Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 3 June 2019

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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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niger, Stromateus Bloch [M. E.] 1795:93, Pl. 422 [Naturgeschichte der ausl√§ndischen Fische v. 9; ref. 464] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 8755 (stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:56 [ref. 24282]. On p. 85 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 12 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Apolectus niger (Bloch 1795) -- (Dor 1984:134 [ref. 29757], Paxton et al. 1989:581 [ref. 12442], Goren & Dor 1994:33 [ref. 25356], Mishra et al. 1999:89 [ref. 25315], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:186 [ref. 25703]). •Valid as Formio niger (Bloch 1795) -- (Chen et al. 1997:70 [ref. 26476], Cheng & Zhou 1997:279 [ref. 26385] dated 1792). •Valid as Parastromateus niger (Bloch 1795) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:290 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:255 [ref. 19754], Gushiken in Masuda et al. 1984:157 [ref. 6441], Smith-Vaniz 1986:654 [ref. 5718], Allen & Swainston 1988:72 [ref. 25477], Ataur Rahman 1989:264 [ref. 24860], Randall et al. 1990:164 [ref. 15987], Randall 1995:184 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:443 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:114 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:163 [ref. 23922], Randall et al. 1997:164 [ref. 25919], Lin & Shao 1999:59 [ref. 23921], Fricke 1999:253 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2729 [ref. 24833], Johnson 1999:734 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:791 [ref. 25086], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:791 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:326, 605 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S107 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:80 [ref. 27510], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:32 [ref. 27712], Ataur Rahman 2003:288 [ref. 31338], Mundy 2005:370 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Gates 2006:1162 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:30 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:57 [ref. 30213], Kimura 2009:123 [ref. 30425], Hilton et al. 2010:312 [ref. 30385], Larson et al. 2013:123 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:120 [ref. 34464], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:421 [ref. 33460], Fricke et al. 2014:83 [ref. 33932], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2015:44 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:226 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:116 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:323 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:185 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:86 [ref. 36273], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2018:134 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Parastromateus niger (Bloch 1795). Carangidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar, western Mascarenes and Persian Gulf east to Philippines, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Queensland (Australia) and Fiji. Habitat: brackish, marine.