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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Muraenidae: [ 557 ] records


accipiter, Leptocephalus Fowler [H. W.] 1938:20, Pl. 5 (figs. 1-2) [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 2; ref. 1428] Tagus Cove, Isabela Island [Albemarle Island], Galápagos Islands. Holotype: ANSP 68298 (with paratype). Paratypes: ANSP 68299 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:119 [ref. 13621]. Muraenidae. Habitat: marine.

acutirostris, Muraena Abbott [C. C.] 1860:476 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 12; ref. 15619] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): ANSP 998. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:129 [ref. 13621] with remark on locality and status, Böhlke & Smith 2002:90 [ref. 26380] •Synonym of Gymnothorax undulatus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:258 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:90 [ref. 26380], Mundy 2005:124 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:94 [ref. 30952], Smith 2012:28 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax undulatus (Lacepède 1803). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

acutis, Muraena Seale [A.] 1917:89 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 61 (no. 4); ref. 4001] San Miguel, Pearl Islands, Gulf of Panama, eastern Pacific. Holotype (unique): MCZ 3960. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:90-91 [ref. 26380]. Genus originally misspelled Mauraena. •Synonym of Echidna nocturna (Cope 1872) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:91 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:6 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna nocturna (Cope 1872). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

acutus, Uropterygius Parr [A. E.] 1930:16, Fig. 2 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 3 (art. 4); ref. 3370] West Caicos Island, Bahamas, depth 30 fathoms (stomach content). Holotype (unique): YPM 2604. Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:19 [ref. 16741], Böhlke & Smith 2002:91 [ref. 26380] More than one species may be involved -- Smith 2012:30 [ref. 32155]. •Valid as Uropterygius acutus Parr 1930 -- (Andreata & Séret 1996:581 [ref. 16204]). •Valid as Monopenchelys acuta (Parr 1930) -- (Böhlke & McCosker 1982:128 [ref. 502], Böhlke et al. 1989:191 [ref. 13286], Smith 1989:905 [ref. 13285], Smith & Böhlke 1990:144 [ref. 19379], Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692], Böhlke & Randall 2000:261 [ref. 24493], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:148 [ref. 27754], Böhlke & Smith 2002:91 [ref. 26380], Randall et al. 2002:154 [ref. 26192], Collette et al. 2003:99 [ref. 26784], Böhlke & Smith 2003:718 [ref. 26990], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], Randall 2005:49 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:125 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:94 [ref. 30952], Smith 2012:30 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32972], Fricke et al. 2014:20 [ref. 33932], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:24 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:3 [ref. 33516], Pinheiro et al. 2015:6 [ref. 34324], Smith & Brito 2016:1640 [ref. 34557]). Current status: Valid as Monopenchelys acuta (Parr 1930). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Cosmopolitan in warm waters, including Hawaiian islands. Habitat: marine.

afer, Gymnothorax Bloch [M. E.] 1795:85, Pl. 417 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 9; ref. 464] Guinea. Syntypes: ZMB 3991 (1,), 7784 (1, stuffed), 7785 (1, stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:103 [ref. 24282]. On p. 73 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 12 [ref. 21381]. As Muraenophis afra in Lacepède 1803:628, 641 [ref. 4930]. •Valid as Lycodontis afer (Bloch 1795) -- (Dor 1984:27 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Gymnothorax afer Bloch 1795 -- (Smith & Böhlke 1990:140 [ref. 19379], Goren & Dor 1994:7 [ref. 25356], Santos et al. 1997:121 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:55 [ref. 24952], Afonso et al. 1999:69 [ref. 25466], Jiménez et al. 2007:103 [ref. 29038], Wirtz et al. 2007:25 [ref. 30263], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:58 [ref. 35264], Smith 2012:11 [ref. 32155], Wirtz et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32972], Smith & Brito 2016:1626 [ref. 34557]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax afer Bloch 1795. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania to Namibia, including offshore islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

afra, Muraenophis Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:628, 641 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Coast of Guinea, Africa. Perhaps an emendation of Gymnothorax afer Bloch; see Strophidon africana McClelland 1844. Muraenidae: Muraeninae.

africana, Muraena Shaw [G.] 1803:30 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Guinea. Unneeded new name for Gymnothorax afer Bloch 1795. Synonym of Gymnothorax afer Bloch 1795. •Synonym of Gymnothorax afer Bloch 1795 -- (Smith 2012:11 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax afer Bloch 1795. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

africana, Strophidon McClelland [J.] 1844:214 [Calcutta Journal of Natural History v. 5 (no. 18); ref. 2928] Coast of Guinea. Apparently a new name for Muraenophis afra of Lacepède 1803:628, 641 [ref. 4930]. Current status: Uncertain as Gymnothorax afer Bloch 1795. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

agassizi, Muraena Bleeker [P.] 1855:458 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 16841] Cocos Islands, Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.250. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:91 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax undulatus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:258 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:91 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:28 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax undulatus (Lacepède 1803). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

albigutta, Muraena Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:132, Fig. 30 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Lobos de Afuera Island, Peru, 6°56'S, 80°43'W. Holotype: USNM 127840. Paratypes: USNM 127841 (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:21 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:91 [ref. 26380] •Synonym of Gymnothorax argus Steindachner 1870 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:91 [ref. 26380] but in Muraena on p. 94). •Synonym of Muraena argus (Steindachner 1870) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1975:426 [ref. 9341], Smith 2012:30 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena argus (Steindachner 1870). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

albimarginata, Muraena Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:267, Pl. 118 [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Japan [Nagasaki]. Holotype (unique): RMNH D2236 (stuffed). Type information: Boeseman 1947:190 [ref. 12876]. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:91 [ref. 26380]. As Muraena albomarginata in Bleeker 1853:20 [ref. 340]. •Valid as Gymnothorax albimarginatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:25 [ref. 6441], Böhlke 1997:94 [ref. 23177], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Böhlke & Randall 2000:226 [ref. 24493], Nakabo 2000:211 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:211 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:141, 490 [ref. 26218], Böhlke & Smith 2002:91 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:22 [ref. 26830], Heemstra 2004:5 [ref. 27849], Randall 2005:38 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:116 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:83 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2011:349 [ref. 31242], Loh et al. 2011:51 [ref. 31690], Allen & Erdmann 2012:80 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:11 [ref. 32155], Loh et al. 2015:39 [ref. 34118], Ho et al. 2015:154 [ref. 34130], Mohapatra et al. 2016:595 [ref. 34667], Smith et al. 2018:42 [ref. 36035]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax albimarginatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific: eastern Indonesia to Society and Hawaiian Islands, north to southern Japan, south to New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

albimentis, Lycodontis Evermann [B. W.] & Marsh [M. C.] 1900:78, Fig. 9 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 20 (pt 1) [for 1900]; ref. 14876] Off Culebra Island, Puerto Rico, Fish Hawk station 6093, depth 15 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 49527. Type catalog: Smith 1994:21 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier 1829) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:180 [ref. 13286], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:135 [ref. 25013], Smith 2012:21 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier 1829). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

alboguttatus, Uropterygius Smith [J. L. B.] 1962:427, Pl. 60 (fig. E) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 23; ref. 6435] Assumption Island, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 411. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 845-849 (2, 2, 1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:156 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Uropterygius xanthopterus Bleeker 1859 -- (Castle & McCosker 1986:176 [ref. 5645]). •Valid as Uropterygius alboguttatus Smith 1962 -- (Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692], Randall 1999:7 [ref. 25829] (changed from xanthopterus Bleeker 1859 on attached errata sheet), Randall & Earle 2000:7 [ref. 25806], Böhlke & Smith 2002:156 [ref. 26380], Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:51 [ref. 28239], Fricke et al. 2011:351 [ref. 31242], Smith 2012:36 [ref. 32155], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Ho et al. 2015:163 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Uropterygius alboguttatus Smith 1962. Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

albomaculatus, Gymnothorax Bliss [R.] 1883:57 [Transactions of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius (N. S.) v. 13; ref. 16966] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MCZ 5946. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:91-92 [ref. 26380] Species originally as albo maculatus. •In the synonymy of Gymnothorax johnsoni (Smith 1962) but an older name needing action by the ICZN -- (Fricke 1999:49 [ref. 24106]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax elegans Bliss 1883 -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:233 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:92 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:14 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax elegans Bliss 1883. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

albomarginata, Muraena (Muraena) Pfaff [J. R.] 1933:305, Pl. 6 (figs. 1-3) [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn. v. 94; ref. 16517] Dakar, western Africa. Holotype (unique): ZMUC. Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:53 [ref. 9588]. •Synonym of Muraena melanotis (Kaup 1859) -- (Smith & Böhlke 1990:146 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:32 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena melanotis (Kaup 1859). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

allardicei, Anarchias Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] in Jordan & Seale 1906:204, Fig. 9 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Pago Pago, Tutuila Island, American Samoa. Holotype: USNM 51715. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8726 (2), USNM 144296 [ex USNM 51715] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:46 [ref. 12291], Smith 1994:15 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:156 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Anarchias allardicei Jordan & Starks 1906 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:126 [ref. 12442], Böhlke et al. 1989:117 [ref. 13286], Winterbottom et al. 1989:6 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:34 [ref. 15987], Chen et al. 1994:54 [ref. 22258], Myers 1999:51 [ref. 23965], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Böhlke & McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:584 [ref. 25122], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Hutchins 2001:16 [ref. 25847], Böhlke & Smith 2002:156 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:22 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:611 [ref. 27495] as Jordan & Seale, Randall et al. 2004:6 [ref. 27624], Mundy 2005:112 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:244 [ref. 29005], Loh et al. 2008:137 [ref. 29930], Reece et al. 2010:421 [ref. 30969], Zhang et al. 2010:227 [ref. 31511], Smith 2012:33 [ref. 32155], Ho et al. 2015:151 [ref. 34130], Fricke et al. 2018:32 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Anarchias allardicei Jordan & Starks 1906. Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and Chagos Archipelago east to Johnston Atoll, Hawaiian and Society islands, north to China, south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

alusis, Muraena Bleeker [P.] 1856:67 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 1 (6); ref. 352] No types known. Based on Muraena catenata of Richardson. •Synonym of Echidna catenata (Bloch 1795) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:131 [ref. 13286], Smith 2012:5 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna catenata (Bloch 1795). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

amblyodon, Muraena Bleeker [P.] 1856:72 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 1 (6); ref. 352] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.318. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:92 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Echidna amblyodon (Bleeker 1856) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:130 [ref. 13286], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Böhlke & Smith 2002:92 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:22 [ref. 26830], Fricke et al. 2011:349 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:76 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:5 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Valid as Echidna amblyodon (Bleeker 1856). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

ambonensis, Rhinomuraena Barbour [T.] 1908:40 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 21; ref. 177] Tide pool, Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): MCZ 87067. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:92 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Rhinomuraena quaesita Garman 1888 -- (Randall et al. 1990:41 [ref. 15987], Böhlke & Smith 2002:92 [ref. 26380], Randall 2005:49 [ref. 28239], Smith 2012:33 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhinomuraena quaesita Garman 1888. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

anatina, Muraena Lowe [R. T.] 1838:192 [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 2 (pt 3, art. 14); ref. 2831] Off Madeira. Neotype: BMNH 1869.3.7.1. Neotype designated by Böhlke et al. 1989:136 [ref. 13286]. •Valid as Lycodontis anatinus (Lowe 1838) -- (Blache et al. 1973:225 [ref. 7185]). •Valid as Enchelycore anatina (Lowe 1838) -- (Ben-Tuvia & Golani 1984:541 [ref. 25573], Bauchot in Whitehead et al. 1986:539 [ref. 13676], Edwards & Glass 1987:624 [ref. 9166], Böhlke et al. 1989:136 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:139 [ref. 19379], Santos et al. 1997:19 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:54 [ref. 24952], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:132 [ref. 25013], Smith 2002:4 [ref. 26440], Feitoza et al. 2003:68 [ref. 26943], Böhlke & Smith 2003:704 [ref. 26990], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:33 [ref. 27192], Golani 2005:16 [ref. 37112], Vaske et al. 2005:78 [ref. 36155], Fricke et al. 2007:23 [ref. 29533], Smith 2012:7 [ref. 32155], Wirtz et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32972], Wirtz et al. 2014:3 [ref. 33516], Smith & Brito 2016:1624 [ref. 34557], Mohapatra et al. 2017:598 [ref. 35581], Brown et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Enchelycore anatina (Lowe 1838). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Southern Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Azores, Madeira, Canary, Cape Verde and St. Helena islands. Habitat: marine.

andamanensis, Gymnothorax Mohapatra [A.], Kiruba-Sankar [R.], Praveenraj [J.] & Mohanty [S. R.] 2019:190, Figs. 1-4A [Zootaxa 4661 (no. 1); ref. 36929] Port Mout, Port Blair, South Andaman, India, 11.659327°N, 92.696148°E. Holotype: EBRC/ZSI F11227. Paratype: CIARI MF-05 (1). •Valid as Gymnothorax andamanensis Mohapatra, Kiruba-Sankar, Praveenraj & Mohanty 2019. Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax andamanensis Mohapatra, Kiruba-Sankar, Praveenraj & Mohanty 2019. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: South Andaman, India. Habitat: marine.

anguina, Muraena Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:18 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Central America. No types known. •Synonym of Enchelycore nigricans (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:142 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:140 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:8 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Enchelycore nigricans (Bonnaterre 1788). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

angusticauda, Muraena (Priodonophis) Weber [M.] & de Beaufort [L. F.] 1916:389, Fig. 388 [Fishes Indo-Australian Archipelago v. 3; ref. 4604] Near Supiori, Schouten Islands, Papua, Indonesia, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): ZMA 102162. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:9 [ref. 19236], Böhlke & Smith 2002:92 [ref. 26380] •Valid as Gymnothorax angusticauda (Weber & de Beaufort 1916) -- (Randall & Golani 1995:854 [ref. 21744], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Böhlke 2000:395 [ref. 24954], Böhlke & Smith 2002:92 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:22 [ref. 26830], Allen & Erdmann 2012:81 [ref. 31980], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:411 [ref. 33460], Fricke 2015:1 [ref. 33807], Golani & Fricke 2018:20 [ref. 36273], Ho et al. 2018:12 [ref. 36050], Smith et al. 2018:40 [ref. 36035]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax angusticauda (Weber & de Beaufort 1916). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa east to Philippines and Papua New Guinea, north to Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

angusticeps, Priodonophis Hildebrand [S. F.] & Barton [O.] 1949:5, Fig. 2 [Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections v. 111 (no. 10); ref. 13015] Talara, Peru. Holotype (unique): USNM 144254. Type catalog: Smith 1994:23 [ref. 21917]. Böhlke & Smith 2002:92-93 [ref. 26380] •Valid as Gymnothorax angusticeps (Hildebrand & Barton 1949) -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:130 [ref. 24555], Bussing 1998:444 [ref. 24930], Böhlke 2001:3 [ref. 25774], Böhlke & Smith 2002:93 [ref. 26380], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Smith 2012:11 [ref. 32155], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36248]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax angusticeps (Hildebrand & Barton 1949). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Costa Rica south to Peru. Habitat: marine.

annasona, Gymnothorax flavimarginatus Whitley [G. P.] 1937:220 [Australian Zoologist v. 8 (pt 4); ref. 4690] Middleton Reef, North of Lord Howe Island, South Pacific. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.6867. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:93 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax annasona Whitley 1937 -- (Francis 1993:157 [ref. 25479], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:83 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:93 [ref. 26380], Allen et al. 2006:248 [ref. 29005], Smith 2012:11 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax annasona Whitley 1937. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

annulata, Echidna Forster [J. R.] (ex Pallas) 1795:14, Pl. 2 (fig. 3) [Zoologia Indica, sistens descriptiones animalium selectorum; ref. 18091] Name only, India. Based on Pallas (1783, [ref. 20763], "II. t. 2, f. 3"). Muraenidae.

annulatus, Gymnothorax Smith [D. G.] & Böhlke [E. B.] 1997:179, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 148; ref. 23215] Visayan Sea between northern Negros and Masbate Islands, southwestern Caduruan Point, 11°38'20"N, 123°58'38"E, Philippines, depth 0-80.5 meters. Holotype: ANSP 141418. Paratypes: ANSP 141417 (3), 141419 (1); BPBM 23497 (1); CAS 34296 (2), 85588 (1); USNM 343861 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:93 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax annulatus Smith & Böhlke 1997 -- (Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Böhlke & Smith 2002:93 [ref. 26380], Imamura 2009:18 [ref. 30434], Allen & Erdmann 2012:81 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:11 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax annulatus Smith & Böhlke 1997. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean and western Pacific: Andaman Sea and Gulf of Thailand to Philippines. Habitat: marine.

appendiculata, Murenophis Guichenot [A.] 1848:341 [Fauna Chilena.... in Gay.; ref. 1939] Valparaíso, Chile. No types known. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:93 [ref. 26380]. Based on an incomplete description and unfinished drawing (not found). Original should have been Muraenophis. •Valid as Muraena appendiculata (Guichenot 1848) -- (Pequeño 1989:25 [ref. 14125]). •Status uncertain -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:93 [ref. 26380]). Current status: Uncertain as Muraena appendiculata (Guichenot 1848). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Chile. Habitat: marine.

aquaedulcis, Muraena Cope [E. D.] 1872:474 [U. S. Geological Survey Territitories Annual Report v. 5 (pt 4); ref. 923] Río Grande, near San José, Costa Rica. Holotype (unique): ANSP 14925. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:129 [ref. 13621], Böhlke & Smith 2002:93 [ref. 26380]. Originally as aquae-dulcis, correction mandatory. Locality questioned, San Jose is too far inland -- see Smith 2012:6 and 31 [ref. 32155]. •Synonym of Muraena lentiginosa Jenyns 1842 -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1975:475 [ref. 9341], Böhlke & Smith 2002:93 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:31 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena lentiginosa Jenyns 1842. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

arae, Gymnothorax Borodin [N. A.] 1928:8 [Bulletin Vanderbilt Oceanographic Museum v. 1 (art. 1); ref. 526] Darwin Bay, Tower Island [Genovesa], Galápagos Islands. Holotype: AMNH 222126 [ex VMM 74]. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:93 [ref. 26380] •Synonym of Gymnothorax dovii (Günther 1870) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1975:425 [ref. 9341]). •Synonym of Echidna nocturna (Cope 1872) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:93 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:6 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna nocturna (Cope 1872). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

arenata, Thyrsoidea Kaup [J. J.] 1856:61 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] China. Holotype: BMNH uncat. (651 mm TL). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:94 [ref. 26380]. Also in Kaup 1856:85 [ref. 2573]. Probably should be regarded as an unneeded replacement name for Muraena thyrsoidea Richardson 1845, based on a Cuvier museum name, with type the Richardson specimen. Kaup's description probably possibly based on MNHN A.8810 from Pondicherry, which Böhlke & Smith 2002:94 [ref. 26380] regard as the tentative holotype of arenata. •Objective synonym of Siderea thyrsoidea Richardson 1845 -- (Böhlke 1995:463 [ref. 21738]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax thyrsoideus (Richardson 1845) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:94 [ref. 26380] as thysoidea and thysoideus, Smith 2012:28 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax thyrsoideus (Richardson 1845). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

arenatus, Muraenophis Cuvier [G.] in Kaup 1856:85 [Catalogue of the apodal fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2573] Name only in synonymy of Thrysoidea arenata Kaup. •Appaerntly a museum name never published -- (Smith 2012:54 [ref. 32155]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae.

argus, Gymnothorax (Limamuraena) Steindachner [F.] 1870:639 [17], Pl. 4 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 61 (1. Abth.); ref. 4218] Altata, Sinaloa, west coast of Mexico, eastern Pacific. Holotype (unique): NMW 75551. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:94 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Muraena argus (Steindachner 1870) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:47 [ref. 22193], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1312 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:157 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:130 [ref. 24555], Thomson et al. 2000:41 [ref. 25640], Böhlke & Smith 2002:94 [ref. 26380], McCosker & Smith 2004:248 [ref. 27620], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Smith 2012:30 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:441 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:606 [ref. 34923], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36248]). Current status: Valid as Muraena argus (Steindachner 1870). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

aterrima, Thyrsoidea Kaup [J. J.] 1859:22, Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Naturwissenschaften herausgegeben von dem Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein in Hamburg v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 2586] Puerto Cabello, Venezuela. Holotype: ZMH H389. Type catalog: Ladiges et al. 1958:160 [ref. 19181], Wilkens & Dohse 1993:404 [ref. 21161]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax funebris Ranzani 1839 -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:176 [ref. 13286], Smith 2012:16 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax funebris Ranzani 1839. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

atlantica, Thyrsoidea Johnson [J. Y.] 1862:168 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1862 (pt 2) (art. 2) (for 10 June 1862); ref. 2357] Sea near Madeira, eastern Atlantic. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1862.2.5.2. •Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758 -- (Blache et al. 1973:224 [ref. 7185], Smith & Böhlke 1990:145 [ref. 19379]). •Synonym of Muraena augusti (Kaup 1856) -- (Smith 2012:30 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena augusti (Kaup 1856). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

atlanticus, Uropterygius Vaillant [L. L.] in Roule 1919:135 [Résultats des Campagnes Scientifiques accomplies sur son Yacht par Albert 1er, prince souverain de Monaco v. 52; ref. 17861] Not available, name only with collection station (off Azores); see Bauchot et al. 1993:128 [ref. 20810]. •In the synonymy of Anarchias grassii (Roule 1916) -- (Blache et al. 1973:226 [ref. 7185]). •In the synonymy of Anarchias euryurus (Lea 1913) -- (Smith & Böhlke 1990:136 [ref. 19379]). •Not available, nomen nudum -- (Smith 2012:54 [ref. 32155]). •In the synonymy of Anarchias longicauda (Peters 1877). Current status: Synonym of Anarchias longicauda (Peters 1877). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae.

atolli, Heteromyrus Pietschmann [V.] 1935:93 [Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 72 (no. 11); ref. 3477] Pearl and Hermes Reef, South East Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): NMW 65106. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:94 [ref. 26380] •Valid as Gymnothorax atolli (Pietschmann 1935) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:227 [ref. 24493], Böhlke 2000:398 [ref. 24954], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:84 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:94 [ref. 26380], Mundy 2005:116 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:248 [ref. 29005], Randall 2007:84 [ref. 30952], Smith 2012:12 [ref. 32155], Ray et al. 2015:143 [ref. 33981], Golani & Fricke 2018:20 [ref. 36273], Mohapatra et al. 2018:128 [ref. 35948]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax atolli (Pietschmann 1935). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Pacific: southern Japan, Lord Howe Island, Hawaiian Islands Chain (Pearl and Hermes Reefs to Midway Atoll). Habitat: marine.

atomaria, Muraena Solander [D. C.] in Richardson 1848:86 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Society Islands. No types known. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:94 [ref. 26380]. Based on Solander manuscript. •Synonym of Gymnothorax pictus (Ahl 1789) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:247 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:94 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:23 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax pictus (Ahl 1789). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

atra, Muraena Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Klunzinger 1871:614 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:95 [ref. 26380]. Not available, name published in synonymy of Muraena corallina Klunzinger 1871. •In the synonymy of Lycodontis corallinus (Klunzinger 1871) -- (Dor 1984:27 [ref. 29757]). •Unavailable name -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:95 [ref. 26380]). •In the synonymy of Gymnothorax buroensis (Bleeker 1857) -- (based on current placement of corallina). •Not available, nomen nudum -- (Smith 2012:54 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax buroensis (Bleeker 1857). Muraenidae: Muraeninae.

augusti, Thyrsoidea Kaup [J. J.] 1856:88 [Catalogue of the apodal fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2573] Madeira. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:127 [ref. 20810]. Not a synonym of Muraena helena -- Smith 2012:30 [ref. 32155]. •Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758 -- (Smith & Böhlke 1990:145 [ref. 19379]). •Valid as Muraena augusti (Kaup 1856) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:195 [ref. 13286], Santos et al. 1997:20 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:55 [ref. 24952] with Günther 1870 as author, Jiménez et al. 2007:101 [ref. 29038], Smith 2012:30 [ref. 32155], Wirtz et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32972], Smith & Brito 2016:1633 [ref. 34557]). Current status: Valid as Muraena augusti (Kaup 1856). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic islands. Habitat: marine.

auloptera, Muraena De Filippi [F.] 1853:168 [6] [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 5; ref. 17378] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MZUT 235. Type catalog: Tortonese 1940:141 [ref. 21559], Böhlke & Smith 2002:95 [ref. 26380]. On p. 6 of separate. •Synonym of Siderea grisea (Lacepède 1803) -- (Fricke 1999:56 [ref. 24106]). •Synonym of Echidna nebulosa (Ahl 1789) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:217 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:95 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:6 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna nebulosa (Ahl 1789). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

aurea, Muraena Mowbray [L. L.] 1931:unnumb. p. 2 [Fauna Bermudensis v. 1; ref. 13453] South shore of Bermuda. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Gymnothorax miliaris (Kaup 1856) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:155 [ref. 13286], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:135 [ref. 25013]). •Synonym of Muraena miliaris (Kaup 1856) -- (Smith & Böhlke 1990:147 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:20 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax miliaris (Kaup 1856). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

australiae, Muraena helena Richardson [J.] 1848:80, Pl. 49 (figs. 1-6) [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Eastern Atlantic [Australia is erroneous]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1847.5.10.16. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:95 [ref. 26380] with remarks on type locality. Use of the term australiae in figure caption of Pl. 49 may have been intended as an indication of locality and not a new name, as that term does not appear in the text (p. 80) or list of species. It has been treated, however, as an available name by recent authors. •Valid as Muraena australiae Richardson 1848 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:132 [ref. 12442], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847]). •Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758 -- (Böhlke & McCosker 2001:96 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:95 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:31 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

australicola, Gymnothorax Lavenberg [R. J.] 1992:59, Figs. 1-2 [Pacific Science v. 46 (no. 1); ref. 20054] Anakena Cove, east side 100 meters northeast of sand beach, Easter Island, 27°03.5'S, 109°19.5'W, depth 4.5 meters. Holotype: LACM 6560-48. Paratypes: ANSP 165743 (1); BPBM 12262 (1), 12872 (7), 14945 (1), 16844 (1), 16877 (5), 17304 (5), 16975 (3), 17014 (1); LACM 6560-45 (17); SIO 65-624 (2), 65-626 (12), 65-628 (7, 4); UCR 2195-1 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:95 [ref. 26380], Angulo et al. 2015:375 [ref. 35212].. •Valid as Gymnothorax australicola Lavenberg 1992 -- (Pequeño 1997:80 [ref. 23536], Francis 1993:157 [ref. 25479], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Randall 1999:6 [ref. 25829], Pequeño & Lamilla 2000:434 [ref. 24906], Böhlke 2000:402 [ref. 24954], Meléndez C. & Cornejo C. 2001:67 [ref. 26163], Böhlke & Smith 2002:95 [ref. 26380], Randall 2005:39 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:84 [ref. 30952], Dyer & Westneat 2010:596 [ref. 31446], Smith 2012:12 [ref. 32155], Ray et al. 2015:143 [ref. 33981], Mohapatra et al. 2018:128 [ref. 35948]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax australicola Lavenberg 1992. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Southern Pacific: Lord Howe Island east to islands off Chile. Habitat: marine.

austrinus, Gymnothorax Böhlke [E. B.] & McCosker [J. E.] 2001:85, Figs. 4-5, Pl. 1 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 53 (no. 1); ref. 25226] Half Moon Bay, Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia, 37°58'S, 145°01'E. Holotype (unique): NMV A.17858. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:95 [ref. 26380]. Known from one very old specimen. •Valid as Gymnothorax austrinus Böhlke & McCosker 2001 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:95 [ref. 26380], Allen et al. 2006:248 [ref. 29005], Smith 2008:158 [ref. 30621], Smith 2012:12 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax austrinus Böhlke & McCosker 2001. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Victoria, Australia. Habitat: brackish.

bacalladoi, Gymnothorax Böhlke [E. B.] & Brito [A.] 1987:459, Figs. 1-3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 139; ref. 12411] Barranco Hondo, Tenerife Island, Canary Islands, depth 604 meters. Holotype: TFMC (ZM-2). Paratypes: ANSP 159041 (1), CAS 60405 (1). Species name misspelled in title as baccaladoi. •Valid as Gymnothorax bacalladoi Böhlke & Brito 1987 -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:189 [ref. 13286], Smith 2012:12 [ref. 32155], Wirtz et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32972], Smith & Brito 2016:1639 [ref. 34557]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax bacalladoi Böhlke & Brito 1987. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Madeira, Canary Islands and Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.

baranesi, Gymnothorax Smith [D. G.], Brokovich [E.] & Einbinder [S.] 2008:63, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa No. 1678; ref. 29432] Eilat, Israel, Gulf of Aqaba, 29°29'33.0"N, 34°55'07.8"E, Red Sea, depth 200 meters. Holotype: HUJ 18976. Paratypes: HUJ 18975 (1), USNM 388603 (1). •Valid as Gymnothorax baranesi Smith, Brokovich & Einbinder 2008 -- (Smith 2012:12 [ref. 32155], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[4] 242 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:20 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax baranesi Smith, Brokovich & Einbinder 2008. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic: Gulf of Aqaba. Habitat: marine.

barbatula, Nettastomops Steindachner [F.] 1906:299 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe 1906 (no. 17); ref. 4241] Upolu Island, Samoa Islands. Holotype (unique): NMW 61038. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:95-96 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Rhinomuraena quaesita Garman 1888 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:96 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:33 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhinomuraena quaesita Garman 1888. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

bathyphilus, Gymnothorax Randall [J. E.] & McCosker [J. E.] 1975:20, Figs. 11-13 [Contributions in Science (Los Angeles) No. 264; ref. 7466] Off Mt. Tere Vaka, western coast of Easter Island, depth 250 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 6801. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:96 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax bathyphilus Randall & McCosker 1975 -- (Pequeño 1989:24 [ref. 14125] as bathiphylus, Bussing 1998:444 [ref. 24930], Pequeño & Lamilla 2000:434 [ref. 24906] as bathyphylus, Böhlke & Smith 2002:96 [ref. 26380], Dyer & Westneat 2010:596 [ref. 31446] as bathiphylus, Smith 2012:12 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax bathyphilus Randall & McCosker 1975. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Easter Island, Juan Fernandez, Desventuradas Islands (Chile). Habitat: marine.

batuensis, Muraena Bleeker [P.] 1856:241 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 12 (no. 1); ref. 16862] Batu Island, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.253. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:96 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax flavimarginatus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:235 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:96 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:15 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax flavimarginatus (Rüppell 1830). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

bauchotae, Channomuraena Saldanha [L.] & Quéro [J.-C.] 1994:308, Fig. 1 [Cybium v. 18 (no. 3); ref. 21529] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean, 19°41.4'S, 54°08.7'E, depth 55 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1992-1386. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:157 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Channomuraena bennettii (Günther 1870) -- (Fricke 1999:41 [ref. 24106]). •Valid as Channomuraena bauchotae Saldanha & Quéro 1994 -- (Quéro & Saldanha 1995:64 [ref. 22017], Böhlke & Smith 2002:157 [ref. 26380], Fricke et al. 2009:14 [ref. 30213], Smith 2012:35 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Valid as Channomuraena bauchotae Saldanha & Quéro 1994. Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: Réunion (western Mascarenes endemic); Taiwan and New Caledonia if formosa is a synonym. Habitat: marine.

bayeri, Gymnothorax Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:124, Figs. 23f, 26 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Lagoon coral head at Kieschiechi Island, Rongelap Atoll, Marshall Islands, western Pacific, depth 20 feet. Holotype: USNM 141608. Paratypes: FMNH 62583 [ex USNM 141604] (1); USNM 116053 (1), 141605-07 (1, 1, 1), 141609 (1), 152976-77 [ex UW] (1, 1), 202542 [ex UW 8742] (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:42 [ref. 12367], Smith 1994:17 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:96 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Enchelycore bayeri (Schultz 1953) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:127 [ref. 12442], Böhlke et al. 1989:135 [ref. 13286], Winterbottom et al. 1989:7 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:35 [ref. 15987], Randall & Golani 1995:852 [ref. 21744], Allen 1997:54 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:35 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:44 [ref. 23965], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Nakabo 2000:200 [ref. 25086], Randall & Earle 2000:6 [ref. 25806], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Hutchins 2001:16 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:200 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:96 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:22 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:610 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:6 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:36 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:246 [ref. 29005], Shibukawa et al. 2007:187 [ref. 29475], Fricke et al. 2011:349 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:79 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:8 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2014:18 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Ho et al. 2015:153 [ref. 34130], Golani & Fricke 2018:20 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Enchelycore bayeri (Schultz 1953). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Maldives and Chagos Archipelago east to Line, Society and Marquesas islands, north to Taiwan, south Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

bennettii, Gymnomuraena Günther [A.] 1870:135 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1856.2.24.7 (stuffed). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:157 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Channomuraena bennettii (Günther 1870) -- (Fricke 1999:41 [ref. 24106]). •Synonym of Channomuraena vittata (Richardson 1845) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:157 [ref. 26380], Randall 2005:50 [ref. 28239], Smith 2012:35 [ref. 32155], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35195]). Current status: Synonym of Channomuraena vittata (Richardson 1845). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Habitat: marine.

berndti, Gymnothorax Snyder [J. O.] 1904:518, Pl. 4 (fig. 8) [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 [1902]; ref. 4149] Hololulu market, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50867. Paratypes: CAS-SU 12791 (1). Possible paratypes: USNM 52618 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:47 [ref. 12291], Smith 1994:17 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:96 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax berndti Snyder 1904 -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:24 [ref. 6441], Machida in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:105, 325 [ref. 8057], Chen et al. 1994:49 [ref. 22258], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Böhlke & Randall 2000:228 [ref. 24493], Nakabo 2000:204 [ref. 25086], Hutchins 2001:16 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:204 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:96 [ref. 26380], Myers & Donaldson 2003:610 [ref. 27495], Shinohara et al. 2005:399 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:117 [ref. 28379], McCosker & Stewart 2006:91 [ref. 28702], Randall 2007:84 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2011:349 [ref. 31242], Smith 2012:12 [ref. 32155], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:108 [ref. 36167], Ho et al. 2015:154 [ref. 34130], Stewart & McCosker 2015:229 [ref. 34233]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax berndti Snyder 1904. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Hawaiian Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New Caledonia and northern Kermadec Ridge. Habitat: marine.

bettencourti, Muraena Osório [B.] 1911:76, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Memorias do Museu Bocage, Lisboa v. 2; ref. 13025] Ilha de Santo Antão, Cape Verde Islands. Holotype (unique): MB (destroyed in 1978 fire). •Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758 -- (Blache et al. 1973:224 [ref. 7185], Smith & Böhlke 1990:145 [ref. 19379]). •Synonym of Muraena augusti (Kaup 1856) -- (Smith 2012:30 [ref. 32155], Smith & Brito 2016:1633 [ref. 34557]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena augusti (Kaup 1856). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

bicolor, Muraena Bleeker [P.] (ex Reinwardt) 1864-65:99 [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises v. 4; ref. 4860] Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:96-97 [ref. 26380]. Not available, museum name mentioned in passing in the synonymy of Gymnothorax reticularis. •Unavailable name published in synonymy; perhaps the same as Gymnothorax enigmaticus McCosker & Randall 1982 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:97 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:54 [ref. 32155]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae.

bikiniensis, Gymnothorax Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:116, Figs. 23e, 24 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Cherry Island, Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands. Holotype: USNM 141575. Paratypes: FMNH 62584 [ex USNM 141573] (1); USNM 116054 (1), 141571-72 (1, 2), 141573 (orig. 2, now 1), 141574 (1), 141576 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:42 [ref. 12367], Smith 1994:17 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:97 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Enchelycore bikiniensis (Schultz 1953) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:135 [ref. 13286], Chen et al. 1994:47 [ref. 22258], Myers 1999:44 [ref. 23965], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Böhlke & McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:6 [ref. 25806], Böhlke & Smith 2002:97 [ref. 26380], Myers & Donaldson 2003:610 [ref. 27495], Randall 2005:36 [ref. 28239], Zhang et al. 2010:254 [ref. 31511], Smith 2012:8 [ref. 32155], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Ho et al. 2015:153 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Enchelycore bikiniensis (Schultz 1953). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

bilineata, Muraena Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1838:84 [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype: SMF 911. Paratypes: SMF 7186 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:97 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Siderea grisea (Lacepède 1803) -- (Dor 1984:30 [ref. 29757], Randall & Golani 1995:870 [ref. 21744]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax griseus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:97 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:16 [ref. 32155], Golani & Fricke 2018:21 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax griseus (Lacepède 1803). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

bleekeri, Enchelynassa Kaup [J. J.] 1855:214, Pl. 10 (fig. 3) [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 21 (pt. 1); ref. 2570] Pacific. Holotype (unique): RMNH 3722. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:97 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Enchelynassa canina (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:222 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:97 [ref. 26380], Mundy 2005:115 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:247 [ref. 29005], Smith 2012:9 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Enchelynassa canina (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

blochii, Muraena Bleeker [P.] 1852:49 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 5); ref. 339] Sibogha, western Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.330. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:97-98 [ref. 26380]. Type could not be located in 1995 according to Böhlke & Smith 2002:98 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax undulatus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:258 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:97 [ref. 26380] with question, Smith 2012:28 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax undulatus (Lacepède 1803). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

borneensis, Gymnothorax Bleeker [P.] 1863:169 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 1; ref. 17004] Borneo. Holotype (unique): RMNH 3797. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:98 [ref. 26380]. Original as borneënsis. •Synonym of Gymnothorax tile (Hamilton 1822) -- (Smith 2012:28 [ref. 32155], Kottelat 2013:43 [ref. 32989], Mohapatra et al. 2017:589 [ref. 35418]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax tile (Hamilton 1822). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

boschii, Muraena Bleeker [P.] 1852:52 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 5); ref. 339] Sibogha, western Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7205. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:98 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax boschii (Bleeker 1852) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:128 [ref. 12442], Johnson 1999:721 [ref. 25471], Zhang et al. 2010:257 [ref. 31511] as Gymnothorax boschi). •See Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692]. •Synonym of Echidna nebulosa (Ahl 1789) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:217 [ref. 24493], Böhlke 2000:395 [ref. 24954], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:98 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:98 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:6 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna nebulosa (Ahl 1789). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

breedeni, Gymnothorax McCosker [J. E.] & Randall [J. E.] 1977:162, Figs. 1-3 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 41 (no. 3); ref. 7267] Itsandra, Grande Comore Island, Comoro Islands, Indian Ocean. Holotype: CAS 35250. Paratypes: ANSP 134222 (1), BPBM 11903 (1), USNM 215283 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:130 [ref. 13621], Smith 1994:17 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:98 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax breedeni McCosker & Randall 1977 -- (Castle & McCosker 1986:168 [ref. 5645], Myers 1999:46 [ref. 23965], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Randall & Earle 2000:6 [ref. 25806], Böhlke & Smith 2002:98 [ref. 26380], Randall 2005:39 [ref. 28239], Randall et al. 2005:118 [ref. 28745], Allen & Erdmann 2012:81 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:12 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2013:251 [ref. 32706], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Koeda & Akita 2017:32 [ref. 35353]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax breedeni McCosker & Randall 1977. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Comoro Islands to Caroline and Marquesas islands, Christmas Island, and southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

brevicauda, Gymnomuraena Regan [C. T.] 1903:414, Pl. 13 (fig. 1) [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 11 (no. 2); ref. 3620] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MHNG 665.54. Type catalog: Mahnert 1976:473 [ref. 21535], Weber 1998:5 [ref. 23532], Böhlke & Smith 2002:157 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Scuticaria okinawae (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Böhlke & McCosker 1997:172 [ref. 23214], Fricke 1999:56 [ref. 24106], Böhlke & Randall 2000:265 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:157 [ref. 26380], Randall 2007:96 [ref. 30952], Smith 2012:35 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Scuticaria okinawae (Jordan & Snyder 1901). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Habitat: marine.

breviceps, Gymnomuraena Schmeltz [J. D. E.] 1879:38 [Museum Godeffroy. Catalog VII; ref. 30283] Savai'i Island, Samoa. No types known. Unneeded replacement name for Ichthyophis tigrinus Lesson 1828. Not available, no description; from w. Samoa. •In the synonymy of Scuticaria tigrina (Lesson 1828) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:265 [ref. 24493]). •Not available, nomen nudum -- (Smith 2012:54 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Scuticaria tigrina (Lesson 1828). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae.

brummeri, Muraena Bleeker [P.] 1858:137 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 17 (no. 1); ref. 16980] Atapupu, Timor Island, southern Malay Archipelago. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.259. Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:413 [ref. 21161], Böhlke & Smith 2002:98 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Strophidon brummeri (Bleeker 1858) -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:22 [ref. 6441], Chen et al. 1994:54 [ref. 22258], Zhang et al. 2010:238 [ref. 31511]). •Valid as Pseudechidna brummeri (Bleeker 1858) -- (Böhlke 1995:462 [ref. 21738], Allen 1997:54 [ref. 23977], Böhlke 1997:103 [ref. 23177], Myers 1999:50 [ref. 23965], Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692], Nakabo 2000:199 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:199 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:98 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:611 [ref. 27495], Randall 2005:49 [ref. 28239], Loh et al. 2011:51 [ref. 31690], Allen & Erdmann 2012:95 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:32 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2014:20 [ref. 33932], Ho et al. 2015:162 [ref. 34130], Fricke et al. 2018:39 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Pseudechidna brummeri (Bleeker 1858). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Mayotte and Madagascar east to Cook Islands, north to southern Japan, south to New Caledonia, Habitat: marine.

brunneus, Gymnothorax Nichols [J. T.] 1920:59 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 33; ref. 3173] Castle Harbor, Bermuda. Holotype (unique): AMNH 7309. •Synonym of Enchelycore nigricans (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:143 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:140 [ref. 19379], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:133 [ref. 25013], Smith 2012:8 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Enchelycore nigricans (Bonnaterre 1788). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

brunneus, Gymnothorax Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1923:212 [Philippine Journal of Science v. 23 (no. 2); ref. 2117] Analao, Batangas, Philippines, 13°45'N, 120°55'E, depth 0-3 meters. Neotype: ANSP 164931. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:98-99 [ref. 26380]. Unique holotype lost; neotype selected by Böhlke 2000:404 [ref. 24954]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Gymnothorax brunneus Nichols 1920, replaced by Gymnothorax herrei Beebe & Tee-Van 1933. •Valid as Gymnothorax brunneus Herre 1923 -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:25 [ref. 6441], Chen et al. 1994:49 [ref. 22258], Zhang et al. 2010:259 [ref. 31511]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax herrei Beebe & Tee-Van 1933 -- (Randall & Golani 1995:860 [ref. 21744], Böhlke 2000:403 [ref. 24954], Böhlke & Smith 2002:98 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:17 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax herrei Beebe & Tee-Van 1933. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

bullata, Muraena Richardson [J.] 1848:86 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Borneo. Holotype (unique): BMNH 2008.4.9.4. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:99 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax fimbriatus (Bennett 1832) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:99 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:15 [ref. 32155], Kottelat 2013:42 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax fimbriatus (Bennett 1832). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

buroensis, Muraena Bleeker [P.] 1857:79 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 13 (no. 1); ref. 16866] Kajeli, Buru Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia, Holotype (unique): RMNH 7197. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:99 [ref. 26380]. Original as buroënsis. See Böhlke & Randall 2000:230 [ref. 24493] for remarks on type. •Valid as Gymnothorax buroensis (Bleeker 1857) -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:23 [ref. 6441], Castle & McCosker 1986:168 [ref. 5645], Allen & Swainston 1988:32 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:128 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:35 [ref. 15987], Chen et al. 1994:49 [ref. 22258], Allen & Robertson 1994:45 [ref. 22193], Goren & Dor 1994:7 [ref. 25356], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1309 [ref. 22830], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:66 [ref. 22017], Randall & Golani 1995:854 [ref. 21744], Allen 1997:52 [ref. 23977], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:153 [ref. 24023], Randall et al. 1997:35 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:46 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:44 [ref. 24106], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Randall 1999:6 [ref. 25829], Böhlke & Randall 2000:229 [ref. 24493], Nakabo 2000:203 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:6 [ref. 25806], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Hutchins 2001:16 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:202 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:99 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:22 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:610 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:68 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:6 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3316 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:39 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:117 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:249 [ref. 29005], Chen & Loh 2007:80 [ref. 29360], Randall 2007:85 [ref. 30952], Béarez & Séret 2009:146 [ref. 36646], Fricke et al. 2009:15 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Zhang et al. 2010:261 [ref. 31511], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:58 [ref. 35264], Fricke et al. 2011:349 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:82 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:12 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2013:251 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:18 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Ho et al. 2015:154 [ref. 34130], Fricke et al. 2018:34 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:20 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:23 [ref. 36883]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax buroensis (Bleeker 1857). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Clipperton Island and Panama, north to Ryukyu Islands and Hawaiian Islands, south to northwestern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

callorhyncha, Muraena Günther [A.] 1870:122 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Fremantle, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1861.5.18.7. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:99 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax prasinus (Richardson 1848) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:131 [ref. 12442], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:93 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:99 [ref. 26380], Allen et al. 2006:255 [ref. 29005], Smith 2012:25 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax prasinus (Richardson 1848). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

cancellata, Muraena Richardson [J.] 1848:87, Pl. 46 (figs. 1-5) [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Western Australia; northern Australia; Sumatra, Indonesia. Syntypes: BMNH (3, not found), MNHN (not found). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:125 [ref. 20810], Böhlke & Smith 2002:99 [ref. 26380] •Synonym of Gymnothorax undulatus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:131 [ref. 12442], Böhlke & Randall 2000:258 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:96 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:99 [ref. 26380], Allen et al. 2006:257 [ref. 29005], Smith 2012:28 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax undulatus (Lacepède 1803). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

canina, Muraena Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:247 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Waigiou [Pulau Waigeo, Papua Barat, Indonesia, western Pacific]; Rawak Island, Bismarck Archipelago [Papua New Guinea, western Pacific]. Syntypes: MNHN (not found) Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:100 [ref. 26380]. See Böhlke & Smith 2002:100 [ref. 26380] for comments on status and prior use of this name. See Smith & Böhlke 2006:35 [ref. 28678] for remarks on types. Also see Smith 2012:9 [ref. 32155]. •Valid as Enchelycore canina (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:128 [ref. 12442], Allen & Robertson 1994:44 [ref. 22193], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1308 [ref. 22830]). •Valid as Enchelynassa canina (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Winterbottom et al. 1989:8 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:35 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:54 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:35 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:46 [ref. 23965], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Randall 1999:6 [ref. 25829], Böhlke & Randall 2000:222 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Randall & Earle 2000:6 [ref. 25806], Böhlke & Smith 2002:100 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:22 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:610 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:6 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:38 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:115 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:247 [ref. 29005], Randall 2007:82 [ref. 30952], Béarez & Séret 2009:146 [ref. 36646], Fricke et al. 2009:15 [ref. 30213], Zhang et al. 2010:288 [ref. 31511], Allen & Erdmann 2012:80 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:9 [ref. 32155], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Ho et al. 2015:154 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Enchelynassa canina (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific: Réunion (western Mascarenes) and Chagos Archipelago east to Hawaiian Islands, Clipperton Island and Panama, north to China, south to Tonga. Habitat: marine.

cantonensis, Uropterygius Schultz [L. P.] 1943:27, Pl. 4; Fig. 3a [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 180; ref. 3957] Lagoon of Canton Island, Phoenix Islands, southern central Pacific. Holotype: USNM 115904. Paratypes: MCZ 37260 [ex USNM 115905] (2); USNM 115905 (10, now 8), 115906-07 (1, 1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:24 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:157 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Anarchias cantonensis (Schultz 1943) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:117 [ref. 13286], Randall et al. 1990:34 [ref. 15987], Myers 1999:51 [ref. 23965], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:157 [ref. 26380], Lobel & Lobel 2004:68 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:6 [ref. 27624], Mundy 2005:112 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:244 [ref. 29005], Reece et al. 2010:423 [ref. 30969], Zhang et al. 2010:226 [ref. 31511], Smith 2012:34 [ref. 32155], Ho et al. 2015:152 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Anarchias cantonensis (Schultz 1943). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: central Indian Ocean east to the Phoenix and Line Islands in the central Pacific, north to China and Taiwan, south to Tonga. Habitat: marine.

caramuru, Murenophis Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:82, Pl. 43 (fig. 1) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Bahia, Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN B-2437 (1), B-3168 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:100 [ref. 20810]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier 1829) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:179 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:142 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:21 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier 1829). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

carcinognathus, Gymnothorax Fowler [H. W.] 1912:22, Fig. 5 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 64; ref. 1385] St. Martin Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): ANSP 38163. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:130 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax vicinus (Castelnau 1855) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:186 [ref. 13286], Smith 2012:29 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax vicinus (Castelnau 1855). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

carychroa, Enchelycore Böhlke [J. E.] & Böhlke [E. B.] 1976:138, Figs. 1-3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 127; ref. 7364] West of Delaporte Point, Great Bahama Bank, New Providence Island, Bahamas, depth 12 feet. Holotype: ANSP 100000. Paratypes: (589) ANSP (321, 2 c&s), CAS, FMNH 83913 (2), GCRL, LACM (2 lots, 2), MCZ (6 lots, 32), MBUCV (4 lots, 12), MNHN 1975-0891 (8), MZUSP, UF (15 lots), UF [ex UMML] (40 lots), USNM 214784-85 (2, 9), ZMB 24095 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:130 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:34 [ref. 12367], Bauchot et al. 1993:98 [ref. 20810], Smith 1994:16 [ref. 21917], Provenzano et al. 1998:8 [ref. 24196]. •Valid as Enchelycore carychroa Böhlke & Böhlke 1976 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:54 [ref. 23100], Böhlke et al. 1989:140 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:139 [ref. 19379], Cervigón 1991:35 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:367 [ref. 23827], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:232 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:133 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:148 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:98 [ref. 26784], Böhlke & Smith 2003:704 [ref. 26990], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:33 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:8 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:60 [ref. 27807], Smith 2012:8 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:60 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:23 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:3 [ref. 33516], Pinheiro et al. 2015:5 [ref. 34324], Smith & Brito 2016:1638 [ref. 34557], Mohapatra et al. 2017:598 [ref. 35581], Brown et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Enchelycore carychroa Böhlke & Böhlke 1976. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Southern central and eastern Atlantic: Ascension, Saint Helena and Bioko (Equatorial Guinea). Habitat: marine.

castanea, Sidera Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1883:647 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 335) (for 26 June 1883); ref. 10617] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Lectotype: USNM 29591. Paralectotypes: USNM 28246 (1, lost), 29535 (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:24 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:100 [ref. 26380]. Lectotype selected by Smith 1994:24 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Gymnothorax castaneus (Jordan & Gilbert 1883) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:45 [ref. 22193], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1309 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:225 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:150 [ref. 24023], Bussing 1998:444 [ref. 24930], Thomson et al. 2000:43 [ref. 25640], Böhlke & Smith 2002:100 [ref. 26380], Nelson et al. 2004:60 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Smith 2012:13 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:441 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:606 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax castaneus (Jordan & Gilbert 1883). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

castlei, Gymnothorax Böhlke [E. B.] & Randall [J. E.] 1999:550, Figs. 1-3 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 47 (no. 2); ref. 24552] North of Mauimere, Wailiti Reef, 8°34'40"S, 122°11'55"E, Flores, Indonesia, depth 18 meters. Holotype: ANSP 177738. Paratypes: ANSP 141410 (2), 141416 (9), 144443 (1); BPBM 26812 (1), 28690 (1), 28700 (1), 32161 (6), 37664 (1); USNM 263101-02 (6, 4), 312479 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:100 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax castlei Böhlke & Randall 1999 -- (Böhlke 2000:396 [ref. 24954], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:100 [ref. 26380], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:10 [ref. 27510], Allen et al. 2006:249 [ref. 29005], Allen & Erdmann 2012:82 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:13 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2014:18 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax castlei Böhlke & Randall 1999. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea and eastern Australia. Habitat: marine.

catenatus, Gymnothorax Bloch [M. E.] 1795:84, Pl. 415 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 9; ref. 464] Suriname. Holotype (unique): ZMB 4012. Non-types?: ZMB 4013-14 (1, 2). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:103 [ref. 24282] with ZMB 4012 as holotype. On p. 69 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 12 [ref. 21381]. •Synonym of Echidna polyzona (Richardson 1845) -- (Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:37 [ref. 28867]). •Valid as Echidna catenata (Bloch 1795) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:54 [ref. 23100], Böhlke et al. 1989:131 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:138 [ref. 19379], Cervigón 1991:46 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:366 [ref. 23827], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:231 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:132 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:148 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1643 [ref. 25634], Böhlke & Smith 2003:706 [ref. 26990], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:33 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:8 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:60 [ref. 27807], Smith 2012:5 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:60 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:23 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:3 [ref. 33516], Pinheiro et al. 2015:5 [ref. 34324], Smith & Brito 2016:1638 [ref. 34557]). Current status: Valid as Echidna catenata (Bloch 1795). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Ascension Island and ? eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

catenula, Muraenophis Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:628, 641 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Suriname. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:126 [ref. 20810]. Unneeded new name for Gymnothorax catenatus Bloch 1795, Pl. 415 (fig. 1). •Synonym of Echidna catenata (Bloch 1795) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:131 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:138 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:5 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna catenata (Bloch 1795). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

caudatum, Leptocephalus Shen [S.-C.] 1963:263, Figs. 4-8 [Quarterly Journal of the Taiwan Museum (Taipei) v. 16 (nos 3-4); ref. 5280] Estuary of the Tam-sui River, northern Taiwan. Holotype (unique): NTUM uncat. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:64 [ref. 31432]. •Larvae, may belong to a species of Muraena -- (Ho & Shao 2011:64 [ref. 31432]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

cephalospilus, Gymnothorax Böhlke [E. B.] & McCosker [J. E.] 2001:86, Figs. 6-7, Pl. 1 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 53 (no. 1); ref. 25226] Off Port Macquarie, 31°16'S, 153°10'E, New South Wales, Australia, depth 134 meters. Holotype: AMS I.37982-001. Paratypes: ANSP 177865 (1), CAS 212449 (1), CSIRO CA 2928 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:100 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax cephalospilus Böhlke & McCosker 2001 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:100 [ref. 26380], Allen et al. 2006:249 [ref. 29005], McCosker & Randall 2008:713 [ref. 29941], Smith 2012:13 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax cephalospilus Böhlke & McCosker 2001. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

ceramensis, Muraena Bleeker [P.] 1852:297 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 16825] Wahai, northern Ceram, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 7200. Paralectotypes: (2) BMNH 1867.11.28.272 (1), RMNH 7200 (2, ? Now 1). Bleeker specimens: NMV 46150-51 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:100-101 [ref. 26380]. Lectotype selected by Böhlke & Smith 2002:100-101 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax richardsonii (Bleeker 1852) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:101 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:26 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax richardsonii (Bleeker 1852). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cerinonigra, Muraena Richardson [J.] 1846:314 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. No types known. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:101 [ref. 26380]. Originally as cerino-nigra. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:208 [ref. 11606]). •Synonym of Echidna nebulosa (Ahl 1789) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:217 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:101 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:6 [ref. 32155]). •Synonym of Siderea picta (Ahl 1789) -- (Zhang et al. 2010:248 [ref. 31511]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna nebulosa (Ahl 1789). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

chalazius, Gymnothorax Waite [E. R.] 1904:145, Pl. 17 (fig. 2) [Records of the Australian Museum v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 4561] Lord Howe Island. Syntypes: AMS I.5479 (1), I.6271 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:101 [ref. 26380]. Böhlke & Smith 2002:101 [ref. 26380] regard AMS I.5479 as the holotype, but it is technically the syntype on which mmost of the description was based. See Smith & Böhlke 2006:35 [ref. 28678] for remarks on types. •Synonym of Gymnothorax eurostus (Abbott 1860) -- (Randall & McCosker 1975:25 [ref. 7466], Böhlke & Randall 2000:234 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:97 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:101 [ref. 26380], Randall 2007:86 [ref. 30952], Smith 2012:14 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax eurostus (Abbott 1860). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

chilensis, Muraena Günther [A.] 1872:674 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1871 (pt 3) (art. 1) (for 21 Nov. 1871); ref. 1997] Chile. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1871.9.13.88. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:101 [ref. 26380], •Valid as Gymnothorax chilensis Günther 1872 -- (Pequeño 1989:24 [ref. 14125]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax porphyreus (Guichenot 1848) -- (Böhlke & McCosker 2001:92 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:101 [ref. 26380], Dyer & Westneat 2010:596 [ref. 31446], Smith 2012:24 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax porphyreus (Guichenot 1848). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

chilospilus, Gymnothorax Bleeker [P.] 1864:52 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 2; ref. 408] East Indian Archipelago [Indonesia]. Lectotype: BMNH 1867.11.28.328. Paralectotypes: RMNH 7491 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:101-102 [ref. 26380]. Lectotype selected by Böhlke & Randall 2000:232 [ref. 24493]. •Valid as Gymnothorax chilospilus Bleeker 1864 -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:23 [ref. 6441], Paxton et al. 1989:128 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:8 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:35 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:157 [ref. 25479], Francis & Randall 1993:128 [ref. 20996], Chen et al. 1994:49 [ref. 22258], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:viii [ref. 21953], Randall 1995:55 [ref. 22896], Böhlke 1997:654 [ref. 22972], Randall et al. 1997:35 [ref. 25919], Fricke 1999:44 [ref. 24106], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Böhlke & Randall 2000:231 [ref. 24493], Nakabo 2000:208 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Hutchins 2001:16 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:208 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:102 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:22 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:10 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:6 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3316 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:103 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:40 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:117 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:249 [ref. 29005], Randall 2007:85 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:15 [ref. 30213], Prokofiev 2010:585 [ref. 31007], Motomura et al. 2010:71 [ref. 31256], Zhang et al. 2010:278 [ref. 31511], Fricke et al. 2011:350 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:82 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:13 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2014:18 [ref. 33932], Ho et al. 2015:155 [ref. 34130], Fricke et al. 2018:35 [ref. 35805], Arndt & Fricke 2019:23 [ref. 36883], Zajonz et al. 2019:62 [ref. 36871] as cf. chilospilus). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax chilospilus Bleeker 1864. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Society Islands, and Rapa, north to Ryukyu Islands and Ogasawara Islands, south to Australia and Norfolk Island. Habitat: marine.

chionostigma, Echidna Fowler [H. W.] 1912:28, Fig. 7 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 64; ref. 1385] Probably from the Gulf of California, Mexico. Holotype: ANSP 14519. Paratypes: ANSP 14520 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:130 [ref. 13621], Böhlke & Smith 2002:102 [ref. 26380] •Synonym of Echidna nocturna (Cope 1872) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1975:424 [ref. 9341], Böhlke & Smith 2002:102 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:6 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna nocturna (Cope 1872). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

chlamydatus, Gymnothorax Snyder [J. O.] 1908:94 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 35 (no. 1635); ref. 4150] Naha market, Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype: USNM 62232. Paratypes: CAS-SU 21101 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:47 [ref. 12291], Smith 1994:17 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:102 [ref. 26380]. •Probably valid -- (Smith 1994:17 [ref. 21917]). •Valid as Gymnothorax chlamydatus Snyder 1908 -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:24 [ref. 6441], Chen et al. 1994:49 [ref. 22258], Smith & Böhlke 1997:180 [ref. 23215], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Nakabo 2000:205 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:205 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:102 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:22 [ref. 26830], Zhang et al. 2010:269 [ref. 31511], Allen & Erdmann 2012:83 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:13 [ref. 32155], Ho et al. 2015:155 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax chlamydatus Snyder 1908. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia, Philippines, Taiwan and Ryukyu Islands. Habitat: marine.

chlevastes, Sidera Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1883:208 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 6 (nos. 13-14, no. 369) (for 5 Oct. 1883); ref. 10621] Galápagos Islands. [probably in error]. Holotype (unique): USNM 20385. Type catalog: Smith 1994:24 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:102 [ref. 26380]. Type locality probably Indo-Pacific and not Galapagos Is. (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1975:423 [ref. 9341]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax rueppellii (McClelland 1844) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:255 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:102 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:27 [ref. 32155]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax rueppelliae (McClelland 1844). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax rueppelliae (McClelland 1844). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

chlorostigma, Thyrsoidea Kaup [J. J.] 1856:63 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Seychelles. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-4427. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:102 [ref. 20810], Böhlke & Smith 2002:102 [ref. 26380]. Also in Kaup 1856:89 [ref. 2573]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax meleagris (Shaw 1795) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:244 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:102 [ref. 26380], Mundy 2005:121 [ref. 28379], Smith 2012:19 [ref. 32155], Kottelat 2013:42 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Gymnothorax chlorostigma (Kaup 1856) -- (Nakabo 2000:203 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:203 [ref. 26001], Motomura et al. 2010:71 [ref. 31256], Koeda et al. 2016:7 [ref. 35333]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax chlorostigma (Kaup 1856). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

chrysops, Muraena Kaup [J. J.] 1856:70 [Catalogue of the apodal fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2573] Tahiti, Society Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-2118. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:99 [ref. 20810], Böhlke & Smith 2002:102-103 [ref. 26380]. Appeared first without description in Kaup 1856:58 [ref. 2572]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax richardsonii (Bleeker 1852) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:103 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:26 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax richardsonii (Bleeker 1852). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

cinerascens, Muraena Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1830:120 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Al Muwaylih, Tabuk Province, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 3486. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:102-103 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Lycodontis undulatus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Dor 1984:29 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax hepaticus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Randall & Golani 1995:858 [ref. 21744], Böhlke & Smith 2002:103 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:17 [ref. 32155], Golani & Fricke 2018:21 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax hepaticus (Rüppell 1830). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

clepsydra, Muraena Gilbert [C. H.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:2805 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2445] (Pacific) Panama. Holotype: CAS-SU 6807. Paratypes: BMNH 1903.5.15.443 (1), CAS-SU 12899-900 (1, 1), USNM 50423 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:47 [ref. 12291], Smith 1994:21 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:103 [ref. 26380] Author is C. H. Gilbert. Holotype figured in Gilbert & Starks 1904, Pl. 7 (fig. 13) [ref. 1639]. •Valid as Muraena clepsydra Gilbert 1898 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:47 [ref. 22193], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1312 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:158 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:127 [ref. 24555], Thomson et al. 2000:41 [ref. 25640], Böhlke & Smith 2002:103 [ref. 26380], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Smith 2012:31 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:441 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:606 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Muraena clepsydra Gilbert 1898. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

cocosa, Echidna Garman [S.] 1899:313 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Cocos Island, eastern Pacific. Holotype (unique): MCZ 28452. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:103 [ref. 26380], •Synonym of Echidna nebulosa (Ahl 1789) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:217 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:103 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:6 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna nebulosa (Ahl 1789). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

colubrina, Muraenophis Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:627, 641, Pl. 19 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] New Britain and islands. No types known. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:103 [ref. 26380]. Possibly Lacepède took the name from the ophichthid , Myrichthys colubrinus Boddaert ["Boddaert apud Pallas ..."] is one entry in Lacepède's synonymy; based on several literature sources. •Nomen dubium -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:103 [ref. 26380]). Muraenidae. Habitat: marine.

concolor, Thyrsoidea Abbott [C. C.] 1860:479 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 12; ref. 15619] Veracruz, Mexico. Holotype (unique): ANSP 970. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:130 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier 1829) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:179 [ref. 13286], Smith 2012:21 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier 1829). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

concolor, Uropterygius Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1838:83, Pl. 20 (fig. 4) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 746. Paralectotypes: SMF 7422 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:157-158 [ref. 26380]. Lectotype established by Böhlke 1982:40 [ref. 26388], also by Dor 1984:30 [ref. 29757]. May involve more than one species -- Smith 2012:36 [ref. 32155]. •Valid as Uropterygius concolor Rüppell 1838 -- (Dor 1984:30 [ref. 29757], Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:26 [ref. 6441], Castle & McCosker 1986:175 [ref. 5645], Paxton et al. 1989:133 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:10 [ref. 13251], Goren & Dor 1994:7 [ref. 25356], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:64 [ref. 22017], Randall & Golani 1995:871 [ref. 21744], Myers 1999:51 [ref. 23965], Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692], Nakabo 2000:196 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:7 [ref. 25806], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Sakai et al. 2001:85 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:196 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:157 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S94 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:611 [ref. 27495] as Rüppell 1837, Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Allen et al. 2006:258 [ref. 29005], Fricke et al. 2009:18 [ref. 30213], Zhang et al. 2010:230 [ref. 31511], Fricke et al. 2011:351 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:97 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:36 [ref. 32155], Larson et al. 2013:26 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:21 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Fricke et al. 2018:40 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:23 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:52 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Uropterygius concolor Rüppell 1838. Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Durban (South Africa), Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Mariana Islands and Marquesas Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

congeroides, Muraena Bleeker [P.] 1860:87 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 8 (art. 2); ref. 375] Benkulen, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.338. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.248 (1) Sumatra. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:103-104 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Enchelycore schismatorhynchus (Bleeker 1853) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:104 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:9 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Enchelycore schismatorhynchus (Bleeker 1853). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

conspersus, Gymnothorax Poey [F.] 1867:259 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 14079] Matanzas, Cuba. No types known. Type catalog: Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35195]. Poey's manuscript illustration of this species is reproduced as Fig. 1 (p. 219) in Böhlke & Böhlke 1980 [ref. 8738]. •Valid as Gymnothorax conspersus Poey 1867 -- (Böhlke & Böhlke 1980:218 [ref. 8738], Uyeno & Sasaki in Uyeno et al. 1983:104 [ref. 14275], Böhlke et al. 1989:161 [ref. 13286], Smith 1989:909 [ref. 13285], Cervigón 1991:43 [ref. 24472], Böhlke & Smith 2003:716 [ref. 26990], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:33 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], Figueroa & Ehrlich 2006:236 [ref. 29812], Smith 2012:13 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:23 [ref. 33341], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35195]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax conspersus Poey 1867. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

corallina, Muraena Klunzinger [C. B.] 1871:614 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:104 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Lycodontis corallinus (Klunzinger 1871) -- (Dor 1984:27 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Gymnothorax corallinus (Klunzinger 1871) -- (Goren & Dor 1994:7 [ref. 25356], DiBattista et al. 2015:19 [ref. 35706]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax buroensis (Bleeker 1857) -- (Randall & Golani 1995:854 [ref. 21744], Böhlke & Randall 2000:229 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:104 [ref. 26380], Randall 2007:85 [ref. 30952], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:58 [ref. 35264] as corallinus, Smith 2012:12 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax buroensis (Bleeker 1857). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

cormura, Thyrsoidea Kaup [J. J.] 1859:23, suppl. 4, Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Naturwissenschaften herausgegeben von dem Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein in Hamburg v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 2586] Puerto Cabella, Venezuela. No types known. •Synonym of Gymnothorax vicinus (Castelnau 1855) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:186 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:144 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:29 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax vicinus (Castelnau 1855). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

cribroris, Gymnothorax Whitley [G. P.] 1932:330, Pl. 39 (fig. 2) [Records of the Australian Museum v. 18 (no. 6); ref. 4674] Northwest Islet, Capricorn Group, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS IA.5012. Paratypes: AMS IA.4619 (1?), IA.5012 (1), IA.5027 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:104 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax cribroris Whitley 1932 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:32 [ref. 25477] as criboris, Paxton et al. 1989:128 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:36 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:32 [ref. 23929], Allen 1997:52 [ref. 23977] as criboris, Kuiter 1997:30 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:36 [ref. 25919], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Johnson 1999:721 [ref. 25471], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:87 [ref. 25226], Hutchins 2001:16 [ref. 25847], Böhlke & Smith 2002:104 [ref. 26380], Allen et al. 2006:249 [ref. 29005], Prokofiev 2010:585 [ref. 31007], Smith 2012:13 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax cribroris Whitley 1932. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

cristini, Muraenophis Risso [A.] 1810:368 [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype: MNHN (not found). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:126 [ref. 20810]. •Synonym of Lycodontis unicolor (Delaroche 1809) -- (Blache et al. 1973:225 [ref. 7185]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax unicolor (Delaroche 1809) -- (Smith & Böhlke 1990:143 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:29 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax unicolor (Delaroche 1809). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

crudelis, Eurymyctera Kaup [J. J.] 1856:59 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 3776. Paralectotypes: whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:104 [ref. 26380] Lectotype selected by Böhlke & Smith 2002:104 [ref. 25226]. •Synonym of Enchelycore schismatorhynchus (Bleeker 1853) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:104 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:9 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Enchelycore schismatorhynchus (Bleeker 1853). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

cubensis, Channomuraena Poey [F.] 1868:266, Pl. 3 (fig. 6) [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 14079] Cuba. Holotype: MCZ 9191. Paratypes: MCZ 87063 [ex MCZ 9191a] (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:175 [ref. 22926] [but holotype not clearly stated so probably all specimens are syntypes]. •Synonym of Channomuraena vittata (Richardson 1845) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:122 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:137 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:35 [ref. 32155], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35195]). Current status: Synonym of Channomuraena vittata (Richardson 1845). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Habitat: marine.

curvilineata, Murenophis Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:81, Pl. 42 (fig. 2) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: MNHN B-2436. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:101 [ref. 20810]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier 1829) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:179 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:142 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:21 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier 1829). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

cyanopunctatus, Gymnothorax Howell Rivero [L.] 1932:17 [Proceedings of the New England Zoölogical Club v. 13; ref. 3765] Matanzas, Cuba. Holotype: MCZ 32787. Paratypes: MCZ 87056 [ex MCZ 32787] (1). •Synonym of Gymnothorax vicinus (Castelnau 1855) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:186 [ref. 13286], Smith 2012:29 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax vicinus (Castelnau 1855). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

dakini, Gymnothorax Whitley [G. P.] & Colefax [A. N.] 1938:285, Pl. 14 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 63 (pts 3-4) (nos. 277-278); ref. 4736] Nauru, Gilbert Islands. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.6990 (missing in 1975 and 1997). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:104-105 [ref. 26380]. See Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692]. •Nomen dubium - (Böhlke & McCosker 2001:97 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:105 [ref. 26380]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

dalmatian, Diaphenchelys Hibino [Y.], Satapoomin [U.] & Kimura [S.] 2017:[2], Figs. 1-3, 4a [Ichthyological Research v. 64 (no. 4); ref. 35174] Off Phuket, Thailand. Holotype: PMBC 27945. Paratypes: KAUM-I, THNHM-F. •Valid as Diaphenchelys dalmatian Hibino, Satapoomin & Kimura 2017. Current status: Valid as Diaphenchelys dalmatian Hibino, Satapoomin & Kimura 2017. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Thailand. Habitat: marine.

davidsmithi, Gymnothorax McCosker [J. E.] & Randall [J. E.] 2008:712, Figs. 1-3 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 59 (No. 16); ref. 29941] East of Maumere Bay, Flores, Indonesia, depth 3-4 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 34009. •Valid as Gymnothorax davidsmithi McCosker & Randall 2008 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:83 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:13 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax davidsmithi McCosker & Randall 2008. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Flores, Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

davisi, Rabula Fowler [H. W.] 1912:21, footnote [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 64; ref. 1385] San Diego, California, U.S.A. [perhaps from further south]. Holotype (unique): USNM 6673. Type catalog: Smith 1994:23 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:105 [ref. 26380] Based on Gymnothorax aquaedulcis of Jordan & Davis 1888 (1892). •Synonym of Gymnothorax mordax (Ayres 1859) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1975:422 [ref. 9341], Böhlke & Smith 2002:105 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:21 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax mordax (Ayres 1859). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

delicatulus, Poecilophis Kaup [J. J.] 1856:67 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Molucca, Islands. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7212. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:105 [ref. 26380] •Valid as Echidna delicatula (Kaup 1856) -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:25 [ref. 6441], Böhlke et al. 1989:130 [ref. 13286], Myers 1999:44 [ref. 23965], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Böhlke & McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:584 [ref. 25122], Böhlke & Smith 2002:105 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:22 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S94 [ref. 27377], Randall et al. 2004:6 [ref. 27624], Chen et al. 2008:134 [ref. 29929], Zhang et al. 2010:246 [ref. 31511], Fricke et al. 2011:349 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:77 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:5 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Valid as Echidna delicatula (Kaup 1856). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

dentatus, Uropterygius Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:152, Fig. 32 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Northern ocean reef, Johnston Island, Pacific. Holotype (unique): USNM 141637. Type catalog: Smith 1994:24 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:158 [ref. 26380]. The Hawaiian population has much higher vertebral numbers, so sentatus may be a valid species -- Smith 2012:38 [ref. 32155]. •Either a synonym of Uropterygius supraforatus (Regan 1909) or a valid species -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:158 [ref. 26380]). •Synonym of Uropterygius supraforatus (Regan 1909) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:271 [ref. 24493], Randall 2005:53 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:127 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:98 [ref. 30952], Smith 2012:38 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Uropterygius supraforatus (Regan 1909). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Habitat: marine.

dentex, Gymnothorax de Buen [F.] 1961:12, Fig. 4 [Montemar No. 1; ref. 698] Easter Island, southeastern Pacific. Holotype: EBMC 97. Paratypes: EBMC 103 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:105 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax eurostus (Abbott 1860) -- (Randall & McCosker 1975:25 [ref. 7466], Bussing 1998:444 [ref. 24930], Böhlke & Randall 2000:234 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:105 [ref. 26380], Randall 2007:86 [ref. 30952], Smith 2012:14 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax eurostus (Abbott 1860). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

detactus, Gymnothorax Bryan [W. A.] & Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1903:126 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 15652] Marcus Island, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): BPBM 2403. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:105 [ref. 26380], •Synonym of Gymnothorax chilospilus Bleeker 1864 with question -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:105 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:13 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax chilospilus Bleeker 1864. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

dinocephala, Muraena Metzelaar [J.] 1919:211, Fig. 58-58a [Report on the fishes; ref. 2982] Cape Blanc [Blanco], [Mauritania/Spanish Sahara], northwestern coast of Africa. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:9 [ref. 19236] with locality as Malaya. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

diopus, Uropterygius Böhlke [J. E.] 1967:91, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 118 (no. 4); ref. 602] Sandy Cay, near Nassau, Great Bahama Bank, Bahamas, depth 0-20 feet. Holotype: ANSP 106286. Paratypes: ANSP (12 lots, 16 spec., 1 c&s); LACM 6828-1 (5), 6370-17 (1); MCZ 41475 (1); UF 10687 (2), 11312 (6), 11364 (5); UF [ex UMML] (16, 7 lots); UMML 185417 (6); UMMZ; UPRM; USNM 107046 (1), 199285-88 (1, 1, 1, 2). Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:112 [ref. 21035], Böhlke 1984:130 [ref. 13621], Smith 1994:24-25 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Uropterygius diopus Böhlke 1967 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:52 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:? [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:370 [ref. 23827]). •Synonym of Uropterygius macularius (Lesueur 1825) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:127 [ref. 13286], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:136 [ref. 25013], Smith 2012:37 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Uropterygius macularius (Lesueur 1825). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Habitat: marine.

diplodon, Muraena Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1855:460 [Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855; ref. 3449] Ibo, Querimba Island, Mozambique. Syntypes: ZMB 4006 (2), 4007 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:105-106 [ref. 26380]. Also described as new in Peters 1855:272 [ref. 13448]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax richardsonii (Bleeker 1852) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:106 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:26 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax richardsonii (Bleeker 1852). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

dizona, Muraena Bleeker [P.] 1860:260 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 22 (no. 3-6); ref. 383] Kupang, Timor Island, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.340. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:106 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Echidna polyzona (Richardson 1845) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:219 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:106 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:6 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna polyzona (Richardson 1845). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

doliata, Gymnomuraena Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:648, 649, Pl. 19 (fig. 4) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] New Britain, Bismarck Archipelago. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2376. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:98 [ref. 20810], Böhlke & Smith 2002:106 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnomuraena zebra (Shaw 1797) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:224 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:106 [ref. 26380], Allen et al. 2006:247 [ref. 29005], Smith 2012:10 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnomuraena zebra (Shaw 1797). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

dorsalis, Gymnothorax Seale [A.] 1917:92 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 61 (no. 4); ref. 4001] Hong Kong. Holotype: MCZ 31060. Paratypes: USNM 153610 [ex MCZ 31061] (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:17 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:106 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax doralis Seale 1917 -- (Böhlke 1997:96 [ref. 23177], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Böhlke & Smith 2002:106 [ref. 26380], Loh et al. 2011:51 [ref. 31690], Smith 2012:14 [ref. 32155], Yoshida et al. 2013:19 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:145 [ref. 34104], Mohapatra et al. 2016:591 [ref. 34667]). •Valid as Strophidon dorsalis (Seale 1917) -- (Ho et al. 2015:162 [ref. 34130], Mohapatra et al. 2017:285 [ref. 35504]). Current status: Valid as Strophidon dorsalis (Seale 1917). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

dovii, Muraena Günther [A.] 1870:103 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Panama (Pacific). Holotype (unique): BMNH 1861.8.13.2. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:106-107 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax dovii (Günther 1870) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:45 [ref. 22193], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1309 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:227 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:153 [ref. 24023], Bussing 1998:444 [ref. 24930], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:103 [ref. 24550], Thomson et al. 2000:43 [ref. 25640], Böhlke & Smith 2002:106 [ref. 26380], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], Béarez & Séret 2009:146 [ref. 36646], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Smith 2012:14 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:441 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:606 [ref. 34923], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36248], González-Murcia et al. 2019:289 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax dovii (Günther 1870). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

duivenbodei, Muraena Bleeker [P.] 1856:385 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 10; ref. 16853] Ternate, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.275. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:107 [ref. 26380]. Original as duivenbodeï. •Status uncertain -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:107 [ref. 26380]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

dumerili, Thyrsoidea Kaup [J. J.] 1856:62 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] A nomen oblitum -- Smith 2012:30 [ref. 32155]. •Questionable in the synonymy of Muraena augusti (Kaup 1856) -- (Smith 2012:30 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Uncertain as Muraena augusti (Kaup 1856). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

dussumieri, Leptocephalus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:151, Pl. 19 (fig. 17) [Catalogue of the apodal fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2573] Malabar, India. Syntypes: (4) MNHN 0000-2629 (1, poor condition). Type catalog: Bertin 1935:101 [ref. 21550]. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

echidna, Gymnothorax Suckow [G. A.] 1799:181 [Naturgeschichte der Thiere v. 4, pt. 1; ref. 18858] Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:107 [ref. 26380]. A new combination for Muraena echidna (Muraena echidna Gmelin 1789 ?); Suckow cited Ellis in Cooks und Clarks Reise, I, 53. •Not available, nomen nudum -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:107 [ref. 26380]). •New combination for Muraena echidna and not available -- (Smith 2012:54 [ref. 32155]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae.

echidna, Gymnothorax Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:526 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Huahina [Huahine] Island, Society Islands. Holotype (unique): ZMB 4000. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:107 [ref. 26380]. Apparently independent of Muraena echidna Gmelin 1789. Based on description of Echidna in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). •Synonym of Echidna nebulosa (Ahl 1789) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:107 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:5 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna nebulosa (Ahl 1789). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

echidna, Muraena Gmelin [J. F.] 1789:1135 [Caroli a Linné ... Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18139] Palmerston Island, central Pacific. No types known. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:107 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Echidna nebulosa (Ahl 1789) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:217 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:107 [ref. 26380], Allen et al. 2006:245 [ref. 29005], Smith 2012:5 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna nebulosa (Ahl 1789). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

edentata, Leptocephalus Shen [S.-C.] 1963:265, Figs. 9-12 [Quarterly Journal of the Taiwan Museum (Taipei) v. 16 (nos 3-4); ref. 5280] Tam-sui River estuary, northern Taiwan. Holotype (unique): NTUM uncat. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:64 [ref. 31432]. •Larva; may belong to a species of Muraena -- (Ho & Shao 2011:64 [ref. 31432]). Muraenidae. Habitat: marine.

efatensis, Gymnothorax Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1935:384 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 18 (no. 12); ref. 2109] Vila, Efaté Island, Vanuatu (from stomach of sea snake). Holotype (unique): FMNH 17193. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:42 [ref. 12367], Böhlke & Smith 2002:107 [ref. 26380] •Synonym of Echidna delicatula (Kaup 1856) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:107 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:5 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna delicatula (Kaup 1856). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

elaborata, Muraena Poey [F.] 1860:323 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Holotype: probably not USNM 24961. Type catalog: Smith 1994:21, 22 under multiocellata [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Muraena miliaris (Kaup 1856) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:155 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:146 [ref. 19379]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax miliaris (Kaup 1856) -- (Smith 2012:20 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax miliaris (Kaup 1856). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

elegans, Gymnothorax Bliss [R.] 1883:60 [Transactions of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius (N. S.) v. 13; ref. 16966] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MCZ 5954. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:107-108 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax elegans Bliss 1883 -- (Castle & McCosker 1986:169 [ref. 5645], Randall et al. 1993:227 [ref. 21003], Goren & Dor 1994:7 [ref. 25356], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:66 [ref. 22017], Randall & Golani 1995:857 [ref. 21744], Myers 1999:46 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:44 [ref. 24106], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Böhlke & Randall 2000:233 [ref. 24493], Nakabo 2000:207 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:207 [ref. 26001], Randall et al. 2002:154 [ref. 26192], Böhlke & Smith 2002:108 [ref. 26380], Myers & Donaldson 2003:611 [ref. 27495], Shinohara et al. 2005:399 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:118 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:86 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:15 [ref. 30213], Smith 2012:14 [ref. 32155], Ho et al. 2015:155 [ref. 34130], Fricke et al. 2018:35 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:21 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax elegans Bliss 1883. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Society Islands, north to Ogasawara Islands, south to Samoa. Habitat: marine.

elegans, Gymnothorax Seale [A.] 1917:91 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 61 (no. 4); ref. 4001] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MCZ 5954. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:108 [ref. 26380]. Independent of, and preoccupied by Gymnothorax elegans Bliss 1883; Seale was unaware of the descriptions by Bliss; name objectively invalid. •Objective synonym and homonym of Gymnothorax elegans Bliss 1883 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:108 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:14 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax elegans Bliss 1883. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

elegantissima, Muraena Kaup [J. J.] 1856:67 [Catalogue of the apodal fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2573] Australia? Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2466. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:99 [ref. 20810], Böhlke & Smith 2002:108 [ref. 26380]. Appeared first as name only in Kaup 1856:58 [ref. 2572]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax pictus (Ahl 1789) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:247 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:97 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:108 [ref. 26380], Allen et al. 2006:254 [ref. 29005]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax pictus (Ahl 1789). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

emmae, Gymnothorax Prokofiev [A. M.] 2010:583, Figs. 1-2 [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 50 (no. 5); ref. 31007] Coastal waters of Vietnam, 12°10' - 12°07'N, 109°27' - 109°26'E, depth 91-95 meters. Holotype: ZIN 54263. Paratypes: (53) at ASIZP, IORAS, NMMBP, ZIN, ZMMU. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Gymnothorax emmae Prokofiev 2010 -- (Smith 2012:14 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax emmae Prokofiev 2010. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Vietnam. Habitat: marine.

enigmaticus, Gymnothorax McCosker [J. E.] & Randall [J. E.] 1982:18, Figs. 1, 4 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 43 (no. 2); ref. 8445] Off Ngatchab Beach, Angaur Island, Palau Islands, Western Caroline Islands, western Pacific. Holotype: CAS 48815. Paratypes: BPBM 7715 (2), 8184 (1), 9491 (1), 12354 (1), 22339 (2), 22827 (1), 22809 (2); CAS 42377 (1), 48816-26 (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 3, 2, 8, 2, 1, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:108 [ref. 26380] with holotype as 4881. •Valid as Gymnothorax enigmaticus McCosker & Randall 1982 -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:23 [ref. 6441], Castle & McCosker 1986:169 [ref. 5645], Winterbottom et al. 1989:8 [ref. 13251], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:66 [ref. 22017], Allen 1997:54 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:46 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:45 [ref. 24106], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Nakabo 2000:205 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Nakabo 2002:205 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:108 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:611 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:68 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:6 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:40 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:249 [ref. 29005], Randall 2007:92 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:15 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:71 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:83 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:14 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2014:18 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2018:35 [ref. 35805], Ho et al. 2018:12 [ref. 36050], Arndt & Fricke 2019:23 [ref. 36883]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax enigmaticus McCosker & Randall 1982. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Gulf of Aden, East Africa, South Africa, Aldabra, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Tuamotu Archipelago, north to Taiwan and southern Japan, south to Australia and Samoa. Habitat: marine.

equatorialis, Priodonophis Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:134, Fig. 31 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Gulf of Guayaquil, off Mt. Organos, near Cabo Blanco, Peru, 4°13'S, 80°13'W, depth 12 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 127842. Paratypes: USNM 127843 (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:23 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:108 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax equatorialis (Hildebrand 1946) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:46 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:40 [ref. 23101], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1310 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:226 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:130 [ref. 24555], Bussing 1998:444 [ref. 24930], Thomson et al. 2000:44 [ref. 25640], Böhlke 2001:3 [ref. 25774], Böhlke & Smith 2002:108 [ref. 26380], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], Smith 2012:14 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], Robertson et al. 2017:31 [ref. 35676]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax equatorialis (Hildebrand 1946). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Peru. Habitat: marine.

ercodes, Gymnothorax Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:428, Fig. 8 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50843. Type catalog: Smith 1994:17-18 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:108-109 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax eurostus (Abbott 1860) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:234 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:108 [ref. 26380], Mundy 2005:118 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:86 [ref. 30952], Smith 2012:14 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax eurostus (Abbott 1860). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

erebus, Muraena Poey [F.] 1861:426 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Gymnothorax vicinus (Castelnau 1855) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:186 [ref. 13286], Smith 2012:29 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax vicinus (Castelnau 1855). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

eritima, Rhinamuraena Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1906:196, Fig. 6 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Pago Pago, American Samoa. Holotype (unique): USNM 51717. Type catalog: Smith 1994:24 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:109 [ref. 26380]. The original genus is correctly Rhinomuraena. •Synonym of Enchelycore schismatorhynchus (Bleeker 1853) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:109 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:9 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Enchelycore schismatorhynchus (Bleeker 1853). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

eritonia, Rhinechnida Jordan [D. S.] 1927:4 [Journal of the Pan-Pacific Research Institution v. 2 (no. 4) (for Oct.-Dec. 1927); ref. 18346] Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:109 [ref. 26380]. Name only, not available. •Apparently a lapsus for Rhinemuraena eritima Jordan & Seale 1906 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:109 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:54 [ref. 32155]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae.

erythraeus, Leptocephalus D'Ancona [U.] 1928:87, Pl. 4 (figs. 17-17a) [Memoria, Reale Comitato Talassografico Italiano No. 146; ref. 15917] Assab, Eritrea, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Leptocephalus is a catch-all name for larval eels. •Mention -- (Dor 1984:30 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as "Leptocephalus erythraeus" D'Ancona 1928 -- (Goren & Dor 1994:7 [ref. 25356]). •Unidentifiable -- (See Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:59 [ref. 35264]). Current status: Uncertain as Leptocephalus erythraeus D'Ancona 1928. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Red Sea [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

erythroptera, Muraena Solander [D. C.] in Richardson 1848:86 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Society Islands. No types known. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:109 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax pictus (Ahl 1789) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:109 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:23 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax pictus (Ahl 1789). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

euptera, Muraena Günther [A.] 1870:122 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Raoul Island, Kermadec Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1855.8.16.50. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:109 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax nubilus (Richardson 1848) -- (Böhlke & McCosker 2001:90 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:109 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:22 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax nubilus (Richardson 1848). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

eurosta, Thyrsoidea Abbott [C. C.] 1860:478 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 12; ref. 15619] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): ANSP 984. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:130 [ref. 13621], Böhlke & Smith 2002:109 [ref. 26380]. There may be more than one species passing under this name -- Smith 2012:15 [ref. 32155]. •Valid as Gymnothorax eurostus (Abbott 1860) -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:23 [ref. 6441], Castle & McCosker 1986:169 [ref. 5645], Allen & Swainston 1988:32 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:128 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:25 [ref. 14125], Randall et al. 1990:36 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:32 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:157 [ref. 25479], Chen et al. 1994:50 [ref. 22258], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:66 [ref. 22017], Allen 1997:52 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:36 [ref. 25919], Bussing 1998:444 [ref. 24930], Fricke 1999:45 [ref. 24106], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Johnson 1999:721 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:6 [ref. 25829], Böhlke & Randall 2000:234 [ref. 24493], Shinohara et al. 2000:176 [ref. 25987], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Hutchins 2001:16 [ref. 25847], Böhlke & Smith 2002:109 [ref. 26380], Randall et al. 2004:6 [ref. 27624] dated 1861, Heemstra et al. 2004:3316 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:40 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:118 [ref. 28379], McCosker & Stewart 2006:92 [ref. 28702], Allen et al. 2006:250 [ref. 29005], Smith et al. 2008:66 [ref. 29432], Randall 2007:86 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:15 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:350 [ref. 31242], Smith 2012:14 [ref. 32155], Larson et al. 2013:24 [ref. 32988], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:108 [ref. 36167], Ho et al. 2015:155 [ref. 34130] with question, Stewart & McCosker 2015:230 [ref. 34233], Fricke et al. 2018:35 [ref. 35805], Arndt & Fricke 2019:23 [ref. 36883]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax eurostus (Abbott 1860). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific, antiequatorial: Transkei (South Africa), Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Cocos Island, north to Ryukyu Islands, Ogasawara Islands, Minami Tori Shima, and Hawaiian Islands, Marquesas Islands and Easter Island, south to Shark Bay (Western Australia), Lord Howe Island, Kermadec Islands and Austral Islands. Habitat: marine.

eurygnathos, Gymnothorax Böhlke [E. B.] 2001:2, Figs. 1-2 [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 49 (Suppl. 1); ref. 25774] Gulf of California, 26°11.4-15.5'N, 109°50.7-39.5'W, depth 406-396 meters. Holotype (unique): SIO 72-199. •Valid as Gymnothorax eurygnathos Böhlke 2001 -- (Smith 2012:15 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax eurygnathos Böhlke 2001. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Gulf of California. Habitat: marine.

euryrhina, Enchelycore Kaup [J. J.] 1856:60 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Locality unknown. Holotype: MNHN B-2362. Paratypes: MNHN B-2363 (1), B-2501 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:98 [ref. 20810]. Also in Kaup 1856:73 [ref. 2573]. •Synonym of Enchelycore nigricans (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:142 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:140 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:8 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Enchelycore nigricans (Bonnaterre 1788). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

euryurus, Leptocephalus Lea [E.] 1913:25, Figs. 21-22; Pl. 4 (no. 4) [Scientific Results of the Michael Sars North Atlantic Deep-Sea Expedition 1910 v. 3 (pt 1, no. 7); ref. 14158] North Atlantic, 28°52'N, 14°16'W, station 34, 200-500 m; 28°42'N, 20°00'W, station 45, depth 1000 meters. Syntypes: (2) ZMUB 2502 (2?). Type catalog: Frøiland 1979:146 [ref. 21547]. •Valid as Anarchias euryurus (Lea 1913) -- (Bauchot in Whitehead et al. 1986:538 [ref. 13676], Smith & Böhlke 1990:136 [ref. 19379], Santos et al. 1997:19 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:54 [ref. 24952]). •Synonym of Anarchias longicauda (Peters 1877) -- (Smith 2012:34 [ref. 32155], Smith & Brito 2016:1637 [ref. 34557]). Current status: Synonym of Anarchias longicauda (Peters 1877). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Azores south to Gulf of Guinea [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

exulatus, Anarchias Reece [J. S.], Smith [D. G.] & Holm [E.] 2010:425, Figs. 3 (bottom), 6, 8 [Copeia 2010 (no. 3); ref. 30969] Tonga, Eru, fringing reef at base of cliff on northwest shore, Tonga Islands. Holotype: USNM 328944. Paratypes: many at BPBM and USNM •Valid as Anarchias exulatus Reece, Smith & Holm 2010 -- (Smith 2012:34 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Valid as Anarchias exulatus Reece, Smith & Holm 2010. Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Anti-tropical in the central Pacific: Hawaiian Islands, Johnston Atoll, Rapa, Gambier and Pitcairn islands; Tonga Islands. Habitat: marine.

fasciata, Gymnomuraena Kaup [J. J.] 1856:68 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Muscat, Oman, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-4425. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1952.9.13.100 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:98 [ref. 20810], Böhlke & Smith 2002:109 [ref. 26380] with type as 445. Also in Kaup 1856:103, Pl. 14 (fig. 69) [ref. 2573]. Lectotype selected by Böhlke & Randall 2000:225 [ref. 24493]. •Synonym of Gymnomuraena zebra (Shaw 1797) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:224 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:109 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:10 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnomuraena zebra (Shaw 1797). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

fasciata, Muraena Richardson [J.] (ex Banks & Solander) 1848:88 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Not available, name in the synonymy of Muraena colubrina; from the Society Is. See Böhlke & Smith 2002:110 [ref. 26380]. • Nomen nudum, not available -- (Smith 2012:54 [ref. 32155]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae.

fasciatus, Muraenophis Hardwicke [T.] in Kaup 1856:103 [Catalogue of the apodal fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2573] Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:110 [ref. 26380]. Not available, name mentioned in synonymy of Gymnomuraena fasciata Kaup. •In the synonymy of Gymnomuraena zebra (Shaw 1797) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:224 [ref. 24493]). •Nomen nudum, not available -- (Smith 2012:55 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnomuraena zebra (Shaw 1797). Muraenidae: Muraeninae.

fascigula, Muraena Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1855:459 [Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855; ref. 3449] Mozambique, 15°S. Holotype (unique): ZMB 4004. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:110 [ref. 26380]. Also described as new in Peters 1855:271 [ref. 13448]. •Valid as Echidna fascigula (Peters 1855) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:130 [ref. 13286]). •Synonym of Echidna polyzona (Richardson 1845) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:219 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:110 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:6 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna polyzona (Richardson 1845). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

fasciolata, Gymnomuraena Regan [C. T.] 1909:438 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 4 (no. 23); ref. 14420] Duke of York Island, Tokelau Islands, Pacific. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1877.2.24.84. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:158 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Uropterygius fasciolatus (Regan 1909) -- (Myers 1999:51 [ref. 23965], Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692], Böhlke & Smith 2002:158 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Allen & Erdmann 2012:97 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:36 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2014:21 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Uropterygius fasciolatus (Regan 1909). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia east to Palau and Phoenix Islands, south to Solomon Islands. Habitat: marine.

favagineus, Gymnothorax Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:525, Pl. 105 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 7782 (stuffed skin). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:103 [ref. 24282], Böhlke & Smith 2002:110 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax favagineus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Castle & McCosker 1986:169 [ref. 5645], Allen & Swainston 1988:32 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:129 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:36 [ref. 15987], Randall 1994:260 [ref. 21644], Chen et al. 1994:50 [ref. 22258], Randall & Golani 1995:858 [ref. 21744], Randall 1995:55 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:52 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:28 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:36 [ref. 25919], Fricke 1999:46 [ref. 24106], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Johnson 1999:721 [ref. 25471], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:31 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:16 [ref. 25847], Youn 2002:141, 490 [ref. 26218], Böhlke & Smith 2002:110 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:103 [ref. 28072], Allen et al. 2006:250 [ref. 29005], Chen & Loh 2007:80 [ref. 29360], Fricke et al. 2009:16 [ref. 30213], Zhang et al. 2010:286 [ref. 31511], Allen & Erdmann 2012:84 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:15 [ref. 32155], Larson et al. 2013:24 [ref. 32988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:145 [ref. 34104], Ho et al. 2015:155 [ref. 34130], Fricke et al. 2018:35 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:21 [ref. 36273], Jawad et al. 2018:99 [ref. 36262], Fricke et al. 2019:51 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:62 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax favagineus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar, western Mascarenes and Persian Gulf east to New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Sydney (New South Wales, Australia). Habitat: marine.

feyhonnieni, Gymnothorax Chen [J. T. F.] 1929:38, Pl. 3 [Bulletin of the Biology Department, Science College, Sun Yatsen University v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 16075] Daipo, Kwangtung, China. Holotype: ZLSYU 0871 (apparently lost). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:110 [ref. 26380]. •Nomen dubium, in genus Gymnothorax -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:110 [ref. 26380]). •Synonym of Enchelynassa canina (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Zhang et al. 2010:288 [ref. 31511]). Current status: Synonym of Enchelynassa canina (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

fijiensis, Uropterygius Fowler [H. W.] & Bean [B. A.] 1923:9 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 63 (no. 2488); ref. 1474] Lebukea, Fiji Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 82774. Type catalog: Smith 1994:25 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:110 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax polyuranodon (Bleeker 1854) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:110 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:24 [ref. 32155], Kottelat 2013:42 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax polyuranodon (Bleeker 1854). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

fimbriata, Muraena Bennett [E. T.] 1832:168 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1830-31 (pt 1); ref. 4944] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1856.2.15.16 [ex Zool. Soc.]. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:110-111 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax fimbriatus (Bennett 1832) -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:24 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:32 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:129 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:8 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:37 [ref. 15987], Chen et al. 1994:50 [ref. 22258], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:166 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:52 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:20 [ref. 26476] dated 1831, Randall et al. 1997:37 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:46 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:46 [ref. 24106], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Johnson 1999:721 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:210 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:110 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:6 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:95 [ref. 25868], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Hutchins 2001:16 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:210 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:110 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:611 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:10 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3316 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:41 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:250 [ref. 29005], Chen & Loh 2007:79 [ref. 29360], Imamura 2009:18 [ref. 30434], Fricke et al. 2009:16 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:71 [ref. 31256], Zhang et al. 2010:280 [ref. 31511], Fricke et al. 2011:350 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:84 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:15 [ref. 32155], Larson et al. 2013:25 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:42 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:18 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Ho et al. 2015:155 [ref. 34130], Motomura et al. 2017:29 [ref. 35490], Mohapatra et al. 2017:598 [ref. 35581], Fricke et al. 2018:36 [ref. 35805], Arndt & Fricke 2019:23 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:51 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax fimbriatus (Bennett 1832). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Mariana Islands, Marquesas Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to Ryukyu Islands and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, southern Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

flaveola, Muraenophis Lesson [R. P.] 1831:128, Poissons Pl. 11 (fig. 2) [Voyage autour du monde Zool. v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 2776] Kosrae, Caroline Islands, western Pacific. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown, not found at MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:126 [ref. 20810], Böhlke & Smith 2002:111 [ref. 26380]. •Nomen dubium -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:111 [ref. 26380]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

flavimarginata, Muraena Kaup [J. J.] 1856:67 [Catalogue of the apodal fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2573] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN A-8811 (1, dry), A-8812 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:99 [ref. 20810], Böhlke & Smith 2002:111 [ref. 26380]. Appeared first without description in Kaup 1856:58 [ref. 2572]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Muraena flavimarginata Rüppell 1830. •Synonym of Gymnothorax elegans Bliss 1883 -- (Quéro & Saldanha 1995:66 [ref. 22017], Böhlke & Randall 2000:233 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:111 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:14 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax elegans Bliss 1883. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

flavimarginata, Muraena Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1830:119, Pl. 30 (fig. 3) [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 765. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:111 [ref. 26380]. Sometimes misspelled as flavomarginatus. •Valid as Lycodontis flavimarginatus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Dor 1984:27 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Gymnothorax flavimarginata (Rüppell 1830) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:129 [ref. 12442], Allen & Robertson 1994:46 [ref. 22193]). •Valid as Gymnothorax flavimarginatus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:24 [ref. 6441], Castle & McCosker 1986:170 [ref. 5645], Allen & Swainston 1988:32 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:8 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:37 [ref. 15987], Chen et al. 1994:50 [ref. 22258], Goren & Dor 1994:7 [ref. 25356], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1310 [ref. 22830], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:67 [ref. 22017], Randall & Golani 1995:858 [ref. 21744], Randall 1995:56 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:52 [ref. 23977], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:153 [ref. 24023], Kuiter 1997:28 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:37 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:46 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:47 [ref. 24106], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Böhlke & Randall 2000:235 [ref. 24493], Nakabo 2000:208 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:111 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:6 [ref. 25806], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Hutchins 2001:16 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:208 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:111 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:611 [ref. 27495], Hatooka 2003:7 [ref. 27558], Lobel & Lobel 2004:68 [ref. 27576] dated 1828, Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:118 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3316 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:41 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:118 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:250 [ref. 29005], Randall 2007:87 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:16 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:71 [ref. 31256], Zhang et al. 2010:264 [ref. 31511], Fricke et al. 2011:350 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:85 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:15 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2013:251 [ref. 32706], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], Larson et al. 2013:25 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:18 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Ho et al. 2015:156 [ref. 34130], Fourriére et al. 2016:441 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:606 [ref. 34923], Koeda et al. 2016:7 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:2 [ref. 35354], Fricke et al. 2018:36 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:21 [ref. 36273], Huang et al. 2018:[2] [ref. 35898], Arndt & Fricke 2019:23 [ref. 36883], Eagderi et al. 2019:18 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:51 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:62 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax flavimarginatus (Rüppell 1830). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-Pacific: East Africa, Transkei (South Africa), Persian Gulf, Comoros, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Panama and Revillagigedo Archipelago, north to Ryukyu Islands, Ogasawara Islands and Hawaiian Islands, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

flavocula, Siderea Böhlke [E. B.] & Randall [J. E.] 1996:95, Figs. 1-5 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 22470] Eastern side of Masirah Island, central coast of Oman, Arabian Sea, depth 6 meters. Holotype: BPBM 36155. Paratypes: ANSP 173400 (1), BPBM 36382 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:111 [ref. 26380]. Apparently inadvertently appeared first in Randall 1995:59 [ref. 22896] with authorship as Böhlke & Randall 1995. •Valid as Siderea flavocula Böhlke & Randall 1996 -- (Randall 1995:59 [ref. 22896]). •Valid as Gymnothorax flavoculus (Böhlke & Randall 1996) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:111 [ref. 26380], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Chen et al. 2008:134 [ref. 29929], Smith 2012:15 [ref. 32155], Zajonz et al. 2019:62 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax flavoculus (Böhlke & Randall 1996). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

flavofasciata, Echidna Poey [F.] 1867:264 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 14079] Cuba. Holotype: not found. •Synonym of Echidna catenata (Bloch 1795) -- (Smith & Böhlke 1990:138 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:5 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna catenata (Bloch 1795). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

flavopicta, Thyrsoidea Kaup [J. J.] 1856:64 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN (not found). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:127 [ref. 20810]. Also in Kaup 1856:90 [ref. 2573]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax miliaris (Kaup 1856) -- (Edwards & Glass 1987:624 [ref. 9166], Böhlke et al. 1989:155 [ref. 13286]). •Synonym of Muraena miliaris (Kaup 1856) -- (Smith & Böhlke 1990:146 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:20 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax miliaris (Kaup 1856). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

flavoscriptus, Gymnothorax Poey [F.] 1876:200 [158], Pl. 9 [6] (fig. 2) [Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid v. 5 (for 5 Apr. 1876); ref. 3510] Cuba. No types known. On p. 158 of separate. •Synonym of Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier 1829) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:179 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:142 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:21 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier 1829). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

florisiana, Muraena Bleeker [P.] 1854:334 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 343] Larantuka, Flores Island, Lesser Sunda Island, Indonesia. Apparenttly not syntypes: RMNH 7200 (2) not identifiable from lot of 6 specimens; . Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:111-112 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax richardsonii (Bleeker 1852) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:111 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:26 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax richardsonii (Bleeker 1852). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

formosa, Cirrimaxilla Chen [H.-M.] & Shao [K.-T.] 1995:330, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 57 (no. 2); ref. 22201] Nanwan, southern tip of Taiwan, Ping-tung County, Hengchon, 21°57'N, 120°46'E, tide pool. Holotype (unique): ASIZP 056729. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:158 [ref. 26380], Ho & Shao 2011:21 [ref. 31432]. •Possibly a synonym of Channomuraena bauchotae Saldanha & Quéro 1994 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:158 [ref. 26380]). •Synonym of Channomuraena bauchotae (Saldanha & Quéro 1994) -- (Smith 2012:35 [ref. 32155]). •Valid as Cirrimaxilla formosa Chen & Shao 1995 -- (Böhlke & McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:584 [ref. 25122], Loh et al. 2008:138 [ref. 29930], Séret et al. 2008:192 [ref. 29993], Zhang et al. 2010:234 [ref. 31511], Ho & Shao 2011:21 [ref. 31432], Fricke et al. 2011:349 [ref. 31242], Ho et al. 2015:7 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:152 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Cirrimaxilla formosa Chen & Shao 1995. Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Taiwan and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

formosus, Gymnothorax Bleeker [P.] 1864:51 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 2; ref. 408] Wahai, Ceram, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.241. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:112 [ref. 26380]. Takes precedence over Gymnothorax rhodocephalus Bleeker 1856 -- see Böhlke & Smith 2002:112 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax undulatus Bleeker 1864 -- (Alllen & Erdmann 2012:95 [ref. 31980]). •Valid as Gymnothorax formosus Bleeker 1864 -- (Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Randall et al. 2002:154 [ref. 26192], Böhlke & Smith 2002:112 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Smith 2012:16 [ref. 32155], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Ho et al. 2015:156 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax formosus Bleeker 1864. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific. Habitat: marine.

forsstromi, Leptocephalus Strömman [P. H.] 1896:24, Pl. 2 (figs. 1-3) [Leptocephalids in the University Zoological Museum at Upsala; ref. 4294] Central Atlantic, 3°-4°S, 30°-34°W. Syntypes: ZMUU 694a-d (4). Type catalog: Wallin 1996:61 [ref. 32133]. Species correctly spelled forsströmi, umlaut is dropped without modification since name is derived from a non-German word. •Synonym of Gymnothorax vicinus (Castelnau 1855) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:186 [ref. 13286] as forstromi, Smith 1989:912 [ref. 13285] as forstromi, Smith & Böhlke 1990:144 [ref. 19379] as forstromi, Smith 2012:29 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax vicinus (Castelnau 1855). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

forsteri, Echidna Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:695 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:112 [ref. 26380]. New name for Muraena echidna Gmelin 1789. •Synonym of Echidna nebulosa (Ahl 1789) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:112 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:5 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna nebulosa (Ahl 1789). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

fuliginosus, Leptocephalus Strömman [P. H.] 1896:34, Pl. 3 (figs. 6-7) [Leptocephalids in the University Zoological Museum at Upsala; ref. 4294] Central Atlantic, 24°N, 68°W. Holotype (unique): ZMUU 699. Type catalog: Wallin 1996:61 [ref. 32133]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax miliaris (Kaup 1856) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:155 [ref. 13286], Smith 1989:906 [ref. 13285], Smith 2012:20 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax miliaris (Kaup 1856). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

fulva, Muraenophis Risso [A.] 1810:367 [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758 -- (Blache et al. 1973:224 [ref. 7185], Smith & Böhlke 1990:145 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:31 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

funebris, Gymnothorax Ranzani [C.] 1839:77 [13], Pl. 11 (figs. 2a-b) [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 4 [1840]; ref. 18606] Brazil. No types at MZUB. Appeared first without description as Ranzani in Alessandrini 1838:433 [ref. 25852]. Dates to publication in a separate, on p. 13 and Pl. 5 in 1839; journal version in 1840. •Valid as Lycodontis funebris Ranzani 1839 -- (Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221]). •Valid as Gymnothorax funebris Ranzani 1839 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:52 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:81 [ref. 25518], Böhlke et al. 1989:176 [ref. 13286], McAllister 1990:47 [ref. 14674], Cervigón 1991:37 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:368 [ref. 23827], Andreata & Séret 1996:581 [ref. 16204] as Gymnotorax, McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:234 [ref. 23897], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:134 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:148 [ref. 27754], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Camargo & Isaac 2001:139 [ref. 27639] as Gimnothorax and dated 1840, Collette et al. 2003:98 [ref. 26784] dated 1840, Böhlke & Smith 2003:708 [ref. 26990], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:33 [ref. 27192] dated 1840, Smith et al. 2003:8 [ref. 27621] dated 1840, Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], Vaske et al. 2005:78 [ref. 36155], Smith 2012:16 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:23 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:5 [ref. 34324], Robertson et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34961], Spier et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax funebris Ranzani 1839. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

fusca, Gymnomuraena Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1866:524 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1866; ref. 3439] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ZMB 6180. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:158 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Uropterygius concolor Rüppell 1838 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:158 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:36 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Uropterygius concolor Rüppell 1838. Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fuscoguttatus, Uropterygius Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:156, Fig. 33 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Lagoon off Amen Island, Bikini Atoll., Marshall Islands, western Pacific, depth 30 feet. Holotype: USNM 141680. Paratypes: FMNH 62588 [ex USNM 141678] (1); USNM 141675-77 (1, 1, 2), 141679 (1), 141681 (2). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:84 [ref. 12367], Smith 1994:25 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:158-159 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Uropterygius fuscoguttatus Schultz 1953 -- (Winterbottom et al. 1989:10 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:42 [ref. 15987], Myers 1999:52 [ref. 23965], Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692], Randall 1999:7 [ref. 25829], Böhlke & Randall 2000:266 [ref. 24493], Randall & Earle 2000:7 [ref. 25806], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Böhlke & Smith 2002:159 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:51 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:126 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:258 [ref. 29005], Randall 2007:96 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2011:351 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:98 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:36 [ref. 32155], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Fricke et al. 2018:40 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Uropterygius fuscoguttatus Schultz 1953. Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar and Maldives east to Hawaiian Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to Marshall Islands, south to Western Australia, Chesterfield and Loyalty Islands (New Caledonia). Habitat: marine.

fuscomaculata, Echidna Poey [F.] 1867:263 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 14079] Cuba. No types known. Echidna flavoscripta Jordan & Davis 1891 is a lapsus. •Synonym of Echidna catenata (Bloch 1795) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:131 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:138 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:5 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna catenata (Bloch 1795). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

fuscomaculata, Rabula Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:147, Fig. 30 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Lagoon reef at Latoback, Island, Rongerik Atoll, Marshall Islands, western Pacific. Holotype: USNM 141639. Paratypes: FMNH 62585-66 [ex USNM] (1, 1); USNM 141638 (16), 141640-43 (9, 1, 3, 2), 141645-46 (1, 1), 141648-53 (2, 18, 9, 2, 5, 6). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:74 [ref. 12367], Smith 1994:23-24 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:112 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax fuscomaculata (Schultz 1953) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:129 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Gymnothorax fuscomaculatus (Schultz 1953) -- (Castle & McCosker 1986:170 [ref. 5645], Winterbottom et al. 1989:8 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:37 [ref. 15987], Randall et al. 1997:37 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:48 [ref. 23965], Böhlke & Randall 1999:553 [ref. 24552], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Randall 1999:6 [ref. 25829], Böhlke & Randall 2000:237 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Hutchins 2001:16 [ref. 25847], Böhlke & Smith 2002:112 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3316 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:41 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:119 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:250 [ref. 29005], Randall 2007:87 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2011:350 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:85 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:16 [ref. 32155], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Ho et al. 2015:156 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax fuscomaculatus (Schultz 1953). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Comores and Seychelles east to Hawaiian Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to Philippines and Mariana Islands, south to Western Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

fuscus, Anarchias Smith [J. L. B.] 1962:428, Pl. 53 (fig. G) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 23; ref. 6435] Delgado, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 311. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 5146-48 (3, 1, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:159 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Anarchias fuscus Smith 1962 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:126 [ref. 12442], Zhang et al. 2010:227 [ref. 31511]). •Synonym of Anarchias allardicei Jordan & Starks 1906 -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:117 [ref. 13286], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:98 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:158 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:33 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Anarchias allardicei Jordan & Starks 1906. Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Habitat: marine.

galapagensis, Uropterygius Seale [A.] 1940:6, Pl. 1 [Allan Hancock Pacific Expedition 1932-40, Los Angeles v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 12332] Post Office Bay, Santa María Island [Charles Island], Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): CAS 5744. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:159 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Anarchias galapagensis (Seale 1940) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:117 [ref. 13286], Allen & Robertson 1994:43 [ref. 22193], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1307 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:159 [ref. 24023], Thomson et al. 2000:47 [ref. 25640], Böhlke & Smith 2002:159 [ref. 26380], Nelson et al. 2004:60 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Reece et al. 2010:421 [ref. 30969], Smith 2012:34 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:60 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:441 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:606 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Anarchias galapagensis (Seale 1940). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands and Revillagigedo Archipelago. Habitat: marine.

galetae, Gymnothorax Rubinoff [I.] 1966:1, Fig. 1 [Breviora No. 240; ref. 9063] Galeta Island, 9°24'20"N, 79°52'18"W, Panama Canal Zone, Atlantic, 6 in. Holotype (unique): MCZ 44035. •Synonym of Muraena robusta Osório 1911 -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:203 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:147 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:32 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena robusta Osório 1911. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

garsiae, Gymnothorax Whitley [G. P.] & Colefax [A. N.] 1938:286, Pl. 14 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 63 (pts 3-4) (nos. 277-278); ref. 4736] Nauru, Gilbert Islands. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.7171 (not found). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:112 [ref. 26380]. See Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692]. •Nomen dubium -- (Böhlke & McCosker 2001:97 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:112 [ref. 26380]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

genie, Uropterygius Randall [J. E.] & Golani [D.] 1995:872, Figs. 7-9 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 56, No. 3; ref. 21744] Ras Muhammad, Sinai Peninsula, South Sinai Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Holotype: HUJ 5863. Paratypes: USNM 312814 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:159 [ref. 26380], Type catalog: Golani 2006:21 [ref. 28840]. •Valid as Uropterygius genie Randall & Golani 1995 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:159 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:36 [ref. 32155], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[4] 242 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:23 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Uropterygius genie Randall & Golani 1995. Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Northern Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

geographica, Muraena Richardson [J.] (ex Banks & Solander) 1848:94 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:112 [ref. 26380]. Not available, published in the synonymy of Muraena variegata; from Uhhietea. •In the synonymy of Echidna nebulosa (Ahl 1789) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:217 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:112 [ref. 26380], Randall 2005:35 [ref. 28239]). • Nomen numen, not available -- (Smith 2012:55 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna nebulosa (Ahl 1789). Muraenidae: Muraeninae.

geometrica, Muraena Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1830:118, Pl. 30 (fig. 1) [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 130. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:112-113 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Siderea grisea (Lacepède 1803) -- (Dor 1984:30 [ref. 29757], Randall & Golani 1995:870 [ref. 21744]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax griseus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:113 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:16 [ref. 32155], Golani & Fricke 2018:21 [ref. 36273]) Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax griseus (Lacepède 1803). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

gilberti, Gymnothorax Tanaka [S.] 1908:25, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Journal of the College of Science. Imperial University, Tokyo v. 23 (art. 7); ref. 6032] Bonin [Ogasawara] Islands, Japan. Holotype (unique): SMF 21030. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:113 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax eurostus (Abbott 1860) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:234 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:113 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:14 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax eurostus (Abbott 1860). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

gillii, Leptocephalus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Kennedy [C. H.] 1902:88, Figs. 7, 7a-b [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 21 (1901); ref. 11071] Atlantic, 38°25'N, 72°40'W, Albatross. Holotype (unique): USNM 49748. Type catalog: Smith 1994:20-21 [ref. 21917]. •Probably young of Gymnothorax saxicola Jordan & Davis 1891 -- (Smith 1994:21 [ref. 21917]). •See Smith 1989:907 [ref. 13285]. Current status: Uncertain as Gymnothorax saxicola Jordan & Davis 1891. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

golanii, Uropterygius McCosker [J. E.] & Smith [D. G.] 1997:1011, Fig. 3 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 60 (no. 3); ref. 22980] Strait of Jubal, southern end of Sinai Peninsula at Ras Muhammed, Egypt, Red Sea, depth 0-10 meters. Holotype: USNM 312830. Paratypes: HUJ 5266 (2); USNM 312831 (1, c&s). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:159 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Uropterygius golanii McCosker & Smith 1997 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:159 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:36 [ref. 32155], DiBattista et al. 2015:19 [ref. 35706], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[4] 242 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:24 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Uropterygius golanii McCosker & Smith 1997. Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Northern Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

goldsboroughi, Gymnothorax Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:167 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50617. Type catalog: Smith 1994:18 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:113 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax elegans Bliss 1883 -- (Randall et al. 1993:227 [ref. 21003], Böhlke & Randall 2000:233 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:113 [ref. 26380], Mundy 2005:118 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:86 [ref. 30952], Smith 2012:14 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax elegans Bliss 1883. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

goslinei, Uropterygius McCosker [J. E.] & Randall [J. E.] 1977:167, Figs. 3c, 5 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 41 (no. 3); ref. 7267] Kayangel Atoll, Palau Islands, western Pacific. Holotype: CAS 35253. Paratypes: AMS I.17600-001 (1); ANSP 117434 (1), 124812 (1); BPBM 19927 (1); CAS 13972 (1), 29103 (1); USNM 215282 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:130 [ref. 13621], Smith 1994:25 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:159-160 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Uropterygius goslinei McCosker & Randall 1977 -- (Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830]). •Synonym of Uropterygius fasciolatus (Regan 1909) -- (see Smith 1994:25 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:160 [ref. 26380], Allen & Erdmann 2012:97 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:36 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Uropterygius fasciolatus (Regan 1909). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Habitat: marine.

gracilicauda, Gymnothorax Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:426, Fig. 6 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Reef in front of Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50679. Type catalog: Smith 1994:18 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:113 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax gracilicauda Jenkins 1903 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:129 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:38 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:54 [ref. 23977] as gracilicaudus, Randall et al. 1997:38 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:48 [ref. 23965], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Randall 1999:6 [ref. 25829], Böhlke & Randall 2000:239 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Randall & Earle 2000:6 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:16 [ref. 25847], Böhlke & Smith 2002:113 [ref. 26380], Myers & Donaldson 2003:611 [ref. 27495] as gracilicaudus, Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:11 [ref. 27510] as gracilicaudus, Randall 2005:42 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:119 [ref. 28379], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:317 [ref. 28867], Allen et al. 2006:251 [ref. 29005], Randall 2007:85 [ref. 30952], Shao et al. 2008:238 [ref. 29952], Prokofiev 2010:585 [ref. 31007] as gracilicaudus, Fricke et al. 2011:350 [ref. 31242], Smith 2012:16 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2014:18 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Ho et al. 2015:156 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax gracilicauda Jenkins 1903. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific: Caroline Islands and Papua New Guinea east to Hawaian Islands and Pitcairn Group, south to Queensland (Australia) and Loyalty Islands (New Caledonia); possibly Cocos Island (eastern Pacific). Habitat: marine.

gracilis, Muraena Richardson [J.] 1848:92 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] India. Lectotype: not distinguishable. Lectotype and paralectotype: BMNH 2008.4.9.5-6 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:113-114 [ref. 26380]. Lectotype selected by Böhlke & Smith 2002:113 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax tile (Hamilton 1822) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:113 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:28 [ref. 32155], Kottelat 2013:42 [ref. 32989], Mohapatra et al. 2017:589 [ref. 35418]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax tile (Hamilton 1822). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

grandimaculis, Muraena Regan [C. T.] 1903:418, Pl. 14 (fig. 3) [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 11 (no. 2); ref. 3620] Bahia, Rio de Janero, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MHNG 665.39. Type catalog: Mahnert 1976:474 [ref. 21535], Weber 1998:5 [ref. 23532]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax miliaris (Kaup 1856) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:155 [ref. 13286], Smith 2012:20 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax miliaris (Kaup 1856). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

grassi, Uropterygius Roule [L.] 1916:6 [Bulletin de l'Institut Océanographique (Monaco) No. 320; ref. 3818] 3/4 mile southwest of St. Lucia, Cape Verde Islands, station 1155, depth 52 meters. Syntypes: (6) MOM 0091-0557 (4). Type catalog: Belloc 1949:3 [ref. 21544], Bauchot et al. 1993:128 [ref. 20810]. •Valid as Anarchias grassii (Roule 1913) -- (Blache et al. 1973:226 [ref. 7185]). •Synonym of Anarchias euryurus (Lea 1913) -- (Bauchot in Whitehead et al. 1986:538 [ref. 13676], Smith & Böhlke 1990:136 [ref. 19379]). •Synonym of Anarchias longicauda (Peters 1877) -- (Smith 2012:34 [ref. 32155], Smith & Brito 2016:1637 [ref. 34557]). Current status: Synonym of Anarchias longicauda (Peters 1877). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Habitat: marine.

grassianus, Leptocephalus D'Ancona [U.] 1928:70, Pl. 4 (figs. 8-8a) [Memoria, Reale Comitato Talassografico Italiano No. 146; ref. 15917] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea; Bab el Mandeb Strait; Perim Island, Bab el Mandeb Strait, Yemen, Red Sea. Syntypes: (7) MSNVE P-11 (1). •Mention -- (Dor 1984:30 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as "Leptocephalus" grassianus D'Ancona 1928 -- (Goren & Dor 1994:7 [ref. 25356]). •Unidentifiable -- (See Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:59 [ref. 35264]). Current status: Uncertain as Leptocephalus grassianus D'Ancona 1928. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Red Sea [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

griffini, Gymnothorax Whitley [G. P.] & Phillipps [W. J.] 1939:229 [Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand v. 69 (no. 2); ref. 4737] White Island, Bay of Plenty, New Zealand. Holotype (unique): AIM AK99608 [ex AIM PS 29.1]. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:114 [ref. 26380] but type not seen. New name for Gymnothorax meleagris of Griffin 1927:138, Pl. 10 (fig. 2) [ref. 15788]. •Valid as Gymnothorax griffini Whitley & Phillipps 1939 -- (Paulin et al. 1989:69 [ref. 24556], Francis 1993:157 [ref. 25479]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax obesus (Whitley 1932) -- (Gomon et al. 1994:207 [ref. 22532], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:91 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:114 [ref. 26380], Böhlke & Smith 2002:114 [ref. 26380] with some question). •Synonym of Gymnothorax porphyreus (Guichenot 1848) -- (McCosker & Stewart 2006:93 [ref. 28702], Smith 2012:24 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax porphyreus (Guichenot 1848). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

grisea, Muraenophis Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1803:629, 642, Pl. 19 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] No locality stated [Madagascar]. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:126 [ref. 20810], Böhlke & Smith 2002:114 [ref. 26380]. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:57 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Based on description and drawing in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). •Valid as Siderea grisea (Lacepède 1803) -- (Dor 1984:29 [ref. 29757], Castle & McCosker 1986:174 [ref. 5645], Goren & Dor 1994:7 [ref. 25356], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:68 [ref. 22017], Randall & Golani 1995:870 [ref. 21744], Randall 1995:58 [ref. 22896], Fricke 1999:56 [ref. 24106]). •Valid as Gymnothorax griseus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Winterbottom et al. 1989:9 [ref. 13251], Böhlke & Randall 1999:551 [ref. 24552], Böhlke & Smith 2002:114 [ref. 26380], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Heemstra et al. 2004:3316 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:104 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2009:16 [ref. 30213], Smith 2012:16 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2013:251 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2018:36 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:21 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:23 [ref. 36883], Zajonz et al. 2019:62 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax griseus (Lacepède 1803). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: East Africa and Transkei (South Africa) to Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes. Habitat: marine.

griseobadia, Muraena Richardson [J.] 1848:89 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Tonga Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH (not found). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:114 [ref. 26380]. Originally griseo-badia. •Nomen dubium -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:114 [ref. 26380]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

guarapariensis, Lycodontis Pinto [S. Y.] 1975:401, Figs. 1-2 [Physis Seccion A los Oceanos y sus Organismos v. 34 (no. 89); ref. 7456] Guarapari, Espírito Santo, Brazil. Holotype: MHNI 208. Paratypes: MHNI 209 (1). •Synonym of Gymnothorax vicinus (Castelnau 1855) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:186 [ref. 13286], Smith 2012:29 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax vicinus (Castelnau 1855). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

guttata, Limmamuraena Duméril [A. M. C.] 1856:200 [Mémoires de l'Académie des Sciences : tirés des registres de cette Académie. v. 27 (no. 1); ref. 1154] Not available, name only. •Nomen nudum, not available -- (Smith 2012:55 [ref. 32155])., Muraenidae: Muraeninae.

guttata, Limomuraena Kaup [J. J.] 1856:65 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Apparently a new combination for Muraena guttata of Solander & Richardson 1848, based on Banks and Solander MSS -- David G. Smith, pers. comm. Nov. 2011. •An unavailable new combination. Current status: Synonym of Muraena. Muraenidae: Muraeninae.

guttata, Muraena Risso [A.] 1827:191 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Muraena guttata Forsskål 1775. •Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758 -- (Smith & Böhlke 1990:145 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:31 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

guttata, Muraena Solander [D. C.] & Richardson [J.] 1848:90 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Madeira and Brazil. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. Based in part (verbatim) from Solander manuscript, plus Richardson description as well. Preoccupied by Muraena guttata Forsskål 1775. Not in database until Nov. 2011 on David G. Smith pers. comm. Current status: Synonym of Muraena. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

hansi, Gymnothorax Heemstra [P. C.] 2004:2, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa No. 515; ref. 27849] South coast off Itsounzou, 11°52'S, 43°23'E, Grand Comoro (Ngazidja), Comoro Islands, depth about 143 meters. Holotype: SAIAB 38673. Paratypes: SAIAB 74102 (1), USNM 376770 (1). •Valid as Gymnothorax hansi Heemstra 2004 -- (Smith 2012:16 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax hansi Heemstra 2004. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Grand Comoro (Ngazidja) Island, Comoros Islands. Habitat: marine.

hauy, Muraenophis Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:629, 646, Pl. 17 (fig. 2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Rouen, France. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:127 [ref. 20810] as hüy, Böhlke & Smith 2002:114 [ref. 26380]. Originally haüy, correction mandatory. Based on an illustration. •Nomen dubium -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:114 [ref. 26380]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

helena, Muraena Linnaeus [C.] 1758:244 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea, western North Atlantic [original: "in Europæ, Americæ Oceano"]; localities include Spain; France; Rome and Sicily, Italy; Lesbos Island, Greece; Syria; Bahamas. Syntypes: ZMUU Linn. Coll. 57 (1, only surviving specimen). Type catalog: Lönnberg 1896:24 [ref. 23530], Wheeler 1991:160-161, Fig. 5 [ref. 20102]. Lectotype or neotype fixation needed: the type locality should be restricted to Mediterranean Sea according to current usage. Originally based on multiple species and at least 36 pre-Linnaean sources including Artedi 1738:25 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:41 [ref. 30349] as Muraena pinnis pectoralibus carens; Rondelet 1554:402 [ref. 30354] as Muræna, Salviani 1558:60, Pl. (p. 59) [ref. 30229] as Muræna, Charleton 1668:126 [ref. 30580] as Muræna, Willughby 1686:103 [ref. 30164] and Ray 1713:34 [ref. 30231] as Muræna, Catesby 1743:20, 21, Pl. 20-21 [ref. 774] as Muræna maculata nigra & viridis and Muræna maculata nigra. The surviving syntype is not this species, and a neotype would be desirable (see Smith 2012:31 [ref. 32155]). •Valid as Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758 -- (Blache et al. 1973:224 [ref. 7185], Bauchot in Whitehead et al. 1986:543 [ref. 13676], Böhlke et al. 1989:195 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:145 [ref. 19379], Randall & Golani 1995:869 [ref. 21744], Santos et al. 1997:20 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:55 [ref. 24952], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:31 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:16 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:23 [ref. 29533], Jiménez et al. 2007:101 [ref. 29038], Smith et al. 2008:67 [ref. 29432], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:18 [ref. 36649], Smith 2012:31 [ref. 32155], Stern & Goren 2013:197 [ref. 32673], Wirtz et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32972], Smith & Brito 2016:1634 [ref. 34557], Vieira et al. 2016:[4] [ref. 34869], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[22] 260 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:23 [ref. 36273], Martins & Carneiro 2018:21 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:553 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:92 [ref. 36864], Iglésias et al. 2019:278 [ref. 37098]). Current status: Valid as Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, eastern Atlantic: British Isles to Cape Verde Islands [but now excluding augusti]; Red Sea (Mediterranean Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.

hemprichii, Muraena Klunzinger [C. B.] (ex Ehrenberg) 1871:613 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea; Red Sea. Surviving syntypes: ZMB 4048 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:114 [ref. 26380]. Based on Muraena hepatica in manuscript of Ehrenberg with underlying ZMB holotype, and on material from Kosseir, Egpt.. •Synonym of Lycodontis hepaticus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Dor 1984:28 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax hepaticus (Rüppell 1830) -- (authors). •Synonym of Enchelycore schismatorhynchus (Bleeker 1853) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:114 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:9 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Enchelycore schismatorhynchus (Bleeker 1853). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

hepatica, Muraena Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1830:120 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 3554. Non-types: ZMB 4015 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:114-115 [ref. 26380]. Records from the Pacific probably refer to G. monochorus -- Smith 2012:16 [ref. 32155]. Muraena Hepatica and M. cinerascens were described in the same publication; appaently Randall and Golani 1995 serve as first revisers -- Smith 2012:17 [ref. 32155]. •Valid as Lycodontis hepaticus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Dor 1984:28 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Gymnothorax hepaticus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Chen et al. 1994:50 [ref. 22258], Goren & Dor 1994:7 [ref. 25356], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:viii [ref. 21953], Randall & Golani 1995:858 [ref. 21744], Böhlke 2000:395 [ref. 24954], Böhlke & McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Böhlke & Smith 2002:114 [ref. 26380], Randall 2005:38 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:83 [ref. 30952], Zhang et al. 2010:260 [ref. 31511], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:59 [ref. 35264], Smith 2012:16 [ref. 32155], Ho et al. 2015:154 [ref. 34130], Golani & Fricke 2018:21 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax hepaticus (Rüppell 1830). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

herrei, Gymnothorax Beebe [W.] & Tee-Van [J.] 1933:138 [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 13 (no. 7); ref. 16101] Analao, Batangas, Philippines, 13°45'N, 120°55'E, depth 0-3 meters. Neotype: ANSP 164931. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:115 [ref. 26380]. Replacement name for Gymnothorax brunneus Herre 1923, preoccupied by Gymnothorax brunneus Nichols 1920. Unique holotype lost; neotype selected by Böhlke 2000:404 [ref. 24954]. •Valid as Gymnothorax herrei Beebe & Tee-Van 1933 -- (Ferraris 1985:518 [ref. 19663], Randall & Golani 1995:860 [ref. 21744], Randall 1995:56 [ref. 22896], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Böhlke 2000:403 [ref. 24954], Nakabo 2000:202 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:202 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:114 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:11 [ref. 27510], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:58 [ref. 35264], Allen & Erdmann 2012:85 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:17 [ref. 32155], Yoshida et al. 2013:20 [ref. 34464], Ray et al. 2015:143 [ref. 33981], Ho et al. 2015:156 [ref. 34130], Mohapatra et al. 2018:126 [ref. 35948], Allen et al. 2018:46 [ref. 36275]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax herrei Beebe & Tee-Van 1933. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Sri Lanka east to Philippines and Papua New Guinea, north to Taiwan, south to northeastern Australia. Habitat: marine.

hilonis, Gymnothorax Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:167 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Hilo, Hawaii Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50618. Type catalog: Smith 1994:18 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:115 [ref. 26380]. •Probably valid as Gymnothorax hilonis Jordan & Evermann 1903 -- (Smith 1994:18 [ref. 21917]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax pictus (Ahl 1789) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:247 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:115 [ref. 26380], Randall 2005:45 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:91 [ref. 30952], Smith 2012:23 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax pictus (Ahl 1789). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

hubbsi, Gymnothorax Böhlke [J. E.] & Böhlke [E. B.] 1977:238, Figs. 1-3 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 27 (no. 2); ref. 7233] Off Cape Canaveral, Florida, U.S.A., 28°33'N, 80°03'W, depth 38 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 214833 [ex ANSP 115230]. Paratypes: ANSP 88787 (1), 115256 (1), 115269 (1), 115270 (1, c&s), 115272 (1), 115293 (1), 130200 (1), 133321 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:130 [ref. 13621], Smith 1994:18 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Gymnothorax hubbsi Böhlke & Böhlke 1977 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:52 [ref. 23100], Böhlke et al. 1989:150 [ref. 13286], Böhlke & Smith 2003:716 [ref. 26990], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], Smith 2012:17 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax hubbsi Böhlke & Böhlke 1977. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

indicus, Gymnothorax Mohapatra [A.], Ray [D.], Smith [D. G.] & Mishra [S. S.] 2016:592, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa 4150 (no. 5); ref. 34667] Shankarpur, West Bengal, India (21°06.55'N, 87°58.68'E). Holotype: ZSI F 11370/2. Paratypes: MARC/ZSI/F, ZSI F. •Valid as Gymnothorax indicus Mohapatra, Ray, Smith & Mishra 2016 -- (Mohapatra et al. 2017:285 [ref. 35504]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax indicus Mohapatra, Ray, Smith & Mishra 2016. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Bay of Bengal, India. Habitat: marine.

indong, Gymnothorax Seale [A.] 1910:491 [The Philippine Journal of Science Section A v. 4 (no. 6) (for 1909); ref. 4000] Zamboanga, Mindanao, Philippines. Holotype (unique): BSMP 4445 (apparently destroyed). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:115 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax zonipectis Seale 1906 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:115 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:29 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax zonipectis Seale 1906. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

infernalis, Muraena Poey [F.] 1861:347, 354 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Holotype (unique): USNM 4808 (lost). Type catalog: Smith 1994:21 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax funebris Ranzani 1839 -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:176 [ref. 13286], Smith 2012:16 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax funebris Ranzani 1839. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

inornatus, Uropterygius Gosline [W. A.] 1958:225, Figs. 1e, 2a [Pacific Science v. 12 (no. 3); ref. 12067] Off Waikiki reef, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands, depth 25-35 feet. Holotype: USNM 175007. Paratypes: BPBM [ex UH 1686] (2, possibly lost), BPBM [ex UH 1788] (1, possibly lost); BPBM 14204 [ex UH 2362] (2). Type catalog: Smith 1994:25 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:160 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Uropterygius inornatus Gosline 1958 -- (Winterbottom et al. 1989:10 [ref. 13251], Myers 1999:52 [ref. 23965], Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692], Randall 1999:7 [ref. 25829], Böhlke & Randall 2000:268 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:160 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Mundy 2005:126 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:97 [ref. 30952], Smith 2012:36 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Valid as Uropterygius inornatus Gosline 1958. Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Chagos Archipelago east to Hawaiian Islands, south to Tonga and Pitcairn Island. Habitat: marine.

insignis, Gymnothorax Seale [A.] 1917:93 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 61 (no. 4); ref. 4001] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MCZ 5912. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:115 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax nudivomer (Günther 1867) -- (Fricke 1999:51 [ref. 24106], Böhlke & Randall 2000:245 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:115 [ref. 26380], Randall 2007:90 [ref. 30952], Smith 2012:22 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax nudivomer (Günther 1867). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

insuetus, Anarchias Whitley [G. P.] 1932:272, Fig. 1 [Great Barrier Reef Expedition, 1928-29: scientific reports. v. 4 (no. 9); ref. 4676] Low Isles, off Port Douglas, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS IA.4458. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:160 [ref. 26380]. Species misspelled insuentus in Eschmeyer 1998 [ref. 23416]. •Valid as Anarchias insuetus Whitley 1932 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:127 [ref. 12442] as insuentus). •Nomen dubium -- (Böhlke & McCosker 2001:97 [ref. 25226]). •Probably a synonym of Uropterygius concolor Rüppell 1838 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:160 [ref. 26380]). •Incertae sedis -- (Allen et al. 2006:259 [ref. 29005]). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Australia [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

insularum, Muraena Jordan [D. S.] & Davis [B. M.] 1891:609 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 16 (for 1888) (art. 9); ref. 2437] San Cristóbal Island [Chatham Island], Galápagos Islands. Holotype: USNM 38300. Type catalog: Smith 1994:21 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:115-116 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Muraena insularum Jordan & Davis 1891 -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:130 [ref. 24555]). •Synonym of Muraena lentiginosa Jenyns 1842 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:116 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:32 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena lentiginosa Jenyns 1842. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

intermedia, Muraena tessellata var. Günther [A.] 1870:107 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] No locality. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 1855.12.18.2 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:116 [ref. 26380]. •Nomen dubium -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:116 [ref. 26380]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

interrupta, Muraena Kaup [J. J.] 1856:67, Pl. 10 (fig. 51) [Catalogue of the apodal fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2573] Red Sea. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2470. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:99-100 [ref. 20810], Böhlke & Smith 2002:116 [ref. 26380]. Appeared first without description in Kaup 1856:58 [ref. 2572]. •Synonym of Lycodontis rueppelli (McClelland 1844) -- (Dor 1984:29 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax rueppellii (McClelland 1844) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:116 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:27 [ref. 32155]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax rueppelliae (McClelland 1844) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:255 [ref. 24493]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax rueppelliae (McClelland 1844). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

intesi, Lycodontis Fourmanoir [P.] & Rivaton [J.] 1979:426, Fig. 16 [Cahiers de l'Indo-Pacifique v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 8833] Lifou Island, Loyalty Islands, southwestern Pacific, depth 400 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1980-0304. Paratypes: BPBM 22614 (1); MNHN 1991-0697 (1), 1991-0698 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:99 [ref. 20810], Böhlke & Smith 2002:116 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax intesi (Fourmanoir & Rivaton 1979) -- (Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Nakabo 2000:207 [ref. 25086], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Nakabo 2002:207 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:116 [ref. 26380], Shinohara et al. 2005:399 [ref. 28370], Allen et al. 2006:251 [ref. 29005], Fricke et al. 2011:350 [ref. 31242], Smith 2012:17 [ref. 32155], Ho et al. 2015:156 [ref. 34130], Koeda et al. 2016:7 [ref. 35333], Sumod et al. 2019:363 [ref. 36895]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax intesi (Fourmanoir & Rivaton 1979). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

irregularis, Thyrsoidea Kaup [J. J.] 1856:65 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: MNHN B-3120 [not B-2758]. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:102 [ref. 20810]. Also in Kaup 1856:95 [ref. 2573]. •Synonym of Muraena miliaris (Kaup 1856) -- (Smith & Böhlke 1990:146 [ref. 19379]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax miliaris (Kaup 1856) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:155 [ref. 13286], Bauchot et al. 1993:102 [ref. 20810], Smith 2012:20 [ref. 32155], Pinheiro et al. 2015:6 [ref. 34324]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax miliaris (Kaup 1856). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

isingleenoides, Muraena Bleeker [P.] 1852:48 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 5); ref. 339] Sibogha, western Sumatra, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 7191. Paralectotypes: (3, with other specimens). Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.235 (1), NMV 46444 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:116 [ref. 26380]. Original as isingleenoïdes. Lectotype selected by Böhlke & Smith 2002:116 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax fimbriatus (Bennett 1832) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:116 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:15 [ref. 32155], Kottelat 2013:42 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax fimbriatus (Bennett 1832). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

isingteena, Muraena Richardson [J.] 1845:[108], Pl. 48 (fig. 1) [Ichthyology.--Part 2. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur; ref. 20574] China seas; Canton, China. Holotype and second specimen: BMNH 2008.4.9.2 (1, stuffed), 2008.4.9.3 (1, alcohol). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:116-117 [ref. 26380]. Available from plate before appearing in the text; technically the holotype is the specimen represented in the figure. Text in Richardson 1845:108 [ref. 20575]. Also in Richardson 1846:314 [ref. 3742] as isengleena. Lectotype (2008.4.9.3) designation by Böhlke & Smith 2002:116 [ref. 26380] is not appropriate; however the holotype can not be discerned from the second specimen (D. G. Smith, 2/15/2012). •Synonym of Gymnothorax favagineus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Zhang et al. 2010:286 [ref. 31511]). •Valid as Gymnothorax isingteena (Richardson 1845) -- (Fricke 1999:48 [ref. 24106], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Nakabo 2000:210 [ref. 25086], Hutchins 2001:16 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:210 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:116 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Motomura et al. 2010:72 [ref. 31256], Ho & Shao 2011: 21 [ref. 31432], Allen & Erdmann 2012:86 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:17 [ref. 32155], Ho et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:157 [ref. 34130], Koeda et al. 2016:7 [ref. 35333]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax isingteena (Richardson 1845). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Comores and Mauritius (Mascarenes); Indonesia and Vietnam north to Korea and Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

jacksoniensis, Gymnothorax Bleeker [P.] 1863:450 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeling Natuurkunde. v. 15; ref. 17014] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 3780. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:117 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax prasinus (Richardson 1848) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:131 [ref. 12442], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:92 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:117 [ref. 26380], Allen et al. 2006:255 [ref. 29005], Smith 2012:25 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax prasinus (Richardson 1848). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

januarius, Gymnothorax ocellatus var. Jordan [D. S.] & Davis [B. M.] 1891:607 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 16 (for 1888) (art. 9); ref. 2437] Replacement name for Murenophis variegata Castelnau 1855, preoccupied. •Synonym of Gymnothorax ocellatus Agassiz 1831 -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:174 [ref. 13286], Smith 2012:23 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax ocellatus Agassiz 1831. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

javanica, Muraena Bleeker [P.] 1859:347 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 19; ref. 368] Patjitan, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.214. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:117 [ref. 26380]. See Smith 2012:17-18 [ref. 32155] for nomenclatural remarks. •Valid as Lycodontis javanicus (Bleeker 1859) -- (Dor 1984:28 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Gymnothorax javanicus (Bleeker 1859) -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:24 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:32 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:129 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:9 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:38 [ref. 15987], Chen et al. 1994:50 [ref. 22258], Goren & Dor 1994:7 [ref. 25356], Randall & Golani 1995:861 [ref. 21744], Allen 1997:52 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:21 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:30 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:38 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:48 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:48 [ref. 24106], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Randall 1999:7 [ref. 25829], Böhlke & Randall 2000:240 [ref. 24493], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:111 [ref. 25191], Thomson et al. 2000:43 [ref. 25640], Randall & Earle 2000:7 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:95 [ref. 25868], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Böhlke & Smith 2002:117 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:611 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:68 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:118 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3316 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:42 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:119 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:251 [ref. 29005], Randall 2007:87 [ref. 30952], Imamura 2009:18 [ref. 30434], Fricke et al. 2009:16 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Zhang et al. 2010:266 [ref. 31511], Fricke et al. 2011:350 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:86 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:17 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2013:251 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:25 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:19 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Ho et al. 2015:157 [ref. 34130], Koeda et al. 2016:7 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:36 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:21 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:23 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:51 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:62 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax javanicus (Bleeker 1859). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands, Pitcairn Group and Cocos Island, north to southern Japan to Western Australia and New Caledonia; Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

johnsoni, Lycodontis Smith [J. L. B.] 1962:438, Pl. 56 (figs. C-D) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 23; ref. 6435] Algoa Bay, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 40 fathoms. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 104. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 5019 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:117 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax johnsoni (Smith 1962) -- (Castle & McCosker 1986:170 [ref. 5645], Baranes & Golani 1993:302 [ref. 22372], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:67 [ref. 22017], Randall & Golani 1995:862 [ref. 21744], Fricke 1999:48 [ref. 24106], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:95 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:117 [ref. 26380], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Smith et al. 2008:67 [ref. 29432], Fricke et al. 2009:16 [ref. 30213], Smith 2012:18 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2018:37 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:22 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:23 [ref. 36883], Sumod et al. 2019:363 [ref. 36895]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax johnsoni (Smith 1962). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: East Africa and South Africa to Madagascar and Mascarenes. Habitat: marine.

jordani, Lycodontis Evermann [B. W.] & Marsh [M. C.] 1899:352 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 25 (for 1899) Appendix 7; ref. 1283] Mayagüez, Puerto Rico. Holotype (unique): USNM 49358. Type catalog: Smith 1994:21 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax ocellatus Agassiz 1831 -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:174 [ref. 13286], Smith 2012:23 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax ocellatus Agassiz 1831. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

juliae, Leptocephalus Tommasi [L. R.] 1960:91, Fig. 1 [Neotropica (La Plata) v. 6 (no. 21); ref. 11955] Off Recife, Brazil, 7°41'S, 34°25'W, station 355, depth 0-91 meters. Holotype (unique): (lost). •Synonym of Uropterygius macularius (Lesueur 1825) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:126 [ref. 13286], Smith 1989:903 [ref. 13285], Smith 2012:37 [ref. 32155], Melo & Caires 2016:2 [ref. 34981]). Current status: Synonym of Uropterygius macularius (Lesueur 1825). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Habitat: marine.

kailuae, Muraena Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:165 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Kailua, Hawaii Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50614. Type catalog: Smith 1994:21 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:117-118 [ref. 26380] •Synonym of Enchelycore pardalis (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:221 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:118 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:9 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Enchelycore pardalis (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

kamar, Uropterygius McCosker [J. E.] & Randall [J. E.] 1977:164, Figs. 3b, 4 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 41 (no. 3); ref. 7267] Itsandra, Grande Comore Island, Comoro Islands, Indian Ocean, depth 25 meters. Holotype: CAS 35251. Paratypes: ANSP 124794 (3), 134217 (11); CAS 35252 (20); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 4557 (5); BPBM 12051 (1), 9442 (2), 16471 (4), 16606 (1), 17005 (1), 17047 (1); USNM 215281 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:130 [ref. 13621], Smith 1994:25 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:160 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Uropterygius kamar McCosker & Randall 1977 -- (Castle & McCosker 1986:175 [ref. 5645], Winterbottom et al. 1989:11 [ref. 13251], Myers 1999:52 [ref. 23965], Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692], Randall 1999:7 [ref. 25829], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Böhlke & Smith 2002:160 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Randall 2005:52 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:259 [ref. 29005], Allen & Erdmann 2012:98 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:36 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2014:21 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Uropterygius kamar McCosker & Randall 1977. Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Comoro Islands east to Marshall and Pitcairn islands, south to Solomon Islands. Habitat: marine.

kamara, Enchelycore Böhlke [J. E.] & Böhlke [E. B.] 1980:173, Figs. 1-3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 132; ref. 8739] Tongareva Atoll, on lagoon side of some small islets south of Molokai Island [Penrhyn Atoll, northern Cook Islands, South Pacific], depth 3-5 feet. Holotype: USNM 221161. Paratypes: ANSP 143055-56 (1, 1); CAS 39752 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:130 [ref. 13621], Smith 1994:16 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:118 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Enchelycore kamara Böhlke & Böhlke 1980 -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:135 [ref. 13286], Myers 1999:46 [ref. 23965], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Böhlke & Smith 2002:118 [ref. 26380], Myers & Donaldson 2003:610 [ref. 27495], Prokofiev 2005:704 [ref. 28366], Shibukawa et al. 2007:187 [ref. 29475], Smith 2012:8 [ref. 32155], Mohapatra et al. 2017:598 [ref. 35581]). Current status: Valid as Enchelycore kamara Böhlke & Böhlke 1980. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Central Pacific. Habitat: marine.

kauila, Muraena Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:424, Fig. 4 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50684. Type catalog: Smith 1994:21-22 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:118 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Enchelycore pardalis (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:221 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:118 [ref. 26380], Mundy 2005:115 [ref. 28379], Smith 2012:9 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Enchelycore pardalis (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

kaupii, Thyrsoidea Abbott [C. C.] 1860:477 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 12; ref. 15619] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): ANSP 916. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:130 [ref. 13621], Böhlke & Smith 2002:118 [ref. 26380] •Synonym of Gymnothorax undulatus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:258 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:118 [ref. 26380], Mundy 2005:124 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:94 [ref. 30952], Smith 2012:28 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax undulatus (Lacepède 1803). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

kidako, Muraena Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:266, Pl. 117 [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Nagasaki, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 3957. Paralectotypes: RMNH D2027 (1, stuffed), 3779 (3). Possible paralectotypes: (stuffed) RMNH D2219 (1, dry), D2220 (1, dry), D2235 (1, dry), D2259 (1, dry), D2302 (1, dry). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:118-119 [ref. 26380]. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:190 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Gymnothorax kidako (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:23 [ref. 6441], Paxton et al. 1989:129 [ref. 12442], Chen et al. 1994:51 [ref. 22258], Böhlke & Randall 1995:3 [ref. 21580], Randall 1999:7 [ref. 25829], Böhlke & Randall 2000:242 [ref. 24493], Nakabo 2000:208 [ref. 25086], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Nakabo 2002:208 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:141, 490 [ref. 26218], Böhlke & Smith 2002:118 [ref. 26380], Randall 2005:43 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:120 [ref. 28379], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:317 [ref. 28867], Allen et al. 2006:251 [ref. 29005], Randall 2007:89 [ref. 30952], Prokofiev 2010:585 [ref. 31007], Motomura et al. 2010:72 [ref. 31256], Zhang et al. 2010:277 [ref. 31511], Fricke et al. 2011:350 [ref. 31242], Smith 2012:18 [ref. 32155], Ho et al. 2015:157 [ref. 34130], Huang et al. 2018:[2] [ref. 35898], Allen et al. 2018:46 [ref. 36275], Huang et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36534]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax kidako (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Pacific: China and Taiwan to Japan. Habitat: marine.

kishinouyei, Echidna Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:885, Fig. 21 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1239); ref. 2508] Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 6481. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:46 [ref. 12291], Böhlke & Smith 2002:119 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax thyrsoideus (Richardson 1845) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:119 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:28 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax thyrsoideus (Richardson 1845). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

knighti, Anarchias Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] in Jordan & Seale 1906:205, Fig. 10 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Apia, Upolu Island, Samoa. Holotype: USNM 51716. Paratypes: USNM 147772 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:46 [ref. 12291], Smith 1994:15 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:160-161 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Uropterygius macrocephalus (Bleeker 1864) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:269 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:160 [ref. 26380], Randall 2005:52 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:126 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:97 [ref. 30952], Smith 2012:37 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Uropterygius macrocephalus (Bleeker 1864). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Habitat: marine.

kolpos, Gymnothorax Böhlke [J. E.] & Böhlke [E. B.] 1980:223, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 132; ref. 8738] Alabama, U.S.A., 29°19'N, 88°04'W, Oregon station 3201, depth 120 meters. Holotype: ANSP 107093. Paratypes: ANSP 107092 (1), 107098 (1, c&s), 116135 (1), 127501 (1, c&s), 134031 (1); GCRL 1066 (1), 2790 (1); MCZ 35110 (1); MNHN 1974-0105 [ex USNM 158730] (1); TU 82455 (2); UF 70683 [ex FSU 20683] (1), 70721 [ex FSU 20721] (1), 72266 [ex FSU 22266] (1), 72292 [ex FSU 22292] (1), 217424 [ex UMML 17424] (1), 220524 [ex UMML 20524] (1); USA 03127 (2); USNM 154982 (1), 158729 (1), 158739 (1), 158741 (1), 215279 [ex USNM 158740] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:130 [ref. 13621], Bart & Taylor 1993:50 [ref. 20906], Smith 1994:18 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Gymnothorax kolpos Böhlke & Böhlke 1980 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:53 [ref. 23100], Böhlke et al. 1989:164 [ref. 13286], Boschung 1992:32 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:235 [ref. 23897], Böhlke & Smith 2003:709 [ref. 26990], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], Smith 2012:18 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax kolpos Böhlke & Böhlke 1980. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

kontodontos, Gymnothorax Böhlke [E. B.] 2000:411, Figs. 2G, 3E, 8 [Pacific Science v. 54 (no. 4); ref. 24954] Outside reef 300 yards northwest of entrance to English Harbor, Tabuaeran [= Fanning Island], Line Islands, central Pacific, depth 6 meters. Holotype: ANSP 177771. Paratypes: BPBM 9392 (2), 31780 (1), 33391 (1), 37448 (1); ROM 38924 (1), 57311 (1); USNM 357423 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:119 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax kontodontos Böhlke 2000 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:119 [ref. 26380], Mundy 2005:120 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:75 [ref. 30952], Allen & Erdmann 2012:87 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:18 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2014:19 [ref. 33932], Ray et al. 2015:143 [ref. 33981], Mohapatra et al. 2018:126 [ref. 35948]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax kontodontos Böhlke 2000. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Comores and Chagos Archipelago east to Line Islands and Johnston Atoll. Habitat: marine.

kowanensis, Gymnothorax pictus Aoyagi [H.] 1943:27, Fig. 9 [Coral fishes. Part 1; ref. 17936] Bay of Kowan, Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype (unique): not at YCM, apparently lost. Type information: Hayashi 1995:7 [ref. 22717]. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:119 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax pictus (Ahl 1789) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:247 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:119 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:24 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax pictus (Ahl 1789). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

krulli, Muraena Hector [J.] 1877:468, Pl. 8 (bottom) [Transactions of the New Zealand Institute v. 9 (art. 62); ref. 14244] Bay of Islands, New Zealand. Holotype (unique): AIM (missing). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:119 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax prasinus (Richardson 1848) -- (Böhlke & McCosker 2001:93 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:119 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:24 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax prasinus (Richardson 1848). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

kuhlii, Polyuranodon Kaup [J. J.] 1856:65 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Ceram, Indonesia. No types known. Bleeker specimens: ?AMS I.101 (1), BMNH 1867.11.28.242 (1) no locality, RMNH. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:119 [ref. 26380]. Also in Kaup 1856:96 [ref. 2573]. Unneeded replacement name for Muraena polyuranodon Bleeker 1854, apparently to avoid "Strickland tautonymy" when Polyuranodon was treated as a genus. •Synonym of Gymnothorax polyuranodon (Bleeker 1854) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:119 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:24 [ref. 32155], Kottelat 2013:42 [ref. 32989] as kuhli). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax polyuranodon (Bleeker 1854). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

lampra, Muraena Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:423, Fig. 3 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50680. Type catalog: Smith 1994:22 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:119 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Enchelycore pardalis (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:221 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:119 [ref. 26380], Mundy 2005:115 [ref. 28379], Smith 2012:9 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Enchelycore pardalis (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

latus, Leptocephalus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Kennedy [C. H.] 1902:87, Figs. 6, 6a-b [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 21 (1901); ref. 11071] 55 miles south-southeast of Cape Lookout, North Carolina, U.S.A., 34°15'00"N, 76°11'30"W, Albatross station 2611, depth 0-31 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 49760. Type catalog: Smith 1994:20 [ref. 21917]. See Smith 1989:907 [ref. 13285]. •Probably young of Gymnothorax saxicola Jordan & Davis 1891 -- (Smith 1994:21 [ref. 21917]). Current status: Uncertain as Gymnothorax saxicola Jordan & Davis 1891. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

laysana, Muraena Steindachner [F.] 1900:177 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 37 (no. 16) (for 21 June 1900); ref. 20498] Laysan Island, Leeward Islands, Hawaiian Islands. Lectotype: UMB 151 [RK UMB 4735]. Paralectotypes: [UMB 152-155] UMB 4689-90 (1, 1), 4733-34 (1, 1). Type catalog: Wahlert 1955:323-324 [ref. 21527], Böhlke & Smith 2002:119 [ref. 26380]. Species later illustrated and described in detail in Steindachner 1900:515 Pl. 6 (figs. 1-2) [ref. 14892]; on p. 33 of separate. Lectotype selected by Wahlert 1955:324 [ref. 21527]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax eurostus (Abbott 1860) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:234 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:119 [ref. 26380], Mundy 2005:118 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:86 [ref. 30952], Smith 2012:14 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2018:35 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax eurostus (Abbott 1860). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

lecomtei, Poecilophis Kaup [J. J.] 1856:67 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Gabon. Syntypes: MNHN B-2364 (1), B-2502 (1), B-2503 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:102 [ref. 20810]. Also in Kaup 1856:103 [ref. 2573]. •Synonym of Echidna peli (Kaup 1856) -- (Smith & Böhlke 1990:138 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:6 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna peli (Kaup 1856). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

leecote, Gymnothorax Scott [E. O. G.] 1965:54, Fig. 1 [Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania v. 99; ref. 9253] Off George Rock, north of St. Helen's, Tasmania, Australia, depth 10 fathoms. Holotype (unique): QVM 1964:5:0015 [ex QVM type 123]. Type catalog: Green 1974:3 [ref. 19267], Böhlke & Smith 2002:120 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax prasinus (Richardson 1848) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:131 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:208 [ref. 22532], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:93 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:120 [ref. 26380], Allen et al. 2006:255 [ref. 29005], Smith 2012:25 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax prasinus (Richardson 1848). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

leihala, Echidna Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:428, Fig. 9 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Reef in front of Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50844. Paratypes: CAS-SU 7783 [at one time 23316] (2), ? [ex USFC 2752] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:120 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Echidna polyzona (Richardson 1845) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:219 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:120 [ref. 26380], Mundy 2005:114 [ref. 28379], Smith 2012:6 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna polyzona (Richardson 1845). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

lemayi, Lycodontis Smith [J. L. B.] 1949:108 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 2 (no. 14) (art. 13); ref. 4077] Inhaca Island, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] (lost). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:120 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax flavimarginatus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Castle & McCosker 1986:170 [ref. 5645], Böhlke & Randall 2000:235 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:120 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:15 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax flavimarginatus (Rüppell 1830). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

lentiginosa, Muraena Jenyns [L.] 1842:143 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Santa María Island [Charles Island], Galápagos Islands. Lectotype: BMNH 1917.7.14.13. Paralectotypes: ?BMNH uncat. (1) not found. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:120 [ref. 26380]. Lectotype selected by Böhlke & Smith 2002:120 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Muraena lentiginosa Jenyns 1842 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:48 [ref. 22193], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1312 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:156 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:127 [ref. 24555], Thomson et al. 2000:41 [ref. 25640], Böhlke & Smith 2002:120 [ref. 26380], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Smith 2012:31 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:441 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:606 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Muraena lentiginosa Jenyns 1842. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

leopardina, Muraena Kuhl [H.] in Kaup 1856:61 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:120 [ref. 26380]. Also in Kaup 1856:81 [ref. 2573]. Not available, name in synonymy of Muraena bullata Richardson; from Java. See Böhlke & Smith 2002:120 [ref. 26380]. •Nomen nudum, not available -- (Smith 2012:55 [ref. 32155]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae.

leucacme, Gymnothorax Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:427, Fig. 7 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50682. Paratypes: CAS-SU 23325 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:47 [ref. 12291], Smith 1994:18 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:120-121 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax rueppellii (McClelland 1844) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:121 [ref. 26380], Mundy 2005:123 [ref. 28379], Smith 2012:27 [ref. 32155]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax rueppelliae (McClelland 1844) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:255 [ref. 24493]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax rueppelliae (McClelland 1844). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

leucostictus, Gymnothorax Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:425-426, Fig. 5 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50681. Paratypes: CAS-SU 23289 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:47 [ref. 12291], Smith 1994:18 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:121 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax meleagris (Shaw 1795) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:121 [ref. 26380], Mundy 2005:121 [ref. 28379], Smith 2012:19 [ref. 32155], Kottelat 2013:42 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax meleagris (Shaw 1795). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

leucostigma, Gymnothorax Jordan [D. S.] & Richardson [R. E.] 1909:174, Pl. 68 [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 4 (no. 4); ref. 2493] Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Holotype (unique): FMNH 52124 [ex CM 253]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:54 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:43 [ref. 12367], Böhlke & Smith 2002:121 [ref. 26380], Ho & Shao 2011:21 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Gymnothorax leucostigma Jordan & Richardson 1909 -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:23 [ref. 6441], Chen et al. 1994:51 [ref. 22258], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Zhang et al. 2010:283 [ref. 31511], Huang et al. 2018:[2] [ref. 35898]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax prionodon Ogilby 1895 -- (Böhlke & McCosker 2001:94 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:121 [ref. 26380], Ho & Shao 2011:21 [ref. 31432], Smith 2012:25 [ref. 32155], Ho et al. 2015:7 [ref. 34116]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax prionodon Ogilby 1895. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

leucotaenia, Echidna Schultz [L. P.] 1943:22, Pl. 3 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 180; ref. 3957] Reef of Enderbury Island, Phoenix Islands [central Pacific], 3°08'30"S, 171°05'34"W. Holotype: USNM 115949. Paratypes: MCZ 37302 [ex USNM 115954] (2); USNM 115950-53 (21, 1, 2, 3), 15955-57 (3, 2, 2). Type catalog: Smith 1994:15 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:121 [ref. 26380] •Valid as Echidna leucotaenia Schultz 1943 -- (Castle & McCosker 1986:166 [ref. 5645], Böhlke et al. 1989:130 [ref. 13286], Myers 1999:44 [ref. 23965], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Winterbottom et al. 1989:6 [ref. 13251], Randall & Earle 2000:6 [ref. 25806], Böhlke & Smith 2002:121 [ref. 26380], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S94 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:610 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:68 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:6 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:35 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:75 [ref. 30952] as not Hawaiian Islands, Fricke et al. 2011:349 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:77 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:5 [ref. 32155], Kottelat 2013:41 [ref. 32989], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988]). Current status: Valid as Echidna leucotaenia Schultz 1943. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Aldabra and East Africa; Marshall Islands and Tonga east to Hawaiian Islands and Johnston Island, south to New Caledonia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

leucurus, Uropterygius Snyder [J. O.] 1904:521, Pl. 6 (fig. 12) [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 [1902]; ref. 4149] Auau Channel, between Maui Island and Lanai Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 3874, depth 21-28 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 50871. Type catalog: Smith 1994:25 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:161 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Anarchias leucurus (Snyder 1904) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:117 [ref. 13286], Randall et al. 1990:34 [ref. 15987], Böhlke & Randall 2000:262 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Randall & Earle 2000:6 [ref. 25806], Böhlke & Smith 2002:161 [ref. 26380], Mundy 2005:113 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:245 [ref. 29005], Randall 2007:95 [ref. 30952], Reece et al. 2010:421 [ref. 30969], Smith 2012:34 [ref. 32155], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988]). Current status: Valid as Anarchias leucurus (Snyder 1904). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands, Johnston Atoll, Marquesas Islands and Austral Islands. Habitat: marine.

lichenosa, Aemasia Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:883, Fig. 20 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1239); ref. 2508] Wakanoura, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, Inland Sea, Western North Pacific. Holotype: CAS-SU 6480. Paratypes: USNM 49976 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:46 [ref. 12291], Smith 1994:14 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:121 [ref. 26380]. Types: Shinohara & Williams 2006:548 [ref. 31656]. Galápagos population may be a separate species -- Smith 2012:8 [ref. 32155]. •Valid as Enchelycore lichenosa (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:23 [ref. 6441], Böhlke et al. 1989:135 [ref. 13286], Allen & Robertson 1994:44 [ref. 22193], Chen et al. 1994:47 [ref. 22258], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:159 [ref. 24023], Nakabo 2000:200 [ref. 25086], Böhlke & McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:200 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:121 [ref. 26380], Smith 2002:4 [ref. 26440], Shibukawa et al. 2007:187 [ref. 29475], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Zhang et al. 2010:252 [ref. 31511], Smith 2012:8 [ref. 32155], Ho et al. 2015:153 [ref. 34130], Mohapatra et al. 2017:598 [ref. 35581]). Current status: Valid as Enchelycore lichenosa (Jordan & Snyder 1901). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Pacific and Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

lineata, Muraenophis Lesson [R. P.] 1831:127, Poissons Pl. 11 (fig. 1) [Voyage autour du monde Zool. v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 2776] Kosrae, Caroline Islands, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): MNHN (whereabouts unknown). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:127 [ref. 20810], Böhlke & Smith 2002:122 [ref. 26380]. •Nomen dubium -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:122 [ref. 26380]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

lineopinnis, Muraena Richardson [J.] 1848:89 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Puerto Caballo, South America. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1847.5.14.43. Originally as lineo-pinnis. •Synonym of Gymnothorax funebris Ranzani 1839 -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:176 [ref. 13286], Smith 2012:16 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax funebris Ranzani 1839. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

lita, Muraena Richardson [J.] 1848:84 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1846.2.16.111. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:122 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax pictus (Ahl 1789) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:247 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:122 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:23 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax pictus (Ahl 1789). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

literata, Lycodontis McClelland [J.] 1844:186 (203, 215), Pl. 7 (fig. 2) [Calcutta Journal of Natural History v. 5 (no. 18); ref. 2928] Calcutta market, Bengal, India. No types known. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:122 [ref. 26380]. As Strophidon literata on pp. 203 and 215. •Synonym of Gymnothorax tile (Hamilton 1822) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:122 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:28 [ref. 32155], Kottelat 2013:42 [ref. 32989], Mohapatra et al. 2017:589 [ref. 35418]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax tile (Hamilton 1822). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

longicauda, Muraena Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1877:850 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1876; ref. 3454] South of Leton Rock, Atlantic, 15°40'01"N, 23°05'08"W, depth 38 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZMB 9776. Possible types: ZMB 9776 (1). Apparently longicauda is treated as a noun by Smith 2012:34 [ref. 32155]. •Valid as Anarchias longicaudus (Peters 1877) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:117, 120 [ref. 13286], Reece et al. 2010:421 [ref. 30969], Smith 2012:33 [ref. 32155] as longicauda, Wirtz et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32972] as longicauda, Smith & Brito 2016:1637 [ref. 34557] as longicauda). Current status: Valid as Anarchias longicauda (Peters 1877). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

longicaudata, Lycodontis McClelland [J.] 1844:187 (203, 215), Pl. 8 (fig. 2) [Calcutta Journal of Natural History v. 5 (no. 18); ref. 2928] Bengal, India. No types known. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:122 [ref. 26380]. As Strophidon longicaudata on p. 203 and longicandata [sic] on p. 215. Unneeded replacement name for Muraenophis sathete Hamilton 1822. •Objective synonym of Strophidon sathete (Hamilton 1822) -- (Böhlke 1997:106 [ref. 23177], Böhlke & Smith 2002:122 [ref. 26380], Allen et al. 2006:258 [ref. 29005], Smith 2012:33 [ref. 32155], Kottelat 2013:43 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Strophidon sathete (Hamilton 1822). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

longinaris, Gymnothorax Allen [G. R.], Erdmann [M. V.] & Sianipar [A. B.] 2018:38, Figs. 1-3A, 4-7 [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 24 (no. 2); ref. 36275] Pulau Seraya Besar, northwest Flores, Indonesia, 08°23.255'S, 119°52.485'E, depth 18 meters. Holotype (unique): MZB 24606. •Valid as Gymnothorax longinaris Allen, Erdmann & Sianipar 2018. Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax longinaris Allen, Erdmann & Sianipar 2018. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Northwestern Flores, Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

longinquus, Lycodontis Whitley [G. P.] 1948:73 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 22 (no. 1); ref. 4710] North of Mackay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.6953. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:122 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax longinquus (Whitley 1948) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:129 [ref. 12442], Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692] as longinquis, Böhlke & McCosker 2001:88 [ref. 25226], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Böhlke & Smith 2002:122 [ref. 26380], Allen et al. 2006:251 [ref. 29005], Smith 2012:18 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax longinquus (Whitley 1948). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

longissima, Thyrsoidea Kaup [J. J.] 1856:61 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Mumbai, India. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-2134. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:102 [ref. 20810], Böhlke & Smith 2002:122-123 [ref. 26380] Also in Kaup 1856:82 [ref. 2573]. •Synonym of Thyrsoidea macrura (Bleeker 1854) -- (authors). •Synonym of Strophidon sathete (Hamilton 1822) -- (Böhlke 1995:460 [ref. 21738], Böhlke 1997:106 [ref. 23177], Böhlke & Smith 2002:122 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:33 [ref. 32155], Kottelat 2013:43 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Strophidon sathete (Hamilton 1822). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

macrocephalus, Gymnomuraena Bleeker [P.] 1864:54 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 2; ref. 408] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.335. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:161 [ref. 26380]. More than one species may be involved -- Smith 2012:37 [ref. 32155]. •Valid as Uropterygius macrocephalus (Bleeker 1864) -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:26 [ref. 6441], Allen & Robertson 1994:49 [ref. 22193], Chen et al. 1994:62 [ref. 22258], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1313 [ref. 22830], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:64 [ref. 22017], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:228 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:161 [ref. 24023], Myers 1999:52 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:59 [ref. 24106], Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692], Randall 1999:7 [ref. 25829], Böhlke & Randall 2000:269 [ref. 24493], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Thomson et al. 2000:46 [ref. 25640], Randall & Earle 2000:7 [ref. 25806], Böhlke & Smith 2002:161 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:612 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:68 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], Randall 2005:52 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:126 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:97 [ref. 30952], Loh et al. 2008:140 [ref. 29930], Fricke et al. 2009:18 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:73 [ref. 31256], Zhang et al. 2010:232 [ref. 31511], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:59 [ref. 35264], Fricke et al. 2011:351 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:98 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:37 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Ho et al. 2015:163 [ref. 34130], Fourriére et al. 2016:441 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:606 [ref. 34923], Golani & Fricke 2018:24 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:24 [ref. 36883]). Current status: Valid as Uropterygius macrocephalus (Bleeker 1864). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-Pacific: western Mascarenes; Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) east to Panama and Revillagigedo Archipelago, north to southern Japan and Hawaiian Islands, south to Loyalty Islands (New Caledonia). Habitat: marine.

macrops, Thyrsoidea Kaup [J. J.] 1856:74 [Catalogue of the apodal fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2573] China. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1848.3.10.24. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:127 [ref. 20810], Böhlke & Smith 2002:123 [ref. 26380]. Appeared first without description in Kaup 1856:60 [ref. 2572]. •Nomen dubium -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:123 [ref. 26380]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

macrosiphon, Gymnothorax Bleeker [P.] 1872:154 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 4; ref. 431] China. Based on a painting, no types known. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:123 [ref. 26380]. •Nomen dubium -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:123 [ref. 26380]). •Synonym of Enchelycore pardalis (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Zhang et al. 2010:251 [ref. 31511] with author as Reeves 1933). Current status: Synonym of Enchelycore pardalis (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

macrurus, Muraena Bleeker [P.] 1854:324 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 7 (no. 2); ref. 16935] Freto Sundaico, Anjer, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.212. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:123 [ref. 26380] as macrura. The original spelling was macrurus in two places; perhaps in error for macrura. •Valid as Evenchelys macrurus (Bleeker 1854) -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:22 [ref. 6441], Machida in Okamura et al. 1985:645, 752 [ref. 8056], Nakabo 2000:211 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:211 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:399 [ref. 28370]). •Valid as Thyrsoidea macrurus (Bleeker 1854) -- (Roberts 1978:26 [ref. 8886], Castle & McCosker 1986:174 [ref. 5645] as macrura, Paxton et al. 1989:133 [ref. 12442], Zheng et al. 1989:35 [ref. 21202], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:80 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:11 [ref. 23448], Goren & Dor 1994:7 [ref. 25356] as macura, Larson & Williams 1997:346 [ref. 23967] as macrura, Johnson 1999:722 [ref. 25471] as macrura, Mishra & Krishnan 2003:18 [ref. 27712] as macrura). •Synonym of Strophidon sathete (Hamilton 1822) -- (Randall et al. 1990:42 [ref. 15987], Böhlke 1995:460 [ref. 21738], Böhlke 1997:106 [ref. 23177], Fricke 1999:59 [ref. 24106], Böhlke & Smith 2002:123 [ref. 26380], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:318 [ref. 28867], Allen et al. 2006:258 [ref. 29005], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:59 [ref. 35264], Smith 2012:33 [ref. 32155], Kottelat 2013:43 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2018:40 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Strophidon sathete (Hamilton 1822). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

maculaepinnis, Gymnothorax Bleeker [P.] in Steindachner 1866:473 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 53; ref. 4210] Port Jackson, Macassar, and Hong Kong. Syntypes: (3) missing. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:123-124 [ref. 26380]. •Nomen dubium -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:123 [ref. 26380]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax prasinus (Richardson 1848) -- (Böhlke & McCosker 2001:93 [ref. 25226], Allen et al. 2006:255 [ref. 29005]). •Not treated in Smith 2012 [ref. 32155]. Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax prasinus (Richardson 1848). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

macularia, Muraenophis Lesueur [C. A.] 1825:107, Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 5 (pt 1); ref. 17523] Sandy Cay, near Nassau, Great Bahama Bank, Bahamas, depth 0-20 feet. Neotype: ANSP 106286. Neotype designated by Böhlke et al. 1989:128 [ref. 13286] -- original locality Barbados, neotype also is holotype of Uropterygius diopus Böhlke 1967. •Valid as Uropterygius macularius (Lesueur 1825) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:126 [ref. 13286], Smith 1989:903 [ref. 13285], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:136 [ref. 25013], Collette et al. 2003:99 [ref. 26784], Böhlke & Smith 2003:718 [ref. 26990], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:34 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:9 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], Smith 2012:37 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:24 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:3 [ref. 33516], Smith & Brito 2016:1641 [ref. 34557]). Current status: Valid as Uropterygius macularius (Lesueur 1825). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic and Ascension Islands. Habitat: marine.

maculata, Strophidon McClelland [J.] 1844:203, 215, Pl. 8 (fig. 1) [Calcutta Journal of Natural History v. 5 (no. 18); ref. 2928] Ganges River estuaries near Calcutta, India. No types known. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:123 [ref. 26380]. Unneeded new name for Muraenophis tile Hamilton 1822. •Synonym of Gymnothorax tile (Hamilton 1822) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:123 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:28 [ref. 32155], Kottelat 2013:42 [ref. 32989], Mohapatra et al. 2017:589 [ref. 35418]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax tile (Hamilton 1822). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

maculatus, Muraena serpens Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xix [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Melitta [La Valetta, Malta, Mediterranean Sea]. Not available, name only. •In the synonymy of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758 -- (Fricke 2008:15 [ref. 30182]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

maculipinnis, Thyrsoidea Kaup [J. J.] 1856:83 [Catalogue of the apodal fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2573] Ghana. Holotype (unique): RMNH 3792. Appeared first with minimal description in Kaup 1856:61 [ref. 2572]; perhaps available from ref. 2572. •Synonym of Gymnothorax afer Bloch 1795 -- (Smith & Böhlke 1990:141 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:11 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax afer Bloch 1795. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

maderensis, Pseudomuraena Johnson [J. Y.] 1862:167 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1862 (pt 2) (art. 2) (for 10 June 1862); ref. 2357] Madeira, eastern Atlantic. Syntypes: BMNH 1862.6.14.10 (1). Misspelled madeirensis in literature. •Valid as Gymnothorax maderensis (Johnson 1862) -- (Bauchot in Whitehead et al. 1986:540 [ref. 13676], Böhlke et al. 1989:152 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:141 [ref. 19379], Arruda 1997:55 [ref. 24952], Uiblein et al. 1999:60 [ref. 24045], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:134 [ref. 25013], Böhlke & Smith 2003:716 [ref. 26990], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], Jiménez et al. 2007:103 [ref. 29038], Smith 2012:18 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:24 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:5 [ref. 34324], Smith & Brito 2016:1627 [ref. 34557]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax maderensis (Johnson 1862). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Eastern and western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

makassariensis, Gymnothorax Bleeker [P.] 1863:168 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 1; ref. 17004] Makasar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 3768. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:124 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax pseudothyrsoideus (Bleeker 1853) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:124 [ref. 26380], Zhang et al. 2010:272 [ref. 31511] as macassariensis and author as Günther 1870, Smith 2012:25 [ref. 32155], Kang et al. 2018:300 [ref. 36290]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax pseudothyrsoideus (Bleeker 1853). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

makatei, Uropterygius Gosline [W. A.] 1958:227, Figs. 1f, 2b [Pacific Science v. 12 (no. 3); ref. 12067] West of the phosphate dock, Makatea, northern Tuamoto Archipelago, French Polynesia, South Pacific. Holotype (unique): USNM 175008. Type catalog: Smith 1994:25 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:161 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Uropterygius makatei Gosline 1958 -- (Randall & Golani 1995:874 [ref. 21744], Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692]). •Status uncertain -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:161 [ref. 26380]). •Synonym of Uropterygius macrocephalus (Bleeker 1864) -- (Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:59 [ref. 35264], Smith 2012:37 [ref. 32155], Golani & Fricke 2018:24 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Uropterygius macrocephalus (Bleeker 1864). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Habitat: marine.

maldiviensis, Anarchias Klausewitz [W.] 1964:665, Fig. 1 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 45 (no. 6); ref. 2347] Rasdu Atoll, east of Weligandu Island, Maldives, Indian Ocean. Holotype: SMF 7448. Paratypes: SMF 7449-55 (7). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:161 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Anarchias maldiviensis Klausewitz 1964 -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:117 [ref. 13286]). •Status uncertain, possibly a synonym of Anarchias allardicei Jordan & Starks 1906 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:161 [ref. 26380], Reece et al. 2010:421 [ref. 30969]). •Synonym of Anarchus allardicei Jordan & Starks 1906 -- (Smith 2012:33 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Anarchias allardicei Jordan & Starks 1906. Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Habitat: marine.

mareei, Gymnothorax Poll [M.] 1953:118, Fig. 46 [Résultats Scientifiques. Expédition Océanographique Belge dans les Eaux Côtières Africaines de l'Atlantique Sud (1948-1949). Bruxelles. v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 12713] Atlantic, 8 miles west of Rio Cuanza, 9°20'S, 13°04'E. Holotype: IRSNB 169. Paratypes: (9) IRSNB 170 (15?), MRAC 95462-69 (8). Additional material: (14). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:21 [ref. 20755], Derijst 1991:43 [ref. 21528]. •Valid as Gymnothorax mareei Poll 1953 -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:149 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:142 [ref. 19379], Afonso et al. 1999:69 [ref. 25466], Wirtz et al. 2007:25 [ref. 30263], Smith 2012:19 [ref. 32155], Smith & Brito 2016:1628 [ref. 34557], Brown et al. 2019:185 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax mareei Poll 1953. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal to Namibia, including Annobón Island. Saint Helena record doubtful [ref. 36444]. Habitat: marine.

margaritophorus, Gymnothorax Bleeker [P.] 1864:53 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 2; ref. 408] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.268. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:124 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax margaritophorus Bleeker 1864 -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:23 [ref. 6441], Castle & McCosker 1986:170 [ref. 5645], Allen & Swainston 1988:32 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:130 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:9 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:38 [ref. 15987], Chen et al. 1994:51 [ref. 22258], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:67 [ref. 22017], Allen 1997:52 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:38 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:48 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:49 [ref. 24106], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Nakabo 2000:208 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:7 [ref. 25806], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:208 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:124 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:611 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3316 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:43 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:120 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:251 [ref. 29005], Randall 2007:75 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:16 [ref. 30213], Prokofiev 2010:585 [ref. 31007], Zhang et al. 2010:282 [ref. 31511], Fricke et al. 2011:350 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:87 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:19 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2014:19 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Ho et al. 2015:157 [ref. 34130], Fricke et al. 2018:37 [ref. 35805], Arndt & Fricke 2019:23 [ref. 36883]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax margaritophorus Bleeker 1864. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Johnston Atoll and Line Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, and southern Queensland (Australia) at 23°30'S. Habitat: marine.

marginata, Thyrsoidea Kaup [J. J.] 1859:24, suppl. 4, Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Naturwissenschaften herausgegeben von dem Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein in Hamburg v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 2586] West Africa. Holotype (unique): ZMH 12505. •Synonym of Gymnothorax vicinus (Castelnau 1855) -- (Smith & Böhlke 1990:144 [ref. 19379]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax afer Bloch 1795 -- (Smith & Böhlke 1990:141 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:11 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax afer Bloch 1795. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

marmorata, Gymnomuraena Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1803:648, 649 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] New Britain Island, Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea, western Pacific. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:125 [ref. 20810], Böhlke & Smith 2002:161-162 [ref. 26380] Based on description in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). •Valid as Scuticaria marmorata (Lacepède 1803) -- (Loh et al. 2008:140 [ref. 29930], Kottelat 2013:43 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Uropterygius marmoratus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:26 [ref. 6441], Paxton et al. 1989:133 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:42 [ref. 15987], Anderson et al. 1998:21 [ref. 23611], Allen 1997:54 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:42 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:52 [ref. 23965], Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692], Böhlke & Randall 2000:270 [ref. 24493], Nakabo 2000:197 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:7 [ref. 25806], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:197 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:161 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S94 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:612 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:52 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:127 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:259 [ref. 29005], Randall 2007:97 [ref. 30952], Shao et al. 2008:238 [ref. 29952], Zhang et al. 2010:231 [ref. 31511], Fricke et al. 2011:351 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:99 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:37 [ref. 32155], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Ho et al. 2015:163 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Uropterygius marmoratus (Lacepède 1803). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Christmas Island, north to southern Japan and Hawaiian Islands, south to New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

marmorata, Muraena Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:247 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Waigeo [Waigiou], Indonesia; Rawak Island, Bismarck Archipelago. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:125 [ref. 20810], Böhlke & Smith 2002:124 [ref. 26380]. •Nomen dubium -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:124 [ref. 26380]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

marmoratus, Murenophis Guichenot [A.] 1848:342 [Fauna Chilena.... in Gay.; ref. 1939] Valparaiso, Chile. No types known. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:124 [ref. 26380]. Appeared only in Latin description as Muraenophis .... rufo-marmorato under Murenophis porphyreus. •Nomen dubium -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:124 [ref. 26380]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

marmoreus, Murenophis Valenciennes [A.] 1846:no p., Pl. 10 (fig. 1) [Voyage autour du monde sur la frégate "la Vénus"; ref. 6165] Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-8533. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:101 [ref. 20810], Böhlke & Smith 2002:124 [ref. 26380] Dates to publication in plate; corresponding text published as Valenciennes 1855:347 [ref. 4504]. •Synonym of Muraena lentiginosa Jenyns 1842 -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1975:425 [ref. 9341], Böhlke & Smith 2002:124 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:31 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena lentiginosa Jenyns 1842. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

marquesensis, Gymnothorax Seale [A.] 1906:10, Fig. 1 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 3999] Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands. Holotype: BPBM 2384. Paratypes: (8) ANSP 88191 [ex BPBM 2388] (1), 88192 [ex BPBM 2387] (2); BPBM 2385 (1), 2386 (1, missing); USNM 109375 [ex BPBM 2385-88] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:130 [ref. 13621], Smith 1994:18 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:124-125 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax buroensis (Bleeker 1857) -- (Smith 1994:18 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Randall 2000:229 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:125 [ref. 26380], Randall 2007:85 [ref. 30952], Smith 2012:12 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax buroensis (Bleeker 1857). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

marshallensis, Rabula Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:149, Fig. 31 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Lagoon reef at Ennylabegan Island, Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands, western Pacific. Holotype: USNM 141687. Paratypes: FMNH 62587 [ex USNM 141688] (1); USNM 141688 (orig. 4, now 3), 141689-90 (2, 3). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:74 [ref. 12367], Smith 1994:24 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:125 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax marshallensis (Schultz 1953) -- (Myers 1999:48 [ref. 23965], Böhlke & Randall 1999:553 [ref. 24552], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Böhlke & Smith 2002:125 [ref. 26380], Myers & Donaldson 2003:611 [ref. 27495], Randall 2007:87 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2011:350 [ref. 31242], Smith 2012:19 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax marshallensis (Schultz 1953). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Islands of Micronesia and Melanesia. Habitat: marine.

mauritiana, Muraena Kaup [J. J.] 1856:65 [Catalogue of the apodal fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2573] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Lectotype: MNHN B-2468. Paralectotypes: MNHN A-3738 (1) Réunion. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:100 [ref. 20810], Böhlke & Smith 2002:125 [ref. 26380]. Appeared first without description in Kaup 1856:58 [ref. 2572]. Lectotype selected by Böhlke & Randall 2000:236 [ref. 24493]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax flavimarginatus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Quéro & Saldanha 1995:67 [ref. 22017], Fricke 1999:47 [ref. 24106], Böhlke & Randall 2000:235 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:125 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:15 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax flavimarginatus (Rüppell 1830). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

mccoskeri, Gymnothorax Smith [D. G.] & Böhlke [E. B.] 1997:181, Fig. 5 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 148; ref. 23215] Northwest of Roebuck Bay, Western Australia, 17°47'S, 121°46'E, depth 52-56 meters. Holotype: CSIRO CA 1489. Paratypes: AMS I.34953-002 (1); CSIRO H 3253-05 (1), H 3406-02 (3), H 3552-02 (5), H 4138-02 (2), H 4179-01 (1), H 4180-01 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:125 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax mccoskeri Smith & Böhlke 1997 -- (Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:125 [ref. 26380], Allen et al. 2006:252 [ref. 29005], Smith 2012:19 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax mccoskeri Smith & Böhlke 1997. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

megapterus, Gymnothorax Weber [M.] 1913:57, Pl. 7 (fig. 1) [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Seba, Savu [Sawu] Island, Siboga station 58. Holotype (unique): ZMA 108474. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:8 [ref. 19236], Böhlke & Smith 2002:125 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Pseudechidna brummeri (Bleeker 1858) -- (Böhlke 1995:463 [ref. 21738], Böhlke 1997:103 [ref. 23177], Böhlke & Smith 2002:125 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:32 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudechidna brummeri (Bleeker 1858). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

megaspilus, Gymnothorax Böhlke [E. B.] & Randall [J. E.] 1995:2, Fig. 1 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 472; ref. 21580] Off sw side of Sawda Island, Al Hallaniyaat (Kuria Muria Islands), southern Oman, Arabian Sea, depth 21 meters. Holotype: BPBM 36042. Paratypes: ANSP 127225 (2), BPBM 36321 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:125-126 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax megaspilus Böhlke & Randall 1995 -- (Randall 1995:56 [ref. 22896], Böhlke & Smith 2002:126 [ref. 26380], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Smith 2012:19 [ref. 32155], Eagderi et al. 2019:18 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax megaspilus Böhlke & Randall 1995. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: southern Oman to Persian Gulf. Habitat: marine.

melanosomatus, Gymnothorax Loh [K.-H.], Shao [K.-T.] & Chen [H.-M.] 2011:44, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa No. 3134; ref. 31690] Offshore from Changbin, Taitung, Taiwan, depth 50-100 meters. Holotype: TOU-AE 1991. Paratypes: ASIZP 0072170 (1), 0072171 (1); TOU-AE 0627 (1), 1879 (3), 3774 (1), 3775 (1), 5095 (1). •Valid as Gymnothorax melanosomatus Loh, Shao & Chen 2011 -- (Smith 2012:19 [ref. 32155], Loh et al. 2015:39 [ref. 34118], Ho et al. 2015:7 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:157 [ref. 34130], Mohapatra et al. 2016:595 [ref. 34667], Smith et al. 2018:33 [ref. 36035]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax melanosomatus Loh, Shao & Chen 2011. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

melanospilos, Muraena Bleeker [P.] 1855:279 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 9 (no. 2); ref. 351] Sibogha, western Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.239. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:126 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax melanospilos (Bleeker 1855) -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:24 [ref. 6441] as melanospilus, Paxton et al. 1989:130 [ref. 12442], Allen 1997:54 [ref. 23977] as melanospilus, Nakabo 2000:209 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:209 [ref. 26001], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:11 [ref. 27510], Motomura et al. 2010:72 [ref. 31256]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax isingteena (Richardson 1845) -- (Böhlke & McCosker 2001:98 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:126 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:17 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax isingteena (Richardson 1845). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

melanostigma, Muraena Kuhl [H.] in Kaup 1856:61 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:126 [ref. 26380]. Also appeared as Muraenophis melanostigma in Kaup 1856:81 [ref. 2573]. Not available, name only, published in synonymy of Muraena bullata Richardson. •Name in synonymy of Muraena bullata Richardson, not available -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:126 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:55 [ref. 32155]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae.

melanotis, Limamuraena Kaup [J. J.] 1859:27, Pl. 4 (fig. 3) [Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Naturwissenschaften herausgegeben von dem Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein in Hamburg v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 2586] West Africa. Holotype (unique): ?ZMH H390. Type catalog: Ladiges et al. 1958:160 [ref. 19181], Wilkens & Dohse 1993:404 [ref. 21161]. The size and dentition of the "holotype" do not agree with the description (E. Böhlke, pers. comm., Aug. 1997). •Valid as Muraena melanotis (Kaup 1859) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:195 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:146 [ref. 19379], Afonso et al. 1999:69 [ref. 25466], Feitoza et al. 2003:68 [ref. 26943], Vaske et al. 2005:78 [ref. 36155], Jiménez et al. 2007:103 [ref. 29038], Wirtz et al. 2007:25 [ref. 30263], Smith 2012:32 [ref. 32155], Wirtz et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32972], Smith & Brito 2016:1635 [ref. 34557], Brown et al. 2019:156 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Muraena melanotis (Kaup 1859). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Saint Paul's Rocks; southern central Atlantic: Saint Helena; eastern Atlantic: Mauritania south to Angola, including Cape Verde Islands and islands in Gulf of Guinea. Habitat: marine.

melatremus, Gymnothorax Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:120, Figs. 23d, 25 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Ocean reef at Boby Island, Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): USNM 141610. Type catalog: Smith 1994:18 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:126 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax melatremus Schultz 1953 -- (Castle & McCosker 1986:171 [ref. 5645], Paxton et al. 1989:130 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:9 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:39 [ref. 15987], Chen et al. 1994:51 [ref. 22258], Allen 1997:54 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:39 [ref. 25919], Hatooka et al. 1998:2 [ref. 24389], Myers 1999:48 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:50 [ref. 24106], Böhlke & Randall 1999:553 [ref. 24552], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Randall 1999:7 [ref. 25829], Böhlke & Randall 2000:242 [ref. 24493], Nakabo 2000:202 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:7 [ref. 25806], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:202 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:126 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:611 [ref. 27495], Hatooka 2003:7 [ref. 27558], Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:43 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:120 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:252 [ref. 29005], Randall 2007:89 [ref. 30952], Imamura 2009:19 [ref. 30434], Motomura et al. 2010:72 [ref. 31256], Zhang et al. 2010:258 [ref. 31511], Fricke et al. 2011:350 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:87 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:19 [ref. 32155], Larson et al. 2013:25 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:19 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Ho et al. 2015:158 [ref. 34130], Fricke et al. 2018:38 [ref. 35805], Arndt & Fricke 2019:23 [ref. 36883]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax melatremus Schultz 1953. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Hawaiian Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

meleagris, Muraena Shaw [G.] in Shaw & Nodder 1795:no page number, Pl. 220 [The Naturalist's Miscellany; ref. 4013] "Southern Ocean." Holotype (unique): BMNH 1977.4.22.2. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:126 [ref. 26380]. Sometimes seen with authorship as Shaw & Nodder. See Smith 2012:20 [ref. 32155] for remarks on status. •Valid as Lycodontis meleagris (Shaw 1795) -- (Dor 1984:28 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Gymnothorax meleagris (Shaw 1795) -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:23 [ref. 6441], Castle & McCosker 1986:171 [ref. 5645], Paxton et al. 1989:130 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:39 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:157 [ref. 25479], Chen et al. 1994:51 [ref. 22258], Goren & Dor 1994:7 [ref. 25356], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:67 [ref. 22017], Allen 1997:54 [ref. 23977], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:154 [ref. 24023], Kuiter 1997:28 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:39 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:48 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:50 [ref. 24106], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Johnson 1999:721 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:7 [ref. 25829], Böhlke & Randall 2000:244 [ref. 24493], Nakabo 2000:203 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:111 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:7 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:95 [ref. 25868], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Nakabo 2002:203 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:126 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:611 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:68 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:44 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:121 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:252 [ref. 29005], Randall 2007:90 [ref. 30952], Smith et al. 2008:66 [ref. 29432], Imamura 2009:19 [ref. 30434], Fricke et al. 2009:16 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:72 [ref. 31256], Zhang et al. 2010:263 [ref. 31511], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:58 [ref. 35264] with author as Shaw & Nodder, Fricke et al. 2011:350 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:88 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:19 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2013:251 [ref. 32706], Kottelat 2013:42 [ref. 32989], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Ho et al. 2015:158 [ref. 34130], Fricke et al. 2018:37 [ref. 35805], Arndt & Fricke 2019:23 [ref. 36883], Zajonz et al. 2019:62 [ref. 36871], Sumod et al. 2019:364 [ref. 36895]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax meleagris (Shaw 1795). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands, Pitcairn Group, Galápagos Islands and Cocos Island, north to southern Japan, Ogasawara Islands and Minami Tori Shima, south to New Caledonia, Lord Howe Island and Austral Islands. Habitat: marine.

microdon, Thyrsoidea Kaup [J. J.] 1856:62 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Puducherry, India. Holotype: MNHN B-2469. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:102-103 [ref. 20810], Böhlke & Smith 2002:126-127 [ref. 26380]. Also in Kaup 1856:89, Pl. 13 (fig. 64) [ref. 2573]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax tile (Hamilton 1822) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:126 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:28 [ref. 32155], Kottelat 2013:42 [ref. 32989], Mohapatra et al. 2017:589 [ref. 35418]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax tile (Hamilton 1822). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

micropoecilus, Muraena Bleeker [P.] 1855:459 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 16841] Cocos-Keeling Islands, Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.320 (poor condition). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:127 [ref. 26380]. •Status uncertain -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:127 [ref. 26380]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

micropterus, Muraena Bleeker [P.] 1852:298 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 16825] Wahai, northern Ceram, Indonesia. Lectotype: BMNH 1867.11.28.326. Paralectotypes: RMNH 7217 (1, poor condition). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:162 [ref. 26380]. Lectotype selected by Böhlke & Smith 2002:162 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Uropterygius micropterus (Bleeker 1852) -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:26 [ref. 6441], Castle & McCosker 1986:175 [ref. 5645], Paxton et al. 1989:133 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:42 [ref. 15987], Chen et al. 1994:62 [ref. 22258], Randall & Golani 1995:874 [ref. 21744], Myers 1999:52 [ref. 23965], Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692], Nakabo 2000:197 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Nakabo 2002:197 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:162 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:612 [ref. 27495], Allen et al. 2006:259 [ref. 29005], Loh et al. 2008:140 [ref. 29930], Motomura et al. 2010:74 [ref. 31256], Zhang et al. 2010:232 [ref. 31511], Allen & Erdmann 2012:99 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:37 [ref. 32155], Yoshida et al. 2013:22 [ref. 34464], Ho et al. 2015:163 [ref. 34130], Koeda et al. 2016:9 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:41 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:24 [ref. 36273], Huang et al. 2018:[2] [ref. 35898]). Current status: Valid as Uropterygius micropterus (Bleeker 1852). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar east to Phoenix Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

microspila, Muraena Günther [A.] 1870:109 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Eastern Indian Archipelago. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.238. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:127 [ref. 26380]. Based on Gymnothorax bullatus of Bleeker 1864:91, Pl. 27 [ref. 4860] (not Muraena bullata Richardson 1848) and one specimen. •Synonym of Gymnothorax reevesii (Richadson 1845) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:127 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:26 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax reevesii (Richardson 1845). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

microstictus, Gymnothorax Böhlke [E. B.] 2000:413, Figs. 2H, 3F, 9 [Pacific Science v. 54 (no. 4); ref. 24954] North side of western entrance, Hermit Island, Papua New Guinea. Holotype: USNM 357424. Paratypes: ANSP 141362 (2), 141368 (3), 141379 (1), 141413 (2), 141420-21 (1, 1), 144452 (1), 144454-55 (1, 2), 144775 (2), 144776-78 (4, 2, 17), 164934-35 (1, 9), 177773 (1); BPBM 34165 (1); ROM 53466 (3); USNM 357425-29 (2, 5, 2, 2, 4). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:127 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax microstictus Böhlke 2000 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:127 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Allen et al. 2006:252 [ref. 29005], Allen & Erdmann 2012:88 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:20 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2014:19 [ref. 33932], Ray et al. 2015:143 [ref. 33981], Mohapatra et al. 2018:128 [ref. 35948]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax microstictus Böhlke 2000. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Philippines, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Habitat: marine.

mieroszewskii, Muraena Steindachner [F.] 1896:222 [Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien v. 11; ref. 14618] Japan. Holotype (unique): NMW 61642. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:127 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax mieroszewskii (Steindachner 1896) -- (Nakabo 2000:209 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:209 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:141, 491 [ref. 26218]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax prionodon Ogilby 1895 -- (Böhlke & McCosker 2001:94 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:127 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:25 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax prionodon Ogilby 1895. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

miliaris, Thrysoidea Kaup [J. J.] 1856:63 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Martinique Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2456. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:103 [ref. 20810]. Also in Kaup 1856:90 [ref. 2573]. According to Smith 2012:20 [ref. 32155], Böhlke 1982:40 serves as first reviser selecting miliaris over irregularis and flavopicta; all three described by Kaup in the same publication. •Valid as Muraena miliaris (Kaup 1856) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:54 [ref. 23100], Smith & Böhlke 1990:146 [ref. 19379], Cervigón 1991:44 [ref. 24472]). •Valid as Gymnothorax miliaris (Kaup 1856) -- (Edwards & Glass 1987:624 [ref. 9166], Böhlke et al. 1989:155 [ref. 13286], Smith 1989:906 [ref. 13285], Boschung 1992:32 [ref. 23239], Bauchot et al. 1993:102 [ref. 20810], Santos et al. 1997:121 [ref. 23531], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:134 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:148 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1643 [ref. 25634], Collette et al. 2003:98 [ref. 26784], Feitoza et al. 2003:68 [ref. 26943], Böhlke & Smith 2003:710 [ref. 26990], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:33 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:8 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], Vaske et al. 2005:78 [ref. 36155], Smith 2012:20 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:24 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:3 [ref. 33516], Pinheiro et al. 2015:5 [ref. 34324], Smith & Brito 2016:1629 [ref. 34557], Spier et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36103], Brown et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36444], Sumod et al. 2019:364 [ref. 36895]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax miliaris (Kaup 1856). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Bahamas and Florida (U.S.A.) south to Brazil; central Atlantic: Ascension and Saint Helena islands; eastern Atlantic: Canary and Cape Verde islands. Habitat: marine.

mindanoensis, Gymnothorax Borodin [N. A.] 1930:43, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Bulletin Vanderbilt Marine Museum v. 1 (art. 2); ref. 16069] Mindanao Island, Philippines. Holotype (unique): VMM 655 [not 665] (now AMNH 222125). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:127-128 [ref. 26380] as mindanaoensis. •Synonym of Gymnothorax javanicus (Bleeker 1859) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:240 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:128 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:17 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax javanicus (Bleeker 1859). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

minor, Muraena Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:269, Pl. 115 (fig. 2) [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 3771a. Paralectotypes: RMNH D2025 (1, stuffed), D2026 (1), 3771b (1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:128 [ref. 26380]. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:192 [ref. 12876]. See Smith 2012:20-21 [ref. 32155] for comments on antitropical distribution. •Valid as Gymnothorax minor (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Smith & Böhlke 1997:177 [ref. 23215], Nakabo 2000:205 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Nakabo 2002:205 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:128 [ref. 26380], Shinohara et al. 2005:399 [ref. 28370], Allen et al. 2006:252 [ref. 29005], Prokofiev 2010:585 [ref. 31007], Smith 2012:20 [ref. 32155], Yoshida et al. 2013:20 [ref. 34464], Ho et al. 2015:158 [ref. 34130], Hibino in Kimura et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36460], Li et al. 2018:149 [ref. 35913]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax minor (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Vietnam and China north to southern Japan; northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

mishrai, Gymnothorax Ray [D.], Mohapatra [A.] & Smith [D. G.] 2015:141, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa 4027 (no. 1); ref. 33981] Shankarpur, West Bengal, India, 21°06.55'N, 87°58.68'E. Holotype (unique): MARC/ZSI/F4210. •Valid as Gymnothorax mishrai Ray, Mohapatra & Smith 2015 -- (Mohapatra et al. 2016:591 [ref. 34667], Mohapatra et al. 2018:123 [ref. 35948], Mohapatra et al. 2019:190 [ref. 36929]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax mishrai Ray, Mohapatra & Smith 2015. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Bay of Bengal, India. Habitat: marine.

modesta, Muraena Kaup [J. J.] 1859:21, Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Naturwissenschaften herausgegeben von dem Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein in Hamburg v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 2586] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): ZMH 3772. Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:413 [ref. 21161], Böhlke & Smith 2002:128 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax modesta (Kaup 1859) -- (Pequeño 1989:25 [ref. 14125]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax richardsonii (Bleeker 1852) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:128 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:26 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax richardsonii (Bleeker 1852). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

molendinaris, Muraena Bennett [E. T.] 1833:32 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1833 (pt 1); ref. 16786] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1852.9.13.100 [ex Zool. Soc.]. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:128 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnomuraena zebra (Shaw 1797) -- (Fricke 1999:43 [ref. 24106], Böhlke & Randall 2000:224 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:128 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:10 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnomuraena zebra (Shaw 1797). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

moluccensis, Priodonophis Bleeker [P.] 1864:48 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 2; ref. 408] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.227. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:128 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax moluccensis (Bleeker 1864) -- (Randall & Golani 1995:863 [ref. 21744], Allen 1997:54 [ref. 23977], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Böhlke & Smith 2002:128 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Allen & Erdmann 2012:88 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:21 [ref. 32155], Golani & Fricke 2018:22 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax moluccensis (Bleeker 1864). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Indonesia and Coral Sea. Habitat: marine.

monaca, Muraena Günther [A.] (ex Cocco) 1870:125 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Not available, name attributed to Cocco mentioned in synonymy of Muraena unicolor. •Nomen nudum, nor available -- (Smith 2012:55 [ref. 32155]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae.

monochrous, Muraena Bleeker [P.] 1856:384 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 10; ref. 16853] Ternate, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.244. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:128-129 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax monochrous (Bleeker 1856) -- (Castle & McCosker 1986:171 [ref. 5645], Paxton et al. 1989:130 [ref. 12442], Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:23 [ref. 6441], Goren & Dor 1994:7 [ref. 25356], Myers 1999:48 [ref. 23965], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Böhlke 2000:396 [ref. 24954], Nakabo 2000:206 [ref. 25086], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847] [but later deleted in author's circular of Jan. 2002], Nakabo 2002:206 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:129 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Heemstra et al. 2004:3316 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:44 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:253 [ref. 29005], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:59 [ref. 35264], Fricke et al. 2011:350 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:89 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:21 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2014:19 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2018:38 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax monochrous (Bleeker 1856). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar east to Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, south to Western Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

monostigma, Muraena Regan [C. T.] 1909:438 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 4 (no. 23); ref. 14420] Raiatea, Society Islands. Lectotype: BMNH 1874.11.19.19. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1873.4.3.9 (1) Tahiti, 1877.12.10.10 (1) Tahiti. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:129 [ref. 26380]. Lectotype selected by Böhlke & Smith 2002:129 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax monostigma (Regan 1909) -- (Myers 1999:46 [ref. 23965] as monostigmus, Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Randall & Earle 2000:7 [ref. 25806], Böhlke & Smith 2002:129 [ref. 26380], Myers & Donaldson 2003:611 [ref. 27495] as monostigmus, Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:44 [ref. 28239], Allen & Erdmann 2012:89 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:21 [ref. 32155], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Ho et al. 2015:158 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax monostigma (Regan 1909). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Maldive Islands to Micronesia, Taiwan, Samoa, Marquesas Islands and Society Islands. Habitat: marine.

mordax, Muraena Ayres [W. O.] 1859:30 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 1) v. 2 (1858-1862); ref. 155] Cedros Island, Baja California, Mexico. No types known. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:129 [ref. 26380]. Any types at CAS would have been lost in 1906. •Valid as Gymnothorax mordax (Ayres 1859) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:64 [ref. 9277], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1310 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:227 [ref. 24545], Richards & Engle 2001:181 [ref. 25759], Böhlke 2001:3 [ref. 25774], Böhlke & Smith 2002:129 [ref. 26380], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], Smith 2012:21 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:88 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax mordax (Ayres 1859). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) to Baja California and Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

moringa, Muraena Cuvier [G.] 1829:352 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Antilles. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:125 [ref. 20810]. Available from footnote as, "Aj. la moringue des Antilles. (M. moringa, N.) Catesb., II, xxi." •Valid as Lycodontis moringa (Cuvier 1829) -- (Cervigón 1991:39 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:368 [ref. 23827], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221]). •Valid as Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier 1829) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:53 [ref. 23100], Edwards & Glass 1987:625 [ref. 9166], Böhlke et al. 1989:179 [ref. 13286], Smith 1989:910 [ref. 13285], Smith & Böhlke 1990:142 [ref. 19379], Boschung 1992:32 [ref. 23239], Andreata & Séret 1996:581 [ref. 16204], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:236 [ref. 23897], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:135 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:148 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1643 [ref. 25634], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Collette et al. 2003:98 [ref. 26784], Böhlke & Smith 2003:711 [ref. 26990], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:33 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:9 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], Prokofiev & Kukuev 2009:215 [ref. 30172] as cf. moringa, Smith 2012:21 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:24 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:3 [ref. 33516], Pinheiro et al. 2015:6 [ref. 34324], Smith & Brito 2016:1639 [ref. 34557], Robertson et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34961], Spier et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36103], Brown et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier 1829). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic; southern central Atlantic: Ascension and Saint Helena islands. Habitat: marine.

mosaica, Fimbrinares Whitley [G. P.] 1948:72 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 22 (no. 1); ref. 4710] Point Banks, near Botany Bay, New South Wales, Australia, depth 5 feet. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.3926. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:129 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Enchelycore ramosa (Griffin 1926) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:128 [ref. 12442] as ramosus, Böhlke & McCosker 2001:97 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:129 [ref. 26380], Randall 2005:37 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:246 [ref. 29005], Smith 2012:9 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Enchelycore ramosa (Griffin 1926). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

mucifer, Gymnothorax Snyder [J. O.] 1904:519, Pl. 5 (fig. 9) [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 [1902]; ref. 4149] Honolulu market, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50868. Type catalog: Smith 1994:18 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:130 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax kidako (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:130 [ref. 26380], Randall 2005:43 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:120 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:89 [ref. 30952], Smith 2012:18 [ref. 32155]). •Valid as Gymnothorax mucifer Snyder 1904 -- (Böhlke & Randall 1995:3 [ref. 21580], Huang et al. 2019:153 [ref. 36534]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax mucifer Snyder 1904. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Pacific: Hawaii, New Caladonia, Australia and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

mulleri, Muraena Kaup [J. J.] 1856:69, Pl. 11 (fig. 54) [Catalogue of the apodal fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2573] Malay Archipelago. Holotype (unique): RMNH (whereabouts unknown). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:130 [ref. 26380] as muelleri. Appeared first without description in Kaup 1856:58 [ref. 2572] as Mülleri. Named for Dr. S. Müller but spelled as above; emendation to muelleri is necessary. •Status uncertain -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:130 [ref. 26380]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

multifasciata, Thyrsoidea Kaup [J. J.] 1856:87 [Catalogue of the apodal fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2573] Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 3789. Paralectotypes: RMNH 3788 (1, dry, poor condition). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:130 [ref. 26380]. Also in Kaup 1856:62. Lectotype selected by Böhlke & Smith 2002:130 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax richardsonii (Bleeker 1852) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:130 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:26 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax richardsonii (Bleeker 1852). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

multiocellata, Muraena Poey [F.] 1860:324 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Holotype: unknown; apparently not USNM 24961. Type catalog: Smith 1994:22 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Muraena miliaris (Kaup 1856) -- (Smith & Böhlke 1990:146 [ref. 19379]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax miliaris (Kaup 1856) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:155 [ref. 13286], Smith 2012:20 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax miliaris (Kaup 1856). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

muraena, Gymnothorax Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:525 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] No types known. •Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758 -- (Blache et al. 1973:224 [ref. 7185], Smith & Böhlke 1990:145 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:31 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

muraenoides, Leptocephalus D'Ancona [U.] 1928:79, Pl. 4 (figs. 12-12a) [Memoria, Reale Comitato Talassografico Italiano No. 146; ref. 15917] Assab, Eritrea, Red Sea; Perim Island , Bab el Mandeb, Yemen, Red Sea. Leptocephalus is a catch-all name for larval eels. •Mention -- (Dor 1984:30 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as "Leptocephalus" muraenoides D'Ancona 1928 -- (Goren & Dor 1994:7 [ref. 25356]). •Unidentifiable -- (See Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:59 [ref. 35264]). Current status: Uncertain as Leptocephalus muraenoides D'Ancona 1928. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Red Sea [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

myrialeucostictus, Muraena Fowler [H. W.] 1912:18, Fig. 4 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 64; ref. 1385] St. Martin Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): ANSP 16031. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:130 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Muraena miliaris (Kaup 1856) -- (Smith & Böhlke 1990:147 [ref. 19379]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax miliaris (Kaup 1856) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:155 [ref. 13286], Smith 2012:20 [ref. 32155], Smith 2012:20 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax miliaris (Kaup 1856). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

nagoensis, Uropterygius Hatooka [K.] 1984:20, Figs. 1-4 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 31 (no. 1); ref. 8217] Nago fish market, Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, western North Pacific. Holotype (unique): FAKU 51431. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:162 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Uropterygius nagoensis Hatooka 1984 -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:26 [ref. 6441], Randall & Golani 1995:875 [ref. 21744], Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692], Nakabo 2000:197 [ref. 25086], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847] as cf. nagoensis, Nakabo 2002:197 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:162 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Allen et al. 2006:259 [ref. 29005], Allen & Erdmann 2012:99 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:37 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2014:21 [ref. 33932], Ho et al. 2015:164 [ref. 34130], Golani & Fricke 2018:24 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Uropterygius nagoensis Hatooka 1984. Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Ryukyu Islands; Papua New Guinea east to Society Islands, south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

nasuta, Gymnothorax de Buen [F.] 1961:10, Fig. 3 [Montemar No. 1; ref. 698] Easter Island, southeastern Pacific. Holotype: EBMC 118. Paratypes: EBMC 120-121 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:130 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax nasuta de Buen 1961 -- (Pequeño 1989:25 [ref. 14125], Bussing 1998:444 [ref. 24930], Randall 1999:7 [ref. 25829], Böhlke & Smith 2002:130 [ref. 26380], Randall 2005:45 [ref. 28239], Smith 2012:21 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax nasuta de Buen 1961. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Easter Island and Chile. Habitat: marine.

nebulosa, Muraena Ahl [J. N.] 1789:7, Pl. 1 (right fig.) [Specimen ichthyologicum de Muraena et Ophichtho; ref. 80] In Orientali India [Indonesia]. Holotype (unique): ?ZMUC 345. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:130 [ref. 26380]. Lectotype selected by Fricke 1999:42 [ref. 24106] as the specimen in original figure Pl. 1. Fricke 1999:41 dates to 1801 but that is apparently incorrect as there is a 1789 publication that differs from the 1801 reference. . •Valid as Echidna nebulosa (Ahl 1789) -- (Dor 1984:26 [ref. 29757], Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:25 [ref. 6441], Castle & McCosker 1986:167 [ref. 5645], Hatooka 1986:381 [ref. 22522], Allen & Swainston 1988:32 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:127 [ref. 12442], Böhlke et al. 1989:130 [ref. 13286], Winterbottom et al. 1989:6 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:34 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:157 [ref. 25479], Chen et al. 1994:45 [ref. 22258], Allen & Robertson 1994:43 [ref. 22193], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1307 [ref. 22830], Randall 1995:54 [ref. 22896], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:65 [ref. 22017], Randall & Golani 1995:851 [ref. 21744], Allen 1997:52 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:106 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:32 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:34 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:44 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:41 [ref. 24106], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Böhlke & Randall 2000:217 [ref. 24493], Nakabo 2000:201 [ref. 25086], Böhlke & McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:584 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:110 [ref. 25191], Thomson et al. 2000:46 [ref. 25640], Randall & Earle 2000:6 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:95 [ref. 25868], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Hutchins 2001:16 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:201 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:130 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:22 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S94 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:610 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:6 [ref. 27624], Nelson et al. 2004:60 [ref. 27807], Heemstra et al. 2004:3316 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:102 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:35 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:114 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:245 [ref. 29005], Randall 2007:80 [ref. 30952], Béarez & Séret 2009:145 [ref. 36646], Fricke et al. 2009:14 [ref. 30213], Imamura 2009:17 [ref. 30434], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:70 [ref. 31256], Zhang et al. 2010:245 [ref. 31511], Fricke et al. 2011:349 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:77 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:5 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2013:251 [ref. 32706], Page et al. 2013:60 [ref. 32708], Larson et al. 2013:24 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:17 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:145 [ref. 34104], Ho et al. 2015:152 [ref. 34130], Motomura et al. 2015:14 [ref. 34709], Fourriére et al. 2016:441 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:606 [ref. 34923], Koeda et al. 2016:6 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:2 [ref. 35354], Fricke et al. 2018:33 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:19 [ref. 36273], Huang et al. 2018:[2] [ref. 35898], Arndt & Fricke 2019:23 [ref. 36883], Eagderi et al. 2019:17 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:50 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:61 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Echidna nebulosa (Ahl 1789). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Persian Gulf, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands, Clipperton Island and Panama, north to southern Japan and Johnston Atoll, south to Western Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

nectura, Gymnomuraena Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:356 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 290); ref. 12308] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 15442. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:162 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Uropterygius macrocephalus (Bleeker 1864) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:49 [ref. 22193], Böhlke & Randall 2000:269 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:162 [ref. 26380], Randall 2005:52 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:97 [ref. 30952], Smith 2012:37 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Uropterygius macrocephalus (Bleeker 1864). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Habitat: marine.

neglectus, Gymnothorax Tanaka [S.] 1911:28, Pl. 7 (fig. 24) [Figures and descriptions of the fishes of Japan v. 2; ref. 14881] Keelung, Taihoku, northern Taiwan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 2165. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:130-131 [ref. 26380], Ho & Shao 2011:21 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Gymnothorax neglectus Tanaka 1911 -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:25 [ref. 6441], Machida in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:107, 325 [ref. 8057], Chen et al. 1994:51 [ref. 22258], Nakabo 2000:207 [ref. 25086], Shinohara et al. 2001:292 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:207 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:131 [ref. 26380], Myers & Donaldson 2003:611 [ref. 27495], Shinohara et al. 2005:399 [ref. 28370], Zhang et al. 2010:285 [ref. 31511], Ho & Shao 2011:21 [ref. 31432], Smith 2012:21 [ref. 32155], Ho et al. 2015:7 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:158 [ref. 34130], Huang et al. 2018:[2] [ref. 35898], Sumod et al. 2019:364 [ref. 36895]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax neglectus Tanaka 1911. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Taiwan to Japan. Habitat: marine.

net, Muraena Montrouzier [X.] 1857:488 [210] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:126 [ref. 20810], Böhlke & Smith 2002:131 [ref. 26380] On p. 210 of reprint. •Unidentifiable -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:131 [ref. 26380]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

nevezi, Gymnothorax Roux [C.] in Collignon, Rossignol & Roux 1957:164, Fig. 17 [Office de la recherche scientifique et technique Outre-Mer, Paris; ref. 12111] Points-Noire, southwestern Congo. Syntypes: ORSTOM Pointe Noire or MNHN (1, described specimen). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:125 [ref. 20810] with a holotype. Based on literature and one specimen. •Synonym of Muraena robusta Osório 1911 -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:200 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:147 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:32 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena robusta Osório 1911. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

nigra, Muraena Day [F.] 1871:702 [26] [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1870 (pt 3); ref. 1078] Port Blair, Andaman Islands. Holotype (unique): ZSI 2644. Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:154 [ref. 23762], Böhlke & Smith 2002:131 [ref. 26380]. On p. 26 of separate. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Muraena nigra Risso 1810. •A species of Echidna; not available -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:131 [ref. 26380]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

nigricans, Muraena Bonnaterre [J. P.] (ex Gronow) 1788:34 [Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature... Ichthyologie; ref. 4940] Central America, Caribbean Sea. No types known. Based on 'Muraena unicolor: maxillis elongatis teretiusculis ...' of Gronow 1763:39 [ref. 1910]. •Valid as Enchelycore nigricans (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:55 [ref. 23100], Böhlke et al. 1989:142 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:139 [ref. 19379], Cervigón 1991:34 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:367 [ref. 23827], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:233 [ref. 23897], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:133 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:69 [ref. 25466], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:148 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1643 [ref. 25634], Collette et al. 2003:98 [ref. 26784], Feitoza et al. 2003:68 [ref. 26943], Böhlke & Smith 2003:707 [ref. 26990], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:33 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:8 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:60 [ref. 27807], Prokofiev 2005:704 [ref. 28366], Vaske et al. 2005:78 [ref. 36155], Smith et al. 2008:67 [ref. 29432] with author as Kaup, Wirtz et al. 2007:25 [ref. 30263], Smith 2012:8 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:60 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:23 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:3 [ref. 33516], Pinheiro et al. 2015:5 [ref. 34324], Smith & Brito 2016:1625 [ref. 34557]). Current status: Valid as Enchelycore nigricans (Bonnaterre 1788). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western, central and eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

nigrocastaneus, Gymnothorax Cope [E. D.] 1871:483 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] St. Martin Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): ANSP 16032. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:130 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Enchelycore nigricans (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:143 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:140 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:8 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Enchelycore nigricans (Bonnaterre 1788). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

nigrolineata, Muraena Kaup [J. J.] 1856:66 [Catalogue of the apodal fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2573] Marquesas Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2467. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:100 [ref. 20810], Böhlke & Smith 2002:131 [ref. 26380]. Appeared first without description in Kaup 1856:58 [ref. 2572]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax ruppellii (McClelland 1844) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:131 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:27 [ref. 32155]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax rueppelliae (McClelland 1844) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:255 [ref. 24493]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax rueppelliae (McClelland 1844). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

nigromarginata, Neomuraena Girard [C. F.] 1858:171 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 10; ref. 1813] St. Joseph Island, Texas, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 860 [= USNM 7004]. Type catalog: Smith 1994:22-23 [ref. 21917]. See also Girard 1859:76, Pl. 41 [ref. 13405]. •Valid as Gymnothorax nigromarginatus (Girard 1858) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:53 [ref. 23100], Böhlke et al. 1989:172 [ref. 13286], Smith 1989:907 [ref. 13285], Boschung 1992:32 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:367 [ref. 23827], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:237 [ref. 23897], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:104 [ref. 24550], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:148 [ref. 27754], Camargo & Isaac 2001:139 [ref. 27639] as Gimnothorax, Böhlke & Smith 2003:717 [ref. 26990], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], Smith 2012:22 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax nigromarginatus (Girard 1858). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

niphostigmus, Gymnothorax Chen [H.-M.], Shao [K.-T.] & Chen [C.-T.] 1996:20, Figs. 1-3 [Zoological Studies v. 35 (no. 1); ref. 22011] Hopingtao fish market, 25°11'N, 121°51'E, Keelung, Taiwan, depth 100-150 meters. Holotype: ASIZP 056940. Paratypes: ASIZP 056941 (1); TFRI-TT 063 (1), 071 (1). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:21 [ref. 31432]. See Smith 2012:22 [ref. 32155] for remarks on status. •Valid as Gymnothorax niphostigmus Chen, Shao & Chen 1996 -- (Zhang et al. 2010:284 [ref. 31511], Ho & Shao 2011:21 [ref. 31432], Smith 2012:22 [ref. 32155], Ho et al. 2015:7 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:159 [ref. 34130], Huang et al. 2018:[2] [ref. 35898], Huang et al. 2019:162 [ref. 36534]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax niphostigmus Chen, Shao & Chen 1996. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Vietnam to Taiwan (South China Sea). Habitat: marine.

nirosus, Gymnothorax Tanaka [S.] 1918:51 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 30 (no. 352); ref. 17355] Nagasaki fish market, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 8628 (lost). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:131 [ref. 26380]. Spelling of species apparently intended to be nivosus as later (1931) used by Tanaka, but appeared in the original description as nirosus; continued usage of nirosus is apparently acceptable. •Synonym of Gymnothorax prionodon Ogilby 1895 -- (Böhlke & McCosker 2001:94 [ref. 25226] as nirosus, Böhlke & Smith 2002:131 [ref. 26380] as nirosus, Smith 2012:25 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax prionodon Ogilby 1895. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

nocturnus, Poecilophis Cope [E. D.] 1872:474 [U. S. Geological Survey Territitories Annual Report v. 5 (pt 4); ref. 923] Río Grande at San Jose, Costa Rica. Holotype: ANSP 14926. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:130 [ref. 13621], Böhlke & Smith 2002:131-132 [ref. 26380] Locality questioned, San Jose is too far inland -- Smith 2012:6 [ref. 32155]. •Valid as Echidna nocturna (Cope 1872) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:130 [ref. 13286], Allen & Robertson 1994:43 [ref. 22193], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1307 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:148 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:127 [ref. 24555], Thomson et al. 2000:45 [ref. 25640], Böhlke & Smith 2002:132 [ref. 26380], Nelson et al. 2004:60 [ref. 27807], Béarez & Séret 2009:145 [ref. 36646], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Smith 2012:6 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:60 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:441 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:606 [ref. 34923], González-Murcia et al. 2019:289 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Echidna nocturna (Cope 1872). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

nubila, Muraena Richardson [J.] 1848:81, Pl. 46 (figs. 6-10) [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Norfolk Island. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1972.1.26.159. Additional material (conditionally referred): BMNH 1867.3.4.414 (dried skin) Houtman Abrolhos, 1867.3.7.414 (dry skin) Mauritius. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:132 [ref. 26380]. Fricke 1999:52 [ref. 24106] refers the Mauritius specimen to G. rueppelliae [rueppellii]. •Valid as Gymnothorax nubilus (Richardson 1848) -- (Paulin et al. 1989:68 [ref. 24556], Francis 1993:157 [ref. 25479], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:90 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:132 [ref. 26380], Allen et al. 2006:253 [ref. 29005], Smith 2012:22 [ref. 32155], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:108 [ref. 36167], Stewart & McCosker 2015:231 [ref. 34233]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax nubilus (Richardson 1848). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Norfolk Island, New Zealand, Kermadec Islands. Habitat: marine.

nudivomer, Muraena Günther [A.] in Playfair & Günther 1867:127, Pl. 18 [The fishes of Zanzibar; ref. 3490] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Lectotype: BMNH 1867.3.9.418 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1867.3.9.408 (1, stuffed). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:132 [ref. 26380]. Authors have called the type at the BMNH the holotype, but 2 specimens are mentioned in the original description and use of "typical" specimen is insufficient to establish a holotype. Lectotype established by Günther 1870:104 [ref. 1995] -- see Böhlke & Smith 2002:132 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Lycodontis nudivomer (Günther 1867) -- (Dor 1984:28 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Gymnothorax nudivomer (Günther 1867) -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:24 [ref. 6441], Castle & McCosker 1986:171 [ref. 5645], Paxton et al. 1989:130 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:39 [ref. 15987], Chen et al. 1994:52 [ref. 22258], Goren & Dor 1994:7 [ref. 25356], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:67 [ref. 22017], Randall & Golani 1995:864 [ref. 21744], Randall 1995:57 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:54 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:39 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:48 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:51 [ref. 24106], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Böhlke & Randall 2000:245 [ref. 24493], Nakabo 2000:207 [ref. 25086], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:112 [ref. 25191], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Nakabo 2002:207 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:132 [ref. 26380], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:611 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:45 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:121 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:253 [ref. 29005], Randall 2007:90 [ref. 30952], Smith et al. 2008:66 [ref. 29432], Fricke et al. 2009:17 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:72 [ref. 31256], Zhang et al. 2010:267 [ref. 31511], Fricke et al. 2011:350 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:89 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:22 [ref. 32155], Ho et al. 2015:159 [ref. 34130], Golani & Fricke 2018:22 [ref. 36273], Zajonz et al. 2019:62 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax nudivomer (Günther 1867). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Seychelles and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

nuttingi, Gymnothorax Snyder [J. O.] 1904:518, Pl. 4 (fig. 7) [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 [1902]; ref. 4149] Honolulu market, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50866. Type catalog: Smith 1994:18 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:132 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax nuttingi Snyder 1904 -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:246 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:132 [ref. 26380], Mundy 2005:122 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:91 [ref. 30952], Smith 2012:22 [ref. 32155], Sumod et al. 2019:364 [ref. 36895]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax nuttingi Snyder 1904. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

nycturanus, Enchelycore Smith [D. G.] 2002:2, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa No. 104; ref. 26440] Off Scottsburgh, Hospital Reef, Aliwal Shoal, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, southwesern Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB 46473. Paratypes: SAIAB 65489 (1), USNM 369313 (1). •Valid as Enchelycore nycturanus Smith 2002 -- (Smith & Böhlke 2006:36 [ref. 28678], Smith 2012:8 [ref. 32155], Mohapatra et al. 2017:598 [ref. 35581]). Current status: Valid as Enchelycore nycturanus Smith 2002. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Aliwal Shoal, South Africa. Habitat: marine.

obesus, Uropterygius Whitley [G. P.] 1932:329, Pl. 39 (fig. 1) [Records of the Australian Museum v. 18 (no. 6); ref. 4674] Montague Island, New South Wales, Australia, depth about 70 fathoms. Holotype: AMS IA.3888. Paratypes: AMS IA.2658 (1). Additional material: (plaster casts of holotype) AMS L.1676 (1), T.627(1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:133 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Uropterygius obesus Whitley 1932 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:133 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Gymnothorax obesus (Whitley 1932) -- (Paulin et al. 1989:69 [ref. 24556], Francis 1993:157 [ref. 25479], Gomon et al. 1994:207 [ref. 22532], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:91 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:133 [ref. 26380], Allen et al. 2006:253 [ref. 29005], Smith 2008:159 [ref. 30621], Smith 2012:22 [ref. 32155], Stewart & McCosker 2015:232 [ref. 34233]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax obesus (Whitley 1932). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

obscura, Echidna Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:430, Fig. 11 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50686. Paratypes: CAS-SU 7725 (1, now at USNM), USNM 126011 [ex USBF 1175 and CAS-SU 7725] (2). Type catalog: Smith 1994:15-16 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:133 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Echidna polyzona (Richardson 1845) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:219 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:133 [ref. 26380], Mundy 2005:114 [ref. 28379], Smith 2012:7 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna polyzona (Richardson 1845). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

obscuratus, Gymnothorax Poey [F.] 1870:320 [Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York v. 9 (art. 23); ref. 18563] Havana, Cuba. Holotype (unique): MCZ 27217. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:175 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax vicinus (Castelnau 1855) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:186 [ref. 13286], Smith 2012:29 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax vicinus (Castelnau 1855). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

obscurirostris, Gymnothorax Rendahl [H.] 1921:62 [The Natural History of Juan Fernandez and Easter Island v. 3 (pt 1); ref. 15329] Easter Island, southeastern Pacific. Holotype (unique): NRM 7103. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:133 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax porphyreus (Guichenot 1848) -- (Böhlke & McCosker 2001:92 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:133 [ref. 26380], Dyer & Westneat 2010:596 [ref. 31446], Smith 2012:24 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax porphyreus (Guichenot 1848). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

ocellatus, Gymnothorax Agassiz [L.] in Spix & Agassiz 1831:91, Pl. 50b. [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Major river mouths of equatorial Brazil. Syntypes: MHNN 1193 (1). Type catalog: Kottelat 1984:146 [ref. 21784]. •Valid as Gymnothorax ocellatus Agassiz 1831 -- (Uyeno & Sasaki in Uyeno et al. 1983:103 [ref. 14275], Böhlke et al. 1989:174 [ref. 13286], Smith 1989:907 [ref. 13285], Cervigón 1991:41 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:367 [ref. 23827], Andreata & Séret 1996:581 [ref. 16204], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:104 [ref. 24550], Böhlke & Smith 2003:712 [ref. 26990], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:33 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], Smith 2012:22 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:24 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:6 [ref. 34324], Nión et al. 2016:25 [ref. 35565], Spier et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax ocellatus Agassiz 1831. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.) south to Mar del Plata (Argentina), including Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and Vitoria-Trinidade seamount chain off Brazil. Habitat: marine.

octavianus, Gymnothorax Myers [G. S.] & Wade [C. B.] 1941:89, Pl. 16 [Allan Hancock Pacific Expedition 1932-40, Los Angeles v. 9 (no. 4); ref. 3133] Octavia Bay, Colombia (Pacific). Holotype: USNM 101801. Paratypes: LACM 21701 (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:19 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:133 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Enchelycore octaviana (Myers & Wade 1941) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:135 [ref. 13286], Allen & Robertson 1994:44 [ref. 22193], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1308 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:161 [ref. 24023], Thomson et al. 2000:41 [ref. 25640], Böhlke & Smith 2002:133 [ref. 26380], Nelson et al. 2004:60 [ref. 27807], Prokofiev 2005:704 [ref. 28366], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Smith 2012:8 [ref. 32155]. Page et al. 2013:60 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:441 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:606 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Enchelycore octaviana (Myers & Wade 1941). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

odiosus, Gymnothorax Snyder [J. O.] 1908:94 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 35 (no. 1635); ref. 4150] Kagoshima, Japan. Holotype (unique): USNM 62231. Type catalog: Smith 1994:19 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:133-134 [ref. 26380] •Apparently valid as Gymnothorax odiosus Snyder 1908 -- (Smith 1994:19 [ref. 21917]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax philippinus Jordan & Seale 1907 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:134 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:23 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax philippinus Jordan & Seale 1907. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

odishi, Gymnothorax Mohapatra [A.], Mohanty [S. R.], Smith [D. G.], Mishra [S. S.] & Roy [S.] 2018:124, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa 4420 (no. 1); ref. 35948] Gopalpur beach, Odisha, India. Holotype: ZSI F 12592/2. Paratypes: EBRC/ZSI, ZSI. •Valid as Gymnothorax odishi Mohapatra, Mohanty, Smith, Mishra & Roy 2018 -- (Mohapatra et al. 2019:190 [ref. 36929]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax odishi Mohapatra, Mohanty, Smith, Mishra & Roy 2018. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Bay of Bengal, India. Habitat: marine.

okinawae, Uropterygius Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:886, Fig. 22 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1239); ref. 2508] Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 6482. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:48 [ref. 12291], Böhlke & Smith 2002:162 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Scuticaria okinawae (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Böhlke & McCosker 1997:172 [ref. 23214], Fricke 1999:56 [ref. 24106], Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692], Böhlke & Randall 2000:265 [ref. 24493], Nakabo 2000:198 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:198 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:162 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830] with genus as Scuticara, Randall 2005:50 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:125 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:96 [ref. 30952], Smith 2012:35 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Valid as Scuticaria okinawae (Jordan & Snyder 1901). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Hawaiian and Society Islands, north to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

oligospondylus, Uropterygius Chen [I-S.], Randall [J. E.] & Loh [K.-H.] in Loh, Chen, Randall & Chen 2008:141, Figs. 1H, 2C, 3, 4A, 5 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. No. 19; ref. 29930] Offshore of Changbin, Taitung, southeastern Taiwan, 23.311°N, 121.453°E, depth 15 meters. Holotype: TOU-AE 1862. Paratypes: BMPM 16129 (1), USNM 352431(1). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:22 [ref. 31432] •Valid as Uropterygius oligospondylus Chen, Randall & Loh 2008 -- (Ho & Shao 2011:22 [ref. 31432], Smith 2012:37 [ref. 32155], Ho et al. 2015:7 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:164 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Uropterygius oligospondylus Chen, Randall & Loh 2008. Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Taiwan, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. Habitat: marine.

ophis, Muraena Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xiv [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] [Lohajæ] Al-Luhayya, Yemen, Red Sea; Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:134 [ref. 26380]. Not available, no description. Not an independent species description, but a composite species, misidentified in part as Muraena ophis (non Linnaeus, 1758) -- (Fricke 2008:15 [ref. 30182]). •Name in synonymy, not available -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:134 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:55 [ref. 32155]). •In the synonymy of Echidna nebulosa (Ahl 1789) -- (Dor 1984:27 [ref. 29757], Fricke 2008:15 [ref. 30182], Smith 2012:6 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna nebulosa (Ahl 1789). Muraenidae: Muraeninae.

ophis, Muraena Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1830:116, Pl. 29 (fig. 2) [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 19. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:134 [ref. 26380]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Muraena ophis Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Echidna nebulosa (Ahl 1789) -- (Randall & Golani 1995:851 [ref. 21744], Böhlke & Randall 2000:217 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:134 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:6 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna nebulosa (Ahl 1789). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

ornata, Poecilophis Kaup [J. J.] 1859:28, Pl. 5 [Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Naturwissenschaften herausgegeben von dem Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein in Hamburg v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 2586] East Indies. Holotype (unique): ZMH 12469. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:134 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Echidna xanthospilos (Bleeker 1859) -- (Chen & Böhlke 1996:301 [ref. 22680], Böhlke & Smith 2002:134 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:7 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna xanthospilos (Bleeker 1859). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

panamensis, Muraena Steindachner [F.] 1876:67 [19] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] (Pacific) Panama. Holotype (unique): NMW (not found). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:134 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Rabula panamensis (Steindachner 1876) -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:126 [ref. 24555]). •Valid as Gymnothorax panamensis (Steindachner 1876) -- (Pequeño 1989:25 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:46 [ref. 22193], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1311 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:227 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:154 [ref. 24023], Böhlke 2000:404 [ref. 24954], Thomson et al. 2000:44 [ref. 25640], Böhlke & Smith 2002:134 [ref. 26380], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], Randall 2005:39 [ref. 28239], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Smith 2012:23 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], Ray et al. 2015:143 [ref. 33981], Fourriére et al. 2016:441 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:606 [ref. 34923], Mohapatra et al. 2018:126 [ref. 35948]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax panamensis (Steindachner 1876). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific, including the Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

pantherina, Muraenophis Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:628, 641, 642 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] No locality. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-3141. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:101 [ref. 20810], Böhlke & Smith 2002:134-135 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax pictus (Ahl 1789) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:247 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:134 [ref. 26380], Fricke et al. 2009:17 [ref. 30213], Smith 2012:23 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2018:38 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax pictus (Ahl 1789). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

pantherinus, Ichthyophis Lesson [R. P.] 1831:131, Poissons Pl. 13 [Voyage autour du monde Zool. v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 2776] Kosrae, Caroline Islands, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:125 [ref. 20810], Böhlke & Smith 2002:162-163 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Uropterygius marmoratus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:270 [ref. 24493]). •Status uncertain -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:162 [ref. 26380]). •Questionably in the synonym of Scuticaria marmorata (Lacepède 1803) -- (Kottelat 2013:43 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Uropterygius marmoratus (Lacepède 1803). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Habitat: marine.

pardalis, Muraena Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:268, Pl. 119 [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Nagasaki, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 3742. Paralectotypes: RMNH D2028 (1, stuffed), 3778 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:135 [ref. 26380]. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:191 [ref. 12876], Böhlke & Smith 2002:135 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Muraena pardalis Temminck & Schlegel 1846 -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:22 [ref. 6441], Nakabo 2000:200 [ref. 25086], Shinohara et al. 2000:176 [ref. 25987], Nakabo 2002:200 [ref. 26001], Motomura et al. 2010:73 [ref. 31256], Motomura et al. 2015:14 [ref. 34709]). •Valid as Enchelycore pardalis (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Winterbottom et al. 1989:7 [ref. 13251], Chen et al. 1994:47 [ref. 22258], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:66 [ref. 22017], Randall 1995:54 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:54 [ref. 23977], Fricke 1999:42 [ref. 24106], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Böhlke & Randall 2000:221 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:6 [ref. 25806], Youn 2002:141, 490 [ref. 26218], Böhlke & Smith 2002:135 [ref. 26380], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Randall 2005:37 [ref. 28239], Prokofiev 2005:704 [ref. 28366], Mundy 2005:115 [ref. 28379], Shibukawa et al. 2007:187 [ref. 29475], Randall 2007:82 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:15 [ref. 30213], Zhang et al. 2010:251 [ref. 31511], Fricke et al. 2011:349 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:79 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:9 [ref. 32155], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Ho et al. 2015:153 [ref. 34130], Mohapatra et al. 2017:598 [ref. 35581], Fricke et al. 2018:34 [ref. 35805], Zajonz et al. 2019:61 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Enchelycore pardalis (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Socotra, Aldabra, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands, Line Islands and Marquesas Islands, north to Korea, southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

parini, Gymnothorax Collette [B. B.], Smith [D. G.] & Böhlke [E. B.] 1991:344, Figs. 1-3 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 104 (no. 2); ref. 16729] Walters Shoals, western Indian Ocean, 33°11'54"S, 43°51'42"E, Vityaz station 2751, depth 18 meters. Holotype: USNM 307751. Paratypes: ANSP 163850 (2); AMS I.28155-001 (3); IOM uncat. (3); LACM 44749 (3); USNM 307749-50 (2, 1), 307752 (4). Type catalog: Smith 1994:19-20 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:135 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax parini Collett, Smith & Böhlke 1991 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:135 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:23 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax parini Collette, Smith & Böhlke 1991. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

parvibranchialis, Lycodontis Fowler [H. W.] 1900:494, Pl. 18 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 52; ref. 14727] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): ANSP 16483. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:130 [ref. 13621], Böhlke & Smith 2002:135 [ref. 26380] Spelled parvibranchialis on p. 494; parvibrachialis in figure caption. •Synonym of Gymnothorax eurostus (Abbott 1860) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:234 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:135 [ref. 26380], Mundy 2005:118 [ref. 28379], Smith 2012:14 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax eurostus (Abbott 1860). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

paucivertebralis, Gymnothorax Allen [G. R.], Erdmann [M. V.] & Sianipar [A. B.] 2018:43, Figs. 3B, 9-11 [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 24 (no. 2); ref. 36275] Pulau Seraya Besar, northwest Flores, Indonesia, 08°23.255'S, 119°52.485'E, depth 16 meters. Holotype: MZB 24607. Paratype: WAM. •Valid as Gymnothorax paucivertebralis Allen, Erdmann & Sianipar 2018. Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax paucivertebralis Allen, Erdmann & Sianipar 2018. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Northwestern Flores, Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

paum, Calamaia Russell [P.] 1803:22, Pl. 32 [v. 1-2; ref. 13862] Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:135 [ref. 26380]. Not available from Russell, a native common name -- see Böhlke & Smith 2002:135 [ref. 26380]. •Nomen nudum, not available -- (Smith 2012:55 [ref. 32155]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae.

pavonina, Muraena Richardson [J.] 1845:no page, Pl. 53 (figs. 1-6) [Ichthyology.--Part 2. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur; ref. 20574] No locality [probably Ascension Island]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1985.2.19.4. Available from plate. For locality see Böhlke & McCosker 2001:95 [ref. 25226]. Text in Richardson 1845:110 [ref. 20275]. •Valid as Muraena pavonina Richardson 1845 -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:197 [ref. 13286], Feitoza et al. 2003:68 [ref. 26943], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:33 [ref. 27192], Vaske et al. 2005:78 [ref. 36155], Smith 2012:32 [ref. 32155], Wirtz et al. 2014:3 [ref. 33516], Smith & Brito 2016:1641 [ref. 34557]). Current status: Valid as Muraena pavonina Richardson 1845. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic and eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

peli, Poecilophis Kaup [J. J.] 1856:67 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Ghana. Holotype: RMNH.Pisc. 3786. Also in Kaup 1856:102, Fig. 68 [ref. 2573]. Blache 1867:696 serves as first reviser selecting pele over leucomtei described on the same page in the same publication (Smith 2012:6 [ref. 32155]). •Valid as Echidna peli (Kaup 1856) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:130 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:138 [ref. 19379], Wirtz et al. 2007:4, 24 [ref. 30263], Smith 2012:6 [ref. 32155], Wirtz et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32972], Smith & Brito 2016:1623 [ref. 34557]). Current status: Valid as Echidna peli (Kaup 1856). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

pelonates, Diaphenchelys McCosker [J. E.] & Randall [J. E.] 2007:471, Figs. 1-7 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences v. 58 (no. 22); ref. 29349] Maumere Bay, off Sao Wisata Resort, 8°37'49.15"S, 122°18'45.75"E, Flores, Indonesia, depth 30-32 meters. Holotype: BPBM 32205. Paratypes: BPBM 34128 (1), CAS 214523 [ex BPBM 36688] (1, c&s). Treated as a noun in apposition. •Valid as Diaphenchelys pelonates McCosker & Randall 2007 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:76 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:4 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Valid as Diaphenchelys pelonates McCosker & Randall 2007. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

permistus, Lycodontis Smith [J. L. B.] 1962:433, Pl. 55 (figs. A-B) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 23; ref. 6435] Mahé, Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 94. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] (2) lost. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:135-136 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax permistus (Smith 1962) -- (Castle & McCosker 1986:172 [ref. 5645]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax favagineus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:135 [ref. 26380] with question, Zhang et al. 2010:287 [ref. 31511] with author as Zhang 1989, Smith 2012:15 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2018:35 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax favagineus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

pernotatus, Priodonophis Poey [F.] 2000:800, Pl. 442 (fig. 1) [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1-3; ref. 26366] Not available; not explicitly proposed as new [see Art. 16.1 of the Code]; posthumous publication -- (Smith 2012:55 [ref. 32155]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae.

perustus, Lycodontis Smith [J. L. B.] 1962:437, Pl. 59 (fig. E) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 23; ref. 6435] Pinda Island, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 114. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:136 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax chilospilus Bleeker 1864 -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:231 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:136 [ref. 26380] with question, Randall 2005:40 [ref. 28239], Smith 2012:13 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax chilospilus Bleeker 1864. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

pescadoris, Gymnothorax Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1902:326, Fig. 8 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 25 (no. 1289); ref. 2447] Kotosho, Hokoto[Hokuto, Taipai City] or Pescadores Islands, Taiwan. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 12686 [ex CAS-SU 7131]. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:47 [ref. 12291], Böhlke & Smith 2002:136 [ref. 26380], Ho & Shao 2011:21 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Gymnothorax pescadoris Jordan & Evermann 1902 -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:24 [ref. 6441]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax favagineus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Chen et al. 1994:46, 50 [ref. 22258], Zhang et al. 2010:286 [ref. 31511]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax isingteena (Richardson 1845) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:136 [ref. 26380], Ho & Shao 2011:21 [ref. 31432], Smith 2012:17 [ref. 32155], Ho et al. 2015:7 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:157 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax isingteena (Richardson 1845). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

petelli, Muraena Bleeker [P.] 1856:84 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 11 (no. 1); ref. 16856] Ora Malang, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.282. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:136-137 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Lycodontis rueppelli (McClelland 1844) -- (Dor 1984:29 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax rueppellii (McClelland 1844) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:136 [ref. 26380], Randall 2005:47 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:92 [ref. 30952], Smith 2012:27 [ref. 32155]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax rueppelliae (McClelland 1844) -- (Randall 1995:57 [ref. 22896], Böhlke & Randall 2000:255 [ref. 24493], Mundy 2005:123 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax rueppelliae (McClelland 1844). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

pfeifferi, Muraena Bleeker [P.] 1853:173 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 16912] Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Lectotype: BMNH 1867.11.28.286. Paralectotypes: RMNH 7199 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:137 [ref. 26380]. Also appeared in Bleeker 1853:72 [ref. 339]. Lectotype selected by Böhlke & Randall 2000:248 [ref. 24493]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax pictus (Ahl 1789) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:247 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:137 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:23 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax pictus (Ahl 1789). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

phalarus, Gymnothorax Bussing [W. A.] 1998:439, Figs. 1-4 [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 46 (no. 2); ref. 24930] West side of Isla del Caño off Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica, 8°47'00"N, 84°03'48"W, depth 136-237 meters. Holotype: LACM 47317-1. Paratypes: LACM 32560-13 (1), 47318-1 (2), 47319-1 (1), 47320-1 (5); UCR 427-16 (1), 489-17 (1), 1242-4 (1), 1555-1 (3), 1711-2 (1), 1730-6 (2), 1963-4 (1), 2353-14 (3), 2366-1 (1 or 2), 2372-6 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:137 [ref. 26380], Angulo et al. 2015:375 [ref. 35212].. •Valid as Gymnothorax phalarus Bussing 1998 -- (Böhlke 2001:5 [ref. 25774], Böhlke & Smith 2002:137 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:23 [ref. 32155], Robertson et al. 2017:31 [ref. 35676]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax phalarus Bussing 1998. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Peru. Habitat: marine.

phasmatodes, Lycodontis Smith [J. L. B.] 1962:436, Pl. 53 (figs B, C & I) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 23; ref. 6435] Inhaca Island, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 108. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] (4) not researched. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:137 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax phasmatodes (Smith 1962) -- (Castle & McCosker 1986:172 [ref. 5645], Randall et al. 1994:225 [ref. 21645], Randall 1995:57 [ref. 22896], Böhlke 1997:97 [ref. 23177], Carpenter et al. 1997:107 [ref. 23922], Hatooka et al. 1998:2 [ref. 24387], Fricke 1999:51 [ref. 24106], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Nakabo 2000:211 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:211 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:137 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Loh et al. 2011:51 [ref. 31690], Allen & Erdmann 2012:90 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:23 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2014:19 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:146 [ref. 34104], Loh et al. 2015:39 [ref. 34118], Ho et al. 2015:159 [ref. 34130], Mohapatra et al. 2016:595 [ref. 34667], Mohapatra et al. 2017:285 [ref. 35504], Fricke et al. 2018:38 [ref. 35805], Smith et al. 2018:42 [ref. 36035], Arndt & Fricke 2019:24 [ref. 36883], Eagderi et al. 2019:18 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax phasmatodes (Smith 1962). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa, Persian Gulf, Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Philippines and Papua New Guinea, north to Taiwan, south to northern Great Barrier Reef (Queensland, Australia). Habitat: marine.

philippinus, Gymnothorax Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1907:7, Fig. 2 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 26 (Doc. 606) (for 1906); ref. 2498] Cavite, Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 9215. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:47 [ref. 12291], Böhlke & Smith 2002:137 [ref. 26380]. See Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692] for remarks. •Valid as Gymnothorax philippinus Jordan & Seale 1907 -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:24 [ref. 6441], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Böhlke & Smith 2002:137 [ref. 26380] with some doubt, Allen & Erdmann 2012:90 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:23 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax philippinus Jordan & Seale 1907. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Philippines, Okinawa and Ryukyu Islands. Habitat: marine.

picta, Muraena Ahl [J. N.] 1789:8, Pl. 2 (right fig.) [Specimen ichthyologicum de Muraena et Ophichtho; ref. 80] In Indiæ Orientalis [Indonesia]. No types known. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:138 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Siderea picta (Ahl 1789) -- (Dor 1984:30 [ref. 29757], Castle & McCosker 1986:174 [ref. 5645], Allen & Swainston 1988:32 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:132 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:68 [ref. 24556], Randall et al. 1990:42 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:157 [ref. 25479], Allen & Robertson 1994:49 [ref. 22193], Chen et al. 1994:53 [ref. 22258], Goren & Dor 1994:7 [ref. 25356], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1313 [ref. 22830], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:68 [ref. 22017], Randall & Golani 1995:870 [ref. 21744], Randall 1995:58 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:52 [ref. 23977], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:159 [ref. 24023], Larson & Williams 1997:346 [ref. 23967], Kuiter 1997:32 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:42 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:50 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:58 [ref. 24106], Randall & Earle 2000:7 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:204 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:138 [ref. 26380], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:611 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:68 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:104 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:45 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:91 [ref. 30952], Zhang et al. 2010:248 [ref. 31511]). •Valid as Gymnothorax pictus (Ahl 1789) -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:25 [ref. 6441], Winterbottom et al. 1989:9 [ref. 13251], Böhlke & Randall 2000:247 [ref. 24493], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Nakabo 2000:204 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Mundy 2005:122 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:253 [ref. 29005], Béarez & Séret 2009:146 [ref. 36646], Fricke et al. 2009:17 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:73 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:350 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:90 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:23 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], Fricke et al. 2013:251 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:25 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:19 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:108 [ref. 36167], Ho et al. 2015:159 [ref. 34130], Stewart & McCosker 2015:233 [ref. 34233], Fourriére et al. 2016:441 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:606 [ref. 34923], Koeda et al. 2016:7 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:38 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:22 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:24 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:51 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:62 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax pictus (Ahl 1789). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands, Clipperton Island and Panama, north to southern Japan, south to North West Cape (Western Australia), Queensland (Australia) to 23°30'S, and Kermadec Islands. Habitat: marine.

picturatus, Gymnothorax Poey [F.] 1880:257, Pl. 10 (figs. 1-3) [Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid v. 9 (for 7 July 1880); ref. 6524] Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier 1829) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:180 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:142 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:21 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier 1829). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

pikei, Gymnothorax Seale [A.] 1917:90 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 61 (no. 4); ref. 4001] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MCZ 6145. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:138 [ref. 26380]. Independent of, and preoccupied by Gymnothorax pikei Bliss 1883; Seale was unaware of the descriptions by Bliss; name objectively invalid. •Objective synonym of Gymnothorax pikei Bliss 1883 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:138 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:24 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax pikei Bliss 1883. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

pikei, Gymnothorax Bliss [R.] (ex Steindachner) 1883:59 [Transactions of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius (N. S.) v. 13; ref. 16966] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MCZ 6145. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:138 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax pikei Bliss 1883 -- (Hatooka & Randall 1992:183 [ref. 20258], Fricke 1999:51 [ref. 24106], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Böhlke & Smith 2002:138 [ref. 26380], Böhlke & Smith 2002:138 [ref. 26380], McCosker & Stewart 2006:87 [ref. 28702], Fricke et al. 2009:17 [ref. 30213], Smith 2012:24 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax pikei Bliss 1883. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Réunion and Mauritius (western Mascarenes); Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

pikei, Poecilophis Bliss [R.] (ex Steindachner) 1883:61 [Transactions of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius (N. S.) v. 13; ref. 16966] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MCZ 6149-50 (1, 1); USNM 153564 [ex MCZ 6149] (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:23 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:138 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Echidna polyzona (Richardson 1845) -- (Fricke 1999:42 [ref. 24106], Böhlke & Randall 2000:219 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:138 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:6 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna polyzona (Richardson 1845). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

pindae, Gymnothorax Smith [J. L. B.] 1962:430, Pl. 55 (fig. D) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 23; ref. 6435] Pinda, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 105. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:138 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax pindae Smith 1962 -- (Hatooka 1988:87 [ref. 22494], Paxton et al. 1989:130 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:9 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:34 [ref. 15987], Chen et al. 1994:52 [ref. 22258], Randall & Golani 1995:865 [ref. 21744], Myers 1999:50 [ref. 23965], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Randall 1999:7 [ref. 25829], Böhlke & Randall 2000:249 [ref. 24493], Böhlke 2000:406 [ref. 24954], Nakabo 2000:206 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Nakabo 2002:206 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:138 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:611 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3316 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:46 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:122 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:254 [ref. 29005], Randall 2007:91 [ref. 30952], Zhang et al. 2010:260 [ref. 31511], Fricke et al. 2011:350 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:91 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:24 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2014:19 [ref. 33932], Ray et al. 2015:143 [ref. 33981], Ho et al. 2015:159 [ref. 34130], Fricke et al. 2018:38 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:22 [ref. 36273], Mohapatra et al. 2018:128 [ref. 35948]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax pindae Smith 1962. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Hawaiian Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to Taiwan and Marshall Islands, south to New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

pinta, Muraena Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:345 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 237); ref. 2470] Mazatlán Harbor, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Lectotype: USNM 28177. Paralectotypes: USNM 28197 (1), 28238 (1, lost), 28388 (1, lost), 29359 (1, lost), 29608 (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:22 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:138-139 [ref. 26380]. The basic description was based on one specimen (USNM 28238, now lost) but other specimens were listed by catalog number; all are regarded as syntypes. Lectotype selected by Smith 1994:22 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Muraena lentiginosa Jenyns 1842 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:139 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:31 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena lentiginosa Jenyns 1842. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

pintita, Muraena Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:346 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 237); ref. 2470] Rocks near Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 28311 (lost). Type catalog: Smith 1994:22 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:139 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax dovii (Günther 1870) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:103 [ref. 24550]). •Nomen oblitum -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:139 [ref. 26380]). Current status: Uncertain as Gymnothorax dovii (Günther 1870). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

polygonius, Gymnothorax Poey [F.] 1875:68, Pl. 10 [Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York v. 11 (nos 3-4) (art. 6); ref. 18564] Cuba. Holotype (unique): USNM 9825. Type catalog: Smith 1994:20 [ref. 21917], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35195]. •Valid as Lycodontis polygonius (Poey 1875) -- (Cervigón 1991:40 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:369 [ref. 23827]). •Valid as Gymnothorax polygonius Poey 1875 -- (Bauchot in Whitehead et al. 1986:541 [ref. 13676], Böhlke et al. 1989:184 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:143 [ref. 19379], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:238 [ref. 23897], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:135 [ref. 25013], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1643 [ref. 25634], Böhlke & Smith 2003:717 [ref. 26990], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:33 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], Smith 2012:24 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32972], Pinheiro et al. 2015:6 [ref. 34324], Richardson & Brito 2015:1 [ref. 36244], Smith & Brito 2016:1630 [ref. 34557], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35195]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax polygonius Poey 1875. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic; eastern Atlantic offshore islands, including Ascension Island. Habitat: marine.

polyodon, Strophidon Bleeker [P.] 1864:47 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 2; ref. 408] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH (not found). Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.337 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:139 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Pseudechidna brummeri (Bleeker 1858) -- (Böhlke 1995:463 [ref. 21738], Böhlke 1997:103 [ref. 23177], Böhlke & Smith 2002:139 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:32 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudechidna brummeri (Bleeker 1858). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

polyophthalmus, Muraena Bleeker [P.] 1858:15 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 3 (art. 11); ref. 361] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.332. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:139 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax pictus (Ahl 1789) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:247 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:139 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:23 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax pictus (Ahl 1789). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

polyspila, Gymnomuraena Regan [C. T.] 1909:438 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 4 (no. 23); ref. 14420] Tahiti, Society Islands, French Polynesia, South Pacific. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1909.12.14.23. Additional material: BMNH (1) Zanzibar. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:163 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Uropterygius polyspilus (Regan 1909) -- (Dor 1984:30 [ref. 29757], Winterbottom et al. 1989:11 [ref. 13251], Goren & Dor 1994:7 [ref. 25356], Randall & Golani 1995:876 [ref. 21744], Randall 1995:58 [ref. 22896], Myers 1999:52 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:60 [ref. 24106], Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692], Böhlke & Randall 2000:270 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:163 [ref. 26380], Randall 2005:53 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:127 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:98 [ref. 30952], Allen & Erdmann 2012:100 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:38 [ref. 32155] as polyspina, Golani & Fricke 2018:24 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Uropterygius polyspilus (Regan 1909). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Aldabra and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Hawaiian Islands, Line Islands and Society Islands, north to Philippines, south to Vanuatu. Habitat: marine.

polyspondylus, Gymnothorax Böhlke [E. B.] & Randall [J. E.] 2000:251, Figs. 10-11 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 150; ref. 24493] Northwest of Oahu, 21°41'N, 158°06'W, Hawaiian Islands, depth 180-200 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 24821. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:139 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax polyspondylus Böhlke & Randall 2000 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:139 [ref. 26380], Heemstra 2004:5 [ref. 27849], Mundy 2005:123 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:92 [ref. 30952], Loh et al. 2011:50 [ref. 31690], Smith 2012:24 [ref. 32155], Mohapatra et al. 2016:595 [ref. 34667]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax polyspondylus Böhlke & Randall 2000. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

polystictus, Uropterygius Myers [G. S.] & Wade [C. B.] 1941:85, Pl. 15 [Allan Hancock Pacific Expedition 1932-40, Los Angeles v. 9 (no. 4); ref. 3133] Southern Seymour Island, Galápagos Islands, tide pool. Holotype: LACM 23345 [ex AHF 16]. Paratypes: CAS-SU 36552 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:48 [ref. 12291], Böhlke & Smith 2002:163 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Uropterygius polystictus Myers & Wade 1941 -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1314 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:228 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:162 [ref. 24023], Thomson et al. 2000:46 [ref. 25640], Böhlke & Smith 2002:163 [ref. 26380], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Smith 2012:38 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:441 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:606 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Uropterygius polystictus Myers & Wade 1941. Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

polyuranodon, Muraena Bleeker [P.] 1854:248 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 16901] Ceram, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: ?AMS I.101 (1), BMNH 1867.11.28.242 (1) no locality, RMNH 7198 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:140 [ref. 26380] Also appeared in Bleeker 1853:67 [ref. 339]. •Valid as Gymnothorax polyuranodon (Bleeker 1854) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:131 [ref. 12442], Allen 1991:42 [ref. 21090], Pethiyagoda 1991:49 [ref. 20075], Roberts 1993:14 [ref. 21799], Kottelat et al. 1993:10 [ref. 23448], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:57 [ref. 25191], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Allen et al. 2002:334 [ref. 25930], Böhlke & Smith 2002:140 [ref. 26380], Allen et al. 2006:254 [ref. 29005], Shao et al. 2008:238 [ref. 29952], Zhang et al. 2010:262 [ref. 31511], Fricke et al. 2011:350 [ref. 31242], Smith 2012:24 [ref. 32155] dated 1853, Kottelat 2013:42 [ref. 32989] dated 1853, Fricke et al. 2014:20 [ref. 33932], Ho et al. 2015:159 [ref. 34130], Miesen et al. 2016:81 [ref. 34492], Fricke et al. 2019:51 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax polyuranodon (Bleeker 1854). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Sri Lanka east to Palau and Fiji, north to Philippines and Taiwan, south to northern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

polyzona, Muraena Richardson [J.] 1845:112, Pl. 55 (figs. 11-14) [Ichthyology.--Part 3. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur.; ref. 20575] No locality stated. Lectotype: BMNH 1977.4.22.3. Paralectotypes: (1) ? BMNH 1855.9.19.1292 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:140 [ref. 26380]. Lectotype selected by Böhlke & Randall 2000:220 [ref. 24493]. •Valid as Echidna polyzona (Richardson 1845) -- (Dor 1984:27 [ref. 29757], Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:25 [ref. 6441], Castle & McCosker 1986:167 [ref. 5645], Hatooka 1986:383 [ref. 22522], Allen & Swainston 1988:32 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:127 [ref. 12442], Böhlke et al. 1989:130 [ref. 13286], Winterbottom et al. 1989:6 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:35 [ref. 15987], Chen et al. 1994:47 [ref. 22258], Goren & Dor 1994:7 [ref. 25356], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:66 [ref. 22017], Randall & Golani 1995:851 [ref. 21744], Allen 1997:52 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:35 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:44 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:42 [ref. 24106], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Johnson 1999:721 [ref. 25471], Böhlke & Randall 2000:219 [ref. 24493], Nakabo 2000:201 [ref. 25086], Böhlke & McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:584 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:6 [ref. 25806], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Hutchins 2001:16 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:201 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:140 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:22 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S94 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:610 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:9 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:6 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:102 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:35 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:114 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:246 [ref. 29005], Randall 2007:81 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:15 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:70 [ref. 31256], Zhang et al. 2010:243 [ref. 31511], Fricke et al. 2011:349 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:78 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:6 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2014:17 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Ho et al. 2015:152 [ref. 34130], Fricke et al. 2018:34 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:20 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:23 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:51 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Echidna polyzona (Richardson 1845). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Marshall and Tuamotu islands, north to southern Japan and Taiwan, south to Western Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

porphyreus, Murenophis Guichenot [A.] 1848:342, Pl. 11 (fig. 2) [Fauna Chilena.... in Gay.; ref. 1939] Juan Fernández Islands. Syntypes: not at MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:127 [ref. 20810], Böhlke & Smith 2002:140 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax porphyreus (Guichenot 1848) -- (Pequeño 1989:25 [ref. 14125], Francis 1993:157 [ref. 25479], Francis & Randall 1993:128 [ref. 20996], Pequeño & Sáez 2000:31 [ref. 24590], Pequeño & Lamilla 2000:434 [ref. 24906], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:92 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:140 [ref. 26380], Randall 2005:46 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:254 [ref. 29005], Dyer & Westneat 2010:596 [ref. 31446], Fricke et al. 2011:350 [ref. 31242], Smith 2012:24 [ref. 32155], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:108 [ref. 36167], Stewart & McCosker 2015:234 [ref. 34233]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax porphyreus (Guichenot 1848). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: South Pacific: New Caledonia east to Peru, Chile, Easter Island and Juan Fernández Islands. Habitat: marine.

prasina, Muraena Richardson [J.] 1848:93 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Bondi Bay, Sydney, Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 2008.3.23.2 (mounted and stuffed). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:140 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax prasinus (Richardson 1848) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:131 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:68 [ref. 24556], Paulin & Roberts 1992:119 [ref. 24625], Kuiter 1993:32 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:208 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:30 [ref. 25488], Johnson 1999:721 [ref. 25471], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:93 [ref. 25226], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Böhlke & Smith 2002:140 [ref. 26380], Allen et al. 2006:255 [ref. 29005], Smith 2008:160 [ref. 30621], Smith 2012:25 [ref. 32155], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:108 [ref. 36167], Stewart & McCosker 2015:235 [ref. 34233], Hoschke et al. 2019:153 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax prasinus (Richardson 1848). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: Western Australia; eastern Australia, New Zealand and Kermadec Islands. Habitat: marine.

pratberon, Muraena Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:246, Pl. 52 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Not available, a common name on p. 246 and on Pl. 52 for Muraena variegata (Smith 2012:55 [ref. 32155]). Also published by Richardson 1848:84 [ref. 3740]. •In the synonymy of Gymnothorax pictus (Ahl 1789) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:247 [ref. 24493]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax pictus (Ahl 1789). Muraenidae: Muraeninae.

pratberon, Muraena Richardson [J.] (ex Quoy & Gaimard) 1848:84 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Erub [= Darnley] Island, Australia; Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Syntypes: BMNH (74-in specimen, skin), ? BMNH (57-in specimen); MNHN B-3142 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:140-141 [ref. 26380]. Based on Quoy & Gaimard 1824, Pl. 52 and other material; see Böhlke & Smith 2002:140 [ref. 26380] for status of types. •Nomen oblitum -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:140 [ref. 26380]). •Nomen oblitum in the synonymy of Muraena javanica Bleeker 1859 --- (Smith 2012:55 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Uncertain as Muraena javanicum Bleeker 1859. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

prionodon, Gymnothorax Ogilby [J. D.] 1895:720 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales (Series 2) v. 9 (pt 4) (for 1894); ref. 14552] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.3324. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:141 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax prionodon Ogilby 1895 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:131 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:69 [ref. 24556], Kuiter 1993:33 [ref. 23929], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:94 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:141 [ref. 26380], Allen et al. 2006:255 [ref. 29005], Ho & Shao 2011: 21 [ref. 31432], Smith 2012:25 [ref. 32155], Ho et al. 2015:7 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:160 [ref. 34130], Stewart & McCosker 2015:236 [ref. 34233]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax prionodon Ogilby 1895. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Pacific, antitropical. Habitat: marine.

prismodon, Gymnothorax Böhlke [E. B.] & Randall [J. E.] 2000:253, Figs. 12-14 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 150; ref. 24493] Off Makaha Beach, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands, depth 44 meters. Holotype: BPBM 15508 (461 mm TL). Paratypes: ANSP 176589 (1); BPBM 11856 (1), 11931 (2), 12343 (1), 15502 (1), 19550 (2), 37528 (4), 38408 (2); CAS 207714 (1); USNM 349923 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:141 [ref. 26380]. The caption to Fig. 12 in inaccurate; the specimen shown in Fig. 12 is a paratype and not the holotype. •Valid as Gymnothorax prismodon Böhlke & Randall 2000 -- (Randall & Earle 2000:7 [ref. 25806], Böhlke & Smith 2002:141 [ref. 26380], Mundy 2005:123 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:92 [ref. 30952], Smith 2012:25 [ref. 32155], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax prismodon Böhlke & Randall 2000. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands, Line Islands, Marquesas Islands. Habitat: marine.

prolatus, Gymnothorax Sasaki [K.] & Amaoka [K.] 1991:7, Figs. 1-3 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 38 (no. 1); ref. 19081] Suao fish market, northeastern Taiwan. Holotype (unique): HUMZ 107775. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:141 [ref. 26380], Ho & Shao 2011:22 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Strophidon sathete (Hamilton 1822) -- (Zhang et al. 2010:240 [ref. 31511]). •Valid as Gymnothorax prolatus Sasaki & Amaoka 1991 -- (Böhlke 1997:99 [ref. 23177], Böhlke & Smith 2002:141 [ref. 26380], Heemstra 2004:5 [ref. 27849], Ho & Shao 2011:22 [ref. 31432], Loh et al. 2011:45 [ref. 31690], Smith 2012:25 [ref. 32155], Psomadakis et al. 2015:146 [ref. 34104], Loh et al. 2015:39 [ref. 34118], Ho et al. 2015:7 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:160 [ref. 34130], Mohapatra et al. 2016:595 [ref. 34667], Mohapatra et al. 2017:285 [ref. 35504], Smith et al. 2018:33 [ref. 36035]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax prolatus Sasaki & Amaoka 1991. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

propinqua, Enchelycore Mohapatra [A.], Smith [D. G.], Mohanty [S. R.], Mishra [S. S.] & Tudu [P. C.] 2017:596, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa 4319 (no. 3); ref. 35581] Visakhapatnam fishing harbour (actual trawl site is not known), Andhra Pradesh, India. Holotype (unique): ZSIF 12113/2. •Valid as Enchelycore propinqua Mohapatra, Smith, Mohanty, Mishra & Tudu 2017. Current status: Valid as Enchelycore propinqua Mohapatra, Smith, Mohanty, Mishra & Tudu 2017. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: India. Habitat: marine.

prosopeion, Muraena Bleeker [P.] 1853:300 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 12580] Cauer, Priaman, Sumatra, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 7195 (370 mm TL). Paralectotypes: RMNH 32444 (1). Non-types: BMNH 1867.11.28.288 (1, not found), NMV 46445 (1), RMNH 32445 (7), SMNS 10618 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:141-142 [ref. 26380]. Also appeared in Bleeker 1853:73 [ref. 339]. Lectotype selected by Böhlke 1995:465 [ref. 21738]. •Synonym of Siderea thrysoidea (Richardson 1845) -- (Randall et al. 1990:42 [ref. 15987], Böhlke 1995:463 [ref. 21738]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax thyrsoideus (Richardson 1845) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:142 [ref. 26380], Randall 2005:48 [ref. 28239], Smith 2012:28 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax thyrsoideus (Richardson 1845). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

psalion, Echidna Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:431, Fig. 12 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50685. Type catalog: Smith 1994:16 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Echidna polyzona (Richardson 1845) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:219 [ref. 24493], Mundy 2005:114 [ref. 28379], Smith 2012:7 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna polyzona (Richardson 1845). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

pseudoherrei, Gymnothorax Böhlke [E. B.] 2000:408, Figs. 2F, 3D, 7 [Pacific Science v. 54 (no. 4); ref. 24954] Western side of Solino (Selinog) Island, 8°51'24"N, 123°24'36"E, Zamboanga Del Norte, Mindanao, Philippines, depth 0-4.6 meters. Holotype: USNM 357430. Paratypes: [92 not 101] ANSP (14 lots, 55 spec.), BPBM (3 lots, 5), FMNH (2 lots, 5), CAS (4 lots, 10), HUJ 15110 (2), MCZ 46958 (2), ROM (3 lots, 5), CAS-SU 26801 (1), USNM (3 lots, 7). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:142 [ref. 26380] •Valid as Gymnothorax pseudoherrei Böhlke 2000 -- (Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:142 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Allen et al. 2006:255 [ref. 29005], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:58 [ref. 35264], Allen & Erdmann 2012:91 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:25 [ref. 32155], Ray et al. 2015:143 [ref. 33981], Golani & Fricke 2018:22 [ref. 36273], Mohapatra et al. 2018:128 [ref. 35948], Eagderi et al. 2019:18 [ref. 37020], Zajonz et al. 2019:62 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax pseudoherrei Böhlke 2000. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf and Socotra east to Philippines and Solomon Islands, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

pseudomelanosomatus, Gymnothorax Loh [K.-H.], Shao [K.-T.] & Chen [H.-M.] in Loh et al. 2015:32, Figs. 1-2, 3A [Zootaxa 4060 (no. 1); ref. 34118] From Changbin, Taitung county, Taiwan. Holotype: TOU-AE 5302. Paratype: TOU-AE 5301 (1). •Valid as Gymnothorax pseudomelanosomatus Loh, Shao & Chen 2015 -- (Ho et al. 2015:7 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:160 [ref. 34130], Mohapatra et al. 2016:596 [ref. 34667], Smith et al. 2018:39 [ref. 36035]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax pseudomelanosomatus Loh, Shao & Chen 2015. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

pseudoprolatus, Gymnothorax Smith [D. G.], Hibino [Y.] & Ho [H.-C.] 2018:34, Figs. 1, 2A [Zootaxa 4454 (no. 1); ref. 36035] Dong-gang, southwestern Taiwan. Holotype (unique): FRLM 46721. •Valid as Gymnothorax pseudoprolatus Smith, Hibino & Ho 2018 -- (Ho et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36050]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax pseudoprolatus Smith, Hibino & Ho 2018. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

pseudothyrsoidea, Muraena Bleeker [P.] 1853:778 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 5); ref. 335] Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.246. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:142 [ref. 26380]. Original as pseudothyrsoïdea. •Valid as Gymnothorax pseudothyrsoideus (Bleeker 1853) -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:24 [ref. 6441], Paxton et al. 1989:131 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:40 [ref. 15987], Chen et al. 1994:52 [ref. 22258], Randall 1995:57 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:54 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:40 [ref. 25919], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Johnson 1999:721 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:209 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:32 [ref. 25480], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:209 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:142 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830] as pseudothyrsoidea, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Allen et al. 2006:256 [ref. 29005], Chen et al. 2008:134 [ref. 29929], Imamura 2009:19 [ref. 30434], Zhang et al. 2010:274 [ref. 31511], Fricke et al. 2011:350 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:91 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:25 [ref. 32155], Larson et al. 2013:25 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:21 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:146 [ref. 34104], Ho et al. 2015:160 [ref. 34130], Koeda et al. 2016:7 [ref. 35333], Motomura et al. 2017:29 [ref. 35490], Jawad et al. 2018:94 [ref. 36262], Kang et al. 2018:300 [ref. 36290], Hoschke et al. 2019:153 [ref. 36626], Zajonz et al. 2019:62 [ref. 36871] as cf. pseudothyrsoides). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax pseudothyrsoideus (Bleeker 1853). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Persian Gulf east to Indonesia and Philippines, north to Ryukyu Islands and southern Korea, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia). Habitat: marine.

pseudotile, Gymnothorax Mohapatra [A.], Smith [D. G.], Ray [D.], Mishra [S. S.] & Mohanty [S. R.] 2017:587, Figs. 1-2, 3A, 3C [Zootaxa 4286 (no. 4); ref. 35418] Shankarpur fishing harbour, West Bengal, India, 20°10.770'N, 81°26.047'E. Holotype: ZSI F11603/2. Paratypes: MARC/ZSI. •Valid as Gymnothorax pseudotile Mohapatra, Smith, Ray, Mishra & Mohanty 2017. Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax pseudotile Mohapatra, Smith, Ray, Mishra & Mohanty 2017. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Northern Bay of Bengal, northeast coast of India. Habitat: marine.

puhipape, Muraena Curtiss [A.] 1938:34 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Vaitapiha River, Tautira township, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

punctarenae, Gymnothorax Fowler [H. W.] 1917:3 [Copeia No. 39; ref. 15311] Puntarenas, Costa Rica. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:130-131 [ref. 13621], Böhlke & Smith 2002:142 [ref. 26380] •Nomen dubium -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:142 [ref. 26380]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

punctata, Muraena Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:18 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Rivers of tropical North America [not in rivers]. No types known. Objectively invalid, preoccupied by Muraena punctata Rafinesque 1810. •Synonym of Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier 1829) -- (Smith & Böhlke 1990:142 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:21 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier 1829). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

punctata, Muraena Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:68, Pl. 15 (fig. 2) [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Spelled punctatus on plate. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:44 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758 -- (Blache et al. 1973:224 [ref. 7185], Smith & Böhlke 1990:145 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:31 [ref. 32155], Parenti 2019:103 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

punctata, Murenophis Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:82, Pl. 42 (fig. 3) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype: MNHN B-2411. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:101 [ref. 20810]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Muraena punctata Rafinesque 1810 in Muraena. •Synonym of Muraena retifer Goode & Bean 1882 -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:200 [ref. 13286], Smith 2012:32 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena retifera Goode & Bean 1882. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

punctata, Strophidon McClelland [J.] 1844:187 (203, 215), Pl. 7 (fig. 3) [Calcutta Journal of Natural History v. 5 (no. 18); ref. 2928] Bengal, vicinity of Calcutta, India. Syntypes: SMF 3497 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:142 [ref. 26380]. As Strophidon punctata on pp. 203 and 215, as Lycodontis on p. 187. Original spelling should have been punctatus -- see Böhlke & Smith 2002:142 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Muraenophis tile Hamilton 1822 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:142 [ref. 26380]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax tile (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:42 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax tile (Hamilton 1822). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

punctatofasciatus, Gymnothorax Bleeker [P.] 1863:167 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 1; ref. 17004] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Lectotype: BMNH 1867.11.28.280. Paralectotypes: RMNH 7189 (374-mm spec. of 2). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:142-143 [ref. 26380]. Original as punctato-fasciatus. Lectotype selected by Smith & Böhlke 1997:184 [ref. 23215]. •Valid as Gymnothorax punctatofasciatus Bleeker 1863 -- (Randall & Golani 1995:865 [ref. 21744], Smith & Böhlke 1997:184 [ref. 23215], Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Böhlke & Smith 2002:143 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Randall 2005:46 [ref. 28239], Zhang et al. 2010:271 [ref. 31511] with author as Bleeker 1856, Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:59 [ref. 35264] with author as Bleeker 1856, Allen & Erdmann 2012:92 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:26 [ref. 32155], Ho et al. 2015:162 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax punctatofasciatus Bleeker 1863. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam, China and Taiwan, and to New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

punctatus, Gymnothorax Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:526 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India. Syntypes: ZMB 6141 (1, stuffed), 3989 (1). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:103 [ref. 24282], Böhlke & Smith 2002:143 [ref. 26380] with 6141 as holotype. Bloch and Schneider had a variety a and variety b -- therefore syntypes. See Smith & Böhlke 2006:35 [ref. 28678] for remarks on types. •Valid as Lycodontis punctatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:28 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Gymnothorax punctatus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Goren & Dor 1994:7 [ref. 25356], Randall & Golani 1995:866 [ref. 21744], Mishra et al. 1999:83 [ref. 25315], Böhlke & Smith 2002:143 [ref. 26380], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Smith et al. 2008:67 [ref. 29432], McCosker & Randall 2008:713 [ref. 29941], Smith 2012:26 [ref. 32155], Golani & Fricke 2018:22 [ref. 36273], Sumod et al. 2019:364 [ref. 36895]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax punctatus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

python, Muraena Kaup [J. J.] 1856:68, Pl. 10 (fig. 52) [Catalogue of the apodal fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2573] Africa. Holotype (unique): BMNH 2008.4.21.5. Appeared first without description in Kaup 1856:58 [ref. 2572]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax favagineus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:143 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:15 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax favagineus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

quaesita, Rhinomuraena Garman [S.] 1888:114 [1], Fig. [Bulletin of the Essex Institute v. 20; ref. 1534] Ebon Island, Marshall Islands, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): MCZ 9170. On p. 1 of separate. •Valid as Rhinomuraena quaesita Garman 1888 -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:25 [ref. 6441], Paxton et al. 1989:132 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:41 [ref. 15987], Chen et al. 1994:53 [ref. 22258], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:viii [ref. 21953], Allen 1997:54 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:28 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:41 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:50 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:55 [ref. 24106], Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692], Nakabo 2000:199 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:115 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:95 [ref. 25868], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:199 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:611 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:49 [ref. 28239], Smith & Böhlke 2006:36 [ref. 28678], Allen et al. 2006:257 [ref. 29005], Imamura 2009:21 [ref. 30434], Fricke et al. 2009:17 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:73 [ref. 31256], Zhang et al. 2010:236 [ref. 31511], Fricke et al. 2011:351 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:96 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:33 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2014:21 [ref. 33932], Ho et al. 2015:162 [ref. 34130], Koeda et al. 2016:9 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:40 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Rhinomuraena quaesita Garman 1888. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Mariana Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) to 23°30'S and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

ramosus, Gymnothorax Griffin [L. T.] 1926:539, Pl. 94 [Transactions of the New Zealand Institute v. 56; ref. 15589] Whangaroa and Bay of Islands, North Auckland districts, New Zealand. Holotype: AIM. Paratypes: AIM (1). •Valid as Enchelycore ramosus (Griffin 1926) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:128 [ref. 12442], Böhlke et al. 1989:135 [ref. 13286], Pequeño 1989:24 [ref. 14125], Francis 1993:157 [ref. 25479]). •Valid as Enchelycore ramosa (Griffin 1926) -- (Paulin et al. 1989:68 [ref. 24556], Paulin & Roberts 1992:118 [ref. 24625], Kuiter 1993:33 [ref. 23929], Kuiter 1997:30 [ref. 25488], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:97 [ref. 25226], Smith 2002:4 [ref. 26440], Randall 2005:37 [ref. 28239], Prokofiev 2005:704 [ref. 28366], Smith & Böhlke 2006:36 [ref. 28678], Allen et al. 2006:246 [ref. 29005], Smith 2012:9 [ref. 32155], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:108 [ref. 36167], Stewart & McCosker 2015:228 [ref. 34233], Mohapatra et al. 2017:598 [ref. 35581]). Current status: Valid as Enchelycore ramosa (Griffin 1926). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: South Pacific: eastern Australia east to Easter Island, south to New Zealand. Habitat: marine.

randalli, Gymnothorax Smith [D. G.] & Böhlke [E. B.] 1997:185, Figs. 1, 2, 8 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 148; ref. 23215] Sorongjunkong, Lombok, Indonesia, eastern Indian Ocean (from local fishermen). Holotype: BPBM 30138. Paratypes: ANSP 175205 (1), USNM 343860 (1). Non-type material: HUJ 9410 (1). Type catalog: Golani 2006:21 [ref. 28840] with a paratype as HUJ 9410. •Valid as Gymnothorax randalli Smith & Böhlke 1997 -- (Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:59 [ref. 35264], Allen & Erdmann 2012:92 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:26 [ref. 32155], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:411 [ref. 33460], Golani & Fricke 2018:22 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax randalli Smith & Böhlke 1997. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indian Ocean: Lombok (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

reevesii, Muraena Richardson [J.] 1845:no p., Pl. 49 (fig. 2) [Ichthyology.--Part 2. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur; ref. 20574] China seas. No types known. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:143-144 [ref. 26380]. Available from plate. Text in Richardson 1845:109 [ref. 20275] (not on Pl. 48 as stated in text). Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:208 [ref. 11606]). •Valid as Gymnothorax reevesii (Richardson 1845) -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:24 [ref. 6441], Chen et al. 1994:52 [ref. 22258], Chen et al. 1997:13 [ref. 26476] dated 1846, Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692], Nakabo 2000:210 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:33 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:7 [ref. 25806], Nakabo 2002:210 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:143 [ref. 26380], Randall 2005:47 [ref. 28239], Chen & Loh 2007:79 [ref. 29360], Zhang et al. 2010:281 [ref. 31511] as reevesi, Allen & Erdmann 2012:92 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:26 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2014:20 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Ho et al. 2015:160 [ref. 34130], Hibino in Kimura et al. 2018:19 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax reevesii (Richardson 1845). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia, Vietnam and Papua New Guinea east to Samoa and Marquesas Islands, north to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

reidi, Uropterygius Schultz [L. P.] 1943:32, Pl. 5 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 180; ref. 3957] Reef of Tau Island at Siulagi Point, American Samoa. Holotype: USNM 116077. Paratypes: MCZ 37250 [ex USNM 116078] (1); USNM 116078 (orig. 2, now 1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:25 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:163 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Uropterygius macrocephalus (Bleeker 1864) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:269 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:163 [ref. 26380], Randall 2005:52 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:97 [ref. 30952], Loh et al. 2008:140 [ref. 29930], Smith 2012:37 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Uropterygius macrocephalus (Bleeker 1864). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Habitat: marine.

reticularis, Gymnothorax Bloch [M. E.] 1795:85, Pl. 416 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 9; ref. 464] Coromandel coast, India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 3986. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:103 [ref. 24282], Böhlke & Smith 2002:144 [ref. 26380]. Spelled reticulatus on plate, and in Bloch & Schneider 1801. First reviser Bloch & Schneider 1801 on Art. 24.2.4 of the Code [original author subsequently uses one name as valid]; also Paepke 1999:92 [ref. 24282]. On p. 71 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 12 [ref. 21381]. However, spelling reticularis should be maintained on the basis of Art. 23.9.1 [prevailing usage]. •Valid as Gymnothorax reticularis Bloch 1795 -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:24 [ref. 6441], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:215 [ref. 24016], Chen et al. 1994:52 [ref. 22258], Randall & Golani 1995:867 [ref. 21744], Chen et al. 1997:21 [ref. 26476], Smith & Böhlke 1997:186 [ref. 23215], Fricke 1999:52 [ref. 24106], Böhlke & McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:112 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:33 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:292 [ref. 25995], Böhlke & Smith 2002:144 [ref. 26380], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:18 [ref. 27712], Zhang et al. 2010:268 [ref. 31511], Smith 2012:26 [ref. 32155], Stern & Goren 2013:197 [ref. 32673], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:411 [ref. 33460], Psomadakis et al. 2015:147 [ref. 34104], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[20] 258 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:23 [ref. 36273], Li et al. 2018:149 [ref. 35913]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax reticularis Bloch 1795. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Indonesia and New Guinea, north to Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

reticulata, Thaerodontis McClelland [J.] 1844:188, 203, 216, Pl. 7 (fig. 1) [Calcutta Journal of Natural History v. 5 (no. 18); ref. 2928] Malay Coast. Holotype (unique): SMF (lost). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:144 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax favagineus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:144 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:15 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax favagineus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

reticulatus, Anarchias Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1923:230, Pl. 9 (fig. 3) [Philippine Journal of Science v. 23 (no. 2); ref. 2117] Sitanki, Philippines. Syntypes: BSMP (3) presumed destroyed. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:163 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Uropterygius micropterus (Bleeker 1852) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:163 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:37 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Uropterygius micropterus (Bleeker 1852). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

retifera, Muraena Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1882:435 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 297); ref. 1840] Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 31393. Type catalog: Smith 1994:22 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Muraena retifera Goode & Bean 1882 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:54 [ref. 23100], Böhlke et al. 1989:200 [ref. 13286], Boschung 1992:33 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:241 [ref. 23897], Böhlke & Smith 2003:714 [ref. 26990], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:33 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], Smith 2012:32 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], De Wysiecki et al. 2018:255 [ref. 36455]). Current status: Valid as Muraena retifera Goode & Bean 1882. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: South Carolina (U.S.A.) south to Uruguay. Habitat: marine.

rhinechidna, Enchelynassa Jordan [D. S.] 1927:4 [Journal of the Pan-Pacific Research Institution v. 2 (no. 4) (for Oct.-Dec. 1927); ref. 18346] Not available, a lapsus and not a species name -- (Smith 2012:55 [ref. 32155]). •In the synonymy of Enchelynassa canina (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:222 [ref. 24493]). Current status: Synonym of Enchelynassa canina (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Muraenidae: Muraeninae.

rhodocephalus, Gymnothorax Bleeker [P.] 1864:50 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 2; ref. 408] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.309. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:144 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax formosus Bleeker 1864 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:144 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:16 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax formosus Bleeker 1864. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

rhodochilus, Echidna Bleeker [P.] 1863:247 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 1; ref. 17007] Rotti Island, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.277. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:144-145 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Echidna rhodochilus Bleeker 1863 -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:130 [ref. 13286], Hatooka et al. 1992:2 [ref. 24312], Kottelat et al. 1993:10 [ref. 23448], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Nakabo 2000:202 [ref. 25086], Sakai et al. 2001:85 [ref. 25693], Nakabo 2002:202 [ref. 26001], Smith 2012:7 [ref. 32155], Kottelat 2013:41 [ref. 32989] as rhodochila [not an adjective]). Current status: Valid as Echidna rhodochilus Bleeker 1863. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

richardsonii, Muraena Bleeker [P.] 1852:296 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 16825] Wahai, northern Ceram and Padang, western Sumatra, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 7201. Paralectotypes: RMNH (1). Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.267 (1) Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:145 [ref. 26380]. Lectotype selected by Böhlke & Smith 2002:145 [ref. 26380]. Muraena richardsonii and M. ceramensis were described in the same publication; Günther 1870:118 serves as first reviser selecting richardsonii over ceramensis.3 •Valid as Gymnothorax richardsonii (Bleeker 1852) -- (Castle & McCosker 1986:172 [ref. 5645], Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:25 [ref. 6441] as richardsoni, Hatooka 1986:379 [ref. 22522] as richardsoni, Chen et al. 1994:52 [ref. 22258] as richardsoni, Allen 1997:54 [ref. 23977] as richardsoni, Chen et al. 1997:21 [ref. 26476] as richardsoni, Myers 1999:50 [ref. 23965] as richardsoni, Fricke 1999:52 [ref. 24106], Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692] as richardsoni, Nakabo 2000:206 [ref. 25086] as richardsoni, Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122] as richardsoni, Sadovy & Cornish 2000:34 [ref. 25480] as richardsoni, Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:109 [ref. 27511] as richardsoni, Nakabo 2002:206 [ref. 26001] as richardsoni, Böhlke & Smith 2002:145 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830] as richardsoni, Myers & Donaldson 2003:611 [ref. 27495] as richardsoni, Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:11 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:47 [ref. 28239], Imamura 2009:20 [ref. 30434] as richardsoni, Zhang et al. 2010:275 [ref. 31511] as richardsoni, Fricke et al. 2011:350 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:93 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:26 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2014:20 [ref. 33932], Ho et al. 2015:160 [ref. 34130], Koeda et al. 2016:8 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:39 [ref. 35805], Allen et al. 2018:46 [ref. 36275], Fricke et al. 2019:52 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:62 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax richardsonii (Bleeker 1852). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Society Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands and Ogasawara Islands, south to New Caledonia and Cook Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

robinsi, Gymnothorax Böhlke [E. B.] 1997:648, Figs. 1-3 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 60 (no. 3); ref. 22972] Kai Island, off northwestern corner of Tajandoe Island, Indonesia, 5°31'24"S, 132°17'48"E, depth 3-6 meters. Holotype: ANSP 144431. Paratypes: ANSP 138726-29 (1, 2, 1, 1), 144432-33 (1, 1), 164936 (1), 173507 (1); BPBM 32868 (3); CAS 82351 (2); ROM 42849-53 (1, 2, 7, 5, 1); USNM 337541 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:145 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax robinsi Böhlke 1997 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:145 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Allen et al. 2006:256 [ref. 29005], Allen & Erdmann 2012:93 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:27 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2014:20 [ref. 33932], Allen et al. 2018:46 [ref. 36275]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax robinsi Böhlke 1997. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Seychelles, Maldives; Indonesia, Philippines and Papua New Guinea to Fiji. Habitat: marine.

robusta, Muraena Osório [B.] 1911:75, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Memorias do Museu Bocage, Lisboa v. 2; ref. 13025] Ilha de Santo Antão, Cape Verde Islands. Holotype (unique): MB (destroyed in 1978 fire). •Valid as Muraena robusta Osório 1911 -- (Böhlke & Ross 1981:123 [ref. 14570], Böhlke et al. 1989:203 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:147 [ref. 19379], Garzón-Ferreira & Acero P. 1990:140 [ref. 19560], Cervigón 1992:369 [ref. 23827], Afonso et al. 1999:69 [ref. 25466], Böhlke & Smith 2003:718 [ref. 26990], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], Jiménez et al. 2007:103 [ref. 29038], Wirtz et al. 2007:25 [ref. 30263], Smith 2012:32 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32972], Smith & Brito 2016:1636 [ref. 34557]). Current status: Valid as Muraena robusta Osório 1911. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western and eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

romana, Muraena Shaw [G.] 1803:26 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758 -- (Blache et al. 1973:224 [ref. 7185], Smith 2012:31 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

rosaliae, Ahynnodontophis Howell Rivero [L.] 1932:19 [Proceedings of the New England Zoölogical Club v. 13; ref. 3765] Deep water off Cojimar, near Havana, Cuba. Holotype (unique): MCZ 32785. •Synonym of Gymnothorax maderensis (Johnson 1862) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:152 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:141 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:19 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax maderensis (Johnson 1862). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

rostratus, Gymnothorax Agassiz [L.] in Spix & Agassiz 1831:91, Pl. 50a [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Major river mouths of Brazil. No types known. •Synonym of Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier 1829) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:179 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:142 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:21 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier 1829). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

rotchii, Rabula Clark [H. W.] 1936:384 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 21 (no. 29); ref. 839] Tidepools, Black Beach Anchorage, Santa María Island [Charles Island], Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): CAS 4964. •Synonym of Echidna nocturna (Cope 1872) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1975:424 [ref. 9341], Smith & Böhlke 2006:36 [ref. 28678], Smith 2012:6 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna nocturna (Cope 1872). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

rueppelliae, Dalophis McClelland [J.] 1844:213 [Calcutta Journal of Natural History v. 5 (no. 18); ref. 2928] Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 151. Paralectotypes: SMF 7346 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:145 [ref. 26380]. The spelling rueppelliae apparently is acceptable; early workers almost certainly Latinized the name first (Art. 31.1.1) [WNE, 12 Mar. 2012] -- we suggest using rueppelliae (not following Böhlke & Smith 2002:145 [ref. 26380]), see also Kullander 2016:94-95 [ref. 34436]. Lectotype established by Böhlke 1982:44 [ref. 26388], and by Randall & Golani 1995:868 [ref. 21744]. •Valid as Lycodontis rueppelliae (McClelland 1844) -- (Dor 1984:29 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Gymnothorax ruppelliae (McClelland 1844) -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:23 [ref. 6441], Castle & McCosker 1986:173 [ref. 5645], Paxton et al. 1989:131 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:9 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:40 [ref. 15987] as ruppelliae, Chen et al. 1994:53 [ref. 22258], Goren & Dor 1994:7 [ref. 25356], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:67 [ref. 22017], Randall & Golani 1995:867 [ref. 21744], Allen 1997:54 [ref. 23977], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:155 [ref. 24023] [but see McCosker 1998:810 [ref. 24025]], Randall et al. 1997:40 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:50 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:52 [ref. 24106], Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692], Böhlke & Randall 2000:255 [ref. 24493], Nakabo 2000:205 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:7 [ref. 25806], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:205 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:611 [ref. 27495], Hatooka 2003:7 [ref. 27558], Lobel & Lobel 2004:68 [ref. 27576] as ruppelliae, Mundy 2005:123 [ref. 28379], Zhang et al. 2010:270 [ref. 31511] as rueppelliae). •Valid as Gymnothorax rueppellii (McClelland 1844) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:145 [ref. 26380], Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:40 [ref. 28239], Randall 2005:47 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:256 [ref. 29005], Randall 2007:92 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:17 [ref. 30213], Imamura 2009:20 [ref. 30434], Fricke et al. 2011:351 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:93 [ref. 31980] as ruppelii, Smith 2012:27 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2013:251 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:20 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Ho et al. 2015:161 [ref. 34130], Fricke et al. 2018:39 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:23 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:24 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:52 [ref. 36673] as rueppellii). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax rueppelliae (McClelland 1844). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Western Australia and Loyalty Islands (New Caledonia). Habitat: marine.

ryukyuensis, Gymnothorax Hatooka [K.] 2003:2, Figs. 1-2, 4 [Bulletin of the Osaka Museum of Natural History No. 57; ref. 27558] Umino Fisheries Port, Chinen, Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands. Holotype: FAKU 51606. Paratypes: FAKU 41167 (1), 51436 (1), 100235 (1); KPM-NI 008732 (1); OMNH-P 11548 [ex SMBL-F 73344] (1), OMNH-P 17950 [ex FAKU 51437] (1). •Valid as Gymnothorax ryukyuensis Hatooka 2003 -- (Smith 2012:27 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax ryukyuensis Hatooka 2003. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Ryukyu Islands. Habitat: marine.

sagenodeta, Muraena Richardson [J.] 1848:81 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 2008.4.9.1 (stuffed) Janvier coll. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:146 [ref. 26380]. Misspelled sagenedota by Kaup 1856:59 [ref. 2573]. •Valid as Gymnothorax sagenodeta (Richardson 1848) -- (Fricke 1999:53 [ref. 24106]). •Nomen dubium -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:146 [ref. 26380]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: Mauritius (Mascarenes endemic). Habitat: marine.

sagmacephalus, Gymnothorax Böhlke [E. B.] 1997:100, Figs. 12-14 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 147; ref. 23177] Yokohama Aquarium, Tokyo Bay, Japan. Holotype (unique): USNM 149777. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:146 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax sagmacephalus Böhlke 1997 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:146 [ref. 26380], Loh et al. 2011:51 [ref. 31690], Smith 2012:27 [ref. 32155], Loh et al. 2015:39 [ref. 34118], Ho et al. 2015:161 [ref. 34130], Mohapatra et al. 2016:596 [ref. 34667], Mohapatra et al. 2017:285 [ref. 35504]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax sagmacephalus Böhlke 1997. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

samalensis, Gymnothorax Seale [A.] 1910:492 [The Philippine Journal of Science Section A v. 4 (no. 6) (for 1909); ref. 4000] Samal Island, Davao Gulf, Mindanao Island, Philippines. Holotype (unique): BSMP 3781 (apparently lost). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:146 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax chilospilus Bleeker 1864 -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:231 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:146 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:13 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax chilospilus Bleeker 1864. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

sanctaehelenae, Muraena Günther [A.] 1870:115 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Saint Helena Island, southern central Atlantic. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1868.3.11.3. Originally as sanctae helenae. •Synonym of Lycodontis anatinus (Lowe 1841) -- (Blache et al. 1973:225 [ref. 7185]). •Synonym of Enchelycore anatina (Lowe 1838) -- (Edwards & Glass 1987:624 [ref. 9166], Böhlke et al. 1989:136 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:139 [ref. 19379], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:132 [ref. 25013], Smith 2012:7-8 [ref. 32155] but possibly valid, Brown et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36444] but possibly valid). Current status: Synonym of Enchelycore anatina (Lowe 1838). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Southern central Atlantic: Saint Helena (if valid). Habitat: marine.

sathete, Muraenophis Hamilton [F.] 1822:17, 363 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Ganges estuaries near Calcutta, India. No types known. •Valid as Lycodontis sathete (Hamilton 1822) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:79 [ref. 20764]). •Valid as Strophidon sathete (Hamilton 1822) -- (Randall et al. 1990:42 [ref. 15987], Chen et al. 1994:54 [ref. 22258], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:viii [ref. 21953], Böhlke 1995:460 [ref. 21738], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:68 [ref. 22017], Randall & Golani 1995:871 [ref. 21744], Böhlke 1997:106 [ref. 23177], Chen et al. 1997:20 [ref. 26476], Randall et al. 1997:42 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:51 [ref. 23965], Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692], Johnson 1999:722 [ref. 25471], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:611 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:12 [ref. 27510], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:106 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:50 [ref. 28239], Smith & Böhlke 2006:36 [ref. 28678], Allen et al. 2006:258 [ref. 29005], Fricke et al. 2009:17 [ref. 30213], Zhang et al. 2010:239 [ref. 31511], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:59 [ref. 35264], Fricke et al. 2011:351 [ref. 31242], Loh et al. 2011:50 [ref. 31690], Allen & Erdmann 2012:97 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:33 [ref. 32155], Larson et al. 2013:26 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:43 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:21 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:147 [ref. 34104], Ho et al. 2015:163 [ref. 34130], Miesen et al. 2016:81 [ref. 34492], Hibino et al. 2017:[5] [ref. 35174], Motomura et al. 2017:30 [ref. 35490], Mohapatra et al. 2017:285 [ref. 35504], Fricke et al. 2018:40 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:23 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:24 [ref. 36883], Eagderi et al. 2019:18 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Valid as Strophidon sathete (Hamilton 1822). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Persian Gulf, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Mariana Islands and Society Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

sauvagei, Echidna Fowler [H. W.] 1912:30, Fig. 8 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 64; ref. 1385] No locality [probably Hawaiian Islands]. Holotype: ANSP 38161 [not 38164]. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:131 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Echidna polyzona (Richardson 1845) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:219 [ref. 24493], Mundy 2005:114 [ref. 28379], Smith & Böhlke 2006:36 [ref. 28678], Smith 2012:7 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna polyzona (Richardson 1845). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

saxicola, Gymnothorax ocellatus var. Jordan [D. S.] & Davis [B. M.] 1891:606 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 16 (for 1888) (art. 9); ref. 2437] Cedar Keys, Florida, Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 34280. Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 1658 (1); USNM 5997 (3), 30779 (1), 32802 (1), 152255 [ex USNM 34280] (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:47 [ref. 12291], Smith 1994:18-19 [ref. 21917]. See Böhlke et al. 1989:167 [ref. 13286] and Smith 1994:19 [ref. 21917] for nomenclatural discussion of types. Lectotype selected by Smith 1994:19 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Gymnothorax saxicola Jordan & Davis 1891 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:53 [ref. 23100], Böhlke et al. 1989:167 [ref. 13286], Smith 1989:907 [ref. 13285], Boschung 1992:33 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:239 [ref. 23897], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:136 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:148 [ref. 27754], Böhlke & Smith 2003:717 [ref. 26990], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], Smith 2012:27 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax saxicola Jordan & Davis 1891. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

scabra, Echidna Garman [S.] 1899:314 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Cocos Island, eastern Pacific. Holotype (unique): MCZ 28451. •Synonym of Echidna nocturna (Cope 1872) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1975:424 [ref. 9341], Smith & Böhlke 2006:36 [ref. 28678], Smith 2012:6 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna nocturna (Cope 1872). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

schismatorhynchus, Muraena Bleeker [P.] 1853:301 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 12580] [Benculen] Bengkulu, Sumatra, Indonesia, eastern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.248. Also appeared in Bleeker 1853:71 [ref. 339]. •Valid as Enchelycore schismatorhynchus (Bleeker 1853) -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:23 [ref. 6441], Böhlke et al. 1989:135 [ref. 13286], Winterbottom et al. 1989:7 [ref. 13251], Chen et al. 1994:48 [ref. 22258], Allen 1997:54 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:46 [ref. 23965], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Nakabo 2000:200 [ref. 25086], Böhlke & McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:31 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:6 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:16 [ref. 25847] [but later deleted in author's circular of Jan. 2002], Nakabo 2002:200 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:22 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:610 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:6 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:37 [ref. 28239], Prokofiev 2005:704 [ref. 28366], Smith & Böhlke 2006:37 [ref. 28678], Shibukawa et al. 2007:187 [ref. 29475], Motomura et al. 2010:70 [ref. 31256], Zhang et al. 2010:253 [ref. 31511], Allen & Erdmann 2012:79 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:9 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2014:18 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Ho et al. 2015:153 [ref. 34130], Golani & Fricke 2018:20 [ref. 36273], Zajonz et al. 2019:61 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Enchelycore schismatorhynchus (Bleeker 1853). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Chagos Archipelago east to Society Islands and Marquesas Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

schonlandi, Siderea Smith [J. L. B.] 1949:109 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 2 (no. 14) (art. 13); ref. 4077] Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Syntypes: (3 localities) SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 106 (primary specimen) Delagoa Bay, other syntypes not researched. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:146 [ref. 26380]. Eschmeyer et al. 1998:1521 [Cat. of Fishes] recognized RUSI as the primary specimen, but 3 localities were mentioned, and the maximum size given was much larger that RUSI 106 -- therefore syntypes. Böhlke & Smith 2002:146 [ref. 26380] treated RUSI 106 as the holotype. See Smith & Böhlke 2006:35 [ref. 28678] for remarks on types. •Synonym of Siderea grisea (Lacepède 1803) -- (Castle & McCosker 1986:174 [ref. 5645], Böhlke & Smith 2002:146 [ref. 26380]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax griseus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Smith 2012:16 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax griseus (Lacepède 1803). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

schultzi, Anarchias Reece [J. S.], Smith [D. G.] & Holm [E.] 2010:427, Figs. 3 (middle), 6 and 9 [Copeia 2010 (no. 3); ref. 30969] Tongatapu Group, reef just north of Atata Island, Tonga Islands, depth 8-14 meters. Holotype: USNM 334773. Paratypes: USNM 224067 (1), 224439 (1), 323563 (1), 380808 (2), 397049 (5). •Valid as Anarchias schultzi Reece, Smith & Holm 2010 -- (Fricke et al. 2011:349 [ref. 31242], Smith 2012:34 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Valid as Anarchias schultzi Reece, Smith & Holm 2010. Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Tonga to Caroline Islands. Habitat: marine.

scoliodon, Muraena Bleeker [P.] 1852:43 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 5); ref. 339] Sibogha, western Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.327. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:146 [ref. 26380]. Appeared first in Bleeker 1852:297 [ref. 16825] without distinguishing features. •Synonym of Gymnothorax richardsonii (Bleeker 1852) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:146 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:26 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax richardsonii (Bleeker 1852). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

scriptus, Gymnothorax Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:529 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Australia [as New Holland]. ZMB (not found). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:147 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax scriptus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:131 [ref. 12442]). •Nomen dubium -- (Böhlke & McCosker 2001:98 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:147 [ref. 26380], Allen et al. 2006:259 [ref. 29005]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

scriptus, Gymnothorax Poey [F.] 1867:261 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 14079] Cuba. Holotype: whereabouts unknown. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Gymnothroax scriptus Bloch & Schneider 1801. •Synonym of Muraena miliaris (Kaup 1856) -- (Smith & Böhlke 1990:146 [ref. 19379]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax miliaris (Kaup 1856) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:155 [ref. 13286], Smith 2012:20 [ref. 32155], Smith 2012:20 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax miliaris (Kaup 1856). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

sealei, Uropterygius Whitley [G. P.] 1932:330 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 18 (no. 6); ref. 4674] Society Islands. Holotype: MCZ 9188. Paratypes: USNM 150552 [ex MCZ 9188A] (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:25-26 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:163 [ref. 26380]. Unneeded replacement name for Scuticaria unicolor Seale 1917. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Uropterygius unicolor Kaup 1856 in Uropterygius -- see Böhlke & Smith 2002:163 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Uropterygius bennettii (Günther 1870) -- (authors). •Synonym of Scuticaria okinawae (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Böhlke & McCosker 1997:172 [ref. 23214], Böhlke & Randall 2000:265 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:163 [ref. 26380], Randall 2005:50 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:125 [ref. 28379], Smith 2012:35 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Scuticaria okinawae (Jordan & Snyder 1901). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Habitat: marine.

serratidens, Priodonophis Hildebrand [S. F.] & Barton [O.] 1949:3, Fig. 1 [Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections v. 111 (no. 10); ref. 13015] Talara, Peru. Holotype (unique): USNM 144253. Type catalog: Smith 1994:23 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:147 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax serratidens (Hildebrand & Barton 1949) -- (Bussing 1998:444 [ref. 24930], Böhlke 2001:5 [ref. 25774], Böhlke & Smith 2002:147 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:27 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax serratidens (Hildebrand & Barton 1949). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

seychellensis, Anarchias Smith [J. L. B.] 1962:429, Pl. 53 (fig. F) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 23; ref. 6435] Assumption Island, Aldabra Islands, Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 317. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 361-363 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:163-164 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Anarchias seychellensis Smith 1962 -- (Castle & McCosker 1986:166 [ref. 5645], Paxton et al. 1989:127 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:24 [ref. 14125], Böhlke et al. 1989:117 [ref. 13286], Winterbottom et al. 1989:6 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:34 [ref. 15987], Randall et al. 1997:34 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:51 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:40 [ref. 24106], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Böhlke & Randall 2000:263 [ref. 24493], Nakabo 2000:196 [ref. 25086], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Randall & Earle 2000:6 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:16 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:196 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:164 [ref. 26380], Myers & Donaldson 2003:611 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:68 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:6 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:50 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:113 [ref. 28379], McCosker & Stewart 2006:87 [ref. 28702] as cf. seyehcllensis, Allen et al. 2006:245 [ref. 29005], Randall 2007:95 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:14 [ref. 30213], Reece et al. 2010:421 [ref. 30969], Fricke et al. 2011:349 [ref. 31242, Allen & Erdmann 2012:76 ref. 31980], Smith 2012:34 [ref. 32155], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Stewart & McCosker 2015:226 [ref. 34233] as cf. seychellensis, Fricke et al. 2018:33 [ref. 35805], Arndt & Fricke 2019:22 [ref. 36883]). Current status: Valid as Anarchias seychellensis Smith 1962. Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Réunion (western Mascarenes) east to Hawaiian Islands and Easter Island, north to Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, New Caledonia, Kermadec Islands and New Zealand area. Habitat: brackish, marine.

shaoi, Gymnothorax Chen [H.-M.] & Loh [K.-H.] 2007:77, Figs. 1-2, 3a, 4 [Journal of Marine Science and Technology v. 15 (no. 2); ref. 29360] Off shore of Sanshengtai, 23.130°N, 121.414°E, Chengkung, Taitung, Taiwan. Holotype: ASIZP 00062978. Paratypes: ASZIP 00062979-80 (2); TOU-AE 0370, 0371, 0372, 0373, 0375 (5), 0381 (1), 1797 (1). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:22 [ref. 31432] •Valid as Gymnothorax shaoi Chen & Loh 2007 -- (Ho & Shao 2011:22 [ref. 31432], Smith 2012:27 [ref. 32155], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Ho et al. 2015:7 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:161 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax shaoi Chen & Loh 2007. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Taiwan and Marquesas Islands. Habitat: marine.

shirleyi, Muraena Griffin [L. T.] 1933:172, Pl. 24 (top); Fig. [Transactions of the New Zealand Institute v. 63 (pt 2); ref. 1906] Mokohinau Islands, New Zealand. Holotype (unique): AIM 289.1. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:147 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax prionodon Ogilby 1895 -- (Böhlke & McCosker 2001:94 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:147 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:25 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax prionodon Ogilby 1895. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

siderea, Muraena Richardson [J.] 1848:85, Pl. 48 (figs. 1-5) [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Western and northern shores of Australia; coast of New Guinea. Syntypes: BMNH 1846.9.11.16 (1), Australia, coll. Jukes. [1 syntype lost]. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:147 [ref. 26380]. Böhlke & Randall 2000:247 [ref. 24493] regard BMNH 1846.9.11.16 as holotype, but it is a syntype. See Smith & Böhlke 2006:35 [ref. 28678] for remarks on types. •Synonym of Siderea picta (Ahl 1789) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:132 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax pictus (Ahl 1789) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:247 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:147 [ref. 26380], Allen et al. 2006:254 [ref. 29005], Smith 2012:23 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax pictus (Ahl 1789). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

signifer, Gymnothorax Bliss [R.] 1883:58 [Transactions of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius (N. S.) v. 13; ref. 16966] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MCZ 6147. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:147-148 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax rueppellii (McClelland 1844) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:148 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:27 [ref. 32155]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax rueppelliae (McClelland 1844) -- (Fricke 1999:53 [ref. 24106], Böhlke & Randall 2000:255 [ref. 24493]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax rueppelliae (McClelland 1844). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

similis, Leptocephalus Lea [E.] 1913:26, Figs. 23-24; Pl. 4 (nos. 5-6) [Scientific Results of the Michael Sars North Atlantic Deep-Sea Expedition 1910 v. 3 (pt 1, no. 7); ref. 14158] North Atlantic, 34°44'N, 47°52'W, station 64, depth 100 and 1000 meters. Syntypes: ZMUB 2504 (1), 5113 (1). Type catalog: Frøiland 1979:146 [ref. 21547]. •Valid as Anarchias similis (Lea 1913) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:118 [ref. 13286], Smith 1989:901 [ref. 13285], Smith & Böhlke 1990:136 [ref. 19379], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:230 [ref. 23897], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:131 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:148 [ref. 27754], Böhlke & Smith 2003:704 [ref. 26990], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:32 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:60 [ref. 27807], Reece et al. 2010:421 [ref. 30969], Smith 2012:34 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:60 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:23 [ref. 33341], Smith & Brito 2016:1637 [ref. 34557]). Current status: Valid as Anarchias similis (Lea 1913). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Annabon and western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

similis, Muraena Richardson [J.] 1848:83 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Polynesia; Red Sea; Japan. Syntypes: BMNH 1846.2.16.100 (1, stuffed) Japan [ the described syntype]. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:148 [ref. 26380]. Böhlke & Randall 2000:242 [ref. 24493] regard BMNH 1846.2.16.100 as the holotype as do Böhlke & Smith 2002:148 [ref. 26380], but the type series consists of all the specimens included by the author (whether directly or by bibliographic reference)... In this case, Forster's ms is cited, and 3 localities are given -- therefore syntypes. BMNH 1846.2.16.100 would make the best lectotype. See Smith & Böhlke 2006:35 [ref. 28678] for remarks on types. See Smith 2012:18 [ref. 32155] for remarks on types. •Synonym of Gymnothorax kidako (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:242 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:148 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:18 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax kidako (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

smithi, Gymnothorax Sumod [K. S.], Mohapatra [A.], Sanjeevan [V. N.], Kishor [T. G.] & Bineesh [K. K.] 2019:360, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa 4652 (no. 2); ref. 36895] Off Kochi, India, 09°59.935'N, 75°36.086'E, depth 200 meters. Holotype: CMLRE IO/SS/FIS/00452. Paratypes: EBRC/ZSI/F 11228 (1), ZSI/ANRC 22842 (1). •Valid as Gymnothorax smithi Sumod, Mohapatra, Sanjeevan, Kishor & Bineesh 2019. Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax smithi Sumod, Mohapatra, Sanjeevan, Kishor & Bineesh 2019. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Kerala coast, southeastern Arabian Sea, India. Habitat: marine.

sokotrensis, Gymnothorax Kotthaus [A.] 1968:18, Figs. 107, 150 [Meteor Forschungsergebnisse. Reihe D, Biologie No. 3; ref. 2669] Off Socotra Island, Indian Ocean, 11°33.9'N, 52°54'E to 11°38'N, 52°52'E, Meteor station 102. Holotype (unique): ZMH 4940 [ex IOES 43]. Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:413 [ref. 21161], Böhlke & Smith 2002:148 [ref. 26380] •Valid as Gymnothorax sokotrensis Kotthaus 1968 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:148 [ref. 26380], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Smith et al. 2008:67 [ref. 29432], Smith 2012:27 [ref. 32155], Zajonz et al. 2019:104 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax sokotrensis Kotthaus 1968. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Socotra endemic. Habitat: marine.

sordida, Muraena Cuvier [G.] 1816:233 [Le Règne Animal v. 2; ref. 993] No locality. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:126 [ref. 20810]. Based on Muraena seu conger brasiliensis of Seba 1738, Pl. 69 (fig. 4). •Synonym of Echidna catenata (Bloch 1795) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:131 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:138 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:5 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna catenata (Bloch 1795). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

steindachneri, Gymnothorax Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:166 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50616. Paratypes: CAS-SU 7447 (1), USNM 126528 [ex USBF 1068 = USFC 2697] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:47 [ref. 12291], Smith 1994:20 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:148 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax steindachneri Jordan & Evermann 1903 -- (Böhlke & Randall 1995:4 [ref. 21580], Böhlke & Randall 2000:257 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:148 [ref. 26380], Mundy 2005:123 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:93 [ref. 30952], Smith 2012:28 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax steindachneri Jordan & Evermann 1903. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

stellata, Muraenophis Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:629, 642 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] New Britain Island, Bismarck Archipelago. Holotype (unique): MNHN (whereabouts unknowm). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:127 [ref. 20810], Böhlke & Smith 2002:148-149 [ref. 26380]. •Nomen dubium -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:148 [ref. 26380]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

stellifer, Muraena Richardson [J.] 1848:86 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Madagascar. Holotype (unique): BMNH 2012.2.15.2 (poor condition). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:149 [ref. 26380], Fricke et al. 2018:35 [ref. 35805]. •May be a senior synonym of Gymnothorax johnsoni (Smith 1962) or a junior synonym of Gymnothorax punctatus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:149 [ref. 26380]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax buroensis (Bleeker 1857) -- (Fricke et al. 2018:34 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax buroensis (Bleeker 1857). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

stigmanotus, Gymnothorax Fowler [H. W.] 1912:26, Fig. 6 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 64; ref. 1385] Eastern Pacific (no specific locality). Holotype (unique): ANSP 16705. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:131 [ref. 13621] with locality note, Böhlke & Smith 2002:149 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax castaneus (Jordan & Gilbert 1883) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:149 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:13 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax castaneus (Jordan & Gilbert 1883). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

strommani, Leptocephalus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Kennedy [C. H.] 1902:89, Figs. 8, 8a-b [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 21 (1901); ref. 11071] 20 miles southeast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, U.S.A., 35°08'30"N, 75°10'00"W, Albatross station 2596, depth 0-49 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 49762. Type catalog: Smith 1994:21 [ref. 21917]. Original as strömmani, but name apparently Swedish and unlaut is dropped. •Probably young of Gymnothorax saxicola Jordan & Davis 1891 -- (Smith 1994:20 [ref. 21917]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier 1829) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:180 [ref. 13286], Smith 1989:910 [ref. 13285], Smith 2012:21 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier 1829). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

subfuscus, Leptocephalus Fowler [H. W.] 1944:389, Fig. 52 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] Maria Madre Island, Tres Marias Islands [Islas Marias], Mexico. Holotype: ANSP 70116. Paratypes: ANSP 70117 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:121 [ref. 13621], in Muraenidae. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

supraforata, Gymnomuraena Regan [C. T.] 1909:439 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 4 (no. 23); ref. 14420] Savai'i Island, Samoa. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1871.9.1.83. Additional material: BMNH (3) Tahiti. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:164 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Uropterygius supraforatus (Regan 1909) -- (Winterbottom et al. 1989:11 [ref. 13251], Myers 1999:52 [ref. 23965], Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692], Randall 1999:7 [ref. 25829], Böhlke & Randall 2000:271 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:164 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830] as suprafortatus, Myers & Donaldson 2003:612 [ref. 27495], Randall 2005:53 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:127 [ref. 28379], Böhlke & Smith 2002:163 [ref. 26380], Randall 2005:53 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:127 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:98 [ref. 30952], Smith 2012:38 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Valid as Uropterygius supraforatus (Regan 1909). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific, eastern Pacific: Chagos Archipelago east to Clipperton Island, north to Philippines and Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

supremus, Anarchias McCosker [J. E.] & Stewart [A. L.] 2006:84, Figs. 1-3 [Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand v. 36 (no. 2); ref. 28702] Off submarine volcano "L" off Macauley Island, Kermadec Ridge, 30°01.37-30°01.69'S, 178°42.88-178°43.04'W, depth 154 meters. Holotype (unique): NMNZ P.38142. •Valid as Anarchias supremus McCosker & Stewart 2006 -- (Reece et al. 2010:421 [ref. 30969], Smith 2012:34 [ref. 32155], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:107 [ref. 36167], Stewart & McCosker 2015:227 [ref. 34233]). Current status: Valid as Anarchias supremus McCosker & Stewart 2006. Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Kermadec Ridge endemic. Habitat: marine.

taenioides, Muraena Günther [A.] 1872:674 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1871 (pt 3) (art. 1) (for 21 Nov. 1871); ref. 1997] Savai'i [Savay] Island, Samoa. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1871.9.13.154. •Synonym of Pseudechidna brummeri (Bleeker 1858) -- (Böhlke 1995:463 [ref. 21738], Böhlke 1997:103 [ref. 23177], Smith & Böhlke 2006:37 [ref. 28678], Smith 2012:32 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudechidna brummeri (Bleeker 1858). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

tahitensis, Gymnothorax Seale [A.] 1906:7, Fig. 1 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 3999] Tahiti, Society Islands. Holotype (unique): BPBM 1367. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:149 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax buroensis (Bleeker 1857) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:229 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:149 [ref. 26380], Randall 2007:85 [ref. 30952], Smith 2012:12 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax buroensis (Bleeker 1857). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

taiwanensis, Gymnothorax Chen [H.-M.], Loh [K.-H.] & Shao [K.-T.] 2008:132, Figs. 1-2 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. No. 19; ref. 29929] Offshore from Shihtiping (23°29'N, 121°30'E), Hualien, eastern Taiwan, depth 10 meters. Holotype: ASIZ P0069371. Paratypes: ASIZ P0069372-73 (1, 1); TOU-AE 1217 (1), 1218 (1), 1223 (1), 1225 (1), 1238 (1), 1296 (1), 1297 (1), 1232 (1), 1333 (1). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:22 [ref. 31432] •Valid as Gymnothorax taiwanensis Chen, Loh & Shao 2008 -- (Ho & Shao 2011:22 [ref. 31432], Smith 2012:28 [ref. 32155], Ho et al. 2015:7 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:161 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax taiwanensis Chen, Loh & Shao 2008. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

talofa, Gymnothorax Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] in Jordan & Seale 1906:201, Fig. 7 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Apia, Upolu Island, Samoa. Holotype: USNM 51713. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8727 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:47 [ref. 12291], Smith 1994:20 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:149 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax margaritophorus Bleeker 1864 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:149 [ref. 26380], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:317 [ref. 28867] dated Bleeker 1865, Smith 2012:19 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax margaritophorus Bleeker 1864. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

tamarae, Enchelycore Prokofiev [A. M.] 2005:702, Figs. 1-2 [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 45 (no. 5); ref. 28366] Mangapan coral reef, Crusadan Island, India. Holotype (unique): ZIN 53422. •Synonym of Gymnothorax fimbriatus (Bennett 1832) -- (Smith 2012:15 [ref. 32155], Kottelat 2013:42 [ref. 32989], Mohapatra et al. 2017:595 [ref. 35581]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax fimbriatus (Bennett 1832). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

teatae, Muraena Curtiss [A.] 1938:35 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Mouth of Vaitapiha River, Tautira township, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Muraenidae. Habitat: marine.

tenebrosa, Muraena Richardson [J.] (ex Solander) 1848:84 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Society Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH [ex Royal Coll. Surgeons] 2012.2.15.1. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:149-150 [ref. 26380]. •Nomen dubium -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:150 [ref. 26380]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

tentaculata, Muraena Gudger [E. W.] 1929:523 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 58 (art. 9); ref. 11187] Name on a drawing by Pike from Mauritius; not available, no description -- (Smith 2012:55 [ref. 32155]).. •In the synonymy of Rhinomuraena quaesita Garman 1888 -- (Fricke 1999:55 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Rhinomuraena quaesita Garman 1888. Muraenidae: Muraeninae.

tessellata, Muraena Richardson [J.] 1845:109, Pl. 55 (figs. 5-8) [Ichthyology.--Part 3. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur.; ref. 20575] Southern seas? Holotype (unique): BMNH (apparently lost). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:150 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax favagineus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:150 [ref. 26380] as tessellata, Zhang et al. 2010:286 [ref. 31511], Smith 2012:15 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax favagineus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

thalassopterus, Gymnothorax Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:427, Pl. 2 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50619. Paratypes: CAS-SU 7449 (1), 12770-71 (1, 1) 12773 (1); USNM 50683 (1), 51102 (1), 52615 (1), 52630 (1), 126529 [ex USBF 1064] (1), 312444 [ex Univ. Iowa 19133] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:47 [ref. 12291], Smith 1994:20 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:150 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax flavimarginatus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:235 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:150 [ref. 26380], Mundy 2005:118 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:87 [ref. 30952], Smith 2012:15 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax flavimarginatus (Rüppell 1830). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

thomsoni, Gymnothorax Borodin [N. A.] 1928:8, Pl. 2 (figs. 1-2) [Bulletin Vanderbilt Oceanographic Museum v. 1 (art. 1); ref. 526] Galápagos Islands [or Cocos Island, eastern Pacific]. Holotype (unique): AMNH 225216 [ex VMM 411]. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:150 [ref. 26380]. Named for "Charles Thompson" but species spelled thomsoni in text and on figures. •Synonym of Gymnothorax pictus (Ahl 1789) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1975:424 [ref. 9341], Böhlke & Randall 2000:247 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:150 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:24 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax pictus (Ahl 1789). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

thyrsoidea, Muraena Richardson [J.] 1845:111 [Ichthyology.--Part 3. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur.; ref. 20575] [Canton] Guangdong Province, China, South China Sea, western Pacific. Lectotype: BMNH 2008.4.21.1. Paralectotypes: AMS I.100 (1), BMNH (1, lost or now AMS I.100). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:150-151 [ref. 26380]. Not the same as Mureana thrysoides Richardson 1843, Pl. 49 (fig. 1) which was published first but not treated as valid; see Böhlke 1995:463 [ref. 21738]. Lectotype selected by Böhlke 1995:463 [ref. 21738]. •Valid as Siderea thrysoideus (Richardson 1845) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:133 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Siderea thrysoidea (Richardson 1845) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:32 [ref. 25477], Kuiter 1993:33 [ref. 23929], Chen et al. 1994:54 [ref. 22258], Böhlke 1995:463 [ref. 21738], Allen 1997:52 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:30 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:42 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:51 [ref. 23965], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:115 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:35 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Zhang et al. 2010:249 [ref. 31511], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:59 [ref. 35264]). •Valid as Gymnothorax thyrsoideus (Richardson 1845) -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:25 [ref. 6441], Chen et al. 1997:22 [ref. 26476], Böhlke & Randall 1999:553 [ref. 24552], Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2000:176 [ref. 25987], Randall & Earle 2000:7 [ref. 25806], Nakabo 2000:202 [ref. 25086], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Nakabo 2002:202 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:151 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:611 [ref. 27495] as thyrsoidea, Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:48 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:256 [ref. 29005], Imamura 2009:20 [ref. 30434], Motomura et al. 2010:73 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:351 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:94 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:28 [ref. 32155], Larson et al. 2013:26 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:21 [ref. 34464], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:108 [ref. 36167], Ho et al. 2015:161 [ref. 34130], Koeda et al. 2016:8 [ref. 35333], Golani & Fricke 2018:23 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax thyrsoideus (Richardson 1845). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Maldives east to the Line Islands and Tuamotu Islands, north to Ryukyu and Ogasawara islands, south to northern Australia and Kermadec Islands. Habitat: marine.

thyrsoides, Muraena Richardson [J.] 1845:no p., Pl. 49 (fig. 1) [Ichthyology.--Part 2. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur; ref. 20574] Canton, China seas. No types known. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:151 [ref. 26380]. Available from plate as thyrsoides; the holotype is the specimen represented in the plate (whereabouts unknown). Species appeared (later) in text as Muraena thyrsoidea Richardson 1845:111 [ref. 20275] which is a different species (see Böhlke 1995:463 [ref. 21738]). •Valid as Gymnothorax thyrsoideus (Richardson 1845) -- (Mohsin & Ambak 1996:167 [ref. 27969]). •Nomen oblitum -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:151 [ref. 26380]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

tiahua, Muraena Curtiss [A.] 1938:35 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon at Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Muraenidae. Habitat: marine.

tigrina, Muraenophis Cuvier [G.] in Kaup 1856:61 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:151 [ref. 26380]. Appeared, also as name in synonymy, as Muraena tigrina Cuvier in Kaup 1856:81 [ref. 2573]. •Not available, name in synonymy of Muraena bullata -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:151 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:55 [ref. 32155]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae.

tigrinus, Ichthyophis Lesson [R. P.] 1828:399 [Mémoires de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle Paris (sér. 2) v. 4; ref. 2775] Bora Bora, Society Islands [French Polynesia, South Pacific]. Lectotype: MNHN B-2454. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-2455 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:99 [ref. 20810], Böhlke & Smith 2002:164 [ref. 26380]. Also in Lesson 1831:129, Pl. 12 [ref. 2776]. Lectotype selected by Böhlke & McCosker 1997:174 [ref. 23214]. •Valid as Uropterygius tigrinus (Lesson 1828) -- (Castle & McCosker 1986:175 [ref. 5645], Chen et al. 1994:63 [ref. 22258], Yamakawa et al. 1994:2 [ref. 24336], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:65 [ref. 22017], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:228 [ref. 24545], Zhang et al. 2010:229 [ref. 31511] as Uropterygius tigrina). •Valid but possibly as Scuticaria tigrinus (Lesson 1828) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:126 [ref. 13286]). •Valid as Scuticaria tigrina (Lesson 1828) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1313 [ref. 22830], Randall 1995:58 [ref. 22896], Böhlke & McCosker 1997:173 [ref. 23214], Myers 1999:51 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:56 [ref. 24106], Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692], Böhlke & Randall 2000:265 [ref. 24493], Nakabo 2000:198 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Thomson et al. 2000:46 [ref. 25640], Randall & Earle 2000:7 [ref. 25806], Nakabo 2002:198 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:164 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S94 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:611 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], Randall 2005:51 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:126 [ref. 28379] as tigrinus, Randall 2007:96 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:17 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:73 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:351 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:96 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:35 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988] dated 1829, Ho et al. 2015:162 [ref. 34130], Fourriére et al. 2016:441 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:606 [ref. 34923], Fricke et al. 2018:40 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Scuticaria tigrina (Lesson 1828). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific: East Africa, Natal (South Africa), Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Panama and Revillagigedo Archipelago, north to Taiwan, Kerama Islands and Hawaiian Islands, Galápagos Islands, south to New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

tile, Muraenophis Hamilton [F.] 1822:18, 363 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Ganges River estuaries near Calcutta, India. No types known. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:151 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Lycodontis tile (Hamilton 1822) -- (Ataur Rahman 1989:42 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:79 [ref. 20764], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:184 [ref. 25703], Khan 2003:6 [ref. 27710]). •Valid as Gymnothorax tile (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:10 [ref. 23448], Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Böhlke & Smith 2002:151 [ref. 26380], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Ataur Rahman 2003:57 [ref. 31338], Mundy 2005:124 [ref. 28379], Tan & Kottelat 2009:25 [ref. 30261], Allen & Erdmann 2012:94 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:28 [ref. 32155], Kottelat 2013:42 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:20 [ref. 33932], Hibino in Kimura et al. 2015:10 [ref. 34319], Miesen et al. 2016:81 [ref. 34492], Mohapatra et al. 2017:589 [ref. 35418], Bleher 2018:72 [ref. 36647], Sumod et al. 2019:364 [ref. 36895]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax tile (Hamilton 1822). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: India east to Philippines, Indonesia and New Guinea. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

tinkhami, Uropterygius Fowler [H. W.] 1945:59, Figs. 1-2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 97; ref. 13142] Saipan Island, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Holotype: ANSP 71585. Paratypes: ANSP 71586 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:131 [ref. 13621], Böhlke & Smith 2002:164 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Uropterygius micropterus (Bleeker 1852) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:164 [ref. 26380], Myers & Donaldson 2003:612 [ref. 27495], Smith 2012:37 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Uropterygius micropterus (Bleeker 1852). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tricolor, Muraena Richardson [J.] (ex Banks & Solander) 1848:82 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Not available, name in the synonymy of Muraena ocellata -- (Smith 2012:55 [ref. 32155]). •In the synonymy of Gymnothorax ocellatus Agassiz 1831 -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:174 [ref. 13286]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax ocellatus Agassiz 1831. Muraenidae: Muraeninae.

trinitatis, Muraena Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1919:175, Unnum. pl. (fig. 3) [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 22; ref. 15243] Trindade Island, Martin Vaz Islands, off southeastern Brazil, South Atlantic, 20°31'S, 29°19'W. Lectotype: MNRJ 1922A. Paralectotypes: MNRJ 1922 (2). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:402 [ref. 12732] with genus as Mruaena, Miranda Ribeiro 1961:5 [ref. 22041] as 3 cotypes. Lectotype selected by Miranda Ribeiro 1953:402 [ref. 12732] [but perhaps specimen not isolated]. •Synonym of Muraena miliaris (Kaup 1856) -- (Smith & Böhlke 1990:147 [ref. 19379]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax miliaris (Kaup 1856) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:155 [ref. 13286], Smith 2012:20 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax miliaris (Kaup 1856). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

tristis, Muraena Kaup [J. J.] 1856:62 [Catalogue of the apodal fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2573] Niger River. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1847.4.4.31. Appeared first without description in Kaup 1856:58 [ref. 2572]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax afer Bloch 1795 -- (Smith & Böhlke 1990:141 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:11 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax afer Bloch 1795. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tritor, Poecilophis Vaillant [L. L.] & Sauvage [H.-E.] 1875:287 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 3) v. 3; ref. 17853] Hawaiian Islands. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-8844 to 0000-8849 (6). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:102 [ref. 20810]. •Synonym of Echidna polyzona (Richardson 1845) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:219 [ref. 24493], Mundy 2005:114 [ref. 28379], Smith & Böhlke 2006:37 [ref. 28678], Smith 2012:6 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna polyzona (Richardson 1845). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

troschelii, Muraena Bleeker [P.] 1852:45 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 5); ref. 339] Boleling, northern Bali; Sibogha, western Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 3784 [not 7201]. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:151 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax richardsonii (Bleeker 1852) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:151 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:26 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax richardsonii (Bleeker 1852). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

trossula, Echidna Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] in Jordan & Seale 1906:203, Fig. 8 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Apia, Upolu Island, Western Samoa. Holotype: USNM 51714. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8728 (11); USNM 126605 [ex USBF 1260] (6), 320270 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:46-47 [ref. 12291], Smith 1994:16 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Echidna delicatula (Kaup 1856) -- (Smith & Böhlke 2006:37 [ref. 28678], Smith 2012:5 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna delicatula (Kaup 1856). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

truncatum, Leptocephalus Shen [S.-C.] 1963:266, Figs. 13-14 [Quarterly Journal of the Taiwan Museum (Taipei) v. 16 (nos 3-4); ref. 5280] Estuary of the Tam-sui River, northern Taiwan. Holotype (unique): NTUM uncat. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:64 [ref. 31432]. •Larva; may belong to a species of Muraena -- (Ho & Shao 2011:64 [ref. 31432]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

tuhua, Muraena Griffin [L. T.] 1933:171, Pl. 24 (bottom); Fig. [Transactions of the New Zealand Institute v. 63 (pt 2); ref. 1906] 15 miles southeast of Mayor Island [Tuhua], New Zealand, depth 80 fathoms. Holotype (unique): AIM (lost). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:151-152 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax obesus (Whitley 1932) -- (Böhlke & McCosker 2001:91 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:151 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:22 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax obesus (Whitley 1932). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

ui, Strophidon Tanaka [S.] 1918:52 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 30 (no. 352); ref. 17355] Tanaba, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT (lost). •Synonym of Strophidon sathete (Hamilton 1822) -- (Böhlke 1995:460 [ref. 21738], Smith & Böhlke 2006:37 [ref. 28678], Zhang et al. 2010:239 [ref. 31511] as Strophidonui ui, Smith 2012:33 [ref. 32155], Kottelat 2013:43 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Strophidon ui Tanaka 1918 -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:22 [ref. 6441], Nakabo 2000:211 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:211 [ref. 26001], Hibino et al. 2017:[5] [ref. 35174]). Current status: Valid as Strophidon ui Tanaka 1918. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Japan. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

umbra, Lycodontis Fowler [H. W.] 1944:317, Figs. 66-68 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] James Bay, James Island, Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): ANSP 70025 (poor condition). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:131 [ref. 13621], Böhlke & Smith 2002:152 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax panamensis (Steindachner 1876) -- (Randall & McCosker 1975:15 [ref. 7466], Böhlke 2000:404 [ref. 24954], Böhlke & Smith 2002:152 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:23 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax panamensis (Steindachner 1876). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

umbrofasciata, Muraena Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1852:33 [Fische und deren Skelette; ref. 3846] Red Sea. Syntypes: SMF 151 (1), 2870 (1, skeleton, lost), 7346 (1, missing), Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:152 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Lycodontis rueppelli (McClelland 1844) -- (Dor 1984:29 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax rueppellii (McClelland 1845) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:152 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:27 [ref. 32155]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax rueppelliae (McClelland 1844) -- (Randall & Golani 1995:867 [ref. 21744], Böhlke & Randall 2000:255 [ref. 24493]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax rueppelliae (McClelland 1844). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

umbrosus, Gymnothorax Poey [F.] 1875:67, Pl. 9 (figs. 1-2) [Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York v. 11 (nos 3-4) (art. 6); ref. 18564] Cuba. Holotype: USNM 13062. Type catalog: Smith 1994:20 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Enchelycore nigricans (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:143 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:140 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:8 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Enchelycore nigricans (Bonnaterre 1788). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

undulata, Muraenophis Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1803:629, 642, Pl. 19 (fig. 2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] No locality stated. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:127 [ref. 20810], Böhlke & Smith 2002:152 [ref. 26380] Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:55 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Based on a drawing in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and natguralist). •Synonym of Echidna catenata (Bloch 1795) -- (Smith & Böhlke 1990:138 [ref. 19379]). •Valid as Lycodontis undulatus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Dor 1984:29 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Gymnothorax undulatus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:24 [ref. 6441], Castle & McCosker 1986:173 [ref. 5645], Allen & Swainston 1988:32 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:131 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:9 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:40 [ref. 15987], Allen & Robertson 1994:47 [ref. 22193], Chen et al. 1994:53 [ref. 22258], Goren & Dor 1994:7 [ref. 25356], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1311 [ref. 22830], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:67 [ref. 22017], Randall & Golani 1995:868 [ref. 21744], Randall 1995:57 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:52 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:107 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:28 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:40 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:50 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:54 [ref. 24106], Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692], Johnson 1999:721 [ref. 25471], Böhlke & Randall 2000:258 [ref. 24493], Nakabo 2000:209 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:34 [ref. 25480], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:209 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:152 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:611 [ref. 27495], Hatooka 2003:7 [ref. 27558], Lobel & Lobel 2004:68 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3316 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:48 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:124 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:257 [ref. 29005], Randall 2007:93 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:17 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:73 [ref. 31256], Zhang et al. 2010:272 [ref. 31511], Fricke et al. 2011:351 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:95 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:28 [ref. 32155], Allen & Erdmann 2012:95 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], Larson et al. 2013:26 [ref. 32988], Ho et al. 2015:161 [ref. 34130], Fourriére et al. 2016:441 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:606 [ref. 34923], Koeda et al. 2016:8 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:39 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:23 [ref. 36273], Huang et al. 2018:[2] [ref. 35898], Arndt & Fricke 2019:24 [ref. 36883], Eagderi et al. 2019:18 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:52 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:62 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax undulatus (Lacepède 1803). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-Pacific: East Africa, Port Alfred (South Africa), Persian Gulf, Socotra, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Panama and Revillagigedo Archipelago, north to southern Japan, Ogasawara Islands, Hawaiian Islands and Gambier Islands, south to Western Australia at 28°54'S, New South Wales (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

unicolor, Echidna Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:106, Figs. 21d, 22 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Lagoon reef at Eniwetok Island, Rongelap Atoll, Marshall Islands, western Pacific. Holotype: USNM 141627. Paratypes: FMNH 62582 [ex USNM 141625] (1); USNM 141625 (orig. 2, now 1), 141626 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:33 [ref. 12367], Smith 1994:16 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Echidna unicolor Schultz 1953 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:127 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:7 [ref. 13251], Myers 1999:44 [ref. 23965], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Randall & Earle 2000:6 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:16 [ref. 25847], Randall et al. 2004:6 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:36 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:115 [ref. 28379], Smith & Böhlke 2006:37 [ref. 28678], Allen et al. 2006:246 [ref. 29005], Randall 2007:75 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2011:349 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:78 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:7 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2014:17 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Fricke et al. 2018:34 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Echidna unicolor Schultz 1953. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar east to Marshall and Tuamotu islands and Marquesas Islands, north to Philippines, south to northern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

unicolor, Muraena Olafsen [E.] & Povelsen [B.] 1775:205 [Reise Island 1774-75 v. 1 (pts 1-2); ref. 18494] Iceland. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

unicolor, Muraenophis Delaroche [F. E.] 1809:359 [73], Pl. 25 (fig. 15) [Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 13; ref. 17380] [Iviça] Ibiza, Baleares Islands, Spain, western Mediterranean Sea. Holotype: MNHN B-2413. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:101 [ref. 20810]. On p. 73 and Pl. 6 of separate. •Valid as Gymnothorax unicolor (Delaroche 1809) -- (Bauchot in Whitehead et al. 1986:541 [ref. 13676], Edwards & Glass 1987:625 [ref. 9166], Böhlke et al. 1989:149 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:143 [ref. 19379], Santos et al. 1997:19 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:55 [ref. 24952], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:31 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:16 [ref. 37112], Jiménez et al. 2007:103 [ref. 29038], Fricke et al. 2007:23 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:17 [ref. 36649], Smith 2012:29 [ref. 32155], Stern & Goren 2013:197 [ref. 32673], Wirtz et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32972], Wirtz et al. 2014:3 [ref. 33516], Smith & Brito 2016:1631 [ref. 34557], Brown et al. 2019:156 [ref. 36444], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:92 [ref. 36864]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax unicolor (Delaroche 1809). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Portugal to Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands; southern central Atlantic: Saint Helena. Habitat: marine.

unicolor, Scuticaria Seale [A.] 1917:94 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 61 (no. 4); ref. 4001] Society Islands, central Pacific. Holotype: MCZ 9188. Paratypes: USNM 150552 [ex MCZ 9188] (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:24 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:164 [ref. 26380]. Subjectively invalis; secondarily preoccupied in Uropterygius by Uropterygius unicolor Kaup 1856, replaced by Uropterygius sealei Whitley 1932. •Synonym of Uropterygius bennettii (Günther 1870). •Synonym of Scuticaria okinawae (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Böhlke & McCosker 1997:172 [ref. 23214], Böhlke & Randall 2000:265 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:164 [ref. 26380], Randall 2005:50 [ref. 28239], Smith 2012:35 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Scuticaria okinawae (Jordan & Snyder 1901). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Habitat: marine.

unicolor, Uropterygius Kaup [J. J.] 1856:69 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] A lapsus for Uropterygius concolor Rüppell (Smith 2012:55 [ref. 32155]). •In the synonymy of Uropterygius concolor Rüppell 1838 -- (Fricke et al. 2009:18 [ref. 30213]). Current status: Synonym of Uropterygius concolor Rüppell 1838. Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae.

vagrans, Muraena Seale [A.] 1917:88 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 61 (no. 4); ref. 4001] Questionably South America. Holotype (unique): MCZ 2532B. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:152-153 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax vagrans (Seale 1917) -- (Böhlke 2000:404 [ref. 24954], Böhlke & Smith 2002:153 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:29 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax vagrans (Seale 1917). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Unknown locality. Habitat: marine.

valenciennii, Muraena Eydoux [J. F. T.] & Souleyet [F. A.] 1850:207, Pl. 8 (fig. 1) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 4501] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: MNHN-0487. Additional material: MNHN 0000-4086 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:100 [ref. 20810], Böhlke & Smith 2002:153 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax undulatus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:258 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:153 [ref. 26380], Mundy 2005:124 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:94 [ref. 30952], Smith 2012:28 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax undulatus (Lacepède 1803). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

vamos, Muraena Hamilton [F.] 1822:24, 364 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Ganges River estuaries, India. No types known. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

variegata, Echidna Forster [J. R.] in Richardson 1848:94, Pl. 47 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Appeared first in 1777 in ref. 1353:181, unpublished and unavailable. Also appeared in Lichtenstein (editor) in 1844, ref. 17531, but Lichtenstein treats as synonym of "Gymnothorax echidna Bl. Schn. p. 526", so not available; from Huahina [= Huahine, Society Islands], Bola Bola [= Bora Bora, Society Islands] and Tonga-tabu [= Tongatapu, Tonga]. Appeared in Richardson as above as a name in synonymy, although Richardson credited the name to Forster; we regard Echidna variegata as unavailable, never having been published in an available way. See Muraena variegata Richardson 1848. •In the synonymy of Echidna nebulosa (Ahl 1789) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:217 [ref. 24493], Allen et al. 2006:245 [ref. 29005]). •Nomen nudum, not available -- (Smith 2012:55 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna nebulosa (Ahl 1789). Muraenidae: Muraeninae.

variegata, Muraena Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:246, Pl. 52 (fig. 1) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Holotype: MNHN B-3142. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:100 [ref. 20810]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Muraena variegata Rafinesque 1810 •Synonym of Gymnothorax pictus (Ahl 1789) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:247 [ref. 24493], Smith 2012:23 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax pictus (Ahl 1789). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

variegata, Muraena Richardson [J.] (ex Temminck & Schlegel) 1846:314 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Japan. Cited as Muraena variegata Temminck & Schlegel; apparently not an original description. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Muraena variegata Rafinesque 1810 Muraenidae: Muraeninae.

variegata, Muraena Richardson [J.] (ex Forster) 1848:94, Pl. 47 (figs. 1-5) [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] No types known. Name attributed to Forster by Richardson, but Forster's Echidna variegata was not published in an available way and is not available; Richardson based Muraena variegata on several literature sources and specimens. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Muraena variegata Rafinesque 1810, and Muraena variegata Quoy & Gaimard 1824. •Synonym of Echidna nebulosa (Ahl 1789) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:153 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:6 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2018:33 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna nebulosa (Ahl 1789). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

variegata, Muraena Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:67 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:44 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758 -- (Blache et al. 1973:224 [ref. 7185], Smith & Böhlke 1990:145 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:31 [ref. 32155], Parenti 2019:103 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

variegata, Murenophis Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:83, Pl. 43 (fig. 2) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2440. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:101 [ref. 20810]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax ocellatus Agassiz 1831 -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:174 [ref. 13286], Smith 2012:22 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax ocellatus Agassiz 1831. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

venosa, Muraena Kaup [J. J.] 1856:68 [Catalogue of the apodal fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2573] Timor Island, southern Malay Archipelago. Syntypes: RMNH (2) whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:153 [ref. 26380]. Appeared first without description in Kaup 1856:58 [ref. 2572]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax richardsonii (Bleeker 1852) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:153 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:26 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax richardsonii (Bleeker 1852). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

vermicularis, Muraena Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1855:459 [Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855; ref. 3449] Querimbo Island, Ibo, Mozambique, Africa. Holotype (unique): ZMB 4005. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:153 [ref. 26380]. Also described as new in Peters 1855:271 [ref. 13448]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax richardsonii (Bleeker 1852) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:153 [ref. 26380] as Muraena richardsonii, Smith 2012:26 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax richardsonii (Bleeker 1852). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

vermiculata, Muraena Richardson [J.] 1848:92 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] India. Holotype (unique): BMNH 2008.4.21.2. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:154 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax tile (Hamilton 1822) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:154 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:28 [ref. 32155], Kottelat 2013:42 [ref. 32989], Mohapatra et al. 2017:589 [ref. 35418]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax tile (Hamilton 1822). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vermiformis, Anarchias Smith [J. L. B.] 1962:429, Pl. 53 (fig. H); Fig. 6 [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 23; ref. 6435] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 319. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:164 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Uropterygius concolor Rüppell 1838 -- (Castle & McCosker 1986:175 [ref. 5645], Böhlke et al. 1989:117 [ref. 13286], Böhlke & Smith 2002:164 [ref. 26380] with question, Smith 2012:36 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Uropterygius concolor Rüppell 1838. Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

verrilli, Sidera Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1883:623 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 329); ref. 2474] Panama (Pacific). Holotype (unique): YPM 8042. Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:19 [ref. 16741], Böhlke & Smith 2002:154 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax verrilli (Jordan & Gilbert 1883) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1311 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:227 [ref. 24545], Böhlke 1997:102 [ref. 23177], Böhlke & Smith 2002:154 [ref. 26380], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], Smith 2012:29 [ref. 32155], Mohapatra et al. 2016:596 [ref. 34667], Mohapatra et al. 2017:285 [ref. 35504]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax verrilli (Jordan & Gilbert 1883). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

versipunctatus, Gymnothorax Poey [F.] 1876:199 [157], Pl. 10 [7] [Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid v. 5 (for 5 Apr. 1876); ref. 3510] Cuba. No types known. On p. 157 of separate. •Synonym of Gymnothorax vicinus (Castelnau 1855) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:186 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:144 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:29 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax vicinus (Castelnau 1855). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

versutus, Uropterygius Bussing [W. A.] 1991:97, Figs. 1-3 [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 39 (no. 1); ref. 19494] Mainland Pacific Costa Rica, eastern side of islet, 1 kilometer east of Isla Alcatraz, Islas Trotugas, 9°47'02"N, 84°53'32"W, depth 1-4 meters. Holotype: LACM 32517-52. Paratypes: LACM (13 lots, 43 spec.), UCR (7 lots, 22 spec.), USNM 308980 (5). Type catalog: Smith 1994:26 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:165 [ref. 26380], Angulo et al. 2015:386 [ref. 35212].. •Valid as Uropterygius versutus Bussing 1991 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:49 [ref. 22193], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1314 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:228 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:163 [ref. 24023], Thomson et al. 2000:46 [ref. 25640], Böhlke & Smith 2002:165 [ref. 26380], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Smith 2012:38 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:441 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:606 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Uropterygius versutus Bussing 1991. Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

vicina, Murenophis Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:81, Pl. 42 (fig. 4) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Bahia, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2423. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:102 [ref. 20810]. •Valid as Lycodontis vicinus (Castelnau 1855) -- (Blache et al. 1973:226 [ref. 7185], Cervigón 1991:38 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:368 [ref. 23827], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221]). •Valid as Gymnothorax vicinus (Castelnau 1855) -- (Bauchot in Whitehead et al. 1986:542 [ref. 13676], Robins & Ray 1986:53 [ref. 23100], Edwards & Glass 1987:626 [ref. 9166], Böhlke et al. 1989:186 [ref. 13286], Smith 1989:912 [ref. 13285], Smith & Böhlke 1990:143 [ref. 19379], Boschung 1992:33 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:240 [ref. 23897], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:136 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:82 [ref. 25466], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:148 [ref. 27754], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Collette et al. 2003:99 [ref. 26784], Böhlke & Smith 2003:704 [ref. 26990], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:33 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:9 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], Wirtz et al. 2007:25 [ref. 30263], Smith 2012:29 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:24 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:3 [ref. 33516], Pinheiro et al. 2015:6 [ref. 34324], Smith & Brito 2016:1632 [ref. 34557], Spier et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36103], Brown et al. 2019:156 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax vicinus (Castelnau 1855). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic; central Atlantic: Ascension and Saint Helena islands. Habitat: marine.

vietnamensis, Gymnothorax Smith [D. G.], Hibino [Y.] & Ho [H.-C.] 2018:36, Figs. 2A, 3 [Zootaxa 4454 (no. 1); ref. 36035] Fish landing ground north of Nha Trang, Khánh Hòa Province, Vietnam, South China Sea. Holotype: USNM 396159. Paratypes: ASIZP, USNM. •Valid as Gymnothorax vietnamensis Smith, Hibino & Ho 2018. Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax vietnamensis Smith, Hibino & Ho 2018. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Khánh Hòa Province, Vietnam, South China Sea. Habitat: marine.

vincta, Echidna Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:429, Fig. 10 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50687. Paratypes: FMNH 2753 (1, never arrived at FMNH), CAS-SU 7492 (15). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:47 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:33 [ref. 12367], Smith 1994:16 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Echidna polyzona (Richardson 1845) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:219 [ref. 24493], Mundy 2005:114 [ref. 28379], Smith & Böhlke 2006:37 [ref. 28678], Smith 2012:6 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna polyzona (Richardson 1845). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

vinolentus, Gymnothorax Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:165 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Kailua, Hawaii Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50615. Type catalog: Smith 1994:20 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Enchelynassa canina (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:222 [ref. 24493], Mundy 2005:115 [ref. 28379], Smith & Böhlke 2006:37 [ref. 28678], Smith 2012:9 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Enchelynassa canina (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

virescens, Gymnothorax Poey [F.] 1876:198 [156], Pl. 9 [6] (fig. 1) [Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid v. 5 (for 5 Apr. 1876); ref. 3510] Cuba. Holotype: not at MCZ. On p. 156 of separate. •Synonym of Gymnothorax vicinus (Castelnau 1855) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:186 [ref. 13286], Smith 2012:29 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax vicinus (Castelnau 1855). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

viridipinna, Muraena Seale [A.] 1917:88 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 61 (no. 4); ref. 4001] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MCZ 6146. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:154 [ref. 26380]. Description independent of Gymnothorax viridipinnis Bliss 1883 but based on the same specimen. •Objective synonym of, and secondarily preoccupied by Gymnothorax viridipinnis Bliss 1883. •Synonym of Gymnothorax flavimarginatus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Fricke 1999:47 [ref. 24106], Böhlke & Smith 2002:154 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:15 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax flavimarginatus (Rüppell 1830). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

viridipinnis, Gymnothorax Bliss [R.] 1883:58 [Transactions of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius (N. S.) v. 13; ref. 16966] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MCZ 6146. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:154 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax flavimarginatus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Fricke 1999:47 [ref. 24106], Böhlke & Randall 2000:235 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:154 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:15 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax flavimarginatus (Rüppell 1830). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

viridis, Muraena Shaw [G.] 1803:33 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] No locality. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

visakhaensis, Gymnothorax Mohapatra [A.], Smith [D. G.], Mohanty [S. R.], Mishra [S. S.] & Tudu [P. C.] 2017:280, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa 4300 (no. 2); ref. 35504] Visakhapatnam fish harbour (17°42.452'N, 83°18.823'E), Andhra Pradesh, along the south east coast of India. Holotype: ZSI F12075/2. Paratypes: MARC/ZSI F, ZSI F. •Valid as Gymnothorax visakhaensis Mohapatra, Smith, Mohanty, Mishra & Tudu 2017 -- (Smith et al. 2018:33 [ref. 36035]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax visakhaensis Mohapatra, Smith, Mohanty, Mishra & Tudu 2017. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Andhra Pradesh coast of India, Bay of Bengal. Habitat: marine.

vittata, Muraena Richardson [J.] (ex Banks & Solander) 1848:89 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Society Islands. No types known. Perhaps not a muraenid -- (E. Böhlke, pers. comm., Aug. 1997). Muraenidae. Habitat: marine.

vittatus, Ichthyophis Richardson [J.] 1845:no p., Pl. 53 (figs. 7-9) [Ichthyology.--Part 2. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur; ref. 20574] Locality uncertain, brought from China. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1855.10.16.280 (dry). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:165 [ref. 26380], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35195]. Available from plate. Text published later in Richardson 1845:114 [ref. 20275]. •Valid as Channomuraena vittata (Richardson 1845) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:52 [ref. 23100], Böhlke et al. 1989:122 [ref. 13286], Smith 1989:904 [ref. 13285], Smith & Böhlke 1990:137 [ref. 19379], Garzón-Ferreira & Acero P. 1990:138 [ref. 19560], Cervigón 1991:46 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:366 [ref. 23827], Saldanha & Quéro 1994:311 [ref. 21529], Andreata & Séret 1996:581 [ref. 16204] dated 1844, Myers 1999:51 [ref. 23965], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:132 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:68 [ref. 25466], Böhlke & Smith 2002:165 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:22 [ref. 26830], Feitoza et al. 2003:68 [ref. 26943], Böhlke & Smith 2003:705 [ref. 26990], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:33 [ref. 27192], Myers & Donaldson 2003:611 [ref. 27495] dated 1844, Nelson et al. 2004:60 [ref. 27807], Mundy 2005:114 [ref. 28379], Vaske et al. 2005:78 [ref. 36155], Wirtz et al. 2007:24 [ref. 30263], Loh et al. 2008:138 [ref. 29930], Allen & Erdmann 2012:72 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:35 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:60 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32972], Wirtz et al. 2014:2 [ref. 33516], Ho et al. 2015:152 [ref. 34130], Pinheiro et al. 2015:5 [ref. 34324], Smith & Brito 2016:1622 [ref. 34557], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35195], Fricke et al. 2018:33 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Channomuraena vittata (Richardson 1845). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical Atlantic and Indo-West Pacific, but not eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

vorax, Muraena Ogilby [J. D.] 1907:11 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 20; ref. 3282] Eastern Atlantic based on type, not Western Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1847.5.10.16. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:95 [ref. 26380], Böhlke & Smith 2002:154 [ref. 26380] "New name proposed for the Australian form hitherto identified with Muraena helena." Regarded as a replacement name, taking Richardson's holotype according to Böhlke & Smith 2002:95 [ref. 26380] and Böhlke & Smith 2002:154 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Muraena australiae Richardson 1848 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:132 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758 -- (Böhlke & McCosker 2001:96 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:95 [ref. 26380], Böhlke & Smith 2002:154 [ref. 26380] based on p. 95, Smith 2012:31 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

waialuae, Gymnothorax Snyder [J. O.] 1904:520, Pl. 6 (fig. 11) [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 [1902]; ref. 4149] Waialua Bay, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50870. Type catalog: Smith 1994:20 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:154 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax rueppellii (McClelland 1844) -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:154 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:27 [ref. 32155]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax rueppelliae (McClelland 1844) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:255 [ref. 24493], Mundy 2005:123 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax rueppelliae (McClelland 1844). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

wakanourae, Gymnothorax Tanaka [S.] 1908:24, Pl. 2 (fig. 4) [Journal of the College of Science. Imperial University, Tokyo v. 23 (art. 7); ref. 6032] Wakanoura, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 956 (lost). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:154-155 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax eurostus (Abbott 1860) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:234 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:154 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:14 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax eurostus (Abbott 1860). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

walvisensis, Gymnothorax Prokofiev [A. M.] in Prokofiev & Kukuev 2009:220, Fig. 3 [Journal of Ichthyology v. 49 (no. 3); ref. 30172] Walvis Ridge, southeastern Atlantic. Holotype (unique): ZIN 54129. •Valid as Gymnothorax walvisensis Prokofiev 2009 -- (Smith 2012:29 [ref. 32155], Smith & Brito 2016:1640 [ref. 34557]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax walvisensis Prokofiev 2009. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Walvis Ridge, southeastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

westphali, Taeniophis Kaup [J. J.] 1859:suppl. p. 1 [Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Naturwissenschaften herausgegeben von dem Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein in Hamburg v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 2586] Caribbean Sea. Holotype (unique): ZMH 12490. •Synonym of Gymnothorax funebris Ranzani 1839 -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:176 [ref. 13286], Smith 2012:16 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax funebris Ranzani 1839. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

wheeleri, Uropterygius Blache [J.] 1967:1716, Figs. 6-9 [Bulletin de l'Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire (Serie A) Sciences Naturelles v. 29 (no. 4); ref. 20672] Cape Verde Islands, eastern Atlantic. Holotype: MB T140a (lost in fire, 1978). Paratypes: MB T140b-c (2), 1825 (1); MNHN 1956-0088 (1); IFAN 50-1241 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:103 [ref. 20810]. •Valid as Uropterygius wheeleri Blache 1967 -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:126 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:14 [ref. 19379], Andreata & Séret 1996:581 [ref. 16204], Smith 2012:38 [ref. 32155], Wirtz et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32972], Smith & Brito 2016:1642 [ref. 34557]). Current status: Valid as Uropterygius wheeleri Blache 1967. Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

wieneri, Gymnothorax Sauvage [H.-E.] 1883:161 [18] [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 7; ref. 3897] Chile or Peru. Syntypes: MNHN A-4868 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:98 [ref. 20810], Böhlke & Smith 2002:155 [ref. 26380]. On p. 18 of separate. •Valid as Gymnothorax wieneri Sauvage 1883 -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:127 [ref. 24555]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax porphyreus (Guichenot 1848) -- (Böhlke & McCosker 2001:92 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:155 [ref. 26380], Dyer & Westneat 2010:596 [ref. 31446]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax porphyreus (Guichenot 1848). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

woodwardi, Gymnothorax McCulloch [A. R.] 1912:80 [3], Fig. 1 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 2937] Pelsart Island, Houtman Abrolhos, Western Australia. Holotype: WAM P.13263-001. Paratypes: (4) AMS I.7235 (1), I.12224-25 (1, 1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:7 [ref. 19335], Böhlke & Smith 2002:155 [ref. 26380], Moore et al. 2008:5 [ref. 30117]. On p. 3 of separate. •Valid as Gymnothorax woodwardi McCulloch 1912 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:132 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1997:30 [ref. 25488], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:96 [ref. 25226], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Böhlke & Smith 2002:155 [ref. 26380], Allen et al. 2006:257 [ref. 29005], Smith 2012:29 [ref. 32155], Hoschke et al. 2019:153 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax woodwardi McCulloch 1912. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

wooliensis, Lycodontis Whitley [G. P.] 1968:33, Pl. 8; Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales v. for 1966-67; ref. 7658] 20 miles off Wooli, 29°52'S, 153°20'E, northern New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IB.7941. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:155 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax wooliensis (Whitley 1968) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:132 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Gymnothorax prionodon Ogilby 1895 -- (Böhlke & McCosker 2001:94 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:155 [ref. 26380], Allen et al. 2006:255 [ref. 29005], Smith 2012:25 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax prionodon Ogilby 1895. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

xanthopterus, Uropterygius Bleeker [P.] 1859:350 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 19; ref. 368] Patjitan, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.271. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:165 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Uropterygius xanthopterus Bleeker 1859 -- (Castle & McCosker 1986:176 [ref. 5645], Winterbottom et al. 1989:11 [ref. 13251], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:65 [ref. 22017], Myers 1999:52 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:60 [ref. 24106], Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692], Randall 1999:7 [ref. 25829] but changed in errata sheet to alboguttatus, Böhlke & Smith 2002:165 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:612 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:68 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Fricke et al. 2009:18 [ref. 30213], llen & Erdmann 2012:100 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:38 [ref. 32155], Fricke et al. 2014:21 [ref. 33932], Ho et al. 2015:164 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Uropterygius xanthopterus Bleeker 1859. Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa and Réunion (western Mascarenes) east to Line Islands, Society Islands and Marquesas Islands, north to the Philippines, south to West Papua. Habitat: marine.

xanthospilos, Muraena Bleeker [P.] 1859:348 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 19; ref. 368] Karangbollong [Karang-Bollong Bay, on northeastern tip of Nusa Kambangan Island, 4.5 kilometers southeast to Cilacap, Jawa Tengah Province, Java, Indonesia, eastern Indian Ocean, ca. 7°45'34''S, 109°02'32''E]. Lectotype: RMNH 7210. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1867.11.28.229 (1). Lectotype selected by Chen & Böhlke 1996:301 [ref. 22680]. •Valid as Echidna xanthospilos (Bleeker 1859) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:130 [ref. 13286] as xanthospilus, Chen & Böhlke 1996:300 [ref. 22680], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Böhlke & McCosker in Randall & Lim 2000:584 [ref. 25122], Allen & Adrim 2003:22 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S94 [ref. 27377], Smith & Böhlke 2006:38 [ref. 28678], Allen & Erdmann 2012:78 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:7 [ref. 32155], Ho et al. 2015:153 [ref. 34130]). Current status: Valid as Echidna xanthospilos (Bleeker 1859). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific: Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Taiwan and Samoa. Habitat: marine.

xanthospilus, Lycodontis Fowler [H. W.] 1944:317, Figs. 69-71 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] James Bay, James Island, Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): ANSP 70026. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:131 [ref. 13621], Böhlke & Smith 2002:155 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Muraena lentiginosa Jenyns 1842 -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1975:424 [ref. 9341], Böhlke & Smith 2002:155 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:32 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena lentiginosa Jenyns 1842. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

xanthostomus, Gymnothorax Snyder [J. O.] 1904:519, Pl. 5 (fig. 10) [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 [1902]; ref. 4149] Honolulu market, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50869. Paratypes: CAS-SU 12792 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:47 [ref. 12291], Smith 1994:20 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:155-156 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax nudivomer (Günther 1867) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:245 [ref. 24493], Böhlke & Smith 2002:156 [ref. 26380], Mundy 2005:121 [ref. 28379], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:317 [ref. 28867], Randall 2007:90 [ref. 30952], Smith 2012:22 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnothorax nudivomer (Günther 1867). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

xenodontus, Uropterygius McCosker [J. E.] & Smith [D. G.] 1997:1006, Figs. 1-2 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 60 (no. 3); ref. 22980] Chesterfield Bank, 19°53.5'S, 158°28.2'E, southeastern side of lagoon, Coral Sea, southwestern Pacific, depth 6-9 meters. Holotype: BPBM 33558. Paratypes: BPBM 8941 (1), CAS 41183 (1), USNM 141683 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:165 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Uropterygius xenodontus McCosker & Smith 1997 -- (Myers 1999:52 [ref. 23965], Böhlke & Smith 2002:165 [ref. 26380], Randall 2005:53 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:128 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:75 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2011:351 [ref. 31242], Smith 2012:38 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Valid as Uropterygius xenodontus McCosker & Smith 1997. Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific: Chesterfield Islands (New Caledonia), Samoa, Marshall Islands, Johnston Atoll. Habitat: marine.

yoshiae, Anarchias Kanazawa [R. H.] 1952:75, Fig. 10 [Fieldiana Zoology v. 34 (no. 7); ref. 12780] Ship's channel, Bermuda. Holotype: FMNH 48729. Paratypes: FMNH 48955 (1, now 0); USNM 77748 (1), 153163-64 (1, 1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:7 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Anarchias yoshiae Kanazawa 1952 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:52 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:81 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:46 [ref. 14674], Cervigón 1991:45 [ref. 24472]). •Synonym of Anarchias similis (Lea 1913) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:118 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:136 [ref. 19379], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:132 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:148 [ref. 27754]). Current status: Synonym of Anarchias similis (Lea 1913). Muraenidae: Uropterygiinae. Habitat: marine.

ypsilon, Gymnothorax Hatooka [K.] & Randall [J. E.] 1992:183, Figs. 1-2 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 39 (no. 3); ref. 20258] Near Uotsurijima Island, Senkaku Islands, Japan. Holotype: URM-P 1783. Paratypes: BPBM 9643 (4); FAKU 51430 (1, dissected), 51604 (1), 100530 (1); SMBL 73341 [not seen at FAKU] (1); ZUMT 55591 (1), 55594 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:156 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Gymnothorax richardsoni (Bleeker 1852) -- (Zhang et al. 2010:275 [ref. 31511]). •Valid as Gymnothorax ypsilon Hatooka & Randall 1992 -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:260 [ref. 24493], Nakabo 2000:204 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:204 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:156 [ref. 26380], Mundy & Parrish 2004:412 [ref. 27877], Shinohara et al. 2005:399 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:125 [ref. 28379], McCosker & Stewart 2006:87 [ref. 28702], Randall 2007:94 [ref. 30952], Smith 2012:29 [ref. 32155], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:108 [ref. 36167], Ho et al. 2015:162 [ref. 34130], Stewart & McCosker 2015:237 [ref. 34233]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax ypsilon Hatooka & Randall 1992. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific: Ryukyu Islands, southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands; Hawaiian Islands and New Zealand EEZ, Kermadec Islands. Habitat: marine.

zebra, Gymnothorax Shaw [G.] in Shaw & Nodder 1797:4 unnum. pp., Pl. 322 [The Naturalist's Miscellany; ref. 4013] Sumatra, Indonesia [originally American seas]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1977.4.22.4 [ex Royal Coll. Surgons]. Description at http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/40319202 •Valid as Echidna zebra (Shaw 1797) -- (Dor 1984:27 [ref. 29757], Castle & McCosker 1986:167 [ref. 5645], Allen & Swainston 1988:32 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:127 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Gymnomuraena zebra (Shaw 1797) -- (Hatooka in Masuda et al. 1984:25 [ref. 6441], Winterbottom et al. 1989:8 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:35 [ref. 15987], Randall et al. 1994:224 [ref. 21645], Chen et al. 1994:48 [ref. 22258], Allen & Robertson 1994:44 [ref. 22193], Goren & Dor 1994:7 [ref. 25356], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:66 [ref. 22017], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1308 [ref. 22830], Randall & Golani 1995:853 [ref. 21744], Randall 1995:55 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:52 [ref. 23977], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:224 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:149 [ref. 24023], Carpenter et al. 1997:107 [ref. 23922], Randall et al. 1997:35 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:46 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:43 [ref. 24106], Böhlke et al. 1999:1656 [ref. 24692], Böhlke & Randall 2000:224 [ref. 24493], Nakabo 2000:199 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:110 [ref. 25191], Thomson et al. 2000:45 [ref. 25640], Randall & Earle 2000:6 [ref. 25806], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Hutchins 2001:16 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:199 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:22 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:610 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:68 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:6 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:118 [ref. 27715], Nelson et al. 2004:60 [ref. 27807], Heemstra et al. 2004:3316 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:102 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:38 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:116 [ref. 28379], Smith & Böhlke 2006:38 [ref. 28678], Allen et al. 2006:247 [ref. 29005], Randall 2007:83 [ref. 30952], Imamura 2009:17 [ref. 30434], Fricke et al. 2009:15 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:70 [ref. 31256], Zhang et al. 2010:241 [ref. 31511], Fricke et al. 2011:349 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:80 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:10 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Ho et al. 2015:154 [ref. 34130], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:441 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:606 [ref. 34923], Koeda et al. 2016:6 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:34 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:20 [ref. 36273], Huang et al. 2018:[2] [ref. 35898], Eagderi et al. 2019:17 [ref. 37020], Zajonz et al. 2019:61 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Gymnomuraena zebra (Shaw 1797). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-Pacific: East Africa, Persian Gulf, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Galápagos Archipelago and Revillagigedo Archipelago and Bahía Chamela, Mexico, north to Ryukyu Islands and Ogasawara Islands, south to North West Cape (Western Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

zebra, Muraenophis Lesueur [C. A.] 1825:107, Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 5 (pt 1); ref. 17523] Barbados, West Indies. No types known. •Synonym of Echidna catenata (Bloch 1795) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:131 [ref. 13286], Smith 2012:5 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna catenata (Bloch 1795). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

zonata, Echidna Fowler [H. W.] 1900:495, Pl. 18 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 52; ref. 14727] Honolulu, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): ANSP 16484. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:131 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Echidna polyzona (Richardson 1845) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:219 [ref. 24493], Mundy 2005:114 [ref. 28379], Smith & Böhlke 2006:38 [ref. 28678], Smith 2012:6 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna polyzona (Richardson 1845). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

zonipectis, Gymnothorax Seale [A.] 1906:7, Fig. 1 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 3999] Tahiti, Society Islands, South Pacific. Holotype (unique): BPBM 1362. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:156 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Gymnothorax zonipectis Seale 1906 -- (Castle & McCosker 1986:173 [ref. 5645], Allen & Swainston 1988:32 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:132 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:10 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:41 [ref. 15987], Chen et al. 1994:53 [ref. 22258], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:68 [ref. 22017], Allen 1997:52 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:41 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:50 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:55 [ref. 24106], Böhlke et al. 1999:1657 [ref. 24692], Nakabo 2000:208 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:7 [ref. 25806], Böhlke & McCosker 2001:73 [ref. 25226], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:208 [ref. 26001], Böhlke & Smith 2002:156 [ref. 26380], Allen & Adrim 2003:23 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:611 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:12 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:7 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:48 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:125 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:257 [ref. 29005], Randall 2007:75[ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:17 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:73 [ref. 31256], Zhang et al. 2010:279 [ref. 31511], Fricke et al. 2011:351 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:95 [ref. 31980], Smith 2012:29 [ref. 32155], Larson et al. 2013:26 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:20 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Ho et al. 2015:162 [ref. 34130], Koeda et al. 2016:8 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:39 [ref. 35805], Zajonz et al. 2019:62 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax zonipectis Seale 1906. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Society Islands and Marquesas Islands, north to Taiwan and southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Great Barrier Reef (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

zonophaea, Echidna Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:167 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50621. Paratypes: FMNH 3965 (1), CAS-SU 7448 (1), USNM 125491 [ex USBF 1222 = USFC 2698] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:47 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:33 [ref. 12367], Smith 1994:16 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Echidna polyzona (Richardson 1845) -- (Böhlke & Randall 2000:219 [ref. 24493], Mundy 2005:114 [ref. 28379], Smith & Böhlke 2006:38 [ref. 28678], Smith 2012:7 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Echidna polyzona (Richardson 1845). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.