Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 5 August 2019

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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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mokarran, Zygaena Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1837:66, Pl. 17 (fig. 3) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 3590 (stuffed). Type catalog and lectotype designation: Klausewitz 1960:293 [ref. 21330]. •Valid as Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell 1837) -- (Gilbert 1967:26 [ref. 21135], Quéro in Whitehead et al. 1984:124 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:548 [ref. 6846], Dor 1984:11 [ref. 29757], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:7 [ref. 6441], Bass 1986:97 [ref. 5635], Robins & Ray 1986:30 [ref. 23100], Allen & Swainston 1988:24 [ref. 25477], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:224 [ref. 36138], Paxton et al. 1989:87 [ref. 12442], Springer 1990:109 [ref. 19320], Randall et al. 1990:23 [ref. 15987], Boschung 1992:24 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:187 [ref. 23827], Baranes & Golani 1993:301 [ref. 22372], Allen & Robertson 1994:25 [ref. 22193], Last & Stevens 1994:274 [ref. 23873], Goren & Dor 1994:4 [ref. 25356], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:720 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:38 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:68 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:44 [ref. 23977], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:99 [ref. 24023] [but see McCosker 1998:809 [ref. 24025]], Compagno 1998:1365 [ref. 23785], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:94 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:45 [ref. 24221], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:40 [ref. 24555], Myers 1999:36 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:24 [ref. 24106], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:100 [ref. 24490], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:53 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:118 [ref. 25013], Johnson 1999:720 [ref. 25471], Compagno 1999:484 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:140 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:97 [ref. 25191], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:146 [ref. 27754], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Soto 2001:65, 85 [ref. 26637], Nakabo 2002:140 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:22 [ref. 26830], Compagno 2003:502 [ref. 26984], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27192], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:71 [ref. 27705], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:36 [ref. 27735], Nelson et al. 2004:54 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:68 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:16 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:93 [ref. 28379], Randall et al. 2005:131 [ref. 28745], Compagno et al. 2005:46 [ref. 29145], Hoese et al. 2006:111 [ref. 29001], Randall 2007:38 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:10 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:187 [ref. 30957], Last el al. 2010:138 [ref. 32461], Fricke et al. 2011:346 [ref. 31242], Castro 2011:516 [ref. 31457], Moore et al. 2012:11 [ref. 31771], Allen & Erdmann 2012:60 [ref. 31980], Naylor et al. 2012:33 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Fricke et al. 2013:250 [ref. 32706], Page et al. 2013:52 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32972], Larson et al. 2013:13 [ref. 32988], Ebert et al. 2013:340 [ref. 33045], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:20 [ref. 33341], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:88 [ref. 34104], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:99 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:45 [ref. 34211], Compagno 2016:1333 [ref. 34544], White et al. 2017:188 [ref. 35860], Ali et al. 2018:302 [ref. 36183], Ehemann et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36194], Fricke et al. 2018:17 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:13 [ref. 36273], Kumar et al. 2018:297 [ref. 36178], White & Ko'ou 2018:44 [ref. 35922], Ehemann et al. 2019:[4] [ref. 36861], Fricke et al. 2019:42 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell 1837). Sphyrnidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical through warm temperate seas (including Caribbean Sea, Red Sea, Persian Gulf). Habitat: brackish, marine.