SYSTEMATIC LIST OF VALID OCTOCORAL GENERA

compiled by

Gary C. Williams* and Stephen D. Cairns**

(*California Academy of Sciences; **Smithsonian Institution)

2001-2014 (last revised August 2014)

Systems of Higher Taxa after: Bayer (1981) for Helioporacea and Alcyonacea;

Kükenthal (1915) and Williams (1995) for Pennatulacea


Octocorals Total Worldwide:

HELIOPORACEA
(blue corals)

ALCYONACEA
(soft corals and gorgonians)
PENNATULACEA
(sea pens)
50 families
approximately 355 genera
over 3400 described species

 

ORDER HELIOPORACEA Bock, 1938 (=COENOTHECALIA Bourne, 1893) (2 families, 2 genera); characterized by a rigid aragonitic skeleton.

Lithotelestidae Bayer & Muzik, 1977 [1 genus]

Epiphaxum Lonsdale, 1850 (=Lithotelesto Bayer & Muzik, 1977) [see Bayer & Muzik, 1977 Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash 90(4): 975-984      and Bayer, 1979 Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 92(4): 873-875; S. of Madagascar and Lesser Antilles. Epiphaxum possibly belongs to      Porifera?; see Zool. Rec. 1980]

Helioporidae Moseley, 1876 [1 monotypic genus]

Heliopora Blainville, 1830 [one species, the blue coral, H. coerulea, shallow-water Indo-Pacific]

 

ORDER ALCYONACEA (29 families, approximately 274 genera); skeletal components composed of calcite and gorgonin.

Polyps as individuals, which may or may not be united by basal stolons

[Protoalcyonaria Hickson, 1894]

Taiaroidae Bayer & Muzik, 1976 [1 monotypic genus]

Taiaroa Bayer & Muzik, 1976 [one species T. tauhou, deep water New Zealand]

Haimeidae Wright, 1865 [2 genera]

Haimeia Milne Edwards & Haime, 1857

Hartea Wright, 1865

[Stolonifera Hickson, 1883]

Cornulariidae Dana, 1846 [2 genera]

Cornularia Lamarck, 1816

Acrossotidae Bourne, 1914

________ Acrossota Bourne, 1914

Clavulariidae Hickson, 1894 [23 genera]

Clavulariinae Hickson, 1894 [polyps tall and cylindrical to clavate; without secondary polyps budding laterally]

Bathytelesto Bayer, 1981

Cervera López-González, Ocaña, García-Gómez & Núñez, 1995

Clavularia [=Cornulariella Verrill, 1874; Hicksonia Delage & Hérouard,1901]

Inconstantia McFadden & Ofwegen, 2012

Incrustatus Ofwegen, Haussermann & Forsterra, 2006

Moolabalia Alderslade, 2001

Knopia Alderslade and McFadden, 2007

Rhodelinda Bayer, 1981

Scyphopodium Bayer, 1981

Stereosoma Hickson, 1894

Stereotelesto Bayer, 1981

Sarcodictyiinae Bayer, 1981 [polyps short, retracting almost flush with stolons, or producung low, cylindrical to conical calices]

Azoriella López-González & Gili, 2008

Cryptophyton Williams, 2000

Cyathopodium Verrill, 1868

Sarcodictyon Forbes, 1847 [=Evagorgia Philippi, 1842; Rolandia Lacase-Duthiers, 1900]

Scleranthelia Studer, 1879

Tesseranthelia Bayer, 1981

Trachythela Verrill, 1922

Telestinae Milne Edwards & Haime, 1857 [polyps tall and cylindrical, usually with secondary polyps budding laterally; branching monopodial]

Carijoa Müller, 1867

Paratelesto Utinomi, 1958

Telesto Lamouroux, 1812

Telestula Madsen, 1944

Pseudocladochoninae Madsen, 1944 [polyps tall and cylindrical, usually with secondary polyps budding laterally; branching sympodial]

Pseudocladochonus Versluys, 1907

Tubiporidae Ehrenberg, 1828 [1 monotypic genus]

Tubipora Linnaeus, 1758

Coelogorgiidae Bourne, 1900 [1 monotypic genus]

Coelogorgia Milne Edwards & Haime, 1857

Pseudogorgiidae Utinomi & Harada, 1973 [1 monotypic genus]

Pseudogorgia Kölliker, [1870] 1871

Polyps contained in massive bodies to form a coherent colony

[Alcyoniina Lamouroux, 1816]

Paralcyoniidae Gray, 1869 [=Fasciculariidae Studer, 1888; Maasellidae Poche, 1914]
(5 or 6 genera)]

Carotalycon Utinomi, 1952

Ceeceenus Ofwegen & Benayahu, 2006

Maasella Poche, 1914 [=Fascicularia Studer, 1888; Viguieriotes Bayer, 1954]

Nanalcyon Imahara, 2013

Paralcyonium Milne Edwards & Haime, 1850

Studeriotes Thomson & Simpson, 1909 [=Studeria Thomson, 1908] [? family Viguieriotidae Bayer, 1954; according to Appeltans, W., et al. 2013 in WoRMS ]

Alcyoniidae Lamouroux, 1812 [29 genera]

Alcyoniinae Lamouroux, 1812

Acrophytum Hickson, 1900

Alcyonium Linnaeus, 1758 [=Parerythropodium Kükenthal, 1916]

Aldersladum Benayahu & McFadden, 2011

Anthomastus Verrill, 1878

Bellonella Gray, 1862 [=Metalcyonium Pfeffer, 1888; Cereopsida Strand, 1926]

Ceratocaulon Jungersen, 1892

Cladiella Gray, 1869 [=Lobularia Lamarck, 1816; Microspicularia Macfadyen, 1936; Sphaerella Gray, 1869],

Dampia Alderslade, 1983

Dimorphophyton Williams, 2000

Discophyton McFadden & Hochberg, 2003

Elbeenus Alderslade, 2002

Eleutherobia Pütter, 1900

Inflatocalyx Verseveldt & Bayer, 1988

Klyxum Alderslade, 2000

Lampophyton Williams, 2000

Lanthanocephalus Williams & Starmer, 2000

Lobophytum Marenzeller, 1886

Lohowia Alderslade, 2003

Malacacanthus J.S. Thomson, 1910

Minabea Utinomi, 1957

Notodysiferus Alderslade, 2003

Paraminabea Williams & Alderslade, 1999

Protodendron Thomson & Dean, 1931

Pseudoalcyonium Tixier-Durivault & d'Hondt, 1974

Pseudoanthomastus Tixier-Durivault & d'Hondt, 1974

Rhizalcyon Bayer, 1995

Rhytisma Alderslade, 2000

Sarcophyton Lesson, 1834 [=Sarcophythum Agassiz, 1844]

Schizophyton Studer, 1890

Sinularia May, 1898

Skamnarium Alderslade, 2000

Sphaeralcyon López-González & Gili, 2000

Sphaerasclera McFadden & Ofwegen, 2013

Thrombophyton McFadden & Hochberg, 2003

Verseveldtia Williams, 1990

Anthomastinae Verrill, 1922

Anthomastus Verrill, 1878 [=?Heteropolypus Tixier-Durivault, 1964]

Anthomastus subgenus Anthomastus s.s

Anthomastus subgenus Bathyalcyon Versluys, 1906

 

Parasphaerascleridae McFadden & Ofwegen, 2013 [1 genus]

Parasphaerasclera McFadden & Ofwegen, 2013 [8 species]

 

Nephtheidae Gray, 1862 [19 genera]

Capnella Gray, 1869 [=Eunephthya Verrill, 1869; Paranephthya Studer, 1887; and possibly
     Chondronephthya *****,****]

Chromonephthea Ofwegen, 2005

Coronephthya Utinomi, 1966

Daniela Koch, 1891 [=Kochella Utinomi, 1958]

Dendronephthya Kükenthal, 1905 [=Roxasia Tixier-Durivault & Prevorsek, 1957; Morchellana
     Gray, 1862; Spongodes Lesson, 1833]

Drifa Danielssen, 1887 [=Pseudonephthya Holm, 1895]

Duva Koren & Danielssen, 1883

Gersemia Marenzeller, 1878 [=Voeringia Danielssen, 1887; Fulla Danielssen, 1887;
     Nannodendron Danielssen, 1887; Barrathrobius Danielssen, 1887;
Sarakka Danielssen, 1887;
     Krystallophanes Danielssen, 1887; Organidus Danielssen, 1887]

Lemnalia Gray, 1868 [=Lemnalioides Light, 1914]

Leptophyton Ofwegen & Schleyer, 1997

Litophyton Forskal, 1775 [=Ammothea Lamarck, 1816; Lithophytum]

Nephthea Audouin, 1826 [=Panope Holm, 1895]

Neospongodes Kükenthal, 1903 [=Spongodia Agassiz, 1846],

Paralemnalia Kükenthal, 1913

Pacifiphyton Williams, 1997

Pseudodrifa Utinomi, 1961

Scleronephthya Studer, 1887 [=Paraspongodes Kükenthal, 1896]

Stereacantha Thomson & Henderson, 1906

Stereonephthya Kükenthal, 1905

Umbellulifera Thomson & Dean, 1931

Nidaliidae Gray, 1869 (8 genera)

Nidaliinae

Agaricoides Simpson, 1905

Nidalia Gray, 1835 [=Cactogorgia Simpson, 1907]

Nidaliopsis Kükenthal, 1906 [=Itephitrus Koch, 1886]

Orlikia Malyutin, 1993

Pieterfaurea Verseveldt & Bayer, 1988

Siphonogorgiinae

Chironephthya Studer, 1887

Nephthyigorgia Kükenthal, 1910

Siphonogorgia Kölliker, 1874

Xeniidae Ehrenberg, 1828 (14 genera)

Anthelia Lamarck, 1816

Asterospicularia Utinomi, 1951

Bayerxenia Alderslade, 2001

Cespitularia Milne Edwards & Haime, 1857 [=Suensonia Brundin, 1896]

Efflatounaria Gohar, 1939

Fasciclia Janes, 2008

Funginus Tixier-Durivault, 1987 [=Fungulus Tixier-Durivault, 1970]

Heteroxenia Kölliker, 1874

Ingotia Alderslade, 2001

Ixion Alderslade, 2001

Orangaslia Alderslade, 2001

Ovabunda Alderslade, 2001

Sansibia Alderslade, 2000

Sympodium Ehrenberg, 1834

Xenia Lamarck, 1816

[Scleraxonia] (with free axial spicules)

without consolidated axis (with a medulla and cortex)

Briareidae Gray, 1859 (2 genera)

Briareum Blainville, 1830 [=Solenopodium Kükenthal, 1916;

Pachyclavularia Roule, 1908]

Lignopsis Perez & Zamponi, 2000

Anthothelidae Broch, 1916 (13 genera)

Anthothelinae Broch, 1916

Alertigorgia Kükenthal, 1908 [=Machaeriogorgia Kükenthal, 1919]

Anthothela Verrill,1879 [=Gymnosarea Kent, 1870; ?Stereogorgia Kükenthal, 1916]

Briareopsis Bayer, 1993

Erythropodium Kölliker, 1865

Tubigorgia Pasternak, 1985

Victorgorgia López-González & Briand, 2002

Semperininae Aurivillius, 1931

Iciligorgia Duchassaing, 1870

Semperina Kölliker, 1870 [=Suberia Studer, 1879; Suberiopsis Broch, 1916]

Solenocaulon Gray, 1862 [=Solenogorgia Genth, 1867]

Spongiodermatinae Aurivillius, 1931

Callipodium Verrill, 1869 [=Anthopodium Verrill, 1872]

Diodogorgia Kükenthal, 1919

Homophyton Gray, 1866 [=Spongioderma Kölliker, 1870]

Titanideum Verrill,1864

Tripalea Bayer, 1955

Subergorgiidae Gray, 1859 (3 genera)

Annella Gray, 1858

Rosgorgia López-González & Gili, 2001

Subergorgia Gray, 1857

Paragorgiidae Kükenthal, 1916 (2 genera)

Paragorgia Milne Edwards & Haime, 1857

Sibogagorgia Stiasny, 1937

with consolidated axis

Coralliidae Lamouroux, 1812 (3 genera)

Corallium Cuvier, 1798 [=Hemicorallium Gray, 1867; Pleurocorallium Gray, 1867]

Paracorallium Bayer & Cairns, 2003

Pleurocoralloides Moroff, 1902

Melithaeidae Gray, 1870 (6 genera) [branches from flexible proteinaceous nodes]

Melithaeinae Alderslade, 2006 [axial sclerites mostly straight rods with median girdle of simple tubercles]

Acabaria Gray, 1859

Clathraria Gray, 1859

Melithaea Milne Edwards & Haime, 1857 [=Birotulata Nutting, 1911; Melitella Gray, 1859;
     Melitodes Verrill, 1864]

Mopsella Gray, 1857

Wrightella Gray, 1870

Asperaxinae Alderslade, 2006 [axial sclerites mostly rods that are sinuous and branched]

Asperaxis Alderslade, 2006

Parisididae Aurivillius, 1931 (1 genus) [branches from calcareous internodes]

Parisis Verrill, 1864 [=Trinella Gray, 1870]

[Holaxonia] (continuous solid axial structure without free axial spicules, with hollow cross-chambered central core [chambered axial medulla])

Keroeididae Kinoshita, 1910 (5 genera)

Ideogorgia Bayer, 1981 [= nom. nov. for Dendrogorgia Simpson, 1910; not Duchaissang, 1870]

Keroeides Studer, 1887

Lignella Gray, 1870

Pseudothelogorgia Ofwegen, 1994

Thelogorgia Bayer 1992

Acanthogorgiidae Gray, 1859 (6 genera)

Acanthogorgia Gray, 1857 [=Acalycigorgia Kükenthal, 1908; Boarella Gray, 1870;
     Paracanthogorgia Stiasny, 1947]

Anthogorgia Verrill, 1868

Calcigorgia Broch, 1935

Cyclomuricea Nutting, 1908

Muricella Verrill, 1869

25. Plexauridae Gray, 1859 (includes Muriceidae, Paramuriceidae, Plexaurinae, Stenogorgiinae) (37 genera)

Acanthacis Deichmann, 1936

Alaskagorgia Sanchez & Cairns, 2004

Anthomuricea Studer, 1887

Anthoplexaura Kükenthal, 1908]

Astrogorgia Verrill, 1868 [=Acanthomuricea Hentschel, 1902]

Astromuricea Germanos, 1895

Bayergorgia Williams and López-González, 2005

Bebryce Philippi, 1841 [Pseudobebryce Kükenthal, 1919; Nicaule Bayer, 1981]

Caliacis Deichmann, 1936

Calicogorgia Thomsnon & Henderson, 1906

Chromoplexaura Williams, 2013

Cryogorgia Williams, 2005

Dentomuricea Grasshoff, 1977

Discogorgia Kükenthal, 1919

Echinogorgia Kolliker, 1865 [=Bovella Gray, 1860]

Echinomuricea Verrill, 1869

Elasmogorgia Wright & Studer, 1889

Eunicea Lamouroux, 1816

Euplexaura Verrill, 1865

Heterogorgia Verrill, 1868

Hypnogorgia Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864

Lepidomuricea Kükenthal, 1919

Lytreia Bayer, 1981

Menacella Gray, 1870

Menella Gray, 1870 [=Plexauroides Wright & Studer, 1889]

Mesogligorgia López-González, 2005

Muricea Lamouroux, 1821

Muriceides Studer, 1887 [=Clematissa Wright & Studer, 1887; Trachymuricea Deichmann, 1936],

Muriceopsis Aurivillius, 1931

Paracis Kükenthal, 1919 [=Discomuricea Gordon, 1926]

Paramuricea Kölliker, 1865

Paraplexaura [=Lapidogorgia Grasshoff, 1999]

Placogorgia Kükenthal, 1919 [=Pseudothesea Kükenthal, 1919]

Plexaura Lamouroux, 1812

Plexaurella Valenciennes, 1855

Psammogorgia Verrill, 1868

Pseudoplexaura Wright & Studer, 1889

Scleracis Kükenthal, 1919

Spinimuricea Grasshoff, 1992

Swiftia Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864 [=Allogorgia Verrill, 1928; Callistephanus Wright
     & Studer, 1889; Platycaulos Wright & Studer, 1889; Stenogorgia Verrill, 1883]

Thesea Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860 [= Evacis Verrill, 1913; Filigella Gray, 1868]

Trimuricea Gordon, 1926

Villogorgia Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860 [=Acamptogorgia Wright & Studer, 1889;
     Brandella Gray, 1870; Perisceles Wright & Studer, 1887]

Gorgoniidae Lamouroux, 1812 (15 genera)

Adelogorgia Bayer, 1958

Eugorgia Verrill, 1868

Eunicella Verrill, 1869[=Platygorgia Studer, 1887]

Gorgonia Linnaeus, 1758 [=Rhipidogorgia Valenciennes, 1855]

Guaiagorgia Grasshoff & Alderslade, 1997

Hicksonella Nutting, 1910 [=Rhabdoplexaura Kükenthal, 1915]

Leptogorgia Milne Edwards & Haime, 1857 [=Filigorgia Stiasny, 1937; Lophogorgia
     Milne Edwards & Haime, 1857]

Olindagorgia Bayer, 1981

Pacifigorgia Bayer, 1951

Phycogorgia Milne Edwards & Haime, 1850

Phyllogorgia Milne Edwards & Haime, 1850 [=Hymenogorgia Valenciennes, 1855]

Pinnigorgia Grasshoff & Alderslade, 1997

Pseudopterogorgia Kükenthal, 1919 [=Antillogorgia Bayer, 1951]

Pterogorgia Ehrenberg, 1834 [=Xiphigorgia Milne Edwards & Haime, 1857]

Rumphella Bayer, 1955

[Calcaxonia] (continuous solid axial structure without free axial spicules, without cross-chambered hollow core [total lack of chambered axial medulla])

Ellisellidae Gray, 1859 (10 genera)

Ctenocella Valenciennes, 1855

Dichotella Gray, 1870

Ellisella Gray, 1858 [=Scirpearia Ehrenberg, 1834]

Heliania Gray, 1860

Junceella Valenciennes, 1855

Nicella Gray, 1870

Phenilia Gray, 1860

Riisea Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860 [=Herophile Steenstrup, 1861]

Verrucella Milne Edwards & Haime, 1857 [=Umbracella Gray, 1858; Raynerella Gray, 1869;
     Reticella, Gray, 1870]

Viminella Gray, 1870 [=Toeplitzella Deichmann, 1936]

Ifalukellidae Bayer, 1955 (2 genera)

Ifalukella Bayer, 1955

Plumigorgia Nutting, 1910

Chrysogorgiidae Verrill, 1883 (12 genera)

Chalcogorgia Bayer, 1949

Chrysogorgia Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864 [=Dasygorgia Verrill, 1883]

Distichogorgia Bayer, 1979

Helicogorgia Bayer, 1981 [=Simpsonella Stiasny, 1940; Hicksonella Simpson,1910 not Nutting, 1910]

Iridogorgia Verrill, 1883

Isidoides Nutting, 1910

Metallogorgia Versluys, 1902

Pleurogorgia Versluys, 1902

Pseudochrysogorgia Pante & France, 2010

Radicipes Stearns, 1883 [Lepidogorgia Verrill, 1884; Strophogorgia Wright & Studer, 1885]

Rhodaniridogorgia Watling, 2007

Stephanogorgia Bayer & Muzik, 1976

Trichogorgia Hickson, 1904 [=Malacogorgia Hickson, 1904]

Xenogorgia Bayer & Muzik, 1976

Primnoidae Gray, 1857 (36 genera)

Acanthoprimnoa Cairns & Bayer, 2004

Aglaoprimnoa Bayer, 1996

Ainigmaptilon Dean, 1926 [=Lycurus Molander, 1929]

Amphilaphis Studer & Wright in Studer, 1887

Armadillogorgia Bayer, 1980

Arntzia López-González, Gili and Orejas, 2002

Arthrogorgia Kükenthal in Kükenthal & Gorzawsky, 1908

Australogorgia Cairns & Bayer, 2009

Callogorgia Gray, 1858 [= Xiphocella Gray, 1870; Callicella Gray, 1870; Caligorgia sensu Wright & Studer, 1889 - spelling variation]

Callozostron Wright, 1885

Calyptrophora Gray, 1866

Candidella Bayer, 1954 [nomen novum for Stenella Gray, 1870, not Gray, 1866]

Convexella Bayer, 1996

Dasystenella Versluys, 1906

Dicholaphis Kinoshita, 1907

Diplocalyptra Kinoshita, 1908

Fanellia Gray, 1870

Fannyella Gray, 1872 [= Ascolepis Thomson & Rennet, 1931]

Helicoprimnoa Cairns, 2012

Heptaprimnoa Cairns, 2012

Metafannyella Cairns & Bayer, 2009

Metanarella Cairns, 2012

Microprimnoa Bayer & Stefani, 1989

Mirostenella Bayer, 1988

Narella Gray, 1870 [= Stachyodes Wright & Studer in Studer, 1887; not Stachyodes Bargatzky, 1881 (a stromatoporoid); Calypterinus Wright & Studer in Studer, 1887]

Narelloides Cairns, 2012

Onogorgia Cairns & Bayer, 2009

Ophidiogorgia Bayer, 1980

Paracalyptrophora Kinoshita, 1908

Paranarella Cairns, 2007

Parastenella Versluys, 1906

Perissogorgia Bayer & Stefani, 1989

Plumarella Gray, 1870

Primnoa Lamouroux, 1812

Primnoella Gray, 1858 [= Callirrhabdos Philippi, 1894]

Primnoeides Studer and Wright in Studer, 1887

Pseudoplumarella Kükenthal, 1915

Pterostenella Versluys, 1906

Pyrogorgia Cairns & Bayer, 2009

Thouarella Gray, 1870 [= Rhopalonella Roule, 1908; Primnodendron Nutting, 1912; Parathouarella Kükenthal, 1915]

Tokoprimnoa Bayer, 1996

Isididae Lamouroux, 1812 (38 genera)

Isidinae Lamouroux, 1812 [polyps with 6 or 8-radiates, clubs & tuberculate spindles, or almost sclerite-free]

Chelidonisis Studer, 1890

Isis Linnaeus, 1758

Muricellisis Kükenthal, 1915

Keratoisidinae Gray, 1870 [polyps armed with longitudinally arranged rods or spindles often ornamented with prickles]

Acanella Gray, 1870

Australisis Bayer & Stefani, 1987

Caribisis Bayer & Stefani, 1987

Eknomisis Watling & France, 2011

Isidella Gray, 1857

Jasonisis Alderslade & McFadden, 2012

Keratoisis Wright, 1869

Lepidisis Verrill, 1883

Orstomisis Bayer, 1990

Sclerisis Studer, 1879

Mopseinae Gray, 1870 [polyps with transversely arranged smooth, tuberculate, or thorny scales with a dentate or thorny distal margin]

Acanthoisis Studer & Wright, 1887

Chathamisis Grant, 1976

Echinisis Thomson & Rennet, 1931

Iotisis Alderslade, 1998

Jasminisis Alderslade, 1998

Ktenosquamisis Alderslade, 1998

Lissopholidisis Alderslade, 1998

Minuisis Grant, 1976

Mopsea Lamouroux, 1816

Myriozotisis Alderslade, 1998

Notisis Gravier, 1913

Oparinisis Alderslade, 1998

Paracanthoisis Alderslade, 1998

Peltastisis Nutting, 1910

Primnoisis Studer, 1887

Pteronisis Alderslade, 1998

Sphaerokodisis Alderslade, 1998

Stenisis Bayer & Stefani, 1987

Tenuisis Bayer & Stefani, 1987

Tethrisis Alderslade, 1998

Circinisidinae Grant, 1976 [polyps with transversely arranged smooth oval scales with distal margin entire to undulate]

Annisis Alderslade, 1998

Circinisis Grant, 1976

Florectisis Alderslade, 1998

Gorgonisis Alderslade, 1998

Pangolinisis Alderslade, 1998

Plexipomisis Alderslade, 1998

Zignisis Alderslade, 1998

Incertae sedis:

Dendrobrachiidae Brook, 1889 (1 genus)

Dendrobrachia Brook, 1889 [axis with spiny longitudinal ridges - formerly aligned with Antipatharia]

Recently described families:

Acanthoaxiidae Ofwegen & McFadden, 2010 (1 genus)

Acanthoaxis Ofwegen & McFadden, 2010

Arulidae McFadden & Ofwegen, 2012 (1 genus)

Arula McFadden & Ofwegen, 2012

Aquaumbridae Breedy & Ofwegen, 2012 (1 genus)

Aquaumbra Breedy & Ofwegen, 2012

 

 

ORDER PENNATULACEA Verrill, 1865 (14 Families; 34 genera); characterized by an oozooid, proximal muscular peduncle, and distal polyp-bearing rachis.

Suborder Sessiliflorae Kükenethal, 1915

[Section Pennatulina radiata Kükenethal, 1915]

Veretillidae Herklots, 1858 (5 genera)

Amphibelemnon López-González, Gili & Williams, 2000

Cavernularia Valenciennes in Milne Edwards & Haime, 1850 [=Sarcobelemnon Herklots,
     1858;
Stylobelemnon Kölliker, 1872; ?Fusticularia Simpson, 1905; ?Parabelemnon
     Thomson Simpson, 1909; ?Stylobelemnoides Thomson & Henderson, 1905]

Cavernulina Kükenthal & Broch, 1911

Lituaria Valenciennes in Milne Edwards & Haime, 1850 [=Clavella Gray, 1870]

Veretillum Cuvier, 1798 [=Policella Gray, 1870]

Echinoptilidae Hubrecht, 1885 (2 genera)

Actinoptilum Kükenthal in Kükenthal & Broch, 1911

Echinoptilum Hubrecht, 1885

[Section Pennatulina foliata Kükenthal, 1915]

Renillidae Gray, 1870 (I genus)

Renilla Lamarck, 1816 [=Herklotsia Gray, 1860]

[Section Pennatulina biserialia Kükenthal, 1915]

Kophobelemnidae Gray, 1860 (4 genera)

Kophobelemnon Asbjørnsen, 1856 [=Bathyptilum Kölliker, 1872; Gunneria Danielssen & Koren, 1884]

Malacobelemnon Tixier-Durivault, 1965

Sclerobelemnon Kölliker, 1872 [=Mesobelemnon Gravier, 1907]

Anthoptilidae Kölliker, 1880 (1 genus)

Anthoptilum Kölliker, 1880 [=Benthoptilum Verrill,1885; Stephanoptilum Roule, 1905;
     Thesioides Thomson & Henderson, 1906]

Funiculinidae Gray, 1870 (1 genus)

Funiculina Lamarck, 1816 [=Pavonaria Schweigger, 1820 not Kölliker, 1869; Leptoptilum Kölliker, 1880;
      Trichoptilum Kölliker, 1880]

Protoptilidae Kölliker, 1872 (2 genera)

Protoptilum Kölliker, 1872

Distichoptilum Verrill, 1882 [=Helicoptilum Nutting, 1912; Juncoptilum Thomson & Henderson, 1905]

Stachyptilidae Kölliker, 1880 (2 genera)

Stachyptilum Kölliker, 1880

Gilibelemnon López-González & Williams, 2002

[Section Pennatulina verticillata Kükenthal, 1915]

Scleroptilidae Jungersen, 1904 (1 genus)

Scleroptilum Kölliker, 1880

Calibelemnon Nutting, 1908 [=Prochunella Balss, 1909]

Chunellidae Kükenthal, 1902 (3 genera)

Chunella Kükenthal, 1902

Amphiacme Kükenthal, 1903 [=Amphianthus Kükenthal, 1902 (preoccupied)]

Porcupinella Lopez-Gonzalez & Williams, 2011

Umbellulidae Kölliker, 1880 (1 genera)

Umbellula Cuvier, 1797 [=Crinillum Harting, Miquel & Hoven, 1861; Encrinus Larmarck,
     1801; Ombellula Cuvier, 1797 (incorrect original spelling, ICZN 2999);
      Umbellularia Lamarck,
1801]

Suborder Subselliflorae Kükenthal, 1915

[Section Pennatulina junciformia Kükenthal, 1915]

Halipteridae Williams, 1995 (1 genus)

Halipteris Kölliker, 1869 [=Balticina Gray, 1870; Göndul Koren & Danielssen, 1877;
       Lygomorpha Koren & Danielssen, 1877; Microptilum Kölliker, 1880; Norticina Gray, 1870;
       Osteocella Gray, 1870; Pavonaria Kölliker, 1869 not Schweigger, 1820;
       Stichoptilum Grieg, 1887; Verrillia Stearns, 1873]

Virgulariidae Verrill, 1868 (5 genera)

Acanthoptilum Kölliker, 1870

Scytaliopsis Gravier, 1906

Scytalium Herklots, 1858

Stylatula [=Dübenia Koren & Danielssen, 1877]

Virgularia Lamarck, 1816 [=Cladiscus Koren & Danielssen, 1877; Deutocaulon
     Marshall & Fowler, 1888; Halisceptrum Herklots, 1863; Herklots, 1858; Lygus Herklots,
     1858; Protocaulon Kölliker, 1880; Sceptonidium Richiardi, 1869; Svava Danielssen &

     Koren, 1884; Svavopsis Roule, 1908]  

[Section Pennatulina penniformia Kükenthal, 1915]

Pennatulidae Ehrenberg, 1834 (6 genera)

Crassophyllum Tixier-Durivault, 1961

Gyrophyllum Studer, 1891 [=?Bathypenna Marion, 1906]

Pennatula Linnaeus, 1758 [=Leioptilus Gray, 1860 & 1870 in part; Phosphorella Gray, 1870;
Ptilella Gray, 1870]

Pteroeides Herklots, 1858 [=Argentella Gray, 1870; Crispella Gray, 1870; Godeffroyia Kölliker,
     1870; Pteromorpha Herklots, 1858; Struthiopteron Broch,1910]

Ptilosarcus Verrill, 1865 [=Leioptilus Gray, 1870 in part, not Gray 1860]

Sarcoptilus Gray, 1848 [=Sarcophyllum Kölliker, 1870]