Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 5 November 2018

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Catalog of Fishes
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hepatus, Teuthis Linnaeus [C.] 1766:507 [Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2786] Mare indico [erroneous, is Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia]; Carolina, U.S.A. [erroneous]; Jamaica [erroneous]; Bahamas [erroneous], Mediterranean [erroneous]. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.101 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin), LS 84 (left half-skin). Type information: Goode & Bean 1885:205 [ref. 1841], Wheeler 1958:230-231 [ref. 13434], Wheeler 1985:67-68 [ref. 20705]. Misspelled hepathus by Schöpf 1788:175 [ref. 18700]. Based on multiple sources, including the 'Teuthis mucrone reflexo utrinque prope caudam' of Gronow 1763:113 [ref. 1910], which was based on the 'Turdus rhomboidalis, The Tang' of Catesby 1743:10, Pl. 10, fig. 1 (v. 2) [ref. 774] [Bahama Islands], the 'Chaetodon caerulescens, dorso nigro ...' of Seba 1759:104, pl. 33, fig. 3 [ref. 18716] [Ambon, Indonesia], the 'Ikan Maroeke' (which is Naso lituratus), 'Ikan Toetombo' (Ctenochaetus sp.) and 'Ikan Biroe' (Acanthurus sp.) of Valentyn 1726:371, 466, 473, figs. 77, 383, 404 [ref. 30358] [Ambon, Indonesia], the 'Seserinus' of Rondelet 1554:257 [ref. 30354] [Mediterranean Sea], the 'Rhombotides obscure caeruleus ...' of Klein 1740-49:34 (v. 4) [ref. 30141], and the 'Leervisch' of Ruysch 1718:4, Pl. 3, fig. 3 [ref. 30355] [Ambon, Indonesia]; also based on the 'Teuthis fusca caeruleo nitens' of Browne 1756:454 [ref. 30188] [Jamaica]. Originally based on multiple species, now restricted to the Indo-Pacific species (part, from Ambon, Indonesia) based on the two extant syntypes out of the Gronow collection. Lectotype designation needed. •Valid as Paracanthurus hepatus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Kishimoto in Masuda et al. 1984:230 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:817 [ref. 5706], Winterbottom et al. 1989:65 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:428 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:371 [ref. 23929], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:560 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:228 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:155 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:368 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:428 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:273 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:550 [ref. 24106], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1324 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:429 [ref. 25191], Kuiter & Debelius 2001:69 [ref. 26232], Randall 2001:3681 [ref. 26301] dated 1758, Nakabo 2002:1324 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:206 [ref. 27510] dated 1758, Randall et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:404 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:587 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:496 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1743 [ref. 29094], Randall 2007:430 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:109 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:228 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1035 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:271 [ref. 32706], Kottelat 2013:442 [ref. 32989], Wirtz et al. 2014:10 [ref. 33516] as not this species, Fricke et al. 2014:185 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:104 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:356 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Paracanthurus hepatus (Linnaeus 1766). Acanthuridae. Distribution: East and South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Marshall and Line islands, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to southern Great Barrier Reef (Australia), New Caledonia and Samoa; waifs reaching Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.