [ref. 23566], Coad 1998:102 [ref. 23869], Fricke et al. 2007:41 [ref. 29533]). •Valid as Squalius lepidus Heckel 1843 -- (Sanjur et al. 2003:22 [ref. 28742], Turan et al. 2009:57 [ref. 30540], Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Coad 2010:196 [ref. 36620], Esmaeili et al. 2010:371 [ref. 33391], Perea et al. 2010:14 [ref. 31802], Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011:107 [ref. 31360], Turan et al. 2013:309 [ref. 32584], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:880 [ref. 34062], Çiçek et al. 2015:147 [ref. 35151], Khaefi et al. 2016:156 [ref. 34748], Esmaeili et al. 2016:118, 125 [ref. 34985], Turan et al. 2017:2 [ref. 35136], Esmaeili et al. 2017:58 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:38 [ref. 36089], Buj et al. 2019:[16] [ref. 37174]). Current status: Valid as Squalius lepidus Heckel 1843. Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: West Asia: Asi Nehri (Orontes), Quwayq, Euphrates and Tigris River basins: Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Iran. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

lucumonis, Leuciscus Bianco [P. G.] 1983:82, Fig. 1 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 64 (nos 1/3); ref. 8370] Stream between Campagnatico and Istia d'Ombrone villages, Ombrone River basin, Grosseto Province, Toscana, central Italy. Holotype: IZA 8238. Paratypes: BMNH 1982.10.6.1-3 or 1982.12.7.5-7 (3); IZA 8225-1 (1), 8225-2 (2), 8225-3 (19), 8237 (12); SMF 16967 (6). See Ketmaier et al. 1998:47 [ref. 23809] •Valid as Leuciscus lucumonis Bianco 1983 -- (Bianco & Taraborelli 1984 [ref. 21915], Kottelat 1997:69 [ref. 22952], Bianco & Ketmaier 2001:194 [ref. 26728]). •Valid as Squalius lucumonis (Bianco 1983) -- (Sanjur et al. 2003:22 [ref. 28742], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:267 [ref. 29996], Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Bianco & Delmastro 2011:3 [ref. 31648], Perea et al. 2010:14 [ref. 31802], Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011:107 [ref. 31360], Bianco 2013:6 [ref. 32897], Lorenzoni et al. 2019:252 [ref. 37108], Buj et al. 2019:[16] [ref. 37174]). Current status: Valid as Squalius lucumonis (Bianco 1983). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Southern Europe: Italy endemic. Habitat: freshwater.

lugdunensis, Cyprinus Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:29 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Rhine River near Leiden, Netherlands. Holotype: BMNH 1853.11.12.128. Based on material of Gronovius. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:64 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

macedonicus, Leuciscus cephalus Karaman [S. L.] 1955:185 [Acta Musei Macedonici Scientiarum Naturalium v. 3 (no. 7); ref. 12279] Struma River system, Yugoslavia. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Leuciscus macedonicus Steindachner 1892. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:66 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

malacitanus, Squalius Doadrio [I.] & Carmona [J. A.] 2006:203, Fig. 2 [Cybium v. 30 (no. 3); ref. 28975] Guadalmina River, Benahavis, Málaga, Spain. Holotype: MNCN 243699. Paratypes: MNCN 212057-61 (5), 212280-311 (32), 243700-703 (4), 246678-680 (3). •Valid as Squalius malacitanus Doadrio & Carmona 2006 -- (Doadrio et al. 2007:96 [ref. 29250], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:268 [ref. 29996], Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Perea et al. 2010:14 [ref. 31802], Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011:107 [ref. 31360]). Current status: Valid as Squalius malacitanus Doadrio & Carmona 2006. Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Near Málagra, southern Spain. Habitat: freshwater.

meridionalis, Squalius Blanchard [C. E.] 1866:396, Fig. 33 [Les poissons des eaux douces de la France; ref. 310] Original localities: River Sâve [lot-et-Garonne] and River Sorgue near Avignon in Rhone basin, France. Lectotype: MNHN A-2257. Paralectotypes: MNHN A-2257 (1), ?USNM 28580 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:63 [ref. 19574] with a holotype, since there were multiple localities this does not establish a lectotype. Lectotype designation probably dates to Kottelat 1997:65 [ref. 22952]. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:65 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

meunier, Squalius Heckel [J. J.] 1852:68 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 9; ref. 18260] Based on literature sources. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:65 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

microlepis, Squalius Heckel [J. J.] 1843:1042 [52] [Ichthyologie [von Syrien]. In Russegger v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 2066] Imotski, Bosnia-Herzegovina. Syntypes: MHNN 973 (2); NMW 49414-16 (3, 1, 1), 49421 (1). Type catalog: Kottelat 1984:149 [ref. 21784]. On p. 52 of separate [ref. 2067]. •Synonym of Leuciscus microlepis (Heckel 1843), but a valid subspecies microlepis (Heckel 1843) -- (Mrakovcic et al. 1995:184 [ref. 23079]). •Valid as Leuciscus microlepis (Heckel 1843) -- (Kottelat 1997:69 [ref. 22952]). •Valid as Squalius microlepis Heckel 1843 -- (Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:269 [ref. 29996], Zupančič 2008:43 [ref. 29926], Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Perea et al. 2010:13 [ref. 31802], Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011:107 [ref. 31360], Ćaleta et al. 2015:93 [ref. 34877], Bogutskaya et al. 2019:119 [ref. 37207], Buj et al. 2019:[16] [ref. 37174], Ćaleta et al. 2019:167 [ref. 37026]). Current status: Valid as Squalius microlepis Heckel 1843. Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Southeast Europe: Karst system Imotsko Polje, Tihaljina-Trebilat (Croatia; Bosnia and Herzegovina). Habitat: freshwater.

moreoticus, Leuciscus (Squalius) cephalus Stephanidis [A.] 1971:197, Fig. 8 [Biologia Gallo-Hellenica v. 3 (no. 2) (for 1970); ref. 7540] Stymphalis Lake, Peloponnesus, Greece. Syntypes: (11) Lab. Zool. de l'Univ. de Thessalonique, Greece. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:66 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Squalius peloponensis (Valenciennes 1844), but a valid subspecies -- (Sanjur et al. 2003:23 [ref. 28742]). •Valid as Squalius moreoticus (Stephanidis 1971) -- (Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:269 [ref. 29996], Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Perea et al. 2010:14 [ref. 31802], Barbieri et al. 2015:65 [ref. 35029]). Current status: Valid as Squalius moreoticus (Stephanidis 1971). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Greece. Habitat: freshwater.

namak, Squalius Khaefi [R.], Esmaeili [H. R.], Sayyadzadeh [G.], Geiger [M. F.] & Freyhof [J.] 2016:148, Figs. 2-4, 5c, 6, 9 [Zootaxa 4169 (no. 1); ref. 34748] Spring Bolagh (Cheshmeh Bolagh) at Shazand, east of Anjirak, Markazi province, Iran, 34°00'38"N, 49°50'51"E. Holotype: ZM-CBSU G121. Paratypes: FSJF, ZM-CBSU. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Squalius namak Khaefi, Esmaeili, Sayyadzadeh, Geiger & Freyhof 2016 -- (Esmaeili et al. 2016:119 [ref. 34985], Esmaeili et al. 2017:58 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:38 [ref. 36089]). Current status: Valid as Squalius namak Khaefi, Esmaeili, Sayyadzadeh, Geiger & Freyhof 2016. Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: West Asia: Namak Lake basin, Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

nothulus, Leuciscus Bonaparte [C. L.] 1841:fasc. 30, intro p. 5, Pl. 112 (fig. 2) [Iconografia della fauna italica; ref. 512] No locality. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:65 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

orientalis, Leuciscus Nordmann [A. von] 1840:484 [Voyage dans la Russie méridionale et la Crimée; ref. 3209] Abkhazia [Abasie], Georgia [Asia]. No types known. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Berg 1949:557 [ref. 20661], Bianco & Bănărescu 1982:77 [ref. 8508]). •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Coad 1991:18 [ref. 15702], Coad 1995:19 [ref. 23608], Kottelat 1997:65 [ref. 22952], Bogutskaya 1997:172 [ref. 23566], Bogutskaya 1998:63 [ref. 23589]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Sanjur et al. 2003:23 [ref. 28742]). •Valid as Squalius orientalis (Nordmann 1840) -- (Doadrio & Carmona 2006:200 [ref. 28975], Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Turan et al. 2009:60 [ref. 30540], Perea et al. 2010:14 [ref. 31802], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:880 [ref. 34062], Çiçek et al. 2015:147 [ref. 35151], Khaefi et al. 2016:157 [ref. 34748], Turan et al. 2017:2 [ref. 35136], Esmaeili et al. 2017:58 [ref. 35254], Buj et al. 2019:[16] [ref. 37174]). Current status: Valid as Squalius orientalis (Nordmann 1840). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Caspian Sea region, Western Asia. Habitat: freshwater.

orientalis, Squalius Heckel [J. J.] 1847:225, Pl. 16 (fig. 2) [Reisen in Europa, Asien und Africa v. 2 (pt 3); ref. 2068] Kueik River near Aleppo, Syria. Syntypes: NMW 49438 (3), ?49440 (2). Possibly not intended by Heckel as an original species description; otherwise it is a homonym of Leuciscus orientalis Nordmann 1840. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Bogutskaya 1997:172 [ref. 23566]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Habitat: freshwater.

orpheus, Squalius Kottelat [M.] & Economidis [P. S.] 2006:182, Fig. 1 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 17 (no. 2); ref. 28769] Evros drainage, stream Ardas at ford between Kastanies and Marasia, 41°39'05"N, 26°28'23"E, Thrace, Greece. Holotype: MHNG 2659.021. Paratypes: CMK 17325 (6), 173229 (11), 17336 (4); HCMR 1479 (2); MHNG 2659.022 (2). •Valid as Squalius orpheus Kottelat & Economidis 2006 -- (Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:270 [ref. 29996], Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Perea et al. 2010:14 [ref. 31802], Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011:108 [ref. 31360], Barbieri et al. 2015:65 [ref. 35029], Çiçek et al. 2015:147 [ref. 35151]). Current status: Valid as Squalius orpheus Kottelat & Economidis 2006. Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: European Black Sea watersheds: Greece, Bulgaria and Turkey. Habitat: freshwater.

orthonotus, Cyprinus Hermann [J.] 1804:322 [Observationes zoologicae; ref. 2146] France. No types known. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:64 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

palaciosi, Iberocypris Doadrio [I.] 1980:7, Figs. 2-3 [Doñana: acta vertebrata v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 1129] Río Jándula, Lugar Nuevo, Andújar, Spain. Holotype: MNCN A.790413162. Paratypes: (50) SMF 17692 (1). Type catalog: Doadrio 1989:29 [ref. 33852]. •See Ketmaier et al. 1998:47 [ref. 23809]. •See Doadrio & Carmona 2006:200 [ref. 28975] in Squalius. •Valid as Iberocypris palaciosi Doadrio 1980 -- (Kottelat 1997:62 [ref. 22952], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:201 [ref. 29996], Bogutskaya & Coad 2009:171 [ref. 30270]). •Valid as Squalus palaciosi Doadrio 1980 -- (Collares-Pereira & Coelho 2010:710 [ref. 31439]). Current status: Valid as Squalius palaciosi (Doadrio 1980). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Spain. Habitat: freshwater.

pamvoticus, Leuciscus cabeda var. Stephanidis [A.] 1939:30, Pl. 6 [The freshwater fishes of northern Greece and the island of Corfu.; ref. 21156] Lake Pamvotis, central Greece. Syntypes: apparently lost. Named pamvotis by Schmidt-Ries 1943:334 [ref. 23019]. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:66 [ref. 22952]). •Valid as Squalius pamvoticus (Stephanidis 1939) -- (Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:271 [ref. 29996], Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Zupančič et al. 2010:155 [ref. 31002], Perea et al. 2010:14 [ref. 31802], Barbieri et al. 2015:66 [ref. 35029]). Current status: Valid as Squalius pamvoticus (Stephanidis 1939). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Greece. Habitat: freshwater.

pareti, Squalius Bonaparte [C. L.] 1841:fasc. 30, Intro. 16 [Iconografia della fauna italica; ref. 515] Liguria, Italy. Syntypes: ANSP 6332-34 (3), USNM 10139 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:86 [ref. 13621]. Also described as new in Bonaparte 1842:148 [ref. 16977] with locality fish market of Scoglietto del Durazzo, Genoa, Italy. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:65 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). •? Synonym of Squalius squalus (Bonaparte 1837). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

peloponensis, Leuciscus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1844:197 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 17; ref. 1010] Morea, Peloponnese Peninsula, Greece. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-3905. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:62 [ref. 19574], Almaça 1969:1127 [ref. 20712]. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:65 [ref. 22952]). •Valid as Squalius peloponensis (Valenciennes 1844) -- (Sanjur et al. 2003:23 [ref. 28742] as peloponnensis, Doadrio & Carmona 2006:200 [ref. 28975], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:271 [ref. 29996], Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Zupančič et al. 2010:156 [ref. 31002], Perea et al. 2010:14 [ref. 31802], Barbieri et al. 2015:66 [ref. 35029], Buj et al. 2019:[16] [ref. 37174]). Current status: Valid as Squalius peloponensis (Valenciennes 1844). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Greece. Habitat: freshwater.

pictava, Leuciscus chub var. De la Pylaie [A. J. M.] 1835:533 [Congrès Scientifique de France v. 2 (Sept. 1834) (art. 5); ref. 1086] No distinguishing features, not available; from Napoléon-Vendée, France. •In the synonymy of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:65 [ref. 22952]). •In the synonymy of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae.

platycephala, Squalius turcicus var. Kamensky [S. N.] 1897:85, Pl. 4 (figs. 6-8) [Trudy Obshchestva estestvoispitatelei pri Imperatorskom, Kharkov Universitet v. 31; ref. 18369] Lake Taparavani and Kyrchbulach River, Caucasus, Georgia, Eurasia. Syntypes: (5) not found at ZIN. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) subspecies orientalis Nordmann 1840 -- (Berg 1949:559 [ref. 20661]). •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Coad 1995:19 [ref. 23608], Kottelat 1997:65 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

platyceps, Squalius Zupančič [P.], Marić [D.], Naseka [A. M.] & Bogutskaya [N. G.] 2010:157, Figs. 1-5 [Zoosystematica Rossica v. 19 (no. 1); ref. 31002] Skadar Lake at Vranjina, ca. 42°17'N, 19°09"E, Montenegro. Holotype: SMNH 208 [206 o Fig. 1]. Paratypes: at NMW, PZC, ZIN. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Squalius platyceps Zupančič, Marić, Naseka & Bogutskaya 2010. Current status: Valid as Squalius platyceps Zupančič, Marić, Naseka & Bogutskaya 2010. Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Drin River, including Skadar Lake and tributaries. Habitat: freshwater.

prespensis, Leuciscus cephalus Fowler [H. W.] 1977:28 [Quarterly Journal of the Taiwan Museum (Taipei) v. 30 (nos 1/2); ref. 9336] Lake Prespa and tributaries, southwestern Yugoslavia/southeastern Albania. Available by indication to Squalius cephalus cavedanus var. prespensis Karaman 1924. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:66 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Sanjur et al. 2003:23 [ref. 28742]). •Valid as Squalius prespensis (Fowler 1977) -- (Doadrio & Carmona 2006:200 [ref. 28975], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:272 [ref. 29996], Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Zupančič et al. 2010:156 [ref. 31002]. Perea et al. 2010:14 [ref. 31802], Barbieri et al. 2015:66 [ref. 35029], Buj et al. 2019:[16] [ref. 37174]). Current status: Valid as Squalius prespensis (Fowler 1977). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Lakes Prespa basin: Greece, Macedonia and Albania. Habitat: freshwater.

prespensis, Squalius cephalus cavedanus var. Karaman [S.] 1924:67 [Pisces Macedoniae; ref. 15902] As a variety in a quadrinomial name; infrasubspecific and not available; from Lake Prespa, Republic of Macedonia. Validly published by Fowler 1977 as Leuciscus cephalus prespensis. •In the synonymy of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:66 [ref. 22952]). •In the synonymy of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae.

pursakensis, Leuciscus orientalis var. Hankó [B.] 1925:140, Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici v. 21 (for 29 Dec. 1924); ref. 2035] Kara-Chehir, Kötschke-Kissik and Eski-Chehir, Turkey. Syntypes: (2) lost. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:66 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). •Valid as Squalius pursakensis (Hankó 1925) -- (Turan et al. 2009:60 [ref. 30540], Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011:139 [ref. 31360], Turan et al. 2013:322 [ref. 32584], Çiçek et al. 2015:147 [ref. 35151], Çiçek et al. 2018:15 [ref. 36267]). Current status: Valid as Squalius pursakensis (Hankó 1925). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Turkey: Sakarya River drainage (Black Sea tributaries). Habitat: freshwater.

pyrenaicus, Leuciscus Günther [A.] 1868:223, Fig. [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 7; ref. 1990] Mondego and Cintra [Sintra] rivers, Portugal. Syntypes: (at least 8) BMNH 1863.6.19.23 (1) and 1863.6.19.3 (2 spec. donated by MNCN, Madrid), BMNH.9.19.24 (1), 9.19.33-34 (2), 6.19.19-22 (3?). •Valid as Leuciscus pyrenaicus Günther 1868 -- (Bogutskaya 1994:617 [ref. 23569], Kottelat 1997:70 [ref. 22952], Ketmaier et al. 1998:47 [ref. 23809], Briolay et al. 1998:101 [ref. 25586], Coelho et al. 1998:945 [ref. 24127]). •Valid as Squalius pyrenaicus (Günther 1868) -- (Sanjur et al. 2003:21 [ref. 28742], Freyhof et al. 2006:418 [ref. 28484], Alves et al. 2002:649 [ref. 28744], Doadrio & Carmona 2006:200 [ref. 28975], Doadrio et al. 2007:96 [ref. 29250], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:273 [ref. 29996], Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011:107 [ref. 31360], Collares-Pereira & Coelho 2010:710 [ref. 31439], Perea et al. 2010:14 [ref. 31802], Buj et al. 2019:[16] [ref. 37174]). Current status: Valid as Squalius pyrenaicus (Günther 1868). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Portugal and Spain. Habitat: freshwater.

recurvirostris, Squalius Özuluğ [M.] & Freyhof [J.] 2011:143, Figs. 35-37 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 22 (no. 2); ref. 31360] Stream at Ortaköy, north of Akşehir, 38°26.84'N, 31°31.05'E, Konya Province, Turkey. Holotype: IUSHM 2011-1012. Paratypes: FSJE 2575 (11); IUSHM 2011-1013 (14), 2100-1014 (18), 2011-1036 (21). Type catalog: Özuluğ & Saç 2018:47 [ref. 35782]. •Valid as Squalius recurvirostris Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011 -- (Turan et al. 2013:322 [ref. 32584], Çiçek et al. 2015:147 [ref. 35151], Çiçek et al. 2018:15 [ref. 36267]). Current status: Valid as Squalius recurvirostris Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011. Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Turkey: Akhisar Gölü tributary, Konya Province. Habitat: freshwater.

risae, Leuciscus svallize zrmanjae natio Vladykov [V. D.] & Petit [G.] 1930:395 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 55; ref. 16223] Infrasubspecific, not available; from Lake Risa, s. outlet of Lake Butrinto, Albania. •In the synonymy of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:66 [ref. 22952]). •In the synonymy of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae.

rissoi, Leuciscus Schinz [H. R.] 1840:326 [Europaïsche Fauna; ref. 18695] Brooks near Nice, Département des Alpes-Maritimes, France. No types known. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:65 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

ruffoi, Leuciscus cephalus Bianco [P. G.] & Recchia [F.] 1983:16, Fig.1 [Bollettino di Zoologia v. 50 (nos 1-2); ref. 8982] Savuto River, Calabria, Italy. Holotype: IZA 830a. Paratypes: IZA 830 (32). •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:66 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Squalius squalus (Bonaparte 1837) but probably a distinct taxon -- (Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:275 [ref. 29996]). •Valid as Squalius ruffoi (Bianco & Recchia 1983) -- (Bianco & Delmastro 2011:4 [ref. 31648], Bianco 2013:6 [ref. 32897]). •May be a valid species -- (Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905]). Current status: Valid as Squalius ruffoi Bianco & Recchia 1983. Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Southern Italy. Habitat: freshwater.

rufus, Cyprinus Vallot [J.-N.] 1837:185 [Ichthyologie française, ou histoire naturelle des poissons d'eau douce de la France.; ref. 17873] Pontailler and Auxonne, France. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:65 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

salmoneus, Cyprinus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:186 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Rhine River near Leiden, Netherlands. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.138 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:212 [ref. 13434] as holotype. •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Wheeler 1958:212 [ref. 13434]). •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:65 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

semae, Squalius Turan [D.], Kottelat [M.] & Bayçelebi [E.] 2017:3, Fig. 1a-b [Zoology in the Middle East v. 63 (no. 1); ref. 35136] Serçeme Stream (tributary of Karasu Stream), Erzurum Province, Turkey, 39°56.85'N, 40°48.24'E. Holotype: FFR 724. Paratypes: CMK 2645 (4); FFR 593 (52), 669 (9), 700 (8), 703 (4), 710 (5), 722 (13), 725 (26), 727 (2). •Valid as Squalius semae Turan, Kottelat & Bayçelebi 2017 -- (Çiçek et al. 2018:15 [ref. 36267]). Current status: Valid as Squalius semae Turan, Kottelat & Bayçelebi 2017. Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Turkey: Karasu Stream, Upper Euphrates [Firat Nehri], Persian Gulf tributary, Erzurum Province. Habitat: freshwater.

seyhanensis, Squalius Turan [D.], Kottelat [M.] & Doğan [E.] 2013:313, Figs. 1, 3b, 5-6 [Zootaxa 3637 (no. 3); ref. 32584] Satiz Stream, Seyhan River drainage, Kayseri Province, Turkey. Holotype: FFR 1992. Paratypes: CMK 19725 (2); FFR 1993 (11), 1994 (15). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Squalius seyhanensis Turan, Kottelat & Doğan 2013 -- (Çiçek et al. 2015:147 [ref. 35151], Turan et al. 2017:2 [ref. 35136], Çiçek et al. 2018:15 [ref. 36267]). Current status: Valid as Squalius seyhanensis Turan, Kottelat & Doğan 2013. Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Turkey: Seyhan River basin (Mediterranean tributary), Kayseri Province. Habitat: freshwater.

spurius, Squalius Heckel [J. J.] 1843:1081 [91] [Ichthyologie [von Syrien]. In Russegger v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 2066] Aleppo, Syria. Syntypes: NMW 49572 (2). On p. 91 of separate [ref. 2067]. •Valid as Leuciscus spurius (Heckel 1843) -- (Coad 1991:24 [ref. 15702], Bogutskaya 1994:617 [ref. 23569], Bogutskaya 1997:174 [ref. 23566], Fricke et al. 2007:41 [ref. 29533]). •Valid as Squalius spurius Heckel 1843 -- (Turan et al. 2009:60 [ref. 30540], Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Çiçek et al. 2015:147 [ref. 35151]). Current status: Valid as Squalius spurius Heckel 1843. Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Orontes River basin: Turkey and Syria. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

squalius, Leuciscus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1844:191 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 17; ref. 1010] Italy. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-3914. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-2588 [ex MNHN 0000-3914] (1), 5421 (4). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:62 [ref. 19574], Almaça 1969:1124 [ref. 20712]. Lectotype selected by Almaça 1969:1124 [ref. 20712]. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:65 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). •? Synonym of Squalius squalus (Bonaparte 1837). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

squalus, Leuciscus Bonaparte [C. L.] 1837:fasc. 19, punt. 96, Pls. 111 (fig. 1), 112 (fig. 2) [Iconografia della fauna italica; ref. 4893] River Tiber, Italy. Lectotype: ANSP 6273. Syntypes and/or Bonaparte specimens: ANSP 6274-6309 (36), MNHN 0000-5421 (4) Tiber R. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:61 [ref. 19574], Böhlke 1984:91 [ref. 13621]. Lectotyope designated by Bianco 2014:91 [ref. 33536]. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:65 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). •Valid as Squalius squalus (Bonaparte 1837) -- (Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:274 [ref. 29996], Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Zupančič et al. 2010:155 [ref. 31002], Perea et al. 2010:13 [ref. 31802], Bianco 2013:6 [ref. 32897], Bianco 2014:92 [ref. 33536], Ćaleta et al. 2019:167 [ref. 37026], Lorenzoni et al. 2019:252 [ref. 37108], Buj et al. 2019:[16] [ref. 37174] with authors Heckel & Kner 1858). Current status: Valid as Squalius squalus (Bonaparte 1837). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Southern Europe: Italy and France; eastern Adriatic basin (Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina). Habitat: freshwater.

svallize, Squalius Heckel [J. J.] & Kner [R.] 1857:197, Fig. 110 [Die Süsswasserfische der Österreichischen Monarchie; ref. 2078] Lakes near Vergoraz and the swampy Narenta, Dalmatia [Croatia]. Syntypes: NMW 49593 (1), 49595-97 (1, 1, 1), 49612 (1); SMF 3398 [ex NMW] (2). •Valid as Leuciscus svallize (Heckel & Kner 1857) -- (Mrakovcic et al. 1995:184 [ref. 23079], Bianco & Knezevic 1987:51 [ref. 21912], Bogutskaya 1994:617 [ref. 23569], Kottelat 1997:71 [ref. 22952], Ketmaier et al. 1998:47 [ref. 23809]). •Valid as Squalius svallize Heckel & Kner 1857 -- (Doadrio & Carmona 2006:200 [ref. 28975], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:275 [ref. 29996], Zupančič 2008:44 [ref. 29926], Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Zupančič et al. 2010:155 [ref. 31002], Perea et al. 2010:13 [ref. 31802], Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011:107 [ref. 31360], Ćaleta et al. 2015:93 [ref. 34877], Ćaleta et al. 2019:168 [ref. 37026], Buj et al. 2019:[16] [ref. 37174]). Current status: Valid as Squalius svallize Heckel & Kner 1857. Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Southeastern Europe: Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Habitat: freshwater.

tenellus, Squalius Heckel [J. J.] 1843:1042 [52] [Ichthyologie [von Syrien]. In Russegger v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 2066] Livno, Bosnia. Syntypes: NMW 16001-02 (3), 49613 (2). On p. 52 of separate [ref. 2067]. •Synonym of Leuciscus turskyi (Heckel 1843), but a valid subspecies tennellus (Heckel 1843) -- (Mrakovcic et al. 1995:184 [ref. 23079]). •Valid as Squalius tenellus Heckel 1843 -- (Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:275 [ref. 29996], Zupančič 2008:45 [ref. 29926], Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Perea et al. 2010:13 [ref. 31802], Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011:107 [ref. 31360], Ćaleta et al. 2015:93 [ref. 34877], Bogutskaya et al. 2019:119 [ref. 37207], Buj et al. 2019:[16] [ref. 37174], Ćaleta et al. 2019:168 [ref. 37026]). Current status: Valid as Squalius tenellus Heckel 1843. Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Southeast Europe: Karstic waters of Livanjsko Polje (Croatia; Bosnia and Herzegovina); introduced elsewhere, Habitat: freshwater.

torgalensis, Leuciscus Coelho [M. M.], Bogutskaya [N. G.], Rodrigues [J. A.] & Collares-Pereira [M. J.] 1998:939, Figs. 1, 4b [Journal of Fish Biology v. 52 (no. 5); ref. 24127] Torgal River, Odemira, Mira basin, Portugal. Holotype: MB 23297/05-1220a. Paratypes: MB 23297/05-1220b (16), 7248/05-380 (24); includes 2 skeletons. •Valid as Leuciscus torgalensis Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues & Collares-Pereira 1998. •Valid as Squalius torgalensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues & Collares-Pereira 1998) -- (Sanjur et al. 2003:22 [ref. 28742], Doadrio & Carmona 2006:200 [ref. 28975], Doadrio et al. 2007:96 [ref. 29250], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:276 [ref. 29996], Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Perea et al. 2010:14 [ref. 31802], Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011:107 [ref. 31360], Buj et al. 2019:[16] [ref. 37174]). Current status: Valid as Squalius torgalensis (Coelho, Bogutskaya, Rodrigues & Collares-Pereira 1998). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Southern Portugal. Habitat: freshwater.

turcicus, Squalius De Filippi [F.] 1865:359 [Note di un viaggio in Persia nel 1862; ref. 13943] River Arax [Aras Nehri] near Erzurum, Turkey. ?MZUT. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), subspecies orientalis Nordmann 1840 -- (Berg 1949:557 [ref. 20661]). •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Coad 1991:18 [ref. 15702], Coad 1995:19 [ref. 23608], Bogutskaya 1997:172 [ref. 23566]). •Valid as Squalius turcicus De Filippi 1865 -- (Doadrio & Carmona 2006:200 [ref. 28975], Turan et al. 2013:323 [ref. 32584], Çiçek et al. 2015:147 [ref. 35151], Khaefi et al. 2016:156 [ref. 34748], Esmaeili et al. 2016:119 [ref. 34985], Turan et al. 2017:2 [ref. 35136], Esmaeili et al. 2017:58 [ref. 35254], Çiçek et al. 2018:16 [ref. 36267], Esmaeili et al. 2018:38 [ref. 36089]). Current status: Valid as Squalius turcicus De Filippi 1865. Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Turkey, Iran: Kura-Aras River and southern Caspian Sea basins. Habitat: freshwater.

tyberinus, Squalius Bonaparte [C. L.] 1841:Fasc. 30, Intro. 5 [Iconografia della fauna italica; ref. 512] Tevere and Arno rivers, streams of Toscana, [Stato Romano and Regno di Napoli] Rome and Naples, Italy. Syntypes: ANSP 6273-6309 (37), MNHN 0000-5421 (4), NMW 48290 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:94 [ref. 13621], Bertin & Estève 1948:61 [ref. 19574]. Based on Leuciscus ciscus squalius of Bonaparte, Pl. 111 (fig. 1), Pl. 112 (fig. 2). •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:65 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). •? Synonym of Squalius squalus (Bonaparte 1837). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

valentinus, Squalius Doadrio [I.] & Carmona [J. A.] 2006:207, Fig. 5 [Cybium v. 30 (no. 3); ref. 28975] Turia River, Tuejar, Valencia, Tura basin, Spain. Holotype: MNCN 167. Paratypes: Many specimens at MNCN. •Valid as Squalius valentinus Doadrio & Carmona 2006 -- (Doadrio et al. 2007:96 [ref. 29250], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:277 [ref. 29996], Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Perea et al. 2010:14 [ref. 31802], Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011:107 [ref. 31360]). Current status: Valid as Squalius valentinus Doadrio & Carmona 2006. Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Mediterranean watersheds of Spain. Habitat: freshwater.

vandoisulus, Leuciscus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1844:317 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 17; ref. 1010] No locality. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-1686 (2). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:63 [ref. 19574], Gilbert 1998:160-161 [ref. 23395]. The same as and treated as a synonym of Clinostomus funduloides Girard 1856, but vandoisulus with wrong locality information. •Synonym of European Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Lachner & Deubler 1960 [ref. 21967], Gilbert 1998:161 [ref. 23395]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

vardarensis, Squalius cephalus Karaman [S.] 1928:156 [Glasnik Skopskog Nauchnog Drustva [Glasnik -- Bulletin de la Société Scientifique de Skopje]. v. 6; ref. 15903] Yugoslavia. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. Also in Karaman 1929:172 [ref. 15904]. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:66 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies vardarensis Karaman 1928 -- (Sanjur et al. 2003:23 [ref. 28742], Freyhof et al. 2006:418 [ref. 28484]). •Valid as Squalius vardarensis Karaman 1928 -- (Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:277 [ref. 29996], Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Perea et al. 2010:14 [ref. 31802], Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011:108 [ref. 31360], Barbieri et al. 2015:67 [ref. 35029], Lorenzoni et al. 2019:252 [ref. 37108], Buj et al. 2019:[16] [ref. 37174]). Current status: Valid as Squalius vardarensis Karaman 1928. Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Southeastern Europe: Greece and Macedonia. Introduced in Italy. Habitat: freshwater.

wjatkensis, Leuciscus cephalus var. Lukasch [B. S.] 1933:50 [Trudy Vyatskogo Nauch.-issl. Inst. Kraev. No. 6; ref. 18459] Lower Vyatka River near Mulino and vicinity, Volga River basin, Russia. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 1997:66 [ref. 22952], Bogutskaya 1998:63 [ref. 23589]). •Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Habitat: freshwater.

zangicus, Leuciscus cephalus orientalis natio Barach [G. P.] 1934:111 [Trudy Instytufu Zoolohii i Biolohii = Reports of the Institute of Zoology and Biology = Travaux de l'institut de Zoologie et Biologie, Akademija Nauk URSR. v. 1; ref. 21471] Syntypes: Nat. Hist. Mus. Armenia (17). Not available, infrasubspecific; from Zanga R. near Yerevan, Armenia. •In the synonymy of Leuciscus cephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berg 1949:557 [ref. 20661], Coad 1995:19 [ref. 23608], Kottelat 1997:66 [ref. 22952]). •In the synonymy of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Squalius cephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae.

zrmanjae, Squalius svallizze Karaman [S.] 1928:159 [Glasnik Skopskog Nauchnog Drustva [Glasnik -- Bulletin de la Société Scientifique de Skopje]. v. 6; ref. 15903] Lower course of Zrmanja River, Dalmatia [Croatia]. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. Also in Karaman 1929:172 [ref. 15904]. •Valid as Leuciscus zrmanjae (Karaman 1928) -- (Kottelat 1997:72 [ref. 22952], Ketmaier et al. 1998:47 [ref. 23809] as zrmanje). •Valid as Squalius zrmanjae Karaman 1928 -- (Sanjur et al. 2003:22 [ref. 28742], Doadrio & Carmona 2006:200 [ref. 28975], Zupančič 2008:46 [ref. 29926], Bogutskaya & Zupančič 2010:53 [ref. 30905], Zupančič et al. 2010:155 [ref. 31002], Perea et al. 2010:14 [ref. 31802], Özuluğ & Freyhof 2011:107 [ref. 31360], Ćaleta et al. 2015:93 [ref. 34877], Ćaleta et al. 2019:168 [ref. 37026], Buj et al. 2019:[16] [ref. 37174]). Current status: Valid as Squalius zrmanjae Karaman 1928. Leuciscidae: Leuciscinae. Distribution: Southeastern Europe: Croatia. Habitat: freshwater.