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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Kyphosidae: [ 64 ] records


altipinnis, Pimelepterus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:270 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] New Guinea; Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0838 (1) Réunion, 0000-9603 (1) New Guinea. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:171 [ref. 20718] as holotype and paratype. Fricke's 1999 lectotype designation is invalid. •Synonym of Kyphosus cinerascens (Forsskål 1775) -- (Fricke 1999:323 [ref. 24106], Sakai & Nakabo 2006:338 [ref. 29152], Sakai & Nakabo 2008:2 [ref. 29523], Knudsen & Clements 2013:29 [ref. 33031]). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus cinerascens (Forsskål 1775). Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

altipinnoides, Pimelepterus Guichenot [A.] 1863:C-7 [Faune ichthyologique 2nd Partie, Annexe C.; ref. 1943] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: MNHN 0000-1313. Paratypes: MNHN 0000=9603 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:171 [ref. 20718]. •Synonym of Kyphosus cinerascens (Forsskål 1775) -- (Fricke 1999:323 [ref. 24106], Sakai & Nakabo 2006:338 [ref. 29152], Knudsen & Clements 2013:29 [ref. 33031]). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus cinerascens (Forsskål 1775). Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

analogus, Pimelepterus Gill [T. N.] 1862:245 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 14; ref. 1665] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico [New Locality: Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Islands, Mexico]. Neotype: CAS-SU 12345. The holotype USNM 3001 is lost. A neotype was selected by Sakai & Nakabo 2014:283 [ref. 33211]. •Valid as Kyphosus analogus (Gill 1862) -- (Brooks 1987:49 [ref. 23113], Pequeño 1989:62 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:177 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:136 [ref. 23101], Sommer in Fischer et al. 1995:1199 [ref. 22829], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:429 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:366 [ref. 24555], Thomson et al. 2000:139 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:150 [ref. 27807], Béarez & Séret 2009:148 [ref. 36646], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:193 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:154 [ref. 32708], Sakai & Nakabo 2014:266, 283 [ref. 33211], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:92 [ref. 35859]). •Synonym of Kyphosus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Knudsen & Clements 2013:65 [ref. 33031], Knudsen & Clements 2016:261 [ref. 34458]). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Kyphosidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

atlanticus, Kyphosus Sakai [K.] & Nakabo [T.] 2014:266, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Research v. 61 (no. 3); ref. 33211] Dry Tortugas Island, Gulf of Mexico, Florida, USA. Holotype: USNM 116963. Paratypes: CAS-SU, FAKU, GCRL, MNHN, MUMS, UF, USNM, ZMB. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Kyphosus atlanticus Sakai & Nakabo 2014 -- (Almeida & Alves 2019:270 [ref. 37509]). •Synonym of Kyphosus sectatrix (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Knudsen & Clements 2016:262 [ref. 34458]). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus sectatrix (LInnaeus 1758). Kyphosidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic (North Carolina, Bermuda, to Santos, Brazil and the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and Barbados) and eastern Atlantic (Canary Islands, Cameroon and São Tomé and Principe) (if valid). Habitat: marine.

aurata, Seleima Bowdich [S. L.] 1825:238, Fig. 37 [Fishes of Madeira; ref. 590] Boa Vista, Cape Verde Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:7 [ref. 36934]). Current status: Synonym of Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus 1758). Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

australis, Scorpis Guichenot [A.] 1879:85 [Annales de la Société Linnéenne du Département de Maine-et-Loire v. 17; ref. 18166] Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Incertae sedis in Kyphosidae -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1327 [ref. 29000]). Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

azurea, Hermosilla Jenkins [O. P.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1889:144 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 11 (no. 698); ref. 2342] Guaymas, Sonora, western Mexico. Holotype: USNM 39629. Paratypes: ?CAS 79632 [ex IU 4028] (1). •Valid as Hermosilla azurea Jenkins & Evermann 1889 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:224 [ref. 9277], Allen & Robertson 1994:176 [ref. 22193], Sommer in Fischer et al. 1995:1199 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:194 [ref. 24545], Thomson et al. 2000:141 [ref. 25640], Sturm & Horn 2001:170 [ref. 25758], Nelson et al. 2004:150 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:154 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:252 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:77 [ref. 37205]). •Valid as Kyphosus azureus (Jenkins & Evermann 1889) -- (Knudsen & Clements 2013:8, 11 [ref. 33031], Knudsen & Clements 2016:259 [ref. 34458]). Current status: Valid as Kyphosus azureus (Jenkins & Evermann 1889). Kyphosidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Monterey Bay, central California (U.S.A.) south to Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

azureus, Sectator Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:185 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Offshore near Heeia, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50664. •Synonym of Sectator ocyurus (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Randall 2005:307 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:412 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:272 [ref. 30952]). •Synonym of Kyphosus ocyurus (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Knudsen & Clements 2013:48 [ref. 33031]). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus ocyurus (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

bigibbus, Kyphosus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1801:114, 115, Pl. 8 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] No locality stated (is Fort Dauphin, near Tôlanaro, Toliara Province, southeastern Madagascar). Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2162 (dry skin). Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:169, 170 [ref. 20718]. Based on illustration in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). Also appeared in Sonnini 1803:124, 125 (vol. 8) [ref. 30473]. •Valid as Kyphosus bigibbus Lacepède 1801 -- (Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:166 [ref. 6441], Dor 1984:166 [ref. 29757], Smith 1986:603 [ref. 5712], Pequeño 1989:62 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:194 [ref. 24556], Kuiter 1993:212 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:162 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:46 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:246 [ref. 22896], Clements 1997:220 [ref. 23459], Allen 1997:144 [ref. 23977], Anderson et al. 1998:25 [ref. 23611], Myers 1999:173 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:322 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:738 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:17 [ref. 25829], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:623 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:958 [ref. 25182], Randall & Earle 2000:15 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:105 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:36 [ref. 25847], Sakai 2001:3292 [ref. 26121], Nakabo 2002:958 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:356, 626 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:41 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:631 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:72 [ref. 27576] dated 1802, Sakai & Nakabo 2004:25 [ref. 27596], Heemstra et al. 2004:3321 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:250 [ref. 28072], Pequeño 2004:96 [ref. 28123], Randall 2005:305 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Bray 2006:1322 [ref. 29000], Sakai & Nakabo 2006:354 [ref. 29152], Fricke et al. 2009:70 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:133 [ref. 31256], Knudsen & Clements 2013:6 [ref. 32384], Fricke et al. 2013:261 [ref. 32706], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:179 [ref. 32953], Knudsen & Clements 2013:9, 22 [ref. 33031], Sakai & Nakabo 2014:[1] [ref. 33211], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:58 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:8 [ref. 33516], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:115 [ref. 36167], Knudsen & Clements 2015:1316 [ref. 34204], Psomadakis et al. 2015:288 [ref. 34104], Knudsen & Clements 2016:259 [ref. 34458], Robertson et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34961], Fricke et al. 2018:233 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:107 [ref. 36273], Nakae in Kimura et al. 2018:197 [ref. 36460], Brown et al. 2019:176 [ref. 36444], Carneiro et al. 2019:238 [ref. 37250], Zajonz et al. 2019:82 [ref. 36871], Guabiroba et al. 2020:702 [ref. 37571], Pimentel et al. 2020:6 [ref. 38051], Psomadakis et al. 2020:509 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:83 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Kyphosus bigibbus Lacepède 1801. Kyphosidae. Distribution: Atlantic Ocean; Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Indonesia, north to central Japan, south to Australia, northern New Zealand and Kermadec Islands. Habitat: marine.

bleekeri, Kyphosus Fowler [H. W.] 1933:211 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 100, v. 12; ref. 1414] East Indies. Based on Bleeker 1877:17, Pl. 364 (fig. 2), [Atlas Ichthyologique v. 9]. •Valid as Kyphosus bleekeri Fowler 1933 -- (Markevich 2005:283 [ref. 28210]). •Synonym of Kyphosus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Sakai & Nakabo 1995:61 [ref. 21821], Randall 2005:306 [ref. 28239], Knudsen & Clements 2013:66 [ref. 33031], Parin et al. 2014:375 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

bosquii, Pimelepterus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:429, 430, Pl. 9 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] North Atlantic (South Carolina, U.S.A.). Holotype: MNHN 0000-9601. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:171-172 [ref. 20718]. Spelled boscii in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:258, Pl. 187 [ref. 4881]. •Synonym of Kyphosus sectator (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Desoutter 1973:420 [ref. 7203], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:913 [ref. 13676], Desoutter 1990:831 [ref. 18967]). •Valid as Kyphosus bosquii (Lacepède 1802) -- (Sakai & Nakabo 2014:266 [ref. 33211], Sakai & Nakabo in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2682 [ref. 34618]). •Synonym of Kyphosus bigibbus Lacepède 1801 -- (Knudsen & Clements 2013:22 [ref. 33031], Knudsen & Clements 2016:262 [ref. 34458]). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus bigibbus Lacepède 1801. Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

capensis, Glyphisodon (Pimelepterus) Swainson [W.] 1839:216 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Cuvier Pl. 188 -- which is Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:Pl. 181 [ref. 4481]. Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

cinerascens, Sciaena Forsskål [P. S.] in Niebuhr 1775:53, xii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Red Sea. Neotype: MNHN A-1993. Originally Sciaena cinerascens, tahmel on p. 53; Scianea cinerascens on p. xii. Perhaps should be regarded as two names for the same taxon and needing action by first reviser or tahmel is unavailable; see Sakai & Nakabo 2006:347 [ref. 29152]. Authorship according to Fricke 2008:44 [ref. 30182]. Neotype designated by Sakai & Nakabo 2006:347 [ref. 29152]. •Valid as Kyphosus cinerascens (Forsskål 1775) -- (Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:166 [ref. 6441], Dor 1984:167 [ref. 29757], Smith 1986:603 [ref. 5712], Pequeño 1989:62 [ref. 14125], Winterbottom et al. 1989:41 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:215 [ref. 15987], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:873 [ref. 20764], Kuiter 1993:212 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:162 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:46 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:246 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:389 [ref. 27969], Carpenter et al. 1997:195 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:107 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:202 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:215 [ref. 25919], Khan 1998:231 [ref. 24980], Myers 1999:173 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:323 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:738 [ref. 25471], Allen 2000:89 [ref. 37268], Pequeño & Lamilla 2000:434 [ref. 24906], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:623 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:957 [ref. 25182], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:179 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:15 [ref. 25806], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:102 [ref. 26368], Savinykh & Shevtsov 2001:132 [ref. 25203], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:36 [ref. 25847], Sakai 2001:3293 [ref. 26121], Nakabo 2002:957 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:356, 626 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:41 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:631 [ref. 27495], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:124 [ref. 27510], Parin 2003:S14 [ref. 28536], Lobel & Lobel 2004:72 [ref. 27576], Sakai & Nakabo 2004:20 [ref. 27596], Randall et al. 2004:18 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:122 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3321 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:251 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:306 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:409 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Bray 2006:1322 [ref. 29000], Sakai & Nakabo 2006:338 [ref. 29152], Randall 2007:270 [ref. 30952], Fricke 2008:44 [ref. 30182], Fricke et al. 2009:71 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:133 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:515 [ref. 31980], Knudsen & Clements 2013:6 [ref. 32384], Knudsen & Clements 2013:8, 28 [ref. 33031], Yoshida et al. 2013:162 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2014:98 [ref. 33932], Sakai & Nakabo 2014:[1] [ref. 33211], Parin et al. 2014:375 [ref. 33547], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:115 [ref. 36167], Psomadakis et al. 2015:288 [ref. 34104], Knudsen & Clements 2016:259, 262 [ref. 34458], Koeda et al. 2016:51 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:13 [ref. 35354], Robertson et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34961], Motomura et al. 2017:176 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:233 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:107 [ref. 36273], Matsunuma in Kimura et al. 2018:197 [ref. 36460], Eagderi et al. 2019:71 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:180 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:82 [ref. 36871], Guabiroba et al. 2020:702 [ref. 37571], Pimentel et al. 2020:6 [ref. 38051], Psomadakis et al. 2020:509 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Kyphosus cinerascens (Forsskål 1775). Kyphosidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: off Brazil and Belize; Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Persian Gulf, Socotra, Aldabra, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands, Line Islands and Easter Island, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, Kermadec Islands and Austral Islands. Habitat: marine.

cornelii, Segutilum Whitley [G. P.] 1944:27 [Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales v. for 1943-44; ref. 4704] Houtman Abrolhos, Western Australia. Neotype: WAM P.33451-003. Syntypes: (40) whereabouts unknown. Neotype designated by Knudsen & Clements 2013:49 [ref. 33031] •Valid as Kyphosus cornelii (Whitley 1944) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:92 [ref. 25477], Kuiter 1997:202 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:36 [ref. 25847], Hoese & Bray 2006:1322 [ref. 29000], Knudsen & Clements 2013:6 [ref. 32384], Knudsen & Clements 2013:8, 35 [ref. 33031], Knudsen & Clements 2016:259 [ref. 34458], Hoschke et al. 2019:157 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Kyphosus cornelii (Whitley 1944). Kyphosidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: southern Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

cyprinoides, Chaetodon Günther [A.] 1859:498 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Not available, name on specimens mentioned under Pimelepterus fuscus and Pimelepterus waigiensis. Kyphosidae.

diemenensis, Kyphosus Scott [E. O. G.] 1971:135, Fig. 1 [Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania v. 105; ref. 7702] Northeast of Tasmania, Australia. Holotype (unique): QVM 1967:5:0026 (not found in 1993 or 1997). Type catalog: Green 1974:4 [ref. 19267]. •Placement uncertain [perhaps not a Kyphosus] -- (Sakai & Nakabo 2006:348 [ref. 29152]). •Synonym of Kyphosus sydneyanus (Günther 1886) -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1323 [ref. 29000], Knudsen & Clements 2013:61 [ref. 33031]). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus sydneyanus (Günther 1886). Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

drewii, Pimelepterus Hector [J.] 1887:590 [Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute v. 19 (1886); ref. 18273] Also appeared in Hector 1886 as name only, from Wanganui, New Zealand. Not available, no distinguishing features; from Kapiti I., New Zealand. •No distinguishing features, unavailable -- (Sakai & Nakabo 2006:354 [ref. 29152]). Kyphosidae.

dussumieri, Pimelepterus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:273 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Bay of Bengal. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-9659 (1, 97-mm SL described syntype), MNHN 0000-9659 (1, smaller specimen). Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:172 [ref. 20718] with syntypes. Sakai & Nakabo 2006:348 [ref. 29152] indicate that the species was described from 2 specimens; they recognized the largest specimen as the described specimen which they regarded as the holotype but it is technically the described syntype or primary specimen. •Synonym of Kyphosus cinerascens (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sakai & Nakabo 2006:338 [ref. 29152], Knudsen & Clements 2013:29 [ref. 33031]). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus cinerascens (Forsskål 1775). Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

elegans, Cyphosus Peters [W. (C. H.)] in Metzelaar 1919:44 [Report on the fishes; ref. 2982] Apparently a new combination for Kyphosus elegans (Peters 1869) for 4 specimens from Playa Grandi, Wacao, Curaçao. Kyphosidae.

elegans, Pimelepterus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1869:707 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1869; ref. 14098] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico (purchased). Holotype (unique): ZMB 7071. •Valid as Kyphosus elegans (Peters 1869) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:177 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:136 [ref. 23101], Sommer in Fischer et al. 1995:1200 [ref. 22829], Franke & Acero P. 1996:767 [ref. 22923], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:195 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:430 [ref. 24023], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:391 [ref. 24550], Thomson et al. 2000:139 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:150 [ref. 27807], Béarez & Séret 2009:149 [ref. 36646], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:193 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:154 [ref. 32708], Knudsen & Clements 2013:9, 40 [ref. 33031], Sakai & Nakabo 2014:266, 287 [ref. 33211], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34871], Knudsen & Clements 2016:259 [ref. 34458], Fourriére et al. 2016:446 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:609 [ref. 34923], González-Murcia et al. 2019:304 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Kyphosus elegans (Peters 1869). Kyphosidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific and Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

ensis, Chaetodon Banks [J.] in Cuvier 1829:194 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Apparently not available in footnote as, "--une espèce du Brésil, nommée autrefois par Banks Chaetodon ensis." From Brazil. Kyphosidae.

fallax, Pimelepterus Klunzinger [C. B.] 1884:64 [Die Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 2625] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Lectotype: SMNS 3495 (97.6 mm SL). Paralectotypes: SMNS 23084 [ex 3495] (2), 23085 [ex 3495] (1). Type catalog: Fricke 1992:11 [ref. 20296], Fricke 2005:43 [ref. 29864]. Based on Pimelopterus tahmel of Klunzinger 1870:795 [ref. 2621]. Lectotype selected by Sakai & Nakabo 2004:30 [ref. 27596]. •Synonym of Kyphosus bigibbus Lacepède 1801 -- (Dor 1984:167 [ref. 29757], Sakai & Nakabo 2004:25 [ref. 27596], Knudsen & Clements 2013:23 [ref. 33031]). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus bigibbus Lacepède 1801. Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

flavolineatus, Pimelepterus Poey [F.] 1866:319 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 1; ref. 14057] Havana, Cuba. Other Poey specimens: (listed as holotype) MCZ 21712 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:203 [ref. 22926]. Sakai & Nakabo show that Poey's type is not MCZ 21712 •Synonym of Kyphosus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Knudsen & Clements 2013:65 [ref. 33031]). •Synonym of Kyphosus incisor (Cuvier 1831) -- (Desoutter 1973:421 [ref. 7203], Desoutter 1990:832 [ref. 18967], Sakai & Nakabo 2014:279 [ref. 33211]). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

fuscus, Xyster Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1803:484, 485 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] No locality [Fort Dauphin, Madagascar]. Holotype: MNHN B-2162 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:169, 174 [ref. 20718]. •Objective synonym of Kyphosus bigibbus Lacepède 1801 -- (Dor 1984:167 [ref. 29757], Fricke 1999:323 [ref. 24106], Sakai & Nakabo 2004:25 [ref. 27596], Knudsen & Clements 2013:21 [ref. 33031], Knudsen & Clements 2013:22 [ref. 33031], Golani & Fricke 2018:107 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus bigibbus Lacepède 1801. Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

gallveii, Pimelepterus Cunningham [J. T.] 1910:99, Pl. 6 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1910 (pt 1); ref. 14434] St. Helena Island, South Atlantic. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1910.9.9.8. Named for Mr. Gallwey, consistently spelled gallveii in original; that spelling is acceptable. •Uncertain species, as Kyphosus gallveii (Cunningham 1910) -- (Desoutter 1990:832 [ref. 18967] as galleveii). •Synonym of Kyphosus bosquii (Lacepède 1802) -- (Sakai & Nakabo 2014:272 [ref. 33211]). •Synonym of Kyphosis sectatrix (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Knudsen & Clements 2013:54 [ref. 33031], Knudsen & Clements 2016:263 [ref. 34458]). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus sectatrix (Linnaeus 1758). Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

gibsoni, Kyphosus Ogilby [J. D.] 1912:50 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 1; ref. 14855] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.30. •Valid as Kyphosus gibsoni Ogilby 1912 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:92 [ref. 25477], Kuiter 1993:211 [ref. 23929], Kuiter 1997:202 [ref. 25488], Hoese & Bray 2006:1323 [ref. 29000]). •Synonym of Kyphosus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Sakai & Nakabo 1995:61 [ref. 21821], Randall 2005:306 [ref. 28239] Knudsen & Clements 2013:65 [ref. 33031]). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Kyphosidae. Distribution: Australia [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

gladius, Kyphosus Knudsen [S. W.] & Clements [K. D.] 2013:4, Figs. 2-4 [Zootaxa 3599 (no. 1); ref. 32384] Canal Rocks, Yallingup Reef, Western Australia, 33°40'S, 114°59'E. Holotype: WAM P.33456-001. Paratypes: Many at AMS, NMV, WAM. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Kyphosus gladius Knudsen & Clements 2013 -- (Knudsen & Clements 2013:9, 42 [ref. 33031], Knudsen & Clements 2016:259, 263 [ref. 34458], Hoschke et al. 2019:157 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Kyphosus gladius Knudsen & Clements 2013. Kyphosidae. Distribution: South West Pacific: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

hawaiiensis, Kyphosus Sakai [K.] & Nakabo [T.] 2004:24, Fig. 3 [Ichthyological Research v. 51 (no. 1); ref. 27596] Kaupoa, Molokai Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: BPBM 4048. Paratypes: BMNH 1883.12.15.43 (1); BPBM 4039-40 [id. as K. fuscus (Lacepède) by Fower & Ball, 1925] (1 ea.), 4045 [id. as K. fuscus by Fowler, 1927] (1), 15448 (1), 25486 (2), 39105 (1); CAS 76339 (1), SU 23278 (3). •Valid as Kyphosus hawaiiensis Sakai & Nakabo 2004 -- (Mundy 2005:410 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:270 [ref. 30952], Mundy et al. 2010:133 [ref. 31155], Knudsen & Clements 2013:8, 43 [ref. 33031], Sakai & Nakabo 2014:[1] [ref. 33211], Knudsen & Clements 2016:259 [ref. 34458]). Current status: Valid as Kyphosus hawaiiensis Sakai & Nakabo 2004. Kyphosidae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands, Washington Island (Line Islands), Central Pacific. Habitat: marine.

incisor, Chaetodon Parkinson [S.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:266 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Brazil. Name mentioned in passing in account of Pimelepterus incisor, not available. •In the synonymy of Kyphosus vaigiensis Cuvier 1831 -- (Knudsen & Clements 2013:61 [ref. 33031]). Kyphosidae.

incisor, Pimelepterus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:266 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-9661 (2), A-0758 [or A-0759] (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:172-173 [ref. 20718]. •Valid as Kyphosus incisor (Cuvier 1831) -- (Desoutter 1973:421 [ref. 7203], Pezold & Edwards 1983:103 [ref. 37431], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:912 [ref. 13676], Robins & Ray 1986:191 [ref. 23100], Desoutter 1990:832 [ref. 18967], Boschung 1992:147 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:344 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:325 [ref. 24474], Santos et al. 1997:93 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:92 [ref. 24952], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:279 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:76 [ref. 25466], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2000:401 [ref. 24427], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:163 [ref. 27754], Carpenter 2003:1686 [ref. 27092], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:90 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:150 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:483 [ref. 28815], Wirtz et al. 2007:36 [ref. 30263], Page et al. 2013:154 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:128 [ref. 32972], Sakai & Nakabo 2014:366 [ref. 33211], Félix et al. 2016:D [4] [ref. 34346], Sakai & Nakabo in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2684 [ref. 34618], Nión et al. 2016:49 [ref. 35565]). •Synonym of Kyphosus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Knudsen & Clements 2013:61 [ref. 33031], Knudsen & Clements 2016:261 [ref. 34458]). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Kyphosidae. Distribution: Atlantic [if valid]. Habitat: brackish, marine.

indicus, Pimelepterus Cuvier [G.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:270 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] No locality [Java, Indonesia]. Holotype: RMNH 1221. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:172 [ref. 20718]. •Synonym of Kyphosus cinerascens (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sakai & Nakabo 2006:338 [ref. 29152], Knudsen & Clements 2013:29 [ref. 33031]). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus cinerascens (Forsskål 1775). Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

klunzingeri, Segutilum Whitley [G. P.] 1931:320 [Australian Zoologist v. 6 (pt 4); ref. 4672] King George Sound, Western Australia, 35°03'S, 117°57'E. Holotype (unique): SMNS 2673. Type catalog: Fricke 1995:15 [ref. 28100], Fricke 2005:43 [ref. 29864]. Based on a specimen described and figured by Klunzinger 1879:357, Pl. 7 [ref. 2624]. •Valid as Segutilum klunzingeri Whitley 1931 -- (Nakabo, pers. comm. in Fricke 1995:15 [ref. 28100]). •Valid as Kyphosus klunzingeri (Whitley 1931). •Incertae sedis in Kyphosidae -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1327 [ref. 29000]). •Synonym of Kyphosus sydneyanus (Günther 1886) -- (Sakai & Nakabo 2006:348 [ref. 29152]). •Questionably a synonym of Kyphosus gladius Knudsen & Clements 2013 -- (Knudsen & Clements 2013:4,13 [ref. 32384] with discrepancies). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus gladius Knudsen & Clements 2013. Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

lembus, Pimelepterus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:269 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Vanikoro Island, Santa Cruz Islands, southwestern Pacific. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9660. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:173 [ref. 20718] as lumbus. •Valid as Kyphosus lembus (Cuvier 1831) -- (Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:166 [ref. 6441], Chen et al. 1997:108 [ref. 26476], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:623 [ref. 25122]). •Synonym of Kyphosus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Sakai & Nakabo 1995:61 [ref. 21821], Randall 2005:306 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:272 [ref. 30952], Knudsen & Clements 2013:65 [ref. 33031]). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

lineolatus, Cantharus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:344 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Indian Ocean. Holotype: MNHN 0000-9624. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:82 [ref. 20898]. Based on a juvenile. •Synonym of Kyphosus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gairmard 1825) -- (Sakai & Nakabo 2008:2 [ref. 29523], Knudsen & Clements 2013:65 [ref. 33031]). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

lithophilus, Scorpis Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1908:162 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 14320] KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAM 9926. •Valid as Neoscorpis lithophilus (Gilchrist & Thompson 1908) -- (Smith 1986:604 [ref. 5712], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:251 [ref. 28072], Knudsen & Clements 2013:8 [ref. 33031], Knudsen & Clements 2016:259 [ref. 34458], Fricke et al. 2018:233 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Neoscorpis lithophilus (Gilchrist & Thompson 1908). Kyphosidae. Distribution: Southern Africa and Mozambique to southern Madagascar, Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

lutescens, Pimelepterus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:229 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 221); ref. 18348] Braithwaite Bay, Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Islands, off western Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 28371(apparently lost). •Unidentifiable, in Kyphosus -- (Sakai & Nakabo 2004:25 [ref. 27596]). •Synonym of Kyphosus sectatrix (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Knudsen & Clements 2013:54 [ref. 33031]). •Valid as Kyphosus lutescens (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Nelson et al. 2004:150 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:154 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:609 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Kyphosus lutescens (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Kyphosidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Cantharus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:343 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-8814. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:82 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Kyphosus cinerascens (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sakai & Nakabo 2006:338 [ref. 29152], Knudsen & Clements 2013:28 [ref. 33031]). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus cinerascens (Forsskål 1775). Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

marciac, Pimelepterus Cuvier [G.] (ex Quoy & Gaimard) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:267 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Boni, small island near Papua; Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-9602 (2). •Synonym of Kyphosus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Dor 1984:167 [ref. 29757], Sakai & Nakabo 1995:61 [ref. 21821], Knudsen & Clements 2013:65 [ref. 33031], Golani & Fricke 2018:107 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

meridionalis, Pimelepterus Ogilby [J. D.] 1887:539 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1886 (pt 2) (art. 4) (for 7 Dec. 1886); ref. 18483] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Syntypes: (3) whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Kyphosus sydneyanus (Günther 1886) -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1323 [ref. 29000], Sakai & Nakabo 2006:348 [ref. 29152], Knudsen & Clements 2013:61 [ref. 33031] as meridonalis). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus sydneyanus (Günther 1886). Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

metzelaari, Kyphosus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1927:506 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 16 (no. 15); ref. 2453] Curaçao, Venezuela. No types known. •Possible synonym of Kyphosus sectatrix (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Desoutter 1990:831 [ref. 18967] as sectator). •Synonym of Kyphosus sectatrix (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Knudsen & Clements 2013:54 [ref. 33031]). •Synonym of Kyphosus bosquii (Lacepède 1802) -- (Sakai & Nakabo 2014:272 [ref. 33211]). •Synonym of Kyphosus bigibbus Lacepède 1801. Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus bigibbus Lacepède 1801. Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

moonta, Cridorsa Whitley [G. P.] 1938:159, Pl. 16 [Records of the South Australian Museum (Adelaide) v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 4694] Moonta Bay, Spencer Gulf, South Australia. Holotype (unique): SAMA F2023 (destroyed). Type catalog: Glover 1976:174 [ref. 19449]. •Synonym of Kyphosus sydneyanus (Günther 1886) -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1323 [ref. 29000], Knudsen & Clements 2013:61 [ref. 33031]). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus sydneyanus (Günther 1886). Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

muador, Oblata Montrouzier [X.] 1857:439 [161] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 161 of reprint. •Questionable synonym of Kyphosus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Parenti 2019:93 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Uncertain as Kyphosus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

nanue, Anthias Curtiss [A.] 1938:94 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Referred by Curtiss 1944:23 [ref. 12574] to Kyphosus and similar to Sciaena cinerascens Forsskål 1775. Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

nigrescens, Dorsuarius Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1803:482, 483 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Fort Dauphin, Madagascar. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2162 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:169 [ref. 20718]. Based on Commerson manuscript. •Objective synonym of Kyphosus bigibbus Lacepède 1801 -- (Fricke 1999:322 [ref. 24106], Sakai & Nakabo 2004:25 [ref. 27596], Knudsen & Clements 2013:22 [ref. 33031]). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus bigibbus Lacepède 1801. Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

nigrescens, Xyster Lacepède [B. G. E.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:264 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Not available, name mentioned in passing in account of Pimelepterus fuscus; from Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. •In the synonymy of Kyphosus bigibbus Lacepède 1801. Kyphosidae.

oblongior, Pimelepterus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:264 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] No locality. Holotype (unique): RMNH (apparently lost). Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:173 [ref. 20718]. •Possible synonym of Kyphosus sectator (Linnaeus 1766) [= Kyphosus sectatris (Linnaeus 1758)] -- (Desoutter 1973:420 [ref. 7203], Desoutter 1990:831 [ref. 18967]). •Status uncertain -- (Sakai & Nakabo 1995:61 [ref. 21821]). Current status: Uncertain as Kyphosus sectatrix (Linnaeus 1758). Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

oblungus, Scorpis Canestrini [G.] 1869:153 [Archivio per la Zoologia, l'Anatomia e la Fisiologia (Ser. 2) v. 1; ref. 14091] Australia. No types known. •Incertae sedis in Kyphosidae -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1327 [ref. 29000]). Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

ocyurus, Pimelepterus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:327 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 1 (for 1881); ref. 2471] Panama Bay [eastern Pacific]. Holotype: USNM 29395. Paratypes: BMNH 1903.5.15.55 (1) [from Jordan]; USNM 29397 (1), 29725 (1, not found in 1980). •Valid as Sectator ocyurus (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Brooks 1987:49 [ref. 23113], Allen & Robertson 1994:177 [ref. 22193], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:166 [ref. 6441], Sommer in Fischer et al. 1995:1200 [ref. 22829], Franke & Acero P. 1996:768 [ref. 22923], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:431 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:366 [ref. 24555] as o/xyurus, Thomson et al. 2000:140 [ref. 25640], Randall & Earle 2000:15 [ref. 25806], Sakai 2001:3296 [ref. 26121], Nakabo 2002:957 [ref. 26193], Myers & Donaldson 2003:631 [ref. 27495], Nelson et al. 2004:150 [ref. 27807], Randall 2005:307 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:412 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:272 [ref. 30952], Béarez & Séret 2009:149 [ref. 36646], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:193 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:154 [ref. 32708], Knudsen & Clements 2013:48 [ref. 33031], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:609 [ref. 34923]). •Valid as Kyphosus ocyurus (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Knudsen & Clements 2013:9, 48 [ref. 33031], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Knudsen & Clements 2016:259 [ref. 34458], Fourriére et al. 2016:446 [ref. 34668], Kells et al. 2016:252 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Kyphosus ocyurus (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Kyphosidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) south to Peru, including Baja California (Mexico) and offshore islands; Central Pacific: Marquesas Islands, waifs in southern Japan, Hawaiian Islands, Baker Island, Society Islands. Habitat: marine.

oxyrhynchus, Therapon Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:16, Pl. 6 (fig. 3) [Fauna Japonica Part 1; ref. 4370] Bays of southern Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D95 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: ?RMNH D93 and D94 (2), RMNH D96-98 (3, stuffed), 344 (1), 2872 (1); ZMB 818 (1, missing). Type catalog: Paepke 2001:331 [ref. 25566]. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:34 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Therapon oxyrhynchus Temminck & Schlegel 1843 -- (Yu & Zhou in Kuang et al. 1986:247 [ref. 26639], Zheng 1989:328 [ref. 21202], Ye in Pan et al. 1991:410 [ref. 23876]). •Valid as Terapon oxyrhynchus Temminck & Schlegel 1843 -- (Okada 1961:643 [ref. 6363], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:527 [ref. 25598]). •Valid as Rhynchopelates oxyrhynchus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Vari 1978:267 [ref. 4514] and Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:173 [ref. 6441] as Rhyncopelates, Takahashi et al. 1997:45 [ref. 24971], Sato et al. 1998:39 [ref. 24972], Mizuno et al. 1999:8 [ref. 25311], Vari in Randall & Lim 2000:612 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:952 [ref. 25182] as Rhyncopelates, Sadovy & Cornish 2000:182 [ref. 25480], Shimizu 2001:28 [ref. 25799] as Rhyncopelates, Vari 2001:3313 [ref. 26126] as Rhyncopelates, Nakabo 2002:952 [ref. 26193] as Rhyncopelates, Choi et al. 2003:358, 627 [ref. 26218] as Rhyncopelates, Matsunuma et al. 2010:83 [ref. 31558], Hata et al. 2012:28 [ref. 32412], Kottelat 2013:371 [ref. 32989], Knudsen & Clements 2016:259 [ref. 34458] as Rhyncopelates, Matsunuma in Kimura et al. 2018:109 [ref. 36460], Yoshigou 2019:134 [ref. 36562], Sonoyama et al. 2020:82 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Rhynchopelates oxyrhynchus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Kyphosidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: northern Vietnam and southern China to Japan. Habitat: marine.

pacificus, Kyphosus Sakai [K.] & Nakabo [T.] 2004:20, Fig. 1 [Ichthyological Research v. 51 (no. 1); ref. 27596] Ani-jima, Ogasawara Islands, Japan. Holotype: FAKU 82421. Paratypes: AMS.IB 5332 (1), BPBM 12226 (1), FAKU 100997 (1), IORD 76-549 (1), NSMT-P 63487 (1), QM. I 9396 (1), ZUMT 31003 (1). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Kyphosus pacificus Sakai & Nakabo 2004 -- (Randall 2005:305 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Bray 2006:1323 [ref. 29000], Randall 2007:271 [ref. 30952], Motomura et al. 2010:133 [ref. 31256], Knudsen & Clements 2013:6 [ref. 32384], Sakai & Nakabo 2014:[1] [ref. 33211], Koeda et al. 2016:51 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:13 [ref. 35354]). •Synonym of Kyphosus sectatrix (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Knudsen & Clements 2013:54 [ref. 33031], Knudsen & Clements 2016:263 [ref. 34458]). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus sectatrix (Linnaeus 1758). Kyphosidae. Distribution: Western Pacific (if valid). Habitat: marine.

palpebrosus, Kyphosus Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1919:176, Unnum. pl. (fig. 2) [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 22; ref. 15243] Trindade, Martin Vaz Islands, off southeastern Brazil, South Atlantic, 20°31'S, 29°19'W. Holotype (unique): MNRJ 1719. •Possible synonym of Kyphosus sectator (Linnaeus 1766) [= Kyphosus saltatrix (Linnaeus 1758)] -- (Desoutter 1973:420 [ref. 7203], Desoutter 1990:831 [ref. 18967]). •Possible synonym of Kyphosus sectatrix (Linnaeus 1758). •Synonym of Kyphosus bosquii (Lacepède 1802) -- (Sakai & Nakabo 2014:272 [ref. 33211]). •Synonym of Kyphosus bigibbus Lacepède 1801. Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus bigibbus Lacepède 1801. Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

raynaldi, Pimelepterus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:274 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Sunda Strait, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-4784. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:173-174 [ref. 20718]. •Synonym of Kyphosus cinerascens (Forsskål 1775) -- (Sakai & Nakabo 2006:338 [ref. 29152], Knudsen & Clements 2013:28 [ref. 33031]). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus cinerascens (Forsskål 1775). Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

robusta, Hermosilla Osburn [R. C.] & Nichols [J. T.] 1916:166, Fig. 11 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 35 (art. 16); ref. 15062] Tiburon Island, Gulf of California, Mexico. Holotype: USNM 87547 [ex AMNH 5210]. Paratypes: AMNH 11779 (1). •Probably a synonym of Hermosilla azurea Jenkins & Evermann 1889 -- (Thomson et al. 2000:141 [ref. 25640]). •Synonym of Kyphosus azureus (Jenkins & Evermann 1889) -- (Knudsen & Clements 2013:11[ref. 33031]). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus azureus (Jenkins & Evermann 1889). Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

saltatrix, Perca Linnaeus [C.] 1758:293 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Dry Tortugas Island, Gulf of Mexico, Florida, USA. Neotype: USNM 116963. Appeared first as saltatrix; then in Linnaeus 1766:486 [ref. 2786] as Perca sectatrix -- the latter account being based solely on Catesby 1743 (1st ed.):8, Pl. 8, fig. 2 (v. 2) [ref. 774], the Rudder fish, Perca marina sectatrix, family Kyphosidae. Catesby's name was sectatrix, based on the Latin "follower" to which Catesby alluded to in his account. Apparently saltatrix Linnaeus 1758 was a lapsus, which Linnaeus himself changed in 1766 to sectatrix. Early authors such as Jordan & Everman 1898:1387 [ref. 2444] used sectatrix for this species as did most subsequent authors; more recently some authors use sectator. In any event, the name saltatrix can be excluded because of lack of use, or it can be considered an incorrect original spelling, which Linnaeus corrected in 1766. The names sectatrix and sectator are then in competition, but the name sectatrix is a noun, and need not be changed from the use by Linnaeus in 1776 and by Jordan & Evermann in Kyphosus. The spelling saltator is the masculine form of saltatrix, so when the species was placed in Kyphosus some people used saltator. The correct name is Kyphosis sectatrix (Linnaeus 1758). This account has been modified in June 2011. The above specimens can be split between atlantics and bosquii or are unassigned -- see Sakai & Nakabo 2014 [ref. 33211]. Neotype designated by Gilbert 2015:297 [ref. 33917]. •Valid as Kyphosus sectator (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Desoutter 1973:420 [ref. 7203], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:913 [ref. 13676], Desoutter 1990:831 [ref. 18967], Santos et al. 1997:93 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:92 [ref. 24952], Merella et al. 1998:687 [ref. 25007], Afonso et al. 1999:85 [ref. 25466], Smith et al. 2003:38 [ref. 27621], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:484 [ref. 28815], Wirtz et al. 2007:36 [ref. 30263], Bañon et al. 2010:18 [ref. 31029], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:50 [ref. 36649], Page et al. 2013:154 [ref. 32708]). •Nomina nuda -- (Sakai & Nakabo 2014:[6] [ref. 33211]). •Valid as Kyphosus sectatrix (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:191 [ref. 23100], Edwards & Glass 1987:642 [ref. 9166], Scott & Scott 1988:393 [ref. 25518], Robins et al. 1991:90 [ref. 14238], Cervigón 1993:326 [ref. 24474], McAllister 1990:152 [ref. 14674], Boschung 1992:148 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:344 [ref. 23827], Aguilera 1998:51 [ref. 24221] as Kiphosus, Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:391 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:279 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:163 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2/001:1645 [ref. 25634], Thomson et al. 2000:139 [ref. 25640], Rocha & Rosa 2001:991 [ref. 25909], Collette et al. 2003:112 [ref. 26784] dated 1766, Feitoza et al. 2003:69 [ref. 26943] dated 1766, Carpenter 2003:1687 [ref. 27092], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:90 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:150 [ref. 27807], Vaske et al. 2005:77 [ref. 36155], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:179 [ref. 32953], Wirtz et al. 2013:128 [ref. 32972], Knudsen & Clements 2013:54 [ref. 33031], Angulo et al. 2013:1003 [ref. 33194], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:58 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:8 [ref. 33516], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:115 [ref. 36167], Knudsen & Clements 2015:1317 [ref. 34204], Pinheiro et al. 2015:21 [ref. 34324], Knudsen & Clements 2016:259 [ref. 34458], Fourriére et al. 2016:446 [ref. 34668], Robertson et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34961], Bañón et al. 2017:5 [ref. 35616], Brown et al. 2019:176 [ref. 36444], Carneiro et al. 2019:238 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36864], Kovačić et al. 2020:35 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Kyphosus sectatrix (Linnaeus 1758). Kyphosidae. Distribution: Circumglobal, including western Mediterranean Sea (rare). Habitat: brackish, marine.

sandwicensis, Pimelepterus Sauvage [H.-E.] 1880:221 [11] [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 4; ref. 3888] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: MNHN 0000-9818. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:174 [ref. 20718]. On p. 11 of separate. •An older name for the Hawaiian population of Kyphosus pacificus Sakai & Nakabo 2004 -- (Randall 2005:305 [ref. 28239]). •Valid as Kyphosus sandwicensis (Sauvage 1880) -- (Mundy 2005:410 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:271 [ref. 30952]). •Synonym of Kyphosus elegans (Peters 1869) -- (Knudsen & Clements 2013:40 [ref. 33031], Sakai & Nakabo 2014:287 [ref. 33211]). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus elegans (Peters 1869). Kyphosidae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific, antiequatorial: Southern Japan, Ogasawara Islands and Micronesia to Hawaiian Islands; Queensland (Australia), Rapa, Tuamotu Archipelago (in valid) or Hawaiian Islands and eastern Pacific (if valid). Habitat: marine.

sicula, Pimelepterus boscii var. Doderlein [P.] 1883:83 [Naturalista Siciliano [Il Naturalista Siciliano, Giornale di scienze naturali] v. 3; ref. 17415] Gulf of Palermo, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Kyphosus sectator (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Desoutter 1973:420 [ref. 7203], Desoutter 1990:831 [ref. 18967]). •Synonym of Kyphosus saltratrix (Linnaeus 1758). •Insertae sedis in Kyphosus -- (Sakai & Nakabo 2014:278 [ref. 33211]). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus. Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

squamosum, Pachymetopon Alleyne [H. G.] & Macleay [W.] 1877:275, Pl. 9 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 1 (pts 3-4); ref. 101] Hall Sound, Papua New Guinea. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16342-001 [ex MAMU F609]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:207 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Kyphosus cinerascens (Forsskål 1775) -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1322 [ref. 29000], Sakai & Nakabo 2006:338 [ref. 29152], Knudsen & Clements 2013:29 [ref. 33031]). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus cinerascens (Forsskål 1775). Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

sydneyanus, Pimelepterus Günther [A.] 1886:368 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 5) v. 18 (no. 107) (art. 36); ref. 18205] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1883.11.29.5 (dry, stuffed). •Valid as Kyphosus sydneyanus (Günther 1886) -- (Paulin et al. 1989:194 [ref. 24556], Kuiter 1993:211 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:162 [ref. 25479], Gomon et al. 1994:612 [ref. 22532], Clements 1997:220 [ref. 23459], Kuiter 1997:200 [ref. 25488], Johnson 1999:738 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:36 [ref. 25847], Sakai 2001:3294 [ref. 26121], Sakai & Nakabo 2004:20 [ref. 27596], Randall 2005:306 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Bray 2006:1323 [ref. 29000], Sakai & Nakabo 2006:348 [ref. 29152], Sakai & Nakabo 2008:2 [ref. 29523], Gomon 2008:599 [ref. 30616], Knudsen & Clements 2013:6 [ref. 32384], Knudsen & Clements 2013:9, 61[ref. 33031], Sakai & Nakabo 2014:[1] [ref. 33211], Knudsen & Clements 2015:1318 [ref. 34204], Knudsen & Clements 2016:259, 263 [ref. 34458], Hoschke et al. 2019:157 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Kyphosus sydneyanus (Günther 1886). Kyphosidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Southern Australia and New Zealand. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tahmel, Sciaena Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:53 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] [No locality stated] Red Sea. Unavailable as an alternative name for Sciaena cinerascens (see Fricke 2008:44 [ref. 30182]). Treated as valid in Rüppell 1836:35 [ref. 3844] as Pimelepterus tahmel. •Synonym of Kyphosus cinerascens (Forsskål 1775) -- (Fricke 2008:44 [ref. 30182], Knudsen & Clements 2013:29 [ref. 33031], Golani & Fricke 2018:107 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus cinerascens (Forsskål 1775). Kyphosidae.

ternatensis, Pimelepterus Bleeker [P.] 1853:604 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 337] Ternate, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Kyphosus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Sakai & Nakabo 1995:61 [ref. 21821], Randall 2005:306 [ref. 28239], Knudsen & Clements 2013:65 [ref. 33031]). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

tubero, Dorsuarius Commerson [P.] in Lacepède 1803:483 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Appeared as "Dorsuarius tubero, novissimum genus, cyprino proximè adjungendum; dorso in gibbum acutè ..." in the account of Dorsuarius nigrescens. Regarded as non-binomianl and not available. See ICZN Opinion 89. Kyphosidae.

vaigiensis, Pimelepterus Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1825:386, Pl. 62 (fig. 4) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Waigiou [Pulau Waigeo, Papua Barat, Indonesia, western Pacific]. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-9602. Paralectotypes: MNHN 1995-0013 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:174 [ref. 20718]. Spelled waigensis in literature as an unjustified emendation. Lectotype selected by Sakai & Nakabo 1995:66 [ref. 21821]. •Valid as Kyphosus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Dor 1984:167 [ref. 29757], Smith 1986:603 [ref. 5712], Allen & Swainston 1988:92 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:215 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:212 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:162 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:46 [ref. 25356], Sakai & Nakabo 1995 [ref. 21821], Randall 1995:247 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:390 [ref. 27969], Clements 1997:219 [ref. 23459], Allen 1997:144 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:202 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:215 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:174 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:324 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:738 [ref. 25471], Allen 2000:89 [ref. 37268], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:623 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:957 [ref. 25182], Randall & Earle 2000:15 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:105 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:36 [ref. 25847], Sakai 2001:3295 [ref. 26121], Nakabo 2002:957 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:356, 626 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:42 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:631 [ref. 27495], Sakai & Nakabo 2004:20 [ref. 27596], Randall et al. 2004:18 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:122 [ref. 27715], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:251 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:306 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:411 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Bray 2006:1323 [ref. 29000], Sakai & Nakabo 2006:354 [ref. 29152], Randall 2007:272 [ref. 30952], Sakai & Nakabo 2008:2 [ref. 29523], Fricke et al. 2009:71 [ref. 30213], Satapoomin 2009:180 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2010:133 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:515 [ref. 31980], Knudsen & Clements 2013:6 [ref. 32384], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:179 [ref. 32953], Knudsen & Clements 2013:9, 65 [ref. 33031], Larson et al. 2013:158 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:163 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2014:98 [ref. 33932], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:58 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:8 [ref. 33516] but spelled vaigensus, Parin et al. 2014:375 [ref. 33547], Mannino et al. 2015:45 [ref. 33840], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:115 [ref. 36167], Psomadakis et al. 2015:289 [ref. 34104], Knudsen & Clements 2015:1319 [ref. 34204], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34871], Knudsen & Clements 2016:259 [ref. 34458], Fourriére et al. 2016:446 [ref. 34668] with author as Gill 1862, Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:609 [ref. 34923], Robertson et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34961], Koeda et al. 2016:52 [ref. 35333], Knudsen & Clements 2016:261 [ref. 34458], Kells et al. 2016:252 [ref. 35888], Brutto 2017:382 [ref. 35263], Motomura et al. 2017:177 [ref. 35490], Bañón et al. 2017:6 [ref. 35616], Fricke et al. 2018:233 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:107 [ref. 36273], Satapoomin in Kimura et al. 2018:198 [ref. 36460], Bañón et al. 2019:191 [ref. 36706], Brown et al. 2019:176 [ref. 36444], Burton & Lea 2019:78 [ref. 37205], Carneiro et al. 2019:239 [ref. 37250], Fricke et al. 2019:180 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:82 [ref. 36871], Guabiroba et al. 2020:702 [ref. 37571], Pimentel et al. 2020:6 [ref. 38051], Psomadakis et al. 2020:510 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:83 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Kyphosus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Kyphosidae. Distribution: Atlantic Ocean; Red Sea; Indo-Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Madagascar and Réunion (Mascarenes) east to Hawaiian Islands, Line Islands and Marquesas Islands, north to Japan, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia), northern New Zealand, Kermadec Islands, Tonga and Rapa; eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

vinosa, Scorpis Alleyne [H. G.] & Macleay [W.] 1877:277, Pl. 9 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 1 (pts 3-4); ref. 101] Erub [= Darnley] Island, 9°35'S, 143°46'E, Torres Strait, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16349-001 [ex MAMU F674]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:207 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Kyphosus cinerascens (Forsskål 1775) -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1322 [ref. 29000], Sakai & Nakabo 2006:338 [ref. 29152], Knudsen & Clements 2013:29 [ref. 33031]). Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus cinerascens (Forsskål 1775). Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.

waigiensis, Pimelepterus Bleeker [P.] 1877:17 [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen (Amsterdam) v. 17 (art. 2); ref. 17112] Waigiu [Pulau Waigeo], New Guinea, Papua Barat, Indonesia. Bleeker material: RMNH 5728. Not an independent species description, based on Pimelepterus vaigiensis Quoy & Gaimard 1825. •Synonym of Kyphosus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) -- (Knudsen & Clements 2013:65 [ref. 33031], Golani & Fricke 2018:107 [ref. 36273]), Current status: Synonym of Kyphosus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard 1825). Kyphosidae. Habitat: marine.