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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Balistidae: [ 222 ] records


abyssus, Rhinecanthus Matsuura [K.] & Shiobara [Y.] 1989:315, Fig. 1 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 36 (no. 3); ref. 13563] Off northeastern coast of Kume-jima Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan, 26°21.0'N, 126°50.5'E, depth 150 meters. Holotype: NSMT-P 30093. Paratypes: MSM-89-37 (1), NSMT-P 30661 (1). •Valid as Rhinecanthus abyssus Matsuura & Shiobara 1989 -- (Nakabo 2000:1400 [ref. 25182], Matsuura 2001:3917 [ref. 26315], Nakabo 2002:1400 [ref. 26193], Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Rhinecanthus abyssus Matsuura & Shiobara 1989. Balistidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Ryukyu Islands. Habitat: marine.

aculeatus, Balistes Linnaeus [C.] 1758:328 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Indo-West Pacific. No types known. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:584 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Valid as Rhinecanthus aculeatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:358 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:880 [ref. 5714], Allen & Swainston 1988:150 [ref. 25477], Matsuura & Shiobara 1989:317 [ref. 13563], Winterbottom et al. 1989:68 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:455 [ref. 15987], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1060 [ref. 19527], Kuiter 1993:395 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Allen 1997:238 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:180 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:386 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:455 [ref. 25919], Randall & Mundy 1998:331 [ref. 24063], Myers 1999:282 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:583 [ref. 24106], Randall 1999:30 [ref. 25829], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1400 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:456 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:22 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:124 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3925 [ref. 26315], Nakabo 2002:1400 [ref. 26193], Youn 2002:447, 691 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:649 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:77 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:31 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3331 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:442 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:626 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:525 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1874 [ref. 29098], Randall 2007:471 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:117 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:233 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1065 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:272 [ref. 32706], Wirtz et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32972], Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:111 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:18 [ref. 35354], Fowler et al. 2017:[4] 2252 [ref. 36358], Fricke et al. 2018:378 [ref. 35805], Arndt & Fricke 2019:11 [ref. 36883]). Current status: Valid as Rhinecanthus aculeatus (Linnaeus 1758). Balistidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal, South Africa; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to southern New South Wales (Australia) and Lord Howe Island. Habitat: marine.

adspersus, Balistes Tschudi [J. J. von] 1846:31 [Untersuchungen über die Fauna Peruana; ref. 4469] Huacho, Peru. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Kottelat 1987:52 [ref. 25858]. •Synonym of Canthidermis maculatus (Bloch 1786) -- (Berry & Baldwin 1966:461 [ref. 20607], Moore 1967:695 [ref. 22820], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1058 [ref. 19527]). •See Grove & Lavenberg 1997:630 [ref. 24023]. •Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786). Current status: Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

albicaudatus, Balistes Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1829:33 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 907. Paralectotypes: SMF 2941 (1, dry), 5247 (1). Lectotype established by Dor 1984:277 [ref. 29757] if not designated earlier. •Valid as Sufflamen albicaudatus [correct is apparently Sufflamen albicaudatum] (Rüppell 1829) -- (Dor 1984:277 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:73 [ref. 25356], Myers 1999:283 [ref. 23965]). •Might best be regarded as a subspecies of Sufflamen chrosopterus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Randall 1995:394 [ref. 22896], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Randall 2005:627 [ref. 28239], Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576]). •Valid as Sufflamen albicaudatum (Rüppell 1829) -- (DiBattista et al. 2015:22 [ref. 35706], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[7] 245 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:178 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Sufflamen albicaudatum (Rüppell 1829). Balistidae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Oman to Persian Gulf. Habitat: marine.

albifasciatus, Balistes Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Bleeker 1851:16 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 11); ref. 16836] Not available, name mentioned in the synonymy of Balistes aculeatus. Balistidae.

albipunctatus, Balistes Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Rüppell 1829:34 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Not available, name only. Balistidae.

albomarginatus, Balistes Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Rüppell 1829:34 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Not available, name only. Balistidae.

amboinensis, Balistes Gray [J. E.] 1831:no page number, Pl. 90 (fig 2) [Illustrations of Indian zoology; ref. 1878] No locality. No types known. Published about 27 July 1831. Günther 1870:218 [ref. 1995] regarded Balistes amboinensis as an older name of Balistes mitis Bennett. •Synonym of Sufflamen fraenatum (Latreille 1804). Current status: Synonym of Sufflamen fraenatum (Latreille 1804). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

americanus, Balistes Gmelin [J. F.] 1789:1473 [Caroli a Linné ... Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18139] American seas. No types known. •Synonym of Canthidermis maculatus (Bloch 1786) -- (Berry & Baldwin 1966:460 [ref. 20607], Moore 1967:695 [ref. 22820], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1058 [ref. 19527]). •Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786). Current status: Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

angulosus, Balistes Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:210 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: MNHN B-1921. Paratypes: MNHN B-1804 (1) Hawaii, B-1867 (1) no locality, MNHN B-1869 Waigou. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:518 [ref. 21538] with holotype and paratypes, Beaunier et al. 2009:287 [ref. 28887]. •Synonym of Canthidermis maculatus (Bloch 1786) -- (Berry & Baldwin 1966:460 [ref. 20607], Moore 1967:695 [ref. 22820], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1058 [ref. 19527], Mundy 2005:523 [ref. 28379]). •Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786). Current status: Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

angulosus, Balistes Hollard [H. L. G. M.] 1854:57 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie) (Sér. 4) v. 1; ref. 18300] Pacific. No types known. Appeared as "Balistes angulosus Étiq. du Mus." Apparently independent of but preoccupied by Balistes angulosus Quoy & Gairmard 1824; objectively invalid. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

annularis, Balistes Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:16, Pl. 8 (fig. 1) [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:41 [ref. 3595]. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

arcuatus, Balistes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:466 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Indian Ocean. No types known. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:295 [ref. 28887]. •Synonym of Rhinecanthus cinereus (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Fricke 1999:584 [ref. 24106], Beaunier et al. 2009:295 [ref. 28887]). Current status: Synonym of Rhinecanthus cinereus (Bonnaterre 1788). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

armatus, Balistes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:469 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

asperrimus, Balistes Cope [E. D.] 1871:478 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] Probably St. Martin Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): ANSP 800. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:25 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Canthidermis sufflamen (Mitchill 1815) -- (Moore 1967:699 [ref. 22820]). Current status: Synonym of Canthidermis sufflamen (Mitchill 1815). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

assasi, Balistes Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:75, xiv [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. No types known. •Valid as Rhinecanthus assasi (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:277 [ref. 29757], Matsuura & Shiobara 1989:375 [ref. 13563], Goren & Dor 1994:73 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:394 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:236 [ref. 23922], Myers 1999:283 [ref. 23965], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576], Golani & Fricke 2018:178 [ref. 36273], Zajonz et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Rhinecanthus assasi (Forsskål 1775). Balistidae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Socotra, Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf. Habitat: marine.

aureolus, Balistes Richardson [J.] 1845:126, Pl. 59 (figs. 1-4) [Ichthyology.--Part 3. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur.; ref. 20575] No locality. Syntypes: BMNH 1978.2.1.3-4 (2). •Synonym of Canthidermis maculatus (Bloch 1786) -- (Mundy 2005:523 [ref. 28379]). •Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786). Current status: Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

auromarginatus, Balistes Bennett [E. T.] 1832:168 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1830-31 (pt 1); ref. 4944] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1856.2.15.15 [ex Zool. Soc.]. •Valid as Xanthichthys auromarginatus (Bennett 1832) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:359 [ref. 6441], Winterbottom et al. 1989:69 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:459 [ref. 15987], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:xiv [ref. 21953], Allen 1997:240 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:386 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:459 [ref. 25919], Randall & Mundy 1998:332 [ref. 24063], Myers 1999:283 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:588 [ref. 24106], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1402 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:458 [ref. 25191], Matsuura 2001:3927 [ref. 26315] dated 1831, Randall et al. 2002:163 [ref. 26192], Nakabo 2002:1402 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830] dated 1831, Myers & Donaldson 2003:650 [ref. 27495] dated 1831, Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624] dated 1831, Randall 2005:629 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:526 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1876 [ref. 29098], Randall 2007:473 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:117 [ref. 30213], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1067 [ref. 31980], Pyle & Earle 2013:11 [ref. 32891], Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2014:194 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:112 [ref. 35333]). Current status: Valid as Xanthichthys auromarginatus (Bennett 1832). Balistidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: western Mascarenes and Chagos Archipelago east to Hawaiian Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to southern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

azureus, Balistes Lesson [R. P.] 1831:121, Poissons Pl. 10 (fig. 2) [Voyage autour du monde Zool. v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 2776] New Guinea. Holotype (unique): lost. Non-types (too small): MNHN B-1809 (1) Nouvelle-Guinés, A-8520 (1, dry mounted) Bora Bora. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:518 [ref. 21538] incorrectly with a paratype from Bara Bora, Beaunier et al. 2009:295 [ref. 28887]. •Synonym of Canthidermis maculatus (Bloch 1786) -- (Berry & Baldwin 1966:460 [ref. 20607], Moore 1967:695 [ref. 22820], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1058 [ref. 19527]). •Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786) -- (Beaunier et al. 2009:295 [ref. 28887]). Current status: Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

barffi, Balistes Curtiss [A.] 1938:130 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Curtiss 1944:23 [ref. 12574] recognized he used this name on the previous p. 129 for another species; he synonymized barffi on p. 130 with Balistes aculeatus Linnaeus; barffi on p. 130 also is a homonym of barffi p. 129 and is not available. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

batillium, Balistes Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1847:col. 111 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Not available, Chiereghini name and description mentioned in synonymy. Also not available from Ninni 1872:39 [ref. 17995] where Chiereghini manuscript is quoted but name not treated as valid. Balistidae.

beeri, Balistes Bleeker [P.] 1860:53 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 8 (art. 7); ref. 379] Badjoa, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

bellus, Balistes Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:467 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] West Indies. No types known. •Synonym of Balistes vetula Linnaeus 1758 -- (Moore 1967:693 [ref. 22820], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1057 [ref. 19527]). Current status: Synonym of Balistes vetula Linnaeus 1758. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

bicolor, Balistes Shaw [G.] 1804:407, Pl. 168 (top) [General zoology or systematic natural history; ref. 4015] Indian Seas. Based on Balistes americanus Gmelin 1789 and one specimen. •Synonym of Canthidermis maculatus (Bloch 1786) based on placement of Balistes americanus Gmelin 1789. •Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786). Current status: Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

bipes, Balistes Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:37 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] American Ocean. No types known. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

bispinosus, Melichthys Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:125 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Clarion and Socorro Islands. Syntypes: (many). •Synonym of Melichthys niger (Bloch 1786) -- (Berry & Baldwin 1966:447 [ref. 20607], Moore 1967:693 [ref. 22820], Randall & Klausewitz 1973:60 [ref. 7581], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1059 [ref. 19527], Randall & Earle 2000:22 [ref. 25806]). Current status: Synonym of Melichthys niger (Bloch 1786). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

brasiliensis, Balistes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:470 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Brazilian seas. Holotype (unique): ?ZMB 5903 (stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:48 [ref. 24282] with 5903 as possible type; with locality in error, Beaunier et al. 2009:295 [ref. 28887]. Based on le Baliste étoilé of Lacepede 1798:350, Pl. 15 (fig. 1). •Synonym of Balistoides viridescens (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Paepke 1999:48 [ref. 24282]). Current status: Synonym of Balistoides viridescens (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

brevissimus, Balistes Hollard [H. L. G. M.] 1854:56, Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie) (Sér. 4) v. 1; ref. 18300] New Guinea and Australia. Syntypes: not found at MNHN. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:295 [ref. 28887]. •Synonym of Canthidermis maculatus (Bloch 1786) -- (Berry & Baldwin 1966:461 [ref. 20607], Moore 1967:695 [ref. 22820], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1058 [ref. 19527]). •Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786) -- (Allen et al. 2006:1872 [ref. 29098] as maculatus). Current status: Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

buniva, Balistes Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:668, 669, Pl. 21 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype: MRSNT [Museum of Turin]. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:295 [ref. 28887]. See account of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789. •Synonym of Balistes carolinensis Gmelin 1789 -- (Tortonese 1973:641 [ref. 7192], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1055 [ref. 19527]). •Synonym of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789 -- (Moore 1967:691 [ref. 22820], Beaunier et al. 2009:295 [ref. 28887]). Current status: Synonym of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

bursa, Balistes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Sonnerat & Bonnaterre) 1801:476 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] In mare indicum [Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean]. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-3050. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:48 [ref. 24282] with AMB 5914 (left skin) as holotype, Beaunier et al. 2009:287 [ref. 28887]. Based on the 'Baliste bourse' of Sonnerat 1774:222 (Journal de Physique, v. 3 [not seen]); also replacement name for Balistes communis Bonnaterre 1788. •Doubtful as Sufflamen bursa (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:278 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Sufflamen bursa (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:358 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:881 [ref. 5714], Allen & Swainston 1988:150 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:69 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:457 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:395 [ref. 23929], Allen 1997:238 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:388 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:457 [ref. 25919], Randall & Mundy 1998:332 [ref. 24063], Myers 1999:283 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:586 [ref. 24106], Randall 1999:30 [ref. 25829], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1399 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:457 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:22 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:124 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3926 [ref. 26315], Nakabo 2002:1399 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:649 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:78 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3331 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:627 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:525 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1875 [ref. 29098], Randall 2007:472 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:117 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:234 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1066 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:272 [ref. 32706], Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2014:194 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:112 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:18 [ref. 35354], Fricke et al. 2018:379 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Sufflamen bursa (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Balistidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and South Africa,Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Australia, New Caledonia and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

caeruleolineatus, Xanthichthys Randall [J. E.], Matsuura [K.] & Zama [A.] 1978:701, Figs. 2D, 7 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 28 (no. 4); ref. 5532] 4 kilometers southeast of pass, Manihi Atoll, Tuamotu Archipelago [French Polynesia, South Pacific], depth 350 feet. Holotype: BPBM 13211. Paratypes: AMS IB.1889 (1); BPBM 10016 (1); CAS 38035 (1); HUMZ 35534 (1), 40586-87 (2), 41474-75 (2), 42302 (1); MTUF 21837-38 (2); TUFIL 958 (1); USNM 202851 (3), 216524 (2). •Valid as Xanthichthys caeruleolineatus Randall, Matsuura & Zama 1978 -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:359 [ref. 6441], Garrison 1996:863 [ref. 21337], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:635 [ref. 24023], Randall et al. 1997:540 [ref. 25919], Randall & Mundy 1998:327 [ref. 24063], Myers 1999:283 [ref. 23965], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1401 [ref. 25182], Randall & Earle 2000:22 [ref. 25806], Matsuura 2001:3927 [ref. 26315], Nakabo 2002:1401 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:650 [ref. 27495], Randall 2005:629 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:527 [ref. 28379], Randall et al. 2005:132 [ref. 28745], Allen et al. 2006:1876 [ref. 29098], Randall 2007:474 [ref. 30952], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1067 [ref. 31980], Pyle & Earle 2013:11 [ref. 32891], Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988]). Current status: Valid as Xanthichthys caeruleolineatus Randall, Matsuura & Zama 1978. Balistidae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific: Saint Brandon's Shoals, Agalega Islands and Maldives east to Central America (Galapagos Islands), north to Ryukyu Islands, Ogasawara Islands and Hawaiian Islands, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

caeruleolorum, Zenodon Fowler [H. W.] 1904:546, Pl. 24 (upper fig.) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 12 (pt 4); ref. 1367] Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype: ANSP 27763. Paratypes: (2) ANSP 27764 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:26 [ref. 13621]. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

caerulescens, Balistes Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1829:32, Pl. 7 (fig. 2) [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 105. Paralectotypes: SMF 2936-37 (2), 2950 (1). Lectotype established by Dor 1984:276 [ref. 29757] if not designated earlier. Same types as Xenodon (Balistes) niger Rüppell. •Synonym of Pseudobalistes fuscus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:276 [ref. 29757], Golani & Fricke 2018:178 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudobalistes fuscus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

calolepis, Balistes Hollard [H. L. G. M.] in Guichenot 1853:183 [Sagra, R. de la, Histoire physique, politique et naturelle de l'Ile de Cuba; ref. 18164] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Lectotype: MNHN B-1868. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:519 [ref. 21538] for 1854 publication, Beaunier et al. 2009:287, 295 [ref. 28887]. Appeared first as above with citation to Hollard [manuscript] and to Parra citation taken from Hollard; original localities therefore are Mauritius, Réunion, and Cuba. Also described as new in Hollard 1854:67, Pl. 3 (fig. 5) [ref. 18300]. Lectotype as MNHN B-1868 from Mauritius selected by Randall 1978:698. •Synonym of Xanthichthys auromarginatus (Bennett 1832) -- (Fricke 1999:588 [ref. 24106]). •Synonym of Xanthichthys ringens (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Beaunier et al. 2009:295 [ref. 28887]). Current status: Synonym of Xanthichthys auromarginatus (Bennett 1832). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

caper, Balistes Giorna [M. E.] 1809:6 [Mémoires de l'Académie impériale des sciences, littérature et beaux-arts, Turin, Sér. Sciences Physiques et Mathématiques. [v. 16] (pt 1) (for 1805-1808); ref. 1808] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

capistratus, Balistapus Tilesius [W. G. von] 1820:306, 309, Pl. 9 [Mémoires de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de Saint Pétersbourg v. 7; ref. 4407] Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

capistratus, Balistes Shaw [G.] 1804:417 [General zoology or systematic natural history; ref. 4015] Indian Seas. No types known. Based on "Baliste bridé" of Lacepède. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:588 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Synonym of Sufflamen fraenatus (Latreille 1804) [frenatum is probably correct] -- (Randall et al. 1990:458 [ref. 15987], Randall 1995:394 [ref. 22896], Fricke 1999:587 [ref. 24106], Youn 2002:692 [ref. 26218], Mundy 2005:526 [ref. 28379] as frenatum, Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:356 [ref. 28867] as fraenatum, Randall 2007:473 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Sufflamen fraenatum (Latreille 1804). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

caprinus, Balistes Valenciennes [A.] 1839:[94], Pl. 16 (fig. 3) [Ichthyologie des îles Canaries v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 4502] Canary Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-1872. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:515 [ref. 21538], Beaunier et al. 2009:287 [ref. 28887]. Dates to Pl. 16 in 1839, p. 94 published in 1843. See account of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789. •Synonym of Balistes carolinensis Gmelin 1789 -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1055 [ref. 19527]). •Synonym of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789 -- (Moore 1967:691 [ref. 22820]). Current status: Synonym of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

capriscus, Balistes Walbaum [J. J.] (ex Willughby) 1792:465 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated. No types known. Independent of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789 and based on Capriscus salviani in pre-Linnaean work by Willughby 1686: Pl. I.29 [ref. 30164] -- see Parenti 2002:311 [ref. 26661]. •Junior synonym and primary homonym of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789 -- (Parenti 2002:311-312 [ref. 26661]). Current status: Synonym of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

capriscus, Balistes Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:30 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Indian and American Oceans. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.187 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:244-245 [ref. 13434] but as holotype. •Synonym of Balistes carolinensis Gmelin 1789 -- (Wheeler 1958:244 [ref. 13434], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:1335 [ref. 13677]). Current status: Synonym of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789. Balistidae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific. Habitat: marine.

capriscus, Balistes Gmelin [J. F.] 1789:1471 [Caroli a Linné ... Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18139] Western North Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Moore 1967:691 [ref. 22820] indicates that Daudin in Cloquet 1816:476-477 (v. 3) selected capriscus Gmelin 1789 over carolinensis Gmelin 1789, so when they are treated as synonyms, the name capriscus has priority over carolinensis. Neotype designated by Fricke 1999:54 [ref. 24101], but withdrawn in Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Synonym of Balistes carolinensis Gmelin 1789 -- (Tortonese 1973:641 [ref. 7192], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1055 [ref. 19527], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:156 [ref. 26753], Parin 2003:S32 [ref. 28536], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:75 [ref. 36649]). •Valid as Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789 -- (Moore 1967:691 [ref. 22820], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:465 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:302 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:563 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:225 [ref. 14674], Boschung 1992:180 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:265 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:74 [ref. 24489], Murdy et al. 1997:262 [ref. 23144], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2000:401 [ref. 24427], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:503 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:344 [ref. 25013], Fricke 1999:54 [ref. 24101], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:170 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1646 [ref. 25634], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:590 [ref. 26158], López et al. 2002:66 [ref. 26808], Matsuura 2003:1966 [ref. 27119], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:69 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:183 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:895 [ref. 28815], Fricke et al. 2007:117 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:193 [ref. 30517], Wirtz et al. 2007:41 [ref. 30263], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:17 [ref. 31251], Page et al. 2013:189 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:86 [ref. 33341], Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576], Parin et al. 2014:550 [ref. 33547], Pinheiro et al. 2015:33 [ref. 34324], Matsuura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3051 [ref. 34618], Robertson et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34961], Nión et al. 2016:55 [ref. 35565], Martins & Carneiro 2018:104 [ref. 36550], Spier et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36103], Artüz & Fricke 2019:561 [ref. 36612], Brown et al. 2019:182 [ref. 36444], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36864], Ribeiro et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789. Balistidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, Black Sea, Atlantic Ocean. Habitat: marine.

carolinensis, Balistes Gmelin [J. F.] 1789:1468 [Caroli a Linné ... Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18139] Indian and American seas. No types known. See account of Balistes capriscus. Neotype designated by Fricke 1999:54 [ref. 24101], but withdrawn in Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Valid as Balistes carolinensis Gmelin 1789 -- (Tortonese 1973:641 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:1335 [ref. 13677], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1055 [ref. 19527], Santos et al. 1997:113 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:121 [ref. 24952], Afonso et al. 1999:80 [ref. 25466], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:156 [ref. 26753], Parin 2003:S32 [ref. 28536], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:75 [ref. 36649]). •See account of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789. •Synonym of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789 -- (Moore 1967:691 [ref. 22820], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:344 [ref. 25013], Fricke 1999:54 [ref. 24101], Matsuura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3051 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

carolinensis, Balistes Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:29 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Several localities. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.186 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin) Carolinas, U.S.A. Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:245 [ref. 13434] but as holotype. See account of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789. •Synonym of Balistes carolinensis Gmelin 1789 -- (Wheeler 1958:245 [ref. 13434]). •Synonym of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789 -- (Matsuura 2003:1964 [ref. 27119], Parin et al. 2014:550 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

castaneus, Balistes Richardson [J.] 1845:126, Pl. 59 (figs. 5-8) [Ichthyology.--Part 3. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur.; ref. 20575] Pacific. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1848.3.18.22. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

cheverti, Monacanthus Alleyne [H. G.] & Macleay [W.] 1877:355, Pl. 17 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 1 (pts 3-4); ref. 101] No locality [northern Queensland, Australia, or Papua New Guinea]. No types known. •Synonym of Rhinecanthus aculeatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1060 [ref. 19527]). Current status: Synonym of Rhinecanthus aculeatus (Linnaeus 1758). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

chrysopterus, Balistes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:466 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Coromandel Coast, India. Syntypes: MNHN A-8542 (2, dry) Indian Seas, B-3045 (1, dry) Coromandel; ZMB 5912 (1, right skin) Tranquebar. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:48-49 [ref. 24282], Beaunier et al. 2009:288 [ref. 28887]. •Valid as Sufflamen chrysopterus [often as chrysopterus; correct is apparently Sufflamen chrysopterum] (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:358 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:881 [ref. 5714] as chrysoptera, Allen & Swainston 1988:150 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:69 [ref. 13251] as chrysopterum, Randall et al. 1990:458 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:394 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Randall 1995:394 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:238 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:236 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:388 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:458 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:283 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:586 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:754 [ref. 25471], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1398 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:457 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:279 [ref. 25480], Shinohara et al. 2000:183 [ref. 25987], Allen 2000:124 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:105 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3926 [ref. 26315], Nakabo 2002:1398 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:649 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3331 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:628 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1875 [ref. 29098], Fricke et al. 2009:117 [ref. 30213], Matsuura 2009:328 [ref. 31171], Motomura et al. 2010:234 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1066 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:272 [ref. 32706], Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2014:194 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2015:30 [ref. 34709] as chrysopterum, Koeda et al. 2016:112 [ref. 35333] as chrysopterum, Koeda et al. 2016:18 [ref. 35354] as chrysopterum, Fricke et al. 2018:379 [ref. 35805], Matsuura in Kimura et al. 2018:304 [ref. 36460] as chrysopterus, Zajonz et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Sufflamen chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Balistidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Samoa, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Australia, Lord Howe Island and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

chrysospilos, Balistes Bleeker [P.] 1853:94 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 16911] Lawajong, Solor Island, Indonesia. Bleeker specimens: ?BMNH 1864.11.28.131 (1). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

cicatricosus, Balistes Poey [F.] 1860:327 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Holotype: MCZ 11953. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:219 [ref. 22926] with a holotype. •Synonym of Xanthichthys ringens (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Moore 1967:695 [ref. 22820]). Current status: Synonym of Xanthichthys ringens (Linnaeus 1758). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

ciliaris, Balistes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:471 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Marankan, Brazil. Lectotype: ZMB 5900 (1, stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:49 [ref. 24282]. Lectotype selected by Paepke 1999:49 [ref. 24282]. •Synonym of Balistes punctatus Gmelin 1789 -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1056 [ref. 19527]). Current status: Synonym of Balistes punctatus Gmelin 1789. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

cinctus, Balistes Hollard [H. L. G. M.] 1854:335 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie) (Sér. 4) v. 1; ref. 18300] Syntypes: ?MNHN B-1847 (1) Waigiou, ?MNHN B-1789 (1) Vanikoro, ?MNHN 0000-3154 (1) Waigiou. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:288 [ref. 28887] with syntypes as probable. •Synonym of Rhinecanthus rectangulus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Beaunier et al. 2009:288 [ref. 28887]). Current status: Synonym of Rhinecanthus rectangulus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

cinerea, Guaperva Sonnerat [P.] 1774:78 [Observations sur la Physique, sur l'Histoire Naturelle et sur les Arts, Paris v. 4; ref. 30221] [Locality not stated] probably Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Not used as valid after 1899; therefore reversal of priority in favor of Balistes viridescens Bloch & Schneider 1801 is followed (Art. 23.9). •In the synonymy of Balistoides viridescens (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Current status: Synonym of Balistoides viridescens (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Balistidae.

cinereus, Balistes Bonnaterre [J. P.] (ex Sonnerat) 1788:20, Pl. 86 (fig. 353) [Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature... Ichthyologie; ref. 4940] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:296 [ref. 28887]. Based on the 'Baliste cendré' of Sonnerat 1775:78 (Journal de Physique, v. 4). •Valid as Rhinecanthus cinereus (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Matsuura & Shiobara 1989:317 [ref. 13563], Anderson et al. 1998:29 [ref. 23611], Myers 1999:283 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:584 [ref. 24106], Fricke et al. 2009:117 [ref. 30213], Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2018:378 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Rhinecanthus cinereus (Bonnaterre 1788). Balistidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Comores, Madagascar, western Mascarenes, Maldives. Habitat: marine.

cirrhosus, Balistes Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Rüppell 1829:34 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Not available, name only. Balistidae.

communis, Balistes Bonnaterre [J. P.] (ex Sonnerat) 1788:19, Pl. 85 (fig. 351) [Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature... Ichthyologie; ref. 4940] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-3050. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:288 [ref. 28887]. Based on 'Le Bourse' of Sonnerat 1774:222 (Journal de Physique, v. 3). Not used as valid after 1899; therefore reversal of priority (according to ICZN Art. 23.9) in favor of Balistes bursa Bloch & Schneider 1801 (with same holotype). •In the synonymy of Sufflamen bursa (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Current status: Synonym of Sufflamen bursa (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

communis, Guaperva Sonnerat [P.] 1774:226, Pls. 1-2 [Observations sur la Physique, sur l'Histoire Naturelle et sur les Arts, Paris v. 3; ref. 30219] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Also in Sonnerat 1774:443 [ref. 30220]. Not used as valid after 1899; therefore reversal of priority in favor of Balistes viridescens Bloch & Schneider 1801 is followed (Art. 23.9). •In the synonymy of Balistoides viridescens (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Current status: Synonym of Balistoides viridescens (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Balistidae.

conspicillum, Balistes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:474 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-3041. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:49 [ref. 24282], Beaunier et al. 2009:288 [ref. 28887]. Lectotype selected by Paepke 1999:49 [ref. 24282] as ZMB 5907 (stuffed) is in error (see Beaunier et al. 2008:288 [ref. 28887]). •Valid as Balistoides conspicillum (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:291 [ref. 19754], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:357 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:878 [ref. 5714], Winterbottom et al. 1989:67 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:453 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:393 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Allen 1997:240 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:180 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:390 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:453 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:281 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:578 [ref. 24106], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1398 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:454 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:124 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3920 [ref. 26315], Nakabo 2002:1398 [ref. 26193], Youn 2002:446, 691 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:649 [ref. 27495], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:219 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:31 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3331 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:441 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:621 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1871 [ref. 29098], Fricke et al. 2009:115 [ref. 30213], Matsuura 2009:326 [ref. 31171], Motomura et al. 2010:232 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1061 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:272 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:232 [ref. 32988], Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2014:192 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2015:30 [ref. 34709], Koeda et al. 2016:109 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:18 [ref. 35354], Motomura et al. 2017:230 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:376 [ref. 35805], Zajonz et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Balistoides conspicillum (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Balistidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Samoa, north to Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Australia and Lord Howe Island. Habitat: marine.

cryptacanthus, Aluteres Cuvier [G.] 1829:374 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] No locality. Available from footnote as, "Al. cryptacanthus, N., Renard, II, part. pl. lii, f. 284." Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

curassavicus, Balistes Gmelin [J. F.] 1789:1472 [Caroli a Linné ... Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18139] Curaçao. No types known. •Synonym of Xanthichthys ringens (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Moore 1967:695 [ref. 22820], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1060 [ref. 19527]). Current status: Synonym of Xanthichthys ringens (Linnaeus 1758). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

dichrostigma, Balistes Duméril [A. H. A.] (ex Guichenot) 1861:261 [Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 10 [for 1858]; ref. 1149] Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:301 [ref. 28887]. No distinguishing features, not available; from Gorée, Senegal. Guichenot's manuscript was based on MNHN B-1825 (Le Danois 1961:515 [ref. 21538]). •In the synonymy of Balistes punctatus Gmelin 1789 -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1056 [ref. 19527], Beaunier et al. 2009:301 [ref. 28887]). Current status: Synonym of Balistes punctatus Gmelin 1789. Balistidae.

echarpe, Balistes Anonymous [Lacepède [B. G. E.]] 1798:682 [Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung 1798 (pt. 3) (no. 287) (for 24 Sept. 1798); ref. 13098] Mauritius. Syntypes: MNHN B-3047 (3, dry). Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:288 [ref. 28887]. On Code recommendation 51D, the anonymous author is listed as Lacepède in square brackets. The same as Balistes rectangulus Bloch & Schneider 1801 with same types. •Regarded as valid as Rhinecanthus echarpe (Anonymous [Lacepède] 1798) -- (Chen et al. 1997:181 [ref. 26476]). •Current usage is as a synonym of Rhinecanthus rectangulus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (see Randall 2007:472 [ref. 30952], Beaunier et al. 2009:288-289 [ref. 28887]). Current status: Synonym of Rhinecanthus rectangulus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

ellioti, Balistes Day [F.] 1889:478 [The fauna of British India v. 2; ref. 4888] Madras, India. No types known. Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:162 [ref. 23762]. Based on a drawing. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

elongatus, Balistes Hollard [H. L. G. M.] 1854:69 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie) (Sér. 4) v. 1; ref. 18300] Azores, northeastern Atlantic. Holotype (unique): MNHN (not found). Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:296 [ref. 28887]. •Synonym of Xanthichthys ringens (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Moore 1967:695 [ref. 22820], Beaunier et al. 2009:296 [ref. 28887]). Current status: Synonym of Xanthichthys ringens (Linnaeus 1758). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

equestris, Balistes Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:31 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] American seas. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.190 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:244 [ref. 13434] but as holotype. •Synonym of Balistes vetula Linnaeus 1758 -- (Wheeler 1958:244 [ref. 13434], Moore 1967:693 [ref. 22820], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1057 [ref. 19527]). Current status: Synonym of Balistes vetula Linnaeus 1758. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

erythrodon, Balistes Günther [A.] 1870:228 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Replacement name for Xenodon niger Rüppell, secondarily preoccupied by Balistes niger Park 1797 when both species are in Balistes. •Synonym of Odonus niger (Rüppell 1836) -- (Dor 1984:276 [ref. 29757], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:355 [ref. 28867], Fricke et al. 2018:377 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:177 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Odonus niger (Rüppell 1836). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

erythropteron, Balistes Lesson [R. P.] 1831:123, Poissons Pl. 10 (fig. 3) [Voyage autour du monde Zool. v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 2776] Bora Bora, Society Islands. Holotype (unique): Not found at MNHN. Non-types: MNHN B-1847 (1) Waigou, 0000-3154 (1) Waigou. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:517 [ref. 21538] with locality as Waigou, Beaunier et al. 2009:296 [ref. 28887]. •Synonym of Rhinecanthus rectangulus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Current status: Synonym of Rhinecanthus rectangulus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

erythropterus, Balistes Swainson [W.] 1838:193, Fig. 27 [The natural history and classification of fishes, amphibians, & reptiles, or monocardian animals. v. 1; ref. 4302] No locality. Perhaps not intended as new but as Balistes erythropteron Lesson 1831. Balistidae.

erythropterus, Oncobalistes Fowler [H. W.] 1946:213, Fig. 73 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 98; ref. 1456] Aguni Shima, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype (unique): ANSP 72087. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:26 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Melichthys vidua (Richardson 1845) -- (Randall & Klausewitz 1973:63 [ref. 7581], Randall 2005:623 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:471 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Melichthys vidua (Richardson 1845). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Balistes Shaw [G.] 1804:409 [General zoology or systematic natural history; ref. 4015] Indian Seas. Based on "Baliste echarpe" of Lacepède. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

filamentosus, Abalistes Matsuura [K.] & Yoshino [T.] 2004:190, Fig. 1a [Records of the Australian Museum v. 56 (no. 2); ref. 27771] Off Itoman, south coast of Okinawa-jima Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype: NSMT-P 65579. Paratypes: AMS I.37974 (1); CSIRO H 1075-02 (1), H 2455-04 (1), H 3223-03 (1); HUMZ 38667 (1), 38705 (1), 38706 (1), 68923 (1), 68925 (1), 68926 (1); NSMT-P 49363 (1), 65582 (1); URM 3320 (1), 3321 (1), 3334 (1). •Valid as Abalistes filamentosus Matsuura & Yoshino 2004 -- (Allen et al. 2006:1870 [ref. 29098], Randall & Justine 2008:183 [ref. 29954], Larson et al. 2013:232 [ref. 32988], Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576], Motomura et al. 2017:229 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Abalistes filamentosus Matsuura & Yoshino 2004. Balistidae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean and Timor Sea. Habitat: marine.

fimbriatus, Balistes Forster [J. R.] in Richardson 1845:128 [Ichthyology.--Part 3. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur.; ref. 20575] Not available, name mentioned in synonymy Balistes vidua; from Tahiti. Balistidae.

flavimarginatus, Balistes Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1829:33 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype: SMF 2933 (dry). Non-types: SMF 4434 (1, skeleton). •Valid as Pseudobalistes flavimarginatus (Rüppell 1829) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:294 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:276 [ref. 29757], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:358 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:880 [ref. 5714], Randall et al. 1990:454 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:394 [ref. 23929], Mishra 1994:187 [ref. 24012], Goren & Dor 1994:73 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:611 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:240 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:392 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:454 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:282 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:581 [ref. 24106], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1397 [ref. 25182], Allen 2000:124 [ref. 25868], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:317 [ref. 27511] dated 1828, Sakai et al. 2001:123 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3922 [ref. 26315] dated 1828, Nakabo 2002:1397 [ref. 26193], Youn 2002:447, 691 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:649 [ref. 27495], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:220 [ref. 27510] dated 1828, Randall et al. 2004:31 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:624 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1873 [ref. 29098], Fricke et al. 2009:116 [ref. 30213], Matsuura 2009:327 [ref. 31171], Motomura et al. 2010:233 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2013:272 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:232 [ref. 32988], Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2014:193 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:111 [ref. 35333], Motomura et al. 2017:231 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:378 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:177 [ref. 36273], Zajonz et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Pseudobalistes flavimarginatus (Rüppell 1829). Balistidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Comoros, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Marshall Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Great Barrier Reef (Queensland, Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

forcipatus, Balistes Gmelin [J. F.] 1789:1472 [Caroli a Linné ... Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18139] Brazil. No types known. Also appeared in Shaw 1904:416 [ref. 4015]. •Synonym of Balistes carolinensis Gmelin 1789 -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1055 [ref. 19527], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:1336 [ref. 13677]). •Synonym of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789 -- (Moore 1967:691 [ref. 22820], Scott & Scott 1988:564 [ref. 25518], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:344 [ref. 25013]). •? Synonym of Balistes punctatus Gmelin 1789 -- (Matsuura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3052 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

fraenatus, Balistes Latreille [P. A.] 1804:74 [Tableau méthodique des poissons.; ref. 17490] No locality stated. No types at MNHN. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:296 [ref. 28887]. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:588 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Valid as Sufflamen fraenatus (Latreille 1804) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:342 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:292 [ref. 19754], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:358 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:881 [ref. 5714], Allen & Swainston 1988:150 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:458 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:395 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:73 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:394 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:612 [ref. 27969] with authors as Bloch & Schneider, Allen 1997:238 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:388 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:458 [ref. 25919], Randall & Mundy 1998:332 [ref. 24063], Myers 1999:283 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:587 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:754 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:30 [ref. 25829], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:457 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:22 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:124 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:105 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Youn 2002:447, 692 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:649 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:49 [ref. 27712] with author as Latrielle, Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988]). •Valid as Sufflamen fraenatum (Latreille 1804) -- (Winterbottom et al. 1989:69 [ref. 13251] as frenatum, Nakabo 2000:1399 [ref. 25182], Matsuura 2001:3927 [ref. 26315] dated 1801, Nakabo 2002:1399 [ref. 26193], Heemstra et al. 2004:3331 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:628 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:526 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1876 [ref. 29098], Randall 2007:473 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:117 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:234 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1067 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:232 [ref. 32988], Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2014:194 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:333 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2015:30 [ref. 34709], Koeda et al. 2016:112 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:18 [ref. 35354], Fricke et al. 2018:379 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:178 [ref. 36273], Zajonz et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Sufflamen fraenatum (Latreille 1804). Balistidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Australia, New Caledonia, Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island. Habitat: marine.

frenata, Cotilla Billberg [G. J.] 1833:52 [Linnéska Samfundets Handlingar v. 1 (for 1832); ref. 34146] No locality stated. No types at MNHN. Based on "Le Baliste Bridé" of Lacepède 1798:378 [ref.2708], which is based on the "Balistes totus niger" of Commerson 1767-1771 [ref. 34154]; see Kullander 2016:113 [ref. 34147]. •Synonym of Sufflamen fraenatum (Latreille 1804) -- (Kullander 2016:113 [ref. 34147] as fraenatus). Current status: Synonym of Sufflamen fraenatum (Latreille 1804). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

fuliginosus, Balistes DeKay [J. E.] 1842:339, Pl. 54 (fig. 188) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] New York harbor, New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Balistes carolinensis Gmelin 1789 -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1056 [ref. 19527]). •Synonym of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789 -- (Moore 1967:691 [ref. 22820]). •See account of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789. Current status: Synonym of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

fuscolineatus, Balistes Seale [A.] 1901:9, Fig. 4 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 14358] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: BPBM 664. Paratypes: ANSP 88511 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:26 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Melichthys niger (Bloch 1786) -- (Berry & Baldwin 1966:447 [ref. 20607], Moore 1967:693 [ref. 22820], Randall & Klausewitz 1973:60 [ref. 7581], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1059 [ref. 19527], Mundy 2005:524 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:470 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Melichthys niger (Bloch 1786). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

fuscus, Balistes Commerson [P.] in Lacepède 1798:378 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 1; ref. 2708] No locality. Appeared as "Balistes fuscus, maculâ pectorali maximâ, postremisque pinnarum marginibus albis,...."; regarded as non-binominal and not available. See ICZN Opinion 89. Balistidae.

fuscus, Balistes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:471 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] No locality stated [Indian Ocean]. Syntypes: MNHN B-3043 (1) Mer des Indes, B-3044 (1) Mer des Indes. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:289 [ref. 28887]. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:583 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Based on the "Baliste grande tache" of Lacepède 1798:378 [ref. 2708], which was based on a description in a manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). •Valid as Balistes fuscus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:340 [ref. 19756]). •Valid as Pseudobalistes fuscus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:294 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:276 [ref. 29757], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:358 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:880 [ref. 5714], Allen & Swainston 1988:150 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:455 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:393 [ref. 23929], Goren & Dor 1994:73 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:238 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:390 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:455 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:282 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:582 [ref. 24106], Randall 1999:30 [ref. 25829], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1397 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:456 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3923 [ref. 26315], Nakabo 2002:1397 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:649 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:31 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3331 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:625 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1873 [ref. 29098], Fricke et al. 2009:116 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:233 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1064 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:232 [ref. 32988], Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2014:193 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:333 [ref. 34104], Koeda et al. 2016:111 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:378 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:178 [ref. 36273], Zajonz et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Pseudobalistes fuscus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Balistidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Marshall Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

gaimardii, Balistes (Canthidermis) Swainson [W.] 1839:325 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Frey. Zool. p. 210 -- which is Quoy & Gaimard [ref. 3574]. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

garnoti, Balistes Castelnau [F. L.] 1873:107 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 2; ref. 758] Noble Island, Torres Strait, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-1934. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:289 [ref. 28887]. •Incertae sedis in Balistidae -- (Allen et al. 2006:1877 [ref. 29098]). •Synonym of Rhinecanthus rectangulus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Beaunier et al. 2098:289 [ref. 28887]). Current status: Synonym of Rhinecanthus rectangulus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

gotonis, Xanthichthys Tanaka [S.] 1918:481, Pl. 131 (fig. 372) [Figures and descriptions of the fishes of Japan v. 27; ref. 14911] Tokyo market, said to have come from Idzu [Izu], Japan. Holotype: ZUMT 7626 (lost). Paratypes: 7627-29 (3, lost). •Synonym of Xanthichthys mento (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Berry & Baldwin 1966:456 [ref. 20607]). Current status: Synonym of Xanthichthys mento (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

greenei, Xanthichthys Pyle [R. L.] & Earle [J. L.] 2013:3, Figs. 1-2 [Biodiversity Data Journal 1.e994; ref. 32891] Kiribati Atoll, directly off fuel tanks near London, outside of freighter ship,1°59'7884'N, 157.29'10.32"W, depth 300 feet (90 meters), Line Atoll. Holotype: BPBM 40262. Paratypes: CAS 236267 [ex BPBM 40342] (1); BPBM 40228 (1), 40342 (2), 40342 (1). •Valid as Xanthichthys greenei Pyle & Earle 2013. Current status: Valid as Xanthichthys greenei Pyle & Earle 2013. Balistidae. Distribution: Kiribati Atoll, Line Islands. Habitat: marine.

griseus, Balistes Commerson [P.] in Lacepède 1798:350, Pl. 15 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 1; ref. 2708] Appeared as "Balistes griseus, dorso maculis lenticularibus ...."; regarded as non-binominal, mentioned in footnote, thus not available; from Mauritius. See ICZN Opinion 89. Balistidae.

guttatus, Balistes Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:467 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality known. No types known. •Synonym of Balistes punctatus Gmelin 1789 -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1056 [ref. 19527]). Current status: Synonym of Balistes punctatus Gmelin 1789. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

guttatus, Balistes Cuvier [G.] 1816:153 [Le Règne Animal v. 2; ref. 993] Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:296 [ref. 28887]. Name only, not available; also as name only in Cuvier 1829:374 [ref. 995]. •Nomen nudum, family Balistidae -- (Beaunier et al. 2009:296 [ref. 28887]). Balistidae.

gutturosus, Balistes Hollard [H. L. G. M.] 1854:63 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie) (Sér. 4) v. 1; ref. 18300] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): Not found at MNHN. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:296 [ref. 28887]. •Synonym of Xanthichthys auromarginatus (Bennett 1832) -- (Fricke 1999:588 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Xanthichthys auromarginatus (Bennett 1832). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

heckelii, Balistes Müller [J. W. von] 1864:183 [Reisen in den Vereinigten Staaten, Canada und Mexico; ref. 14184] Mexico. No types known. As Balistes heckelii in Müller 1864:643 [ref. 14184] with reference to "Reise in Mexico, I, 182." •Synonym of Xanthichthys ringens (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Moore 1967:695 [ref. 22820]). Current status: Synonym of Xanthichthys ringens (Linnaeus 1758). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

heteracanthus, Balistes Bleeker [P.] 1859:22 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 6 (art. 2); ref. 14003] Doreh Bay [Doreh], off Manokwari, West Papua, Indonesia, New Guinea, ca. 0°53'25''S 134°05'29''E. Syntypes: RMNH 7260 (2). •Synonym of Rhinecanthus aculeatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1060 [ref. 19527]). Current status: Synonym of Rhinecanthus aculeatus (Linnaeus 1758). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

hihpe, Balistes Richardson [J.] 1845:127, Pl. 60 (fig. 2) [Ichthyology.--Part 3. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur.; ref. 20575] China Seas, Canton. No types known. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:218 [ref. 11606]). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

hispidulus, Balistes Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:35 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Indian seas. No types known. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

humilus, Balistes Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1924:434 [Philippine Journal of Science v. 25 (no. 4); ref. 10939] South coast of Cotabato Province, Mindanao, Philippines. Holotype: BSMP 10252 (presumed destroyed). Paratypes: BSMP (31) presumed destroyed. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

immaculatus, Balistes maculatus var. Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:465 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Apparently an unnamed variety, immaculatus not in type style of other varieties (not Latinized as such); not available from above source. Balistidae.

indicus, Melichthys Randall [J. E.] & Klausewitz [W.] 1973:(60) 64, Figs. 4-6 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 54 (nos 1/3); ref. 7581] Goy Huyong, Similian Islands, Thailand [Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean], 8°29'N, 97°39'E, depth 1-4 meters. Holotype: ANSP 105837. Paratypes: BPBM 12513 [ex SMF 4328] (1); MNHN 1954-0040 (2); RMNH 7286 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 665 (1), 666 (1), 667 (1); SMF 4258 (1), 5234 (1), 8662 (3), 8751 (1), 10972 (23). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:26 [ref. 13621], Beaunier et al. 2009:292 [ref. 28887]. •Valid as Melichthys indicus Randall & Klausewitz 1973 -- (Dor 1984:275 [ref. 29757], Smith & Heemstra 1986:879 [ref. 5714], Winterbottom et al. 1989:68 [ref. 13251], Goren & Dor 1994:73 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:393 [ref. 22896], Fricke 1999:579 [ref. 24106], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Fricke et al. 2009:116 [ref. 30213], Matsuura 2009:327 [ref. 31171], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1062 [ref. 31980], Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2018:377 [ref. 35805], Zajonz et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Melichthys indicus Randall & Klausewitz 1973. Balistidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar, western Mascarenes, Maldives and Chagos Archipelago east to Sumatra, Java and Bali. Habitat: marine.

jellaka, Balistes Cuvier [G.] 1829:372 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Vizagapatam, India. No types at MNHN. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:296 [ref. 28887]. Available from footnote as, "Bal. jellaka, N., Lamayellaka, Russel, 1, 22." •Unknown status -- (Beaunier et al. 2009:296 [ref. 28887]). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

kamoharai, Balistes vidua Abe [T.] 1958:178 [Records of Oceanographic Works in Japan Spec. No. 2; ref. 12041] Japan. Syntypes: ZUMT 23700 (1), 42402 (1), 44407 (1). Based on specimens and literature sources. •Synonym of Melichthys vidua (Richardson 1845) -- (Randall & Klausewitz 1973:63 [ref. 7581]). Current status: Synonym of Melichthys vidua (Richardson 1845). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

kib, Balistes Montrouzier [X.] 1857:495 [217] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:297 [ref. 28887]. On p. 217 of reprint. Not available, manuscript name mentioned in synonymy under Balistes lineatus; from Woodlark I., South Pacific. •In the synonymy of Melichthys niger (Bloch 1786) -- (Moore 1967:693 [ref. 22820], Randall & Klausewitz 1973:60 [ref. 7581], Beaunier et al. 2009:296 [ref. 28887]). Current status: Synonym of Melichthys niger (Bloch 1786). Balistidae.

kibitar, Balistes Montrouzier [X.] 1857:494 [216] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:297 [ref. 28887]. On p. 216 of reprint. •Synonym of Melichthys niger (Bloch 1786) -- (Berry & Baldwin 1966:447 [ref. 20607], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1059 [ref. 19527]). Current status: Synonym of Melichthys niger (Bloch 1786). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

liberiensis, Balistes Steindachner [F.] 1867:64 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe v. 4 (no. 8); ref. 20462] Monrovia, Liberia. Holotype (unique): NMW 63441. Species also appeared on p. 442 of English version [ref. 20462]; later appeared in more detail in Steindachner 1867:525, Pl. 3 [ref. 4215]; and on p. 9 of separate. •Synonym of Balistes punctatus Gmelin 1789 -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1057 [ref. 19527]). Current status: Synonym of Balistes punctatus Gmelin 1789. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

lima, Balistes Bennett [E. T.] 1832:168 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1830-31 (pt 1); ref. 4944] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. •Valid as Xanthichthys lima (Bennett 1832) -- (Fricke 1999:589 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Valid as Xanthichthys lima (Bennett 1832). Balistidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

lineatus, Balistes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:466, Pl. 87 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Coast of Coromandel, India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 5902 (stuffed). •Synonym of Balistapus undulatus (Park 1797) -- (Dor 1984:275 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Balistapus undulatus (Park 1797) -- (Matsuura 2001:3919 [ref. 26315], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:440 [ref. 28072]). Current status: Synonym of Balistapus undulatus (Park 1797). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

lineopunctatus, Balistes Hollard [H. L. G. M.] 1854:65 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie) (Sér. 4) v. 1; ref. 18300] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (?): MNHN A-8529 (dry mounted). Possible type: MNHN 0000-4071 (1). Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:519 [ref. 21538] as holotype and paratype, but perhaps there was only a holotype (A.8529), Beaunier et al. 2009:290 [ref. 28887]. Originally as Lineo-punctatus. •Synonym of Xanthichthys lima (Bennett 1832) -- (Fricke 1999:589 [ref. 24106]). •Valid as Xanthichthys lineopunctatus (Hollard 1854) -- (Fedoryako 1979:993 [ref. 8721], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:359 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:881 [ref. 5714], Allen & Swainston 1988:150 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:238 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:181 [ref. 26476], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1401 [ref. 25182], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3928 [ref. 26315], Nakabo 2002:1401 [ref. 26193], Allen et al. 2006:1876 [ref. 29098], Fricke et al. 2009:118 [ref. 30213], Pyle & Earle 2013:11 [ref. 32891], Matsuura 2014:8 [ref. 33576], Koeda et al. 2016:113 [ref. 35333]). Current status: Valid as Xanthichthys lineopunctatus (Hollard 1854). Balistidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific, antiequatorial: East Africa, South Africa, Comores and western Mascarenes east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

linguatula, Balistes Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:35 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Indian seas. No types known. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

longirostris, Canthidermis Tortonese [E.] 1956:77, Fig. 1 [Rivista di Biologia Coloniale v. 14 (for 1954); ref. 12230] Dahlak Island, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): MCZR [Dahlak. Mus. Civ. Zool. Roma] 20162. •Synonym of Canthidermis maculatus (Bloch 1786) -- (Berry & Baldwin 1966:461 [ref. 20607], Moore 1967:695 [ref. 22820], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1059 [ref. 19527], Gill & Randall et al. 1997:28 [ref. 22948]). •Synonym of Canthidermis macrolepis (Boulenger 1888) -- (Randall 1995:393 [ref. 22896]). •Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786). Current status: Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

longissimus, Balistes Hollard [H. L. G. M.] 1854:60, Pl. 3 (fig. 3) [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie) (Sér. 4) v. 1; ref. 18300] Vanikoro Island, Santa Cruz Islands, southwestern Pacific; Society Islands. Syntypes: ?MNHN B-1806 (1). Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:519 [ref. 21538] as holotype, Beaunier et al. 2009:290 [ref. 28887]. •Synonym of Canthidermis maculatus (Bloch 1786) -- (Berry & Baldwin 1966:461 [ref. 20607], Moore 1967:695 [ref. 22820], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1058 [ref. 19527]). •Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786). Current status: Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

longus, Balistes Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:37 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] American Ocean. No types known. •Synonym of Canthidermis maculatus (Bloch 1786) -- (Berry & Baldwin 1966:461 [ref. 20607], Moore 1967:695 [ref. 22820], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1058 [ref. 19527]). •Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786). Current status: Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

lunula, Rhinecanthus Randall [J. E.] & Steene [R. C.] 1983:46, Figs. 8-10 [Freshwater and Marine Aquarium v. 6 (no. 7); ref. 6023] Outside barrier reef about 1/4 mile east of Teavaraa Pass, Papara, Tahiti, Society Islands, depth 15 meters. Holotype: BPBM 8995. Paratypes: BMNH 1981.12.31.1 (1); BPBM 17177 (1), 24459 (1); CAS 44268 (1); USNM 220357 (1). •Valid as Rhinecanthus lunula Randall & Steene 1983 -- (Matsuura & Shiobara 1989:317 [ref. 13563], Randall et al. 1990:456 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:240 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:456 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:283 [ref. 23965], Randall 1999:30 [ref. 25829], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:456 [ref. 25191], Randall et al. 2004:31 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:626 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1874 [ref. 29098], Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Rhinecanthus lunula Randall & Steene 1983. Balistidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Queensland, Australia to Pitcairn Island. Habitat: marine.

lunulatus, Balistes Risso [A.] 1827:175 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:297 [ref. 28887]. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

macrolepis, Balistes Boulenger [G. A.] 1888:666 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1887 (pt 4); ref. 14479] Muscat, Oman, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean. Lectotype: BMNH 1887.11.11.334 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1887.121.11.335 (1, stuffed). Lectotype selected by Gill & Randall 1997:27 [ref. 22948]. •Valid as Canthidermis macrolepis (Boulenger 1888) -- (Randall 1995:393 [ref. 22896], Gill & Randall et al. 1997:27 [ref. 22948], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576], Psomadakis et al. 2015:332 [ref. 34104], Golani & Fricke 2018:177 [ref. 36273], Zajonz et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Canthidermis macrolepis (Boulenger 1888). Balistidae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden, Socotra, southern Oman. Habitat: marine.

macrophthalmus, Capriscus (Leiurus) Swainson [W.] 1839:326 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Russ. pl. 22 -- which is Russell 1803:Pl. 22 [ref. 13862]. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

macrops, Balistes Poey [F.] 1860:326 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Canthidermis sufflamen (Mitchill 1815) -- (Moore 1967:699 [ref. 22820]). Current status: Synonym of Canthidermis sufflamen (Mitchill 1815). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

macropterus, Balistes Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:465 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] American Ocean. No types known. •Synonym of Canthidermis maculatus (Bloch 1786) -- (Berry & Baldwin 1966:460 [ref. 20607], Moore 1967:695 [ref. 22820], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1058 [ref. 19527]). •Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786). Current status: Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

maculata, Guaperva Sonnerat [P.] 1774:443, Pl. 2 [Observations sur la Physique, sur l'Histoire Naturelle et sur les Arts, Paris v. 3; ref. 30220] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean; Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Not used as valid after 1899; therefore reversal of priority in favor of Balistes conspicillum Bloch & Schneider 1801 is followed (Art. 23.9). •In the synonymy of Balistoides conspicillum (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Current status: Synonym of Balistoides conspicillum (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Balistes Bloch [M. E.] 1786:25, Pl. 151 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 2; ref. 465] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India. Lectotype: ZMB 5904 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: ZMB 4140-41 (1, 2). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:49 [ref. 24282]. On p. 22 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 5 [ref. 21381]. Lectotype selected by Paepke 1999:49 [ref. 24282]. Canthidermis is feminine, so the correct spelling is maculata. •Valid as Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786) [but often seen as C. maculatus] -- (Berry & Baldwin 1966:460 [ref. 20607], Moore 1967:695 [ref. 22820], Tortonese 1973:642 [ref. 7192], Kyushin et al. 1977:352 [ref. 19756], Fedoryako 1979:986 [ref. 8721], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:467 [ref. 14275], Dor 1984:275 [ref. 29757], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:359 [ref. 6441], Robins & Ray 1986:302 [ref. 23100], Smith & Heemstra 1986:878 [ref. 5714], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1058 [ref. 19527], Boschung 1992:181 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:265 [ref. 23827], Kuiter 1993:392 [ref. 23929], Allen & Robertson 1994:294 [ref. 22193], Goren & Dor 1994:73 [ref. 25356], Bussing in Fischer et al. 1995:908 [ref. 22829], Cervigón 1996:77 [ref. 24489], Gill & Randall et al. 1997:27 [ref. 22948], Santos et al. 1997:113 [ref. 23531], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:66 [ref. 24545], Larson & Williams 1997:374 [ref. 23967], Lindberg et al. 1997:64 [ref. 23547], Allen 1997:240 [ref. 23977], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:629 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:137 [ref. 24555], Myers 1999:281 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:579 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:345 [ref. 25013], Johnson 1999:754 [ref. 25471], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1401 [ref. 25182], Matsuura 2001:3924 [ref. 26315] as maculatus, Shimizu 2001:46 [ref. 25799], Nakabo 2002:1401 [ref. 26193], Youn 2002:447, 691 [ref. 26218] as maculatus, Collette et al. 2003:126 [ref. 26784], Matsuura 2003:1969 [ref. 27119], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377] as maculatus, Myers & Donaldson 2003:649 [ref. 27495] as maculatus, Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27192] as maculatus, Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:219 [ref. 27510], Parin 2003:S33 [ref. 28536], Randall et al. 2004:31 [ref. 27624] as maculatus, Nelson et al. 2004:184 [ref. 27807], Mundy 2005:523 [ref. 28379] as maculatus, McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:897 [ref. 28815], Allen et al. 2006:1872 [ref. 29098] as maculatus, Béarez & Séret 2009:151 [ref. 36646], Fricke et al. 2009:116 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:232 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1062 [ref. 31980] as maculatus, Page et al. 2013:189 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32972], Larson et al. 2013:232 [ref. 32988] as maculatus, Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:86 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:12 [ref. 33516], Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576], Parin et al. 2014:550 [ref. 33547], Fricke et al. 2014:192 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:332 [ref. 34104], Pinheiro et al. 2015:34 [ref. 34324], Matsuura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3055 [ref. 34618], Fourriére et al. 2016:450 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:612 [ref. 34923], Koeda et al. 2016:110 [ref. 35333], Nión et al. 2016:55 [ref. 35565] as maculatus, Motomura et al. 2017:230 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:377 [ref. 35805], Brown et al. 2019:182 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786). Balistidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and temperate seas. Habitat: marine.

marmoratus, Balistes Marion de Procé [P.-M.] 1822:130 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris [Sér. 3] [v. 9] (for 1822); ref. 17601] Mer des Indes. No types known. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:297 [ref. 28887]. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

mauritianus, Balistes Regan [C. T.] 1903:414, Pl. 13 (fig. 4) [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 11 (no. 2); ref. 3620] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MHNG 665.43. Type catalog: Mahnert 1976:472 [ref. 21535], Weber 1998:13 [ref. 23532]. •Synonym of Melichthys niger (Bloch 1786) -- (Fricke 1999:580 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Melichthys niger (Bloch 1786). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

medinilla, Balistes Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:206, Pl. 46 (fig. 2) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] From îles des Papous. Holotype (unique): Not at MNHN. Non-type: MNHN B-1789 (1). Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:516 [ref. 21538] with B-1789 as paratype, Beaunier et al. 2009:297 [ref. 28887].. •Synonym of Rhinecanthus rectangulus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Beaunier et al. 2009:297 [ref. 28887]). Current status: Synonym of Rhinecanthus rectangulus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

melanopleura, Balistes Bleeker [P.] 1849:73 [Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia (Singapore) v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 316] Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

melanopterus, Balistes Cope [E. D.] 1871:478 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] Darien, Panama. No types known. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:26 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Canthidermis maculatus (Bloch 1786) -- (Berry & Baldwin 1966:461 [ref. 20607], Moore 1967:695 [ref. 22820], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1058 [ref. 19527] as melanoperus). •Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786). Current status: Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

membranaceus, Balistes Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Rüppell 1829:34 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Not available, name only. Balistidae.

mento, Balistes Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:228 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 221); ref. 18348] Clarion Island, Revillagigedo Islands, off western Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 28387 (not found in 1980). •Valid as Xanthichthys mento (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Berry & Baldwin 1966:456 [ref. 20607], Fedoryako 1979:992 [ref. 8721], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:296 [ref. 9277], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:359 [ref. 6441], Pequeño 1989:77 [ref. 14125], Bussing in Fischer et al. 1995:909 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:66 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:635 [ref. 24023], Randall & Mundy 1998:332 [ref. 24063], Myers 1999:283 [ref. 23965], Randall 1999:30 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:1402 [ref. 25182], Matsuura 2001:3928 [ref. 26315], Nakabo 2002:1402 [ref. 26193], Lobel & Lobel 2004:78 [ref. 27576], Nelson et al. 2004:184 [ref. 27807], Pequeño 2004:96 [ref. 28123], Randall 2005:630 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:527 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:475 [ref. 30952], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:190 [ref. 32708], Matsuura 2014:8 [ref. 33576], Fourriére et al. 2016:451 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:612 [ref. 34923], Kells et al. 2016:338 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Xanthichthys mento (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Balistidae. Distribution: Pacific, antitropical: southern Japan east to Hawaiian Islands and eastern Pacific from California (U.S.A.) to Colombia; Pitcairn and Easter Island. Habitat: marine.

minor, Balistes Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xvii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] No locality stated (Red Sea). No types known. •Synonym of Balistapus undulatus (Park 1797) -- (Dor 1984:275 [ref. 29757]). Current status: Synonym of Balistapus undulatus (Park 1797). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

mitis, Balistes Bennett [E. T.] 1832:169 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1830-31 (pt 1); ref. 4944] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:588 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Synonym of Sufflamen fraenatus (Latreille 1804) [fraenatum is probably correct] -- (Fricke 1999:587 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Sufflamen fraenatum (Latreille 1804). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

mordax, Balistes Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Rüppell 1829:34 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Not available, name only. Balistidae.

moribundus, Balistes Cope [E. D.] 1871:478 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] St. Martin Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): ANSP 781. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:26 [ref. 13621]. See account of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789. •Synonym of Balistes carolinensis Gmelin 1789 -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1056 [ref. 19527]). •Synonym of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789 -- (Moore 1967:691 [ref. 22820]). Current status: Synonym of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

mungopark, Balistes Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:681, 682 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Sumatra, Indonesia. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:297 [ref. 28887]. Originally as Mungo-Park. New name for Balistes niger Park 1797. Also appeared in Sonnini 1803:288 [ref. 30464]. •Synonym of Sufflamen chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Beaunier et al. 2009:297 [ref. 28887]). Current status: Synonym of Sufflamen chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

munumum, Balistes Montrouzier [X.] 1857:496 [218] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:297 [ref. 28887]. On p. 218 of reprint. •Synonym of Canthidermis maculatus (Bloch 1786) -- (Berry & Baldwin 1966:461 [ref. 20607], Moore 1967:695 [ref. 22820] as minimum, Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1058 [ref. 19527]). •Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786) -- (Beaunier et al. 2009:297 [ref. 28887]). Current status: Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

naufragium, Balistes Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] in Jordan 1895:488 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 5; ref. 2394] Astillero at Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Holotype: CAS-SU 11656. Paratypes: (4) BMNH 1895.5.27.330 (1), CAS-SU 1656 (1), ZMB 14084 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:143-144 [ref. 12291]. Original description lists 1656 as type; two types have tin tags 1656, but the larger one labeled holotype now carries the number SU 11656, a smaller one 1656. •Valid as Pseudobalistes naufragium (Jordan & Starks 1895) -- (Berry & Baldwin 1966:440 [ref. 20607], Pequeño 1989:77 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:295 [ref. 22193], Bussing in Fischer et al. 1995:909 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:66 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:632 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:137 [ref. 24555], Thomson et al. 2000:269 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:184 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:190 [ref. 32708], Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:451 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:612 [ref. 34923], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:93 [ref. 35859]). Current status: Valid as Pseudobalistes naufragium (Jordan & Starks 1895). Balistidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California to Ecuador. Habitat: marine.

nebulosus, Balistes Poey [F.] 1860:328 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. No types known. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

niger, Balistes Park [M.] 1797:37 [The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London v. 3 (art. 9); ref. 17801] Habitat in Sumatræ littore [Bengkulu Province, Sumatra, Indonesia, eastern Indian Ocean]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1863.11.12.10 (dry, right half skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1974:476 [ref. 31545]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Balistes niger Bloch 1786. •Synonym of Sufflamen chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (see Günther 1870:218 [ref. 1995]). Current status: Synonym of Sufflamen chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

niger, Balistes Commerson [P.] in Lacepède 1798:370 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 1; ref. 2708] Appeared as "Balistes niger, lineâ albâ dorsi Commerson"; regarded as non-binominal and name only, thus not available. See ICZN Opinion 89. Balistidae.

niger, Balistes Bloch [M. E.] 1786:27, Pl. 152 (fig. 2) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 2; ref. 465] No locality [? China]. Lectotype: ZMB 5901 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: lost. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:50 [ref. 24282]. Plate is labeled Balistes ringens. Based in part on Balistes ringens Linnaeus 1758. On p. 24 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 5 [ref. 21381]. Lectotype selected by Paepke 1999:50 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Melichthys niger (Bloch 1786) -- (Berry & Baldwin 1966:447 [ref. 20607], Moore 1967:693 [ref. 22820], Randall & Klausewitz 1973:60 [ref. 7581], Kyushin et al. 1977:346 [ref. 19756], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:296 [ref. 9277], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:358 [ref. 6441], Robins & Ray 1986:303 [ref. 23100], Smith & Heemstra 1986:879 [ref. 5714], Edwards & Glass 1987:668 [ref. 9166], Allen & Swainston 1988:150 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:68 [ref. 13251], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1059 [ref. 19527], Randall et al. 1990:454 [ref. 15987], Cervigón 1992:266 [ref. 23827], Allen & Robertson 1994:295 [ref. 22193], Bussing in Fischer et al. 1995:908 [ref. 22829], Cervigón 1996:79 [ref. 24489], Lindberg et al. 1997:61 [ref. 23547], Allen 1997:238 [ref. 23977], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:66 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:630 [ref. 24023], Kuiter 1997:386 [ref. 25488], Randall & Mundy 1998:331 [ref. 24063], Myers 1999:281 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:579 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:346 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:87 [ref. 25466], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1396 [ref. 25182], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:170 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1646 [ref. 25634], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3924 [ref. 26315], Nakabo 2002:1396 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Collette et al. 2003:126 [ref. 26784], Feitoza et al. 2003:69 [ref. 26943], Matsuura 2003:1968 [ref. 27119], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:649 [ref. 27495], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27192], Lobel & Lobel 2004:77 [ref. 27576], Smith et al. 2003:69 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:184 [ref. 27807], Randall 2005:623 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:524 [ref. 28379], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:899 [ref. 28815], Vaske et al. 2005:77 [ref. 36155], Allen et al. 2006:1872 [ref. 29098], Wirtz et al. 2007:42 [ref. 30263], Randall 2007:470 [ref. 30952], Béarez & Séret 2009:151 [ref. 36646], Fricke et al. 2009:116 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1063 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:189 [ref. 32708], Fricke et al. 2013:272 [ref. 32706], Wirtz et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:86 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:12 [ref. 33516], Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Pinheiro et al. 2015:34 [ref. 34324], Matsuura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3054 [ref. 34618], Fourriére et al. 2016:451 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:612 [ref. 34923], Robertson et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34961], Kells et al. 2016:338 [ref. 35888], Fricke et al. 2018:377 [ref. 35805], Brown et al. 2019:182 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Melichthys niger (Bloch 1786). Balistidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and subtropical seas. Habitat: marine.

niger, Balistes Bonnaterre [J. P.] (ex Sonnerat) 1788:10, Pl. 85 (fig. 152 [?352]) [Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature... Ichthyologie; ref. 4940] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:297 [ref. 28887]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Balistes niger Bloch 1786. Based on the 'Baliste tacheté' of Sonnerat 1774:445 (Journal de Physique, v. 3). •Synonym of Balistoides conspicillum (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Fricke 1999:578 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Balistoides conspicillum (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

niger, Capriscus Swainson [W.] 1839:326 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] No locality. Holotype (unique): dry skin (whereabouts unknown). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

niger, Xenodon (Balistes) Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1836:[53], Pl. 14 (fig. 3) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 5232 (dry). Possible paralectotype: NRM 35986 (1). Dates to publication of Pl. 14 in 1836, p. 53 in 1837. Lectotype selected by Fricke 1999:581 [ref. 24106]. •Valid as Odonus niger (Rüppell 1836) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:348 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:276 [ref. 29757], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:358 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:879 [ref. 5714], Winterbottom et al. 1989:68 [ref. 13251], Goren & Dor 1994:73 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:393 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:611 [ref. 27969], Lindberg et al. 1997:57 [ref. 23547], Allen 1997:240 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:388 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:454 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:282 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:580 [ref. 24106], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1396 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:455 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:22 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3925 [ref. 26315] dated 1835, Nakabo 2002:1396 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830] dated 1837, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:649 [ref. 27495] dated 1837, Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:220 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:31 [ref. 27624] dated 1837, Randall 2005:624 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1873 [ref. 29098], Fricke et al. 2009:116 [ref. 30213], Matsuura 2009:327 [ref. 31171], Motomura et al. 2010:233 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1063 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:272 [ref. 32706], Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2014:193 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988] dated 1829, Psomadakis et al. 2015:333 [ref. 34104], Koeda et al. 2016:110 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:18 [ref. 35354], Fricke et al. 2018:377 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:177 [ref. 36273], Jawad et al. 2018:122 [ref. 36262], Zajonz et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Odonus niger (Rüppell 1836). Balistidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Marquesas Islands and Society Islands, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to southern Great Barrier Reef (Queensland, Australia), New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

nigra, Balistes Osbeck [P.] 1771:93 [A voyage to China and the East Indies v. 1-2; ref. 18499] Ascension Island. Unneeded new name for Balistes ringens Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Xanthichthys ringens (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Xanthichthys ringens (Linnaeus 1758). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

nigricans, Balistes Commerson [P.] in Lacepède 1798:375 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 1; ref. 2708] Appeared as "Balistes nigricans; rostro, maculis, pinnis pectoris, dorsi, ani, dimidiâque caudâ, exalbidis; ...."; regarded as non-binominal and first published in synonymy, thus not available. See ICZN Opinion 89. Balistidae.

nigricans, Balistes Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Rüppell 1829:34 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Not available, name only. Balistidae.

nigromarginatus, Pachynathus Tanaka [S.] 1908:39, Pl. 1 (fig. 4) [Journal of the College of Science. Imperial University, Tokyo v. 23 (art. 7); ref. 6032] Misaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 958 (lost). •Synonym of Balistoides viridescens (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:290 [ref. 19754]). Current status: Synonym of Balistoides viridescens (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

nigropunctatus, Balistes Osbeck [P.] 1765:147 [Reise nach Ostindien und China; ref. 3311] South China Sea, southwest of Macao, China. Originally as nigro-punctatus. Name and locality only; not available. Balistidae.

nitidus, Balistes Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:36 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] American Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1853.11.12.189 [Gronovius coll.] (skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:245 [ref. 13434]. •Synonym of Xanthichthys ringens (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Wheeler 1958:245 [ref. 13434], Moore 1967:695 [ref. 22820]). Current status: Synonym of Xanthichthys ringens (Linnaeus 1758). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

notatus, Balistes Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:36 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Several localities. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.188 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin) "Utrisque Indiis". Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:245 [ref. 13434] but as holotype. •Synonym of Xanthichthys ringens (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Wheeler 1958:245 [ref. 13434], Moore 1967:695 [ref. 22820]). Current status: Synonym of Xanthichthys ringens (Linnaeus 1758). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

nummiferus, Balistes Hermann [J.] 1804:298 [Observationes zoologicae; ref. 2146] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

nycteris, Pachynathus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:199 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50821. •Synonym of Melichthys vidua (Richardson 1845) -- (Randall & Klausewitz 1973:62 [ref. 7581], Randall 2005:623 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:524 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:471 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Melichthys vidua (Richardson 1845). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

obscurus, Balistapus aculeatus var. Borodin [N. A.] 1930:62 [Bulletin Vanderbilt Marine Museum v. 1 (art. 2); ref. 16069] Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: VMM 638 (now at AMNH). Described as a new color variety; perhaps can be treated as infrasubspecific and not available. •In the synonymy of Rhinecanthus aculeatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Mundy 2005:525 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Rhinecanthus aculeatus (Linnaeus 1758). Balistidae.

oculatus, Balistes Gray [J. E.] 1831:no page number, Pl. 90 (fig. 1) [Illustrations of Indian zoology; ref. 1878] India. No types known. Published about 27 July 1831. •Synonym of Canthidermis maculatus (Bloch 1786) -- (Berry & Baldwin 1966:460 [ref. 20607], Moore 1967:695 [ref. 22820], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1058 [ref. 19527]). •Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786) -- (Allen et al. 2006:1872 [ref. 29098] as maculatus). Current status: Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

oire, Balistes Bennett [F. D.] 1840:262 [Narrative of a whaling voyage round the globe v. 2; ref. 260] Raiatea, Society Islands. No types known. Originally orié. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

ornatissimus, Balistes Lesson [R. P.] 1831:119, Poissons Pl. 10 (fig. 1) [Voyage autour du monde Zool. v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 2776] Bora Bora, Society Islands. Holotype (unique): Not found at MNHN. Non-types (too small): MNHN B-1796 (1), B-1800 (1), B-1802 (1), B-1876 (1). Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:517 [ref. 21538] with holotype and paratypes; his holotype designated lectotype by Eschmeyer 1998:1251 [ref. 23416] but that apparently in error. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:298 [ref. 28887]. •Synonym of Rhinecanthus aculeatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1060 [ref. 19527], Allen et al. 2006:1874 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Rhinecanthus aculeatus (Linnaeus 1758). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

ornatissimus, Balistes Swainson [W.] 1838:190, Fig. 25 [The natural history and classification of fishes, amphibians, & reptiles, or monocardian animals. v. 1; ref. 4302] No locality. Perhaps not intended as new; objectively invalid; objectively invalid, preoccupied by Balistes ornatissimus Lesson 1831. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

papillosus, Balistes Linnaeus [C.] 1758:328 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] No locality. No types known. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

papuensis, Balistes Macleay [W.] 1883:279 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 2); ref. 17587] Hood Bay, Papua New Guinea. Holotype (unique): AMS I.9110. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

paragaudata, Tobinia Whitley [G. P.] 1933:47, fig'd [Australian Museum Magazine v. 5 (no. 2); ref. 6595] Tasmania, Australia. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

pellion, Balistes Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824-25:211, Pl. 45 (figs. 3-8) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] South Australia. Holotype: MNHN B-2028. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:521-522 [ref. 21538]. •Incertae sedis in Balistidae -- (Allen et al. 2006:1877 [ref. 29098]). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

pellucidus, Balistes Hermann [J.] 1804:299 [Observationes zoologicae; ref. 2146] Ascension Island. No types known. •Doubtful species; needs redescription if valid -- (Wirtz et al. 2014:11 [ref. 33516]). Current status: Uncertain as Balistes pellucidus Hermann 1804. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

phaleratus, Balistes Richardson [J.] 1846:484, Pl. 1 (figs. 4-5) [Discoveries in Australia; ref. 3743] West coasts of Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 2012.11.1.5. On Code recommendation 51D, the anonymous author is listed in square brackets. •Synonym of Abalistes stellatus ([Lacepède] 1798) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1055 [ref. 19527], Matsuura & Yoshino 2004:192 [ref. 27771] with author as Anonymous, Allen et al. 2006:1870 [ref. 29098]). Current status: Synonym of Abalistes stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

piceus, Balistes Poey [F.] 1863:180 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 18561] Havana, Cuba. Poey specimens and/or syntypes: ZMB 5920 (1), 8192 (1). •Synonym of Melichthys niger (Bloch 1786) -- (Berry & Baldwin 1966:447 [ref. 20607], Moore 1967:693 [ref. 22820], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1059 [ref. 19527], Randall 2005:623 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:470 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Melichthys niger (Bloch 1786). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

polylepis, Balistes Steindachner [F.] 1876:69 [21] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] Magdalena Bay, Baja California, Mexico. Syntypes: (several) NMW 63496-500 (1, 1, 1, 1, 2), 76426 (1). On p. 21 of separate. •Valid as Balistes polylepis Steindachner 1876 -- (Berry & Baldwin 1966:436 [ref. 20607], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:295 [ref. 9277], Pequeño 1989:77 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:294 [ref. 22193], Bussing in Fischer et al. 1995:908 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:64 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:628 [ref. 24023], Randall & Mundy 1998:324 [ref. 24063], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:137 [ref. 24555], Thomson et al. 2000:268 [ref. 25640], Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:851 [ref. 25968], Richards & Engle 2001:182 [ref. 25759], Nelson et al. 2004:184 [ref. 27807], Randall 2005:620 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:523 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:470 [ref. 30952], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:189 [ref. 32708], Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988] dated 1877, Galván-Villa et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:450 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:612 [ref. 34923], Kells et al. 2016:338 [ref. 35888], Robertson et al. 2017:106 [ref. 35676]). Current status: Valid as Balistes polylepis Steindachner 1876. Balistidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Alaska, U.S.A. (rare) to Chile; waifs established in Marquesas Islands (South Pacific) and Hawaiian Islands (Central Pacific). Habitat: marine.

porcatus, Balistes Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:32 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Indian seas. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.192 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:245 [ref. 13434] but as holotype. •Synonym of Balistes undulatus Park 1797 -- (Wheeler 1958:245 [ref. 13434]). •Synonym of Balistapus undulatus (Park 1797). Current status: Synonym of Balistapus undulatus (Park 1797). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

porcus, Capriscus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:41, 58 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

powellii, Balistes Cope [E. D.] 1870:120 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 22; ref. 18030] Newport, Rhode Island, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ANSP 804. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:26 [ref. 13621]. See account of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789. •Synonym of Balistes carolinensis Gmelin 1789 -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1056 [ref. 19527]). •Synonym of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789 -- (Moore 1967:691 [ref. 22820]). Current status: Synonym of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

praslensis, Balistes Hollard [H. L. G. M.] 1854:332 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie) (Sér. 4) v. 1; ref. 18300] Syntypes: MNHN B-1769 (1) Waigiou, B-1771 (1) Port Praslin, B-1772 (1) Vanocoro, B-1768 (1) Waigiou, B-1844 (1) Mer des Indes, B-1901 (1) Mer des Indes. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:290 [ref. 28887]. MNHN B-1769 is also the holotype of Balistes praslinensis Quou & Gaimard 1824; MNHN B-1771 is also the holotype of Balistes praslinoides Lesson 1831. •Synonym of Rhinecanthus verrucosus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Beaunier et al. 2009:290 [ref. 28887]). Current status: Synonym of Rhinecanthus verrucosus (Linnaeus 1758). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

praslinensis, Balistes Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:205, Pl. 46 (fig. 1) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Praslin Island; Waigeo [Waigiou], Indonesia. Holotype: MNHN B-1769. Non-types: MNHN B-1770 (1) Timor. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:516 [ref. 21538], Beaunier et al. 2009:290 [ref. 28887]. •Synonym of Rhinecanthus verrucosus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Beaunier et al. 2009:290 [ref. 28887]). Current status: Synonym of Rhinecanthus verrucosus (Linnaeus 1758). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

praslinoides, Balistes Lesson [R. P.] 1831:117, Poissons Pl. 9 (fig. 3) [Voyage autour du monde Zool. v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 2776] Port Praslin, New Ireland Island, Bismarck Archipelago. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-1771. Non-types: MNHN B-1768 (1). Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:290 [ref. 28887]. Apparently an incorrect subsequent spelling of Balistes praslinensis Quoy & Gaimard 1824. •Synonym of Rhinecanthus verrucosus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Beaunier et al. 2009:290 [ref. 28887]). Current status: Synonym of Rhinecanthus verrucosus (Linnaeus 1758). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

punctatus, Balistes Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Rüppell 1829:34 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Not available, name only. Balistidae.

punctatus, Balistes Gmelin [J. F.] 1789:1472 [Caroli a Linné ... Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18139] Indian Ocean (?). No types known. •Valid as Balistes punctatus Gmelin 1789 -- (Tortonese 1973:641 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:1336 [ref. 13677], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1056 [ref. 19527], Afonso et al. 1999:80 [ref. 25466], Wirtz et al. 2007:42 [ref. 30263], Wirtz et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32972], Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576], Matsuura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3052 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Balistes punctatus Gmelin 1789. Balistidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Morocco to Angola, some offshore islands. Habitat: marine.

punctatus, Xenobalistes Heemstra [P. C.] & Smith [M. M.] 1983:1, Figs. 1-3 [The J.L.B Smith Institute of Ichthyology Special Publication No. 26; ref. 5414] Beach at Van Stadens River mouth, eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 17546. •Valid as Xenobalistes punctatus Heemstra & Smith 1983 -- (Smith & Heemstra 1986:881 [ref. 5714], Matsuura 2014:8 [ref. 33576]). •A prejuvenile of and synonym of Xanthichthys caeruleolineatus Randall, Matsuura & Zama 1978 -- (Heemstra and Matsuura in ASIH abstract in 1999, Randall 2007:475 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Xanthichthys caeruleolineatus Randall, Matsuura & Zama 1978. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

purus, Xanthichthys Tanaka [S.] 1918:484, Pl. 133 (fig. 374) [Figures and descriptions of the fishes of Japan v. 27; ref. 14911] Tokyo market, said to have come from Idzu [Izu], Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 7625 (lost). •Synonym of Xanthichthys mento (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Berry & Baldwin 1966:456 [ref. 20607]). Current status: Synonym of Xanthichthys mento (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

quadrilineatus, Balistes Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Rüppell 1829:34 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Not available, name only. Balistidae.

radiata, Balistes Bowdich [S. L.] 1825:233, Fig. 45 [Fishes of Madeira; ref. 590] Porta Praya, St. Jago Island, Cape Verde Islands. •Synonym of Balistes punctatus Gmelin 1789 -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1056 [ref. 19527], Parenti 2019:7 [ref. 36934]). Current status: Synonym of Balistes punctatus Gmelin 1789. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

radula, Balistes Solander [D. C.] in Richardson 1848:21, Pl. 6 (figs. 1-4) [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Samarang; ref. 3744] Pacific. No types known. As the name appeared above it is a name and description in synonymy and not available (not treated as valid); subsequent validation not researched. •In the synonymy of Melichthys niger (Bloch 1786) -- (Berry & Baldwin 1966:447 [ref. 20607], Moore 1967:693 [ref. 22820], Randall & Klausewitz 1973:60 [ref. 7581], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1059 [ref. 19527], Randall 2005:623 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:524 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:470 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Melichthys niger (Bloch 1786). Balistidae.

rectangulus, Balistes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Lacepède & Commerson) 1801:465 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN B-3047 (3, dry). Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:291 [ref. 28887]. Based on the 'Baliste écharpe' of Lacepède 1798:352 [ref. 2708], which was based on a description in manuscript by Commerson [Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist], with three underlying specimens (MNHN syntypes). •Doubtfully valid as Rhinecanthus rectangulus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:277 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Rhinecanthus rectangulus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:358 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:880 [ref. 5714], Allen & Swainston 1988:150 [ref. 25477], Matsuura & Shiobara 1989:317 [ref. 13563], Winterbottom et al. 1989:68 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:456 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:396 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:73 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:238 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:386 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:456 [ref. 25919], Randall & Mundy 1998:331 [ref. 24063], Myers 1999:282 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:585 [ref. 24106], Randall 1999:30 [ref. 25829], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1400 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:457 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:22 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:124 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3925 [ref. 26315], Nakabo 2002:1400 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:649 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:77 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:31 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3331 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:443 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:627 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:525 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1874 [ref. 29098], Randall 2007:472 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:117 [ref. 30213], Matsuura 2009:328 [ref. 31171], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:85 [ref. 35264], Motomura et al. 2010:233 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1065 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:272 [ref. 32706], Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2014:193 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:119 [ref. 36167], Struthers 2015:1715 [ref. 34302], Koeda et al. 2016:111 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:18 [ref. 35354], Fricke et al. 2018:378 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Rhinecanthus rectangulus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Balistidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Lord Howe Island and Kermadec Islands. Habitat: marine.

reticulatus, Balistes Hollard [H. L. G. M.] 1854:312 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie) (Sér. 4) v. 1; ref. 18300] [Tonga-Tabou] Tongatapu, Tonga, south Pacific; Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN B-1877 (1) Tonga-Tabou, MNHN A-8509 (1, dry) Réunion. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:515 [ref. 21538] with a holotype, Beaunier et al. 2009:291 [ref. 28887]. •Synonym of Pseudobalistes fuscus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Fricke 1999:582 [ref. 24106], Beaunier et al. 2009:291 [ref. 28887]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudobalistes fuscus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

ringens, Balistes Linnaeus [C.] 1758:329 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Ascension Island. Syntypes: NRM 39 (1). Type catalog: Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:275 [ref. 20707]. Lectotype selected by Randall et al. 1978:694 [ref. 5532]. •Valid as Xanthichthys ringens (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Moore 1967:695 [ref. 22820], Fedoryako 1979:992 [ref. 8721], Robins & Ray 1986:303 [ref. 23100], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1060 [ref. 19527], Boschung 1992:181 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:266 [ref. 23827], Andreata & Séret 1996:590 [ref. 16204], Arruda 1997:121 [ref. 24952], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:346 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:170 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:126 [ref. 26784], Matsuura 2003:1969 [ref. 27119], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:184 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:900 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:190 [ref. 32708], Pyle & Earle 2013:11 [ref. 32891], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:86 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:12 [ref. 33516], Matsuura 2014:8 [ref. 33576], Pinheiro et al. 2015:34 [ref. 34324], Robertson et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Xanthichthys ringens (Linnaeus 1758). Balistidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic and Ascension Island. Habitat: marine.

rivulatus, Balistes Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1837:56, Pl. 16 (fig. 2) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 279. Paralectotypes: SMF 2950 (1), 4430 (1). Lectotype established by Dor 1984:277 [ref. 29757] if not designated earlier. •Synonym of Pseudobalistes fuscus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:276 [ref. 29757], Golani & Fricke 2018:178 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudobalistes fuscus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

rondeletii, Capriscus Plumier [C.] in Lacepède 1798:372 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 1; ref. 2708] Not available, name only. Balistidae.

rotundatus, Balistes Marion de Procé [P.-M.] 1822:130 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris [Sér. 3] [v. 9] (for 1822); ref. 17601] Manila Bay, Philippines. No types known. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:298 [ref. 28887]. Genus was originally incorrect as Balistus. •Synonym of Canthidermis maculatus (Bloch 1786) -- (Berry & Baldwin 1966:460 [ref. 20607], Moore 1967:695 [ref. 22820], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1058 [ref. 19527]). •Mention -- (Gill & Randall et al. 1997:27 [ref. 22948]). •Valid as Balistes rotundatus Marion de Procé 1822 -- (Lindberg et al. 1997:61 [ref. 23547]). •Questionably valid as Canthidermis rotundatus Marion de Procé 1822 -- (Mundy 2005:523 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Valid as Balistes rotundatus Marion de Procé 1822. Balistidae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

rubicundus, Balistes polylepis de Buen [F.] 1959:158, Fig. 17 [Revista de Biologia Marina, Valparaiso v. 9 (nos 1-3); ref. 696] Chile. Holotype (unique): EBMC 10.159. •Synonym of Balistes polylepis Steindachner 1876, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Pequeño 1989:77 [ref. 14125]). Current status: Synonym of Balistes polylepis Steindachner 1876. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

ruficaudus, Balistes Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Rüppell 1829:34 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Not available, name only. Balistidae.

rufus, Balistes Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:36 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] American Ocean. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.193 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:245 [ref. 13434] but as holotype. Based on literature sources and specimen. •Synonym of Canthidermis maculatus (Bloch 1786) -- (Berry & Baldwin 1966:461 [ref. 20607], Moore 1967:695 [ref. 22820], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1058 [ref. 19527]). •Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786). Current status: Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

russellii, Capriscus (Leuirus) Swainson [W.] 1839:326 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Russ. Pl. 23 -- which is Russell 1803:Pl. 23 [ref. 13862]. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

schmittii, Balistes Bleeker [P.] 1852:37 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 11); ref. 16836] Padang, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

senticosus, Balistes Richardson [J.] 1848:23, Pl. 9 (figs. 5-8) [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Samarang; ref. 3744] Sea of China. Syntypes: BMNH uncat. (2). •Synonym of Canthidermis maculatus (Bloch 1786) -- (Berry & Baldwin 1966:461 [ref. 20607], Moore 1967:695 [ref. 22820], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1058 [ref. 19527], Mundy 2005:523 [ref. 28379]). •Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786). Current status: Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

sesquilineatus, Balistes Lay [G. T.] & Bennett [E. T.] 1839:69, Pl. 21 (fig. 3) [The zoology of Captain Beechey's voyage; ref. 2730] Tahiti, Society Islands. Holotype (unique): not preserved. Based on a drawing by R. B. Beechey. •Synonym of Balistapus undulatus (Park 1797) -- (R. Fricke, pers. comm., Aug. 2011). Current status: Synonym of Balistapus undulatus (Park 1797). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

signatus, Balistes Shaw [G.] 1804:416 [General zoology or systematic natural history; ref. 4015] Indian Seas. Based on "Baliste grand-tache" of Lacepède. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

sillone, Balistes Le Danois [Y.] 1961:519 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 32 (no. 6) (1960); ref. 21538] Indian seas. Holotype: MNHN A-8497. Still researching. Appeared as vernacular name Le Baliste Sillonné in Lacepède 1798:370, Pl. 18 (fig. 1). Latinized by Le Danois as silloné [availability from Le Danois needs research]. •Synonym of Melichthys niger (Bloch 1786) -- (Berry & Baldwin 1966:447 [ref. 20607]). Current status: Synonym of Melichthys niger (Bloch 1786). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

sobaco, Balistes Poey [F.] 1860:324 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. •Synonym of Canthidermis sufflamen (Mitchill 1815) -- (Moore 1967:699 [ref. 22820], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:346 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Canthidermis sufflamen (Mitchill 1815). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

sonneratii, Balistes Shaw [G.] 1804:406 [General zoology or systematic natural history; ref. 4015] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean; Tahiti. Based on literature sources. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

spilotopterygius, Balistes Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:455 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] American Ocean. No types known. See account of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789. •Synonym of Balistes carolinensis Gmelin 1789 -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1055 [ref. 19527]). •Synonym of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789 -- (Moore 1967:691 [ref. 22820]). Current status: Synonym of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

spinosus, Balistes Meuschen [F. C.] 1778:23 [Museum Gronovianum; ref. 17682] Original not seen. Not available, published in a rejected work (Opinion 260). Balistidae.

stellaris, Balistes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:476 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Indian Ocean. No types known. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:298 [ref. 28887]. Based on Le Baliste étoilé of Lacepède 1798. Author may be Lacepède [Anonymous], as used by Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1055 [ref. 19527] and Matsuura & Yoshino 2004:189 [ref. 27771] and others. •Synonym of Abalistes stellatus (Anonymous 1798) -- (Dor 1984:274 [ref. 29757], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1055 [ref. 19527], Carpenter et al. 1997:235 [ref. 23922]). •Valid as Abalistes stellaris (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:344 [ref. 19756], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:358 [ref. 6441], Matsuura in Okamura et al. 1985:627, 743 [ref. 8056], Winterbottom et al. 1989:67 [ref. 13251], Lindberg et al. 1997:57 [ref. 23547], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1397 [ref. 25182], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3918 [ref. 26315], Nakabo 2002:1397 [ref. 26193], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Matsuura 2009:325 [ref. 31171] with author as Anonymous 1798, Bogorodsky et al. 2014:433 [ref. 33460] with author as Anonymous, Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576] with author as Anonymous, Ali et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:376 [ref. 35805], Suresh et al. 2018:326 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Abalistes stellaris (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Balistidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Palau, Fiji and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to New South Wales (Australia); also eastern tropical Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

stellatus, Balistes Anonymous (ex Commerson) in Lacepède 1798:682 [Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung 1798 (pt. 3) (no. 287) (for 24 Sept. 1798); ref. 13098] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Non-type: MNHN B-1925 (1) Red Sea. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:298 [ref. 28887] with author correctly as Anonymous (ex Commerson). Based on description in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:577 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. On Code recommendation 51D, the anonymous author is listed in square brackets. Author often seen as Lacepède. •Valid as Abalistes stellatus (Anonymous [Lacepède or Commerson] 1798) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:289 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:274 [ref. 29757], Smith & Heemstra 1986:877 [ref. 5714], Allen & Swainston 1988:150 [ref. 25477], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1055 [ref. 19527], Randall et al. 1990:452 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:396 [ref. 23929], Goren & Dor 1994:72 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:392 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:608 [ref. 27969] with author as Lacepède, Allen 1997:238 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:236 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:179 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:392 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:452 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:281 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:576 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:753 [ref. 25471], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:454 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:124 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:105 [ref. 26368], Youn 2002:446, 690 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830] with authors and date as Bloch & Schneider 1801 [which is stellaris], Randall et al. 2004:31 [ref. 27624], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:49 [ref. 27712] with author as Lacepède, Matsuura & Yoshino 2004:189 [ref. 27771], Randall 2005:619 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1870 [ref. 29098], Khalaf & Zajonz 2007:428 [ref. 31739], Randall & Justine 2008:183 [ref. 29954], Fricke et al. 2009:115 [ref. 30213], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1060 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:232 [ref. 32988] as Anonymous [Lacepède], Yoshida et al. 2013:226 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:332 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:229 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:376 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:177 [ref. 36273], Brown et al. 2019:185 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Abalistes stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Balistidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Palau, Fiji and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to New South Wales (Australia); eastern tropical Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

striatus, Balistes Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:32 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] American Ocean. No types known. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

subarmatus, Balistes Gray [J. E.] 1831:no page number, Pl. 90 (fig. 3) [Illustrations of Indian zoology; ref. 1878] Published about 27 July 1831. Appeared as gubarmatus on plate but as submaratus in list of figures, as gubarmatus (sic) in Sawyer 1953:51 [ref. 6842]. The plate apparently preceded the list of plates, so action by the ICZN might be needed to use subarmatus over gubarmatus. Status after Gunther's catalog (1870:218 [ref 1995]). •Synonym of Sufflamen chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Current status: Synonym of Sufflamen chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

sufflamen, Balistes Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:467 [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Valid as Canthidermis sufflamen (Mitchill 1815) -- (Moore 1967:699 [ref. 22820], Robins & Ray 1986:303 [ref. 23100], Edwards & Glass 1987:668 [ref. 9166], Scott & Scott 1988:564 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:225 [ref. 14674], Cervigón 1992:265 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:78 [ref. 24489], Gill & Randall et al. 1997:27 [ref. 22948], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:346 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:81 [ref. 25466], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:170 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1646 [ref. 25634], Rocha & Rosa 2001:992 [ref. 25909], Collette et al. 2003:126 [ref. 26784], Feitoza et al. 2003:69 [ref. 26943], Matsuura 2003:1969 [ref. 27119], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:184 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:898 [ref. 28815], Vaske et al. 2005:78 [ref. 36155], Wirtz et al. 2007:42 [ref. 30263], Page et al. 2013:189 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:86 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:12 [ref. 33516], Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576], Pinheiro et al. 2015:34 [ref. 34324], Robertson et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34961], Brown et al. 2019:182 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Canthidermis sufflamen (Mitchill 1815). Balistidae. Distribution: Western and eastern Atlantic; southern central Atlantic: Saint Helena Island. Habitat: marine.

surcatus, Xanthichthys de Buen [F.] 1963:63, Fig. 30 [Boletin de la Sociedad de Biologia de Concepción v. 35/36 (1960-61); ref. 4325] Cook Bay, Easter Island, southeastern Pacific. Holotype (unique): CIZ. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

taeniopterus, Balistes Poey [F.] 1860:326 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. No types known. See account of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789. •Synonym of Balistes carolinensis Gmelin 1789 -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1056 [ref. 19527]). •Synonym of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789 -- (Moore 1967:691 [ref. 22820]). Current status: Synonym of Balistes capriscus Gmelin 1789. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

tamaked, Balistes Montrouzier [X.] 1857:493 [215] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:299 [ref. 28887]. On p. 215 of reprint. Not available, manuscript name mentioned in synonymy under species allocated by Thiollière as Balistes verrucosus; from Woodlark I., South Pacific. •In the synonymy of Rhinecanthus verrucosus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Rhinecanthus verrucosus (Linnaeus 1758). Balistidae.

theresae, Balistes Curtiss [A.] 1938:131 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

triangularis, Capriscus (Pachynathus) Swainson [W.] 1839:326 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Russell, pl. 20 -- which is Russell 1803:Pl. 20 [ref. 13862]. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

trilineatus, Balistes Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Rüppell 1829:34 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Not available, name only. Balistidae.

trinitatis, Balistes vetula Nichols [J. T.] & Murphy [R. C.] 1914:265, Fig. 3 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 33 (art. 20); ref. 14163] Trindade, Martin Vaz Islands, off southeastern Brazil, South Atlantic, 20°31'S, 29°19'W. Holotype (unique): AMNH 5071. •Synonym of Balistes vetula Linnaeus 1758 -- (Moore 1967:693 [ref. 22820], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1057 [ref. 19527]). Current status: Synonym of Balistes vetula Linnaeus 1758. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

tumidipectoris, Xenobalistes Matsuura [K.] 1981:192, Figs. 1-10 [Bulletin of the National Science Museum Series A (Zoology) v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 2910] Off Marianas Islands, 20°33'N, 145°15'E (stomach content). Holotype (unique): NSMT-P 18666 (dissected, stained). •Valid as Xenobalistes tumidipectoris Matsuura 1981 -- (Matsuura 2001:3917 [ref. 26315], Myers & Donaldson 2003:650 [ref. 27495], Allen et al. 2006:1877 [ref. 29098], Matsuura 2014:8 [ref. 33576]). Current status: Valid as Xenobalistes tumidipectoris Matsuura 1981. Balistidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Mariana Islands. Habitat: marine.

um, Balistes Montrouzier [X.] 1857:495 [217] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:299 [ref. 28887]. On p. 217 of reprint. •Synonym of Canthidermis maculatus (Bloch 1786) -- (Berry & Baldwin 1966:461 [ref. 20607], Moore 1967:695 [ref. 22820], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1058 [ref. 19527]). •Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786) -- (Beaunier et al. 2009:299 [ref. 28887]). Current status: Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

undulatus, Balistes Park [M.] 1797:37 [The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London v. 3 (art. 9); ref. 17801] Habitat in Sumatræ littore [Bengkulu Province, Sumatra, Indonesia, eastern Indian Ocean]. Holotype: BMNH 1863.11.12.1 (dry, left half skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1974:476 [ref. 31545]. •Valid as Balistapus undulatus (Park 1797) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:350 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:293 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:274 [ref. 29757], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:358 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:877 [ref. 5714], Allen & Swainston 1988:150 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:67 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:452 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:73 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:610 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:238 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:180 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:388 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:452 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:281 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:577 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:753 [ref. 25471], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1399 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:454 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:21 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:124 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:105 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3919 [ref. 26315], Nakabo 2002:1399 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:649 [ref. 27495], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:218 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:31 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3331 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:440 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:620 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:522 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1871 [ref. 29098], Fricke et al. 2009:115 [ref. 30213], Matsuura 2009:326 [ref. 31171], Motomura et al. 2010:232 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1060 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:272 [ref. 32706], Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2014:192 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:109 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:376 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:177 [ref. 36273], Zajonz et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Balistapus undulatus (Park 1797). Balistidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Aldabra, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Line Islands, Marquesas Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

unimaculatus, Balistes Shaw [G.] 1804:410 [General zoology or systematic natural history; ref. 4015] Indian Seas. Based on "Le Baliste Pralin" of Lacepède. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

vachellii, Balistes Richardson [J.] 1845:129 [Ichthyology.--Part 3. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur.; ref. 20575] Canton, China. Holotype (unique): Cambridge Philos. Soc. (apparently lost). On Code recommendation 51D, the anonymous author is listed in square brackets. •Synonym of Abalistes stellatus ([Lacepède] 1798) -- (Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1055 [ref. 19527], Matsuura & Yoshino 2004:192 [ref. 27771] with author as Anonymous). Current status: Synonym of Abalistes stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

variegatus, Capriscus Plumier [C.] in Lacepède 1798:337 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 1; ref. 2708] Appeared as "Capriscus variegatus, caudâ fusinulatâ...."; regarded as non-binominal and name only, thus not available. Balistidae.

verres, Balistes Gilbert [C. H.] & Starks [E. C.] 1904:153, Pl. 26 (fig. 49) [Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences v. 4; ref. 1639] (Pacific) Panama. Holotype: CAS-SU 6805. Paratypes: (5) BMNH 1903.5.15.352 [from Jordan] (1), CAS-SU 6905 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:144 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Sufflamen verres (Gilbert & Starks 1904) -- (Berry & Baldwin 1966:443 [ref. 20607], Allen & Robertson 1994:296 [ref. 22193], Bussing in Fischer et al. 1995:909 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:65 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:633 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:135 [ref. 24555], Thomson et al. 2000:269 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:184 [ref. 27807], Béarez & Séret 2009:152 [ref. 36646], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:190 [ref. 32708], Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:451 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:612 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Sufflamen verres (Gilbert & Starks 1904). Balistidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California to Ecuador, including Clipperton Island. Habitat: marine.

verrucosus, Balistes Linnaeus [C.] 1758:328 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] India. Holotype (unique): NRM LP 38. Type catalog: Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:275 [ref. 20707]. •Valid as Rhinecanthus verrucosus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dor 1984:277 [ref. 29757], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:359 [ref. 6441], Matsuura & Shiobara 1989:317 [ref. 13563], Randall et al. 1990:457 [ref. 15987], Suzuki & Uno 1992:3 [ref. 24139], Goren & Dor 1994:73 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:240 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:457 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:283 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:585 [ref. 24106], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1400 [ref. 25182], Allen 2000:124 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3926 [ref. 26315], Nakabo 2002:1400 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:220 [ref. 27510], Allen et al. 2006:1875 [ref. 29098], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:85 [ref. 35264], Motomura et al. 2010:233 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1065 [ref. 31980], Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2014:194 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:112 [ref. 35333], Golani & Fricke 2018:178 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Rhinecanthus verrucosus (Linnaeus 1758). Balistidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Gulf of Aden, East Africa, Seychelles, Mauritius (Mascarenes) and Chagos Archipelago east to Philippines and Vanuatu, north to southern Japan, south to Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

verrucosus, Balistes Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:33 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Indian seas. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1853.11.12.194 [Gronovius coll.] (skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:245 [ref. 13434]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Balistes verrucosus Linnaeus 1758. Balistes niger Park is the valid name of the species currently known as Sufflamen chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider) (see Günther 1870:218 [ref. 1995]). •Synonym of Balistes niger Park 1794 -- (Wheeler 1958:245 [ref. 13434]). Current status: Synonym of Balistes niger Park 1794. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

vetula, Balistes Linnaeus [C.] 1758:329 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Ascension Island. Syntypes: ZMUU Linn. coll. 101 (1). Not a type: LS 127 (skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1985:72 [ref. 20705], Wheeler 1991:189-190, Fig. 27 [ref. 20102]. Also appeared in Linnaeus 1759:247 [ref. 24770]. •Valid as Balistes vetula Linnaeus 1758 -- (Moore 1967:693 [ref. 22820], Tortonese 1973:641 [ref. 7192], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:466 [ref. 14275], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:1337 [ref. 13677], Robins & Ray 1986:302 [ref. 23100], Smith & Heemstra 1986:877 [ref. 5714], Scott & Scott 1988:564 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:225 [ref. 14674], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1057 [ref. 19527], Boschung 1992:180 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:265 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:74 [ref. 24489], Santos et al. 1997:131 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:121 [ref. 24952], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:345 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:170 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1646 [ref. 25634], Rocha & Rosa 2001:992 [ref. 25909], Camargo & Isaac 2001:146 [ref. 27639], Collette et al. 2003:126 [ref. 26784], Matsuura 2003:1967 [ref. 27119], Matsuura 2003:1964 [ref. 27119], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:69 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:184 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:896 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:189 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:86 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:11 [ref. 33516], Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576], Pinheiro et al. 2015:33 [ref. 34324], Matsuura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3053 [ref. 34618], Robertson et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Balistes vetula Linnaeus 1758. Balistidae. Distribution: Atlantic Ocean. Habitat: marine.

vetula, Chaetodon Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xviii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Not available, name only; from Malta; perhaps for Balistes vetula Linnaeus. Balistidae.

vidua, Balistes Richardson [J.] (ex Solander) 1845:128, Pl. 59 (figs. 9-12) [Ichthyology.--Part 3. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur.; ref. 20575] Polynesia and Tahiti, Society Islands. Syntypes: BMNH 1972.8.16.1 (1). •Valid as Melichthys vidua (Richardson 1845) -- (Randall & Klausewitz 1973:62 [ref. 7581], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:358 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:879 [ref. 5714], Allen & Swainston 1988:158 [ref. 25477], Allen & Swainston 1988:150 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:454 [ref. 15987], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:610 [ref. 27969] with author as Solander, Lindberg et al. 1997:60 [ref. 23547], Allen 1997:238, 250 [ref. 23977], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:632 [ref. 24023], Chen et al. 1997:179 [ref. 26476] with author and date as Solander 1844, Kuiter 1997:386 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:454 [ref. 25919], Randall & Mundy 1998:331 [ref. 24063], Allen & Swainston 1988:150 [ref. 25477], Myers 1999:282 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:580 [ref. 24106], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1396 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:455 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:22 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3924 [ref. 26315] with authorship as Solander 1844, Nakabo 2002:1396 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830] with author and date as Solander 1844, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:649 [ref. 27495] with author as Solander 1844, Lobel & Lobel 2004:77 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:31 [ref. 27624] as Solander 1845, Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:623 [ref. 28239] with author as Solander in Richardson, Mundy 2005:524 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:1873 [ref. 29098], Randall 2007:471 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:116 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957] with author as Solander and dated 1844, Motomura et al. 2010:232 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1063 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:189 [ref. 32708], Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2014:192 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Fourriére et al. 2016:451 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:612 [ref. 34923], Koeda et al. 2016:110 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:18 [ref. 35354], Motomura et al. 2017:230 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Melichthys vidua (Richardson 1845). Balistidae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific: East Africa, South Africa and Réunion (western Mascarenes) east to Hawaiian Islands, Line Islands, Marquesas Islands and Gambier Islands, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Great Barrier Reef (Australia), New Caledonia and Tonga; Revillagigedo Archipelago (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

villosus, Balistes Cuvier [G.] 1816:153 [Le Règne Animal v. 2; ref. 993] Name only, not available; also as name only in Cuvier 1829:374 [ref. 995] -- but see Beaunier et al. 2008:293, 299 [ref. 28887]. •Nomen nudum, not available -- (Beaunier et al. 2009:299 [ref. 28887]). Balistidae.

villosus, Canthidermis Fedoryako [B. I.] 1979:985 [21], Fig. 1B-C [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 19 (no. 6) (art. 119); ref. 8721] Indian Ocean, 12°29'N, 44°23'E. Holotype: ZMMU P-15097. Paratypes: IOM (7). Type catalog: Vasil'eva et al. 2001:88 [ref. 25714]. On p. 21 of English translation. •Synonym of Canthidermis macrolepis (Boulenger 1888) -- (Randall 1995:393 [ref. 22896], Gill & Randall et al. 1997:27 [ref. 22948]). Current status: Synonym of Canthidermis macrolepis (Boulenger 1888). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

villosus, Monocanthus Hollard [H. L. G. M.] (ex Ehrenberg) 1854:333, Pl. 12 (fig. 2) [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie) (Sér. 4) v. 1; ref. 18300] Holotype: MNHN B-2033 or B-2034. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:293 [ref. 28887]. Based on Balistes villosus Cuvier 1816. •Status uncertain -- (Beaunier et al. 2009:293 [ref. 28887]). Balistidae.

vingens, Balistes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:472 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Indian Ocean and Simco. Corrected to ringens in corregenda and therefore refers to Balistes ringens Bloch and is not an original description; not available. Balistidae.

viola, Canthidermis Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1926:534, Pl. 1 [Philippine Journal of Science v. 31 (no. 4); ref. 2122] Manukan, Cagayan Islands, Sulu Sea, Philippines. Holotype (unique): BSMP (presumed destroyed). •Synonym of Canthidermis maculatus (Bloch 1786) -- (Berry & Baldwin 1966:461 [ref. 20607], Moore 1967:695 [ref. 22820], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1059 [ref. 19527]). •Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786). Current status: Synonym of Canthidermis maculata (Bloch 1786). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

virescens, Balistes Shaw [G.] 1804:408 [General zoology or systematic natural history; ref. 4015] Indian Seas. Based on "le Baliste verdatre" of Lacepède. Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

viridescens, Balistes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:477 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] [No locality stated] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Non-type: MNHN A-8516 (1, dry). Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:299 [ref. 28887]. Holotype not MNHN A-8516. Based on the 'Baliste verdatre' of Lacepède 1798:378 [ref. 2708]. •Valid as Balistoides viridescens (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:290 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:275 [ref. 29757], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:357 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:878 [ref. 5714], Allen & Swainston 1988:150 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:67 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:453 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:73 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:238 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:390 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:453 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:281 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:578 [ref. 24106], Randall 1999:30 [ref. 25829], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:647 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1398 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:455 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:22 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:124 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:105 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3921 [ref. 26315], Nakabo 2002:1398 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:649 [ref. 27495], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:219 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:77 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:31 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3331 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:442 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:622 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:1871 [ref. 29098], Fricke et al. 2009:115 [ref. 30213], Matsuura 2009:326 [ref. 31171], Motomura et al. 2010:232 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1061 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:272 [ref. 32706], Matsuura 2014:7 [ref. 33576], Fricke et al. 2014:192 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:110 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:377 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:177 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:11 [ref. 36883], Hoschke et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36626], Zajonz et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Balistoides viridescens (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Balistidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Wake Atoll and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia), Seal Rocks (New South Wales, Australia) and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

viridis, Balistes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:476 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Indian Ocean. No types known. Type catalog: Beaunier et al. 2009:299 [ref. 28887]. Based on Balistis pralin of Lacepède 1801:1:344 and 363. •Synonym of Rhinecanthus verrucosus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Rhinecanthus verrucosus (Linnaeus 1758). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

viridis, Balistes aculeatus var. Bennett [J. W.] 1828:unnum. p., Pl. 10 [A selection from the most remarkable and interesting fishes found on the coast of Ceylon First Edition; ref. 16785] South coast of Sri Lanka. No types known. •Synonym of Balistapus undulatus (Park 1797) -- (Pethiyagoda et al. 1994:44 [ref. 21456]). Current status: Synonym of Balistapus undulatus (Park 1797). Balistidae. Habitat: marine.

willughbeii, Balistes Lay [G. T.] & Bennett [E. T.] 1839:68, Pl. 21 (fig. 2) [The zoology of Captain Beechey's voyage; ref. 2730] Acapulco, Mexico. Holotype: Zool. Soc. London (whereabouts unknown). Paratypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Canthidermis maculatus (Bloch 1786) -- (Berry & Baldwin 1966:460 [ref. 20607], Moore 1967:695 [ref. 22820], Harmelin-Vivien & Quéro 1990:1058 [ref. 19527]). •Valid as Balistes willughbeii Lay & Bennett 1839 -- (Fedoryako 1979:990 [ref. 8721], Gill & Randall et al. 1997:27 [ref. 22948]). Current status: Valid as Balistes willughbeii Lay & Bennett 1839. Balistidae. Distribution: Circumglobal. Habitat: marine.