Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 3 September 2019

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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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spilotoceps, Epinephelus Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:357, Figs. 56-57 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Lagoon reef off Namu Island, Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands, western Pacific. Holotype: USNM 141901. Paratypes: FMNH 62615-16 (1, 1); USNM 141902 (3), 141904-921 (1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 9, 1, 1, 3, 1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 7, 1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:35 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Epinephelus spilotoceps Schultz 1953 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:532 [ref. 5667], Randall et al. 1990:114 [ref. 15987], Heemstra & Randall 1993:232 [ref. 21042], Chen et al. 1997:148 [ref. 24620], Kuiter 1997:108 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:114 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:115 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:199 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2524 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:163 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:348 [ref. 28379], Fricke et al. 2009:47 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:385 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:231 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:280 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:257 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2018:153 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Arndt & Fricke 2019:29 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:119 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus spilotoceps Schultz 1953. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to the Line Islands, Marshall Islands, Tonga and Cook Islands, north to the Philippines, south to Western Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.