Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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carcharias, Squalus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:235 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea, northeastern Atlantic, western Atlantic [original: "in Europa"]; localities include Bayonne, France, Bay of Biscay; Spain; Marseille and Nice, France; Italy; Malta; Lesbos Island, Greece; Syria; Brazil. No types known. Lectotype or neotype fixation needed: the type locality should be restricted to Mediterranean Sea or Northeastern Atlantic Ocean, according to current usage. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:15 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Originally based on multiple species and at least 30 pre-Linnaean sources including Artedi 1738:70 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:98 [ref. 30349] as Squalus dorso plano, dentibus serratis; Rondelet 1554:390 [ref. 30354] as Lamia, Markgraf von Liebstadt 1648:181 [ref. 30347] as Tiburo, Jonston 1649:209, Pl. 39 [ref. 30579] as Tiburone, Charleton 1668:127 [ref. 30580] as Canis carcharias, Willughby 1686:47 [ref. 30164] and Ray 1713:18 [ref. 30231] as Canis carcharias seu lamia. •Valid as Carcharodon carcharias (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Springer 1973:13 [ref. 7162], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:29 [ref. 9277], Compagno 1984:238 [ref. 6474], Quéro in Whitehead et al. 1984:84 [ref. 13675], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:9 [ref. 6441], Bass 1986:98 [ref. 5635], Menni 1986:433 [ref. 11487], Robins & Ray 1986:19 [ref. 23100], Nakano & Nakaya 1987:414 [ref. 12620], Scott & Scott 1988:14 [ref. 25518], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:220 [ref. 36138], Paxton et al. 1989:67 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:12 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:20 [ref. 24556], McAllister 1990:29 [ref. 14674], Springer 1990:87 [ref. 19319], Randall et al. 1990:17 [ref. 15987], Cervigón 1992:180 [ref. 23827], Francis 1993:157 [ref. 25479], Francis & Randall 1993:125 [ref. 20996], Kuiter 1993:14 [ref. 23929], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:73 [ref. 25472], Gomon et al. 1994:142 [ref. 22532], Last & Stevens 1994:162 [ref. 23873], Goren & Dor 1994:1 [ref. 25356], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:703 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:24 [ref. 22896], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:57 [ref. 24023] [but see McCosker 1998:809 [ref. 24025]], Santos et al. 1997:10 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:15 [ref. 24952], Cheng & Zhou 1997:20 [ref. 26385], Compagno 1998:1276 [ref. 23785], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:54 [ref. 23897], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:44 [ref. 24555], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:7 [ref. 24670], Fricke 1999:14 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:120 [ref. 25013], Johnson 1999:719 [ref. 25471], Compagno 1999:478 [ref. 25589], Musick et al. 2000:8 [ref. 24959], Nakabo 2000:125 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:578 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:87 [ref. 25191], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:14 [ref. 25650], Storai et al. 2001:139 [ref. 25325], Hutchins 2001:13 [ref. 25847], Compagno 2001:100 [ref. 26323], Soto 2001:65, 89 [ref. 26637], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:9 [ref. 26753], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:77 [ref. 25968], Nakabo 2002:125 [ref. 26001], Branstetter in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:27 [ref. 26158], Youn 2002:58, 476 [ref. 26218], Compagno 2003:436 [ref. 26984], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:25 [ref. 27192], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:83 [ref. 27705], Nelson et al. 2004:52 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:70 [ref. 28072], Mundy 2005:97 [ref. 28379], Compagno et al. 2005:18 [ref. 29145], Hoese & Gates 2006:77 [ref. 28997], Moore et al. 2007:67 [ref. 29311], Fricke et al. 2007:12 [ref. 29533], Randall 2007:40 [ref. 30952], White 2008:40 [ref. 30617], Fricke et al. 2009:8 [ref. 30213], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:56 [ref. 35264], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:6 [ref. 36649], Fricke et al. 2011:345 [ref. 31242], Castro 2011:258 [ref. 31457], Mollen et al. 2012:30 [ref. 32005], Page et al. 2013:50 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:168 [ref. 32953], Wirtz et al. 2013:115 [ref. 32972], Ebert et al. 2013:311 [ref. 33045], Parin et al. 2014:19 [ref. 33547], Duffy 2015:71 [ref. 34217], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:106 [ref. 36167], Dyldin 2015:45 [ref. 34524], Pinheiro et al. 2015:2 [ref. 34324], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:75 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:14 [ref. 34211], Compagno 2016:1243 [ref. 34544], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:545 [ref. 34656], Fourriére et al. 2016:440 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:605 [ref. 34923], Koeda et al. 2016:4 [ref. 35333], Nión et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35565], Kells et al. 2016:66 [ref. 35888], Ebert et al. 2017:54 [ref. 35618], Fricke et al. 2018:9 [ref. 35805], Dyldin & Orlov 2018:163 [ref. 35920], Ehemann et al. 2018:21 [ref. 36194], Hoschke et al. 2019:153[ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Carcharodon carcharias (Linnaeus 1758). Lamnidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and temperate seas (indlucing Mediterranean Sea), not in the Arctic. Habitat: brackish, marine.