Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 4 November 2019

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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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melapterus, Labrus Bloch [M. E.] 1791:137, Pl. 285 [Naturgeschichte der ausl√§ndischen Fische v. 5; ref. 4867] Japan. Syntypes: ZMB 8578 (1, dry, missing). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:90 [ref. 24282]. On p. 111 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 8 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Hemigymnus melapterus (Bloch 1791) -- (Dor 1984:204 [ref. 29757], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:206 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:696 [ref. 5706], Allen & Swainston 1988:116 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:54 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:323 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:272 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:165 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:54 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:483 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:188 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:280 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:323 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:199 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:420 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:744 [ref. 25471], Parenti & Randall 2000:25 [ref. 24943], Westneat in Randall & Lim 2000:629 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:979 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:361 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:113 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:103 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:269 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:39 [ref. 25847], Westneat 2001:3439 [ref. 26277] dated 1792, Nakabo 2002:979 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:49 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S115 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:636 [ref. 27495], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:152 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:22 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:124 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:416 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1394 [ref. 29095], Fricke et al. 2009:86 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:167 [ref. 31256], Kuiter 2010:355 [ref. 35285], Allen & Erdmann 2012:687 [ref. 31980], Randall 2013:6 [ref. 32519], Larson et al. 2013:167 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:134 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:76 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:13 [ref. 35354], Fricke et al. 2018:286 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:125 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:231 [ref. 36673], Hoschke et al. 2019:158 [ref. 36626], Zajonz et al. 2019:90 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Hemigymnus melapterus (Bloch 1791). Labridae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Marshall Islands and Society Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia), New South Wales (Australia), New Caledonia, Lord Howe Island and Tonga. Habitat: marine.