Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 4 November 2019

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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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tukula, Epinephelus Morgans [J. F. C.] 1959:651, Pls. 17, 19 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 13) v. 1 (no. 10) (for 1958); ref. 12011] Mafia Island, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: EAMFRO S.96. Paratypes: EAMFRO. S.88 (1), S.102 (1), S.122 (1). •Valid as Epinephelus tukula Morgans 1959 -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:130 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:533 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:58 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:498 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:57 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:115 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:279 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:248 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:27 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:136 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:86 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:51 [ref. 26476] dated 1958, Randall et al. 1997:115 [ref. 25919], Fricke 1999:200 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2527 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:719 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:719 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:172 [ref. 28072], Hoese et al. 2006:1020 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:47 [ref. 30213], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:90 [ref. 30492], Motomura et al. 2010:98 [ref. 31256], Craig et al. 2011:252 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:280 [ref. 31980] Fricke et al. 2013:257 [ref. 32706], Psomadakis et al. 2015:201 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2018:154 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:64 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Arndt & Fricke 2019:29 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:120 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:71 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus tukula Morgans 1959. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Comoros, Madagascar, Seychelles, Comoros and western Mascarenes east to New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), north to southern Japan and the Pacific coast of Japanese mainland, south to Western Australia and Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.