Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 31 January 2018

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Catalog of Fishes
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asperrima, Raja Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:367 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Mumbai, India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 7836 (dry skin, partial specimen). Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:177 [ref. 21041], Paepke 1999:75 [ref. 24282]. Urogymnus africanus and U. asperrimus are considered synonyms; both appeared in the same work; first reviser not researched. •Synonym of Urogymnus africanus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:20 [ref. 29757], Séret in Lévêque et al. 1990:68 [ref. 21589], Randall 1995:47 [ref. 22896]). •Valid as Urogymnus asperrimus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Compagno 1986:141 [ref. 5648], Paxton et al. 1989:44 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:5 [ref. 13251], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:63 [ref. 19317], Last & Stevens 1994:414 [ref. 23873], Morón et al. 1999:151 [ref. 24253], Last & Compagno 1999:1497 [ref. 24639], Compagno 1999:497 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:583 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:16 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:22 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S94 [ref. 27377], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:52 [ref. 27735], Ishihara et al. 2004:2 [ref. 27852], Randall 2005:20 [ref. 28239], Compagno et al. 2005:76 [ref. 29145], Paxton et al. 2006:196 [ref. 28995], Kimura 2009:14 [ref. 30426], Last el al. 2010:236 [ref. 32461], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:58 [ref. 35264], Fricke et al. 2011:348 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:66 [ref. 31980], Naylor et al. 2012:73 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Larson et al. 2013: 21 [ref. 32988], Ebert et al. 2013:364 [ref. 33045], Psomadakis et al. 2015:105 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:141 [ref. 34211], Séret 2016:1418 [ref. 34545], Last et al. 2016:363 [ref. 34581], Last et al. 2016:173 [ref. 34634], Last et al. 2016:614 [ref. 35010]). Current status: Valid as Urogymnus asperrimus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Dasyatidae: Urogymninae. Distribution: Red Sea and Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa east to Mariana Islands and Fiji, south to Western Australia, Chesterfield Islands and New Caledonia; possibly eastern Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.