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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Sparidae: [ 490 ] records


abei, Dentex Iwatsuki [Y.], Akazaki [M.] & Taniguchi [N.] 2007:30, Figs. 1A, 2A [Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science (Ser. A) Supplement No. 1; ref. 29100] Off Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan, depth 50 meters. Holotype: NSMT-P 57150. Paratypes: MUFS 7487 (1), 7489 (1), 7491 (1), 7492 (1), 17643-48 (5). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Dentex abei Iwatsuki, Akazaki & Taniguchi 2007 -- (Iwatsuki et al. 2015:114 [ref. 33802], Parenti 2019:59 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Dentex abei Iwatsuki, Akazaki & Taniguchi 2007. Sparidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Philippines and Taiwan north to Japan. Habitat: marine.

acarne, Pagrus Risso [A.] 1827:361 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:68 [ref. 20898]. Neotype designated by Fricke 1999:40 [ref. 24101], but withdrawn in Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Valid as Pagellus acarne (Risso 1827) -- (Tortonese 1973:411 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:898 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:804 [ref. 18793], Santos et al. 1997:91 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:90 [ref. 24952], Fricke 1999:40 [ref. 24101], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:94 [ref. 26753] dated 1826, Golani 2005:44 [ref. 37112] dated 1826, Fricke et al. 2007:88 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:48 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2013:126 [ref. 32972], Fricke et al. 2014:1 [ref. 33592], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2604 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:145 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:557 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:64 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Pagellus acarne (Risso 1827). Sparidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, eastern Atlantic: North Sea south to Senegal, including Madeira and Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.

acromegalus, Dentex Osório [B.] 1911:61, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Memorias do Museu Bocage, Lisboa v. 2; ref. 13025] Ilha de Santo Antão, Cape Verde Islands. Syntypes: MB (destroyed in 1978 fire). •Valid as Virididentex acromegalus (Osório 1911) -- (Bauchot & Hureau 1990:812 [ref. 18793], Wirtz et al. 2013:127 [ref. 32972], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2620 [ref. 34618], Parenti 2019:63 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Virididentex acromegalus (Osório 1911). Sparidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Cape Verde Islands endemic. Habitat: marine.

aculeata, Chrysophrys Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:137 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] America; Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A. Syntypes: MNHN B-2647 (1, dry) Philadelphia. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:43 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Stenotomus chrysops (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:348 [ref. 24550], Parenti 2019:67 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Stenotomus chrysops (Linnaeus 1766). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

acutirostris, Sparus Delaroche [F. E.] 1809:348 [62], Pl. 24 (fig. 12) [Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 13; ref. 17380] [Iviça] Ibiza, Balearic Islands, Spain, western Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-8101. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:62 [ref. 20898]. On p. 62 and Pl. 5 of separate. •Synonym of Puntazzo puntazzo (Cetti 1777 [sic]) -- (Tortonese 1973:413 [ref. 7192]). •Synonym of Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum 1792) -- (Fricke et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:81 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum 1792). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

aeneus, Cantharus Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1908:166 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 14320] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1935.1.23.6 [ex SAM]. •Valid as Pachymetopon aeneum (Gilchrist & Thompson 1908) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:588 [ref. 5710], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:228 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2018:220 [ref. 35805], Parenti 2019:52 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Pachymetopon aeneum (Gilchrist & Thompson 1908). Sparidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: Cape of Good Hope to Sodwana Bay (South Africa); Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

afer, Pagellus Pappe [C. W. L.] 1853:20 [Synopsis of the edible fishes at the Cape of Good Hope; ref. 18517] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. •Possible synonym of Pterogymnus laniarius (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:592 [ref. 5710], Parenti 2019:85 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Uncertain as Pterogymnus laniarius (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

affinis, Pagellus Boulenger [G. A.] 1888:659 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1887 (pt 4); ref. 14479] Muscat, Oman, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1851.10.26.26 or 1887.11.11.144 (stuffed). A second specimen (skin) was mentioned in passing and not regarded as a type. •Valid as Pagellus affinis Boulenger 1888 -- (Bauchot & Bauchot 1983:1136 [ref. 35088], Randall 1995:227 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:182 [ref. 23922], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Amir et al. 2013:222 [ref. 32960], Siddiqui at al. 2014:86 [ref. 33479], Fricke et al. 2014:1 [ref. 33592], Psomadakis et al. 2015:263 [ref. 34104], Eagderi et al. 2019:114 [ref. 37020], Parenti 2019:65 [ref. 36892], Zajonz et al. 2019:80 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Pagellus affinis Boulenger 1888. Sparidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Somalia, Gulf of Aden, Socotra and Persian Gulf east to Pakistan and India. Habitat: marine.

africanus, Pagrus Akazaki [M.] 1962:166, 351, Fig. 35 [Studies on the spariform fishes; ref. 5771] Cape Blanc [Blanco], [Mauritania/Spanish Sahara], northwestern coast of Africa. Holotype: FAKU 33993. Paratypes: FAKU 33994 (1). •Valid as Pagrus africanus Akazaki 1962 -- (Bauchot & Hureau 1990:806 [ref. 18793], Wirtz et al. 2013:126 [ref. 32972], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2608 [ref. 34618], Parenti 2019:84 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Pagrus africanus Akazaki 1962. Sparidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania south to Angola. Habitat: brackish, marine.

agon, Labrus Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1847:col. 123 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Not available, Chiereghini name mentioned in synonymy -- (Parenti 2019:90 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae.

akazakii, Acanthopagrus Iwatsuki [Y.], Kimura [S.] & Yoshino [T.] 2006:409, Figs. 1A, 2A-B, 3 [Ichthyological Research v. 53 (no. 4); ref. 29239] Pecheus Bay yacht harbor, Noumèa, Grande Terre, Province Sud, New Caledonia, Coral Sea, southwestern Pacific. Holotype: MUFS 14209. Paratypes: FRLM 21171 (1); MNHN 2005-1958 (1); MUFS 14199 (1), 14210-13 (4), 14215-17 (3). •Valid as Acanthopagrus akazakii Iwatsuki, Kimura & Yoshino 2006 -- (Kume & Yoshino 2008:53 [ref. 29572], Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2009:49 [ref. 30528], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2010:132 [ref. 30738], Iwatsuki et al. 2010:115 [ref. 31106], Fricke 2011:402 [ref. 31242], Iwatsuki 2013:87 [ref. 32744], Parenti 2019:68 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Acanthopagrus akazakii Iwatsuki, Kimura & Yoshino 2006. Sparidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Grande Terre (New Caledonia) endemic. Habitat: marine.

albus, Dentex Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1914:128, Fig. [Marine biological report: for the year ended ... and for the half year ending ...; to be presented to the Provincial Council; Union of South Africa, Province of the Cape of Good Hope. No. 2 (VII); ref. 15094] KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAM 11701. •Synonym of Cheimerius nufar (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:583 [ref. 5710], Siddiqui at al. 2014:80 [ref. 33479], Parenti 2019:58 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Cheimerius nufar (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

alcedo, Sparus Risso [A.] 1810:258 [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:70 [ref. 20898], Bauchot 1974:990 [ref. 21548]. •Synonym of Spicara smaris (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese et al. 1973:418 [ref. 7202], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:911 [ref. 13676], Heemstra 1990:771 [ref. 18769], Golani 2005:45 [ref. 37112], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:50 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:372 [ref. 33547], Parenti 2019:56 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara smaris (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

aldrovandi, Sparus Nardo [G. D.] 1827:31, 38 (no. 117) [Giornale di fisica, chimica e storia naturale, medicina, ed arti. (series 2) Dec. II, v. 10; ref. 3146] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Also in Nardo 1827:col. 480 and 486 [ref. 19740]. •Synonym of Diplodus vulgaris (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817) -- (Fricke et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:83 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus vulgaris (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

algoae, Caesio Smith [J. L. B.] 1935:195 [Records of the Albany Museum Grahamstown v. 4; ref. 4066] Off Algoa Bay, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 60 fathoms. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] [ex AMG] 38. •Synonym of Spicara axillaris (Boulenger 1900) -- (Heemstra 1986:595 [ref. 5660], Parenti 2019:54 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara axillaris (Boulenger 1900). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

algoensis, Chrysophrys Castelnau [F. L.] 1861:22 [Mémoire sur les poissons de l'Afrique australe; ref. 767] Algoa Bay, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): type not at MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:65 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Chrysoblephus laticeps (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:584 [ref. 5710], Parenti 2019:77 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Chrysoblephus laticeps (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

altus, Smaris Osório [B.] 1917:125, Pl. 7 [= Pl. 35] [Arquivo da Universidade de Lisboa v. 4; ref. 3318] Coast of Morocco, eastern Atlantic. Holotype (unique): MB (destroyed by fire 1978). •Doubtful species -- (Tortonese et al. 1973:417 [ref. 7202]). •Valid as Spicara alta (Osório 1917) -- (Heemstra 1990:769 [ref. 18769], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2615 [ref. 34618], Parenti 2019:54 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Spicara alta (Osório 1917). Sparidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal south to Angola. Habitat: marine.

altus, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:30, 104 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Nagasaki, Kyushu, Japan, northwestern Pacific Ocean. No types known. •Synonym of Acanthopagrus latus (Houttuyn 1782) -- (Parenti 2019:69 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthopagrus latus (Houttuyn 1782). Sparidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

ambassis, Sargus Günther [A.] 1859:449 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] New York, U.S.A.; North America. Syntypes: (5) BMNH 1848.1.12.763 (left half skin), 1856.4.18.8 (1) Brant spec., 2011.6.9.1 (1). Also listed was Plate XXVIII. fig. A, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." •Synonym of Stenotomus chrysops (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Smith 1986:430 [ref. 22186], Parenti 2019:67 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Stenotomus chrysops (Linnaeus 1766). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

americana, Sparus aurata Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:272 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] America. •Synonym of Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:84 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

analis, Sargus Poey [F.] 1955:326 [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1; ref. 22481] whereabouts unknown. Sargus no. 200 of Poey 1875 [ref. 3509]. Posthumous publication. Also appeared in Poey 2000:220 [ref. 26366] with figures in atlas. •Incertae sedis in Sparidae -- (Parenti 2019:90 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

anglicus, Chrysophrys Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1908:172 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 14320] Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAM 9921 (dry). •Valid as Chrysoblephus anglicus (Gilchrist & Thompson 1908) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:583 [ref. 5710], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:217 [ref. 28072], Parenti 2019:76 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Chrysoblephus anglicus (Gilchrist & Thompson 1908). Sparidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: Algoa Bay (South Africa) to Mozambique Habitat: marine.

angolensis, Dentex Poll [M.] & Maul [G. E.] 1953:1, Fig. [Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique v. 29 (no. 49); ref. 12715] Atlantic, 45 miles northeastern of Port Gentil, Gabon, 0°00'S, 8°58'E, depth 250-300 meters. Holotype: IRSNB 111. Paratypes: (87) IRSNB 112-131 (56), MRAC 97764-91 (28), coll. "Baldaque da Silva" (1). •Valid as Dentex angolensis Poll & Maul 1953 -- (Bauchot & Hureau 1990:793 [ref. 18793], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:361 [ref. 27969], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2583 [ref. 34618], Parenti 2019:59 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Dentex angolensis Poll & Maul 1953. Sparidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Morocco south to Angola. Habitat: marine.

angustatus, Smaris Valenciennes [A.] (ex Solander) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:421 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Madeira. No types known, not at MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot 1974:990 [ref. 21548]. •Synonym of Centracanthus cirrus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Döderlein 1891:256 [ref. 17416], Parenti 2019:89 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Centracanthus cirrus Rafinesque 1810. Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

annularis, Puntazzo Bleeker [P.] 1876:284 [Archives néerlandaises des sciences exactes et naturelles v. 11; ref. 447] Based on Charax puntazzo of Cuvier & Valenciennes = Sparus puntazzo Walbaum 1792; perhaps a new name to avoid Strickland tautonymy. •Synonym of Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum 1792) -- (Fricke et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:82 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum 1792). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

annularis, Sparus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:278 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. •Valid as Diplodus annularis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:409 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:891 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:795 [ref. 18793], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:750 [ref. 24702], Popova 1998:121 [ref. 23588], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:91 [ref. 26753], Parin 2003:S10 [ref. 28536], Golani 2005:42 [ref. 37112], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:179 [ref. 28369], Fricke et al. 2007:87 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:98 [ref. 30517], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:170 [ref. 31251], Casu et al. 2009:142 [ref. 30209], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:47 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:368 [ref. 33547], Fricke et al. 2016:12 [ref. 34520], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2591 [ref. 34618], Golani et al. 2017:529 [ref. 35726], Martins & Carneiro 2018:152 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:556 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:97 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:78 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus annularis (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, Black Sea, Sea of Azov, eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to Madeira and Canary Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

anularis, Sparus Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:383 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. Also appeared in Devincenzi 1925:302, 322 [ref. 20322] as Sparus sargo vel annularis; Devincenzi treated as a synonym Sargus argenteus Valenciennes 1830. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Sparus annularis Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Diplodus argenteus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Parenti 2019:79 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus argenteus (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

arabicus, Acanthopagrus Iwatsuki [Y.] 2013:83, Fig. 4 (b) [Journal of Fish Biology v. 83 (no. 1); ref. 32744] Western Coast of Qatar (market specimen). Holotype: MUFS 33840. Paratypes: MUFS 19109 (1), 19123-24 (2), 19568 (1), 27226 (1), 25800-805 (6), 33839 (1). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Acanthopagrus arabicus Iwasuki 2013 -- (Saddiqui et al. 2014:73 [ref. 33479], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:896 [ref. 34062], Psomadakis et al. 2015:260 [ref. 34104], Esmaeili et al. 2017:96 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:78 [ref. 36089], Ali et al. 2018:328 [ref. 36183], Ali et al. 2019:37 [ref. 36839], Eagderi et al. 2019:112 [ref. 37020], Parenti 2019:68 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Acanthopagrus arabicus Iwatsuki 2013. Sparidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf and Oman east to Pakistan and India. Habitat: marine.

arctifrons, Calamus Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1882:425 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 297); ref. 1840] Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 30163. •Valid as Calamus arctifrons Goode & Bean 1882 -- (Randall & Caldwell 1966:17 [ref. 9053], Robins & Ray 1986:182 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:141 [ref. 23239], Carpenter 2003:1561 [ref. 27092], Nelson et al. 2004:145 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:391 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708], Parenti 2019:74 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Calamus arctifrons Goode & Bean 1882. Sparidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Louisiana south to southern Florida (U.S.A.). Habitat: marine.

arenosus, Sargus DeKay [J. E.] 1842:91, Pl. 22 (fig. 67) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] South side of Long Island, New York, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): New York State coll. (whereabouts unknown). •Synonym of Stenotomus chrysops (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Parenti 2019:67 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Stenotomus chrysops (Linnaeus 1766). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

argenteus, Sargus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:60 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-8555 (3), A-8105 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:56 [ref. 20898]. •Valid as Diplodus argenteus (Valenciennes 1830), subspecies argenteus -- (Carpenter 2003:1571 [ref. 27092], Nión et al. 2016:48 [ref. 35565], Spier et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36103]). •Valid as Diplodus argenteus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:182 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:443 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:225 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1645 [ref. 25634], Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:106 [ref. 25942], López et al. 2002:65 [ref. 26808], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:86 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:400 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708], Fabiano et al. 2014:9 [ref. 33530], Pinheiro et al. 2015:20 [ref. 34324], Fricke et al. 2016:12 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:79 [ref. 36892], Ribeiro et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus argenteus (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Brazil south to Argentina. Habitat: marine.

argenteus, Smaris Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Rüppell 1828-30:13 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Not available, name only (Parenti 2019:91 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae.

argenteus, Sparus Commerson [P.] in Lacepède 1802:132 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Appeared as "Sparus argenteus, lineis lateralibus ..." in account of Sparus britannus; regarded as non-binominal and not available (Parenti 2019:91 [ref. 36892]). See ICZN Opinion 89. Sparidae.

argenteus, Sparus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:271 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Based on Sparus pagrus of Brünnich 1768:42 and 94 [ref. 17290]. •Synonym of Sparus pagrus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Tortonese 1973:406 [ref. 7192]). •Synonym of Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

argyrops, Sparus Linnaeus [C.] 1766:471 [Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2786] Carolina, U.S.A. and Jamaica. Syntypes: Linn. Soc. London 105 (right half-skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1985:59-60 [ref. 20705]. Type information: Goode & Bean 1885:199 [ref. 1841]. Based on one specimen and references to Sparus iride argentea of Browne 1756:446 [ref. 30188] [Jamaica] and Xanthurus indicus of Willughby 1686: App. pl. 3 [ref. 30164]. •Synonym of Stenotomus chrysops (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Parenti 2019:67 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Stenotomus chrysops (Linnaeus 1766). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

argyrozona, Dentex Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:235 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-9018-20 (2, 1, 1), A-6185 (1), A-8083 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:47-48 [ref. 20898]. •Valid as Argyrozona argyrozona (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:582 [ref. 5710], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:214 [ref. 28072], Parenti 2019:58 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Argyrozona argyrozona (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, southwestern Indian Ocean: Table Bay to KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa). Habitat: marine.

aries, Chrysophrys Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:67, Pl. 31 [Fauna Japonica Parts 2-4; ref. 4371] Nagasaki, Nagasaki Prefecture, Kyūshū, Japan, western North Pacific. Lectotype: RMNH D407 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH D406 (1, stuffed), D955 (1). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:72 [ref. 12876]. •Synonym of Rhabdosargus sarba (Gmelin 1789) (author often seen as Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:160 [ref. 29757], Tanaka & Iwatsuki 2013:9 [ref. 32775], Siddiqui at al. 2014:87 [ref. 33479], Parenti 2019:87 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Rhabdosargus sarba (Gmelin 1789). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

aries, Sargus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:58 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-8568 (1) Rio de Janeiro, 0000-8574 (1) Lake Maracaibo. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:57-58 [ref. 20898] as holotype and paratype. •Synonym of Archosargus probatocephalus (Walbaum 1792), but a valid subspecies -- (Lee et al. 1980:754 [ref. 22416], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:177 [ref. 22947], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:352 [ref. 24550]). •Synonym of Archosargus probatocephalus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Carpenter 2003:1559 [ref. 27092]). •Valid as Archosargus aries (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:85 [ref. 27192], Parenti 2019:71 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Archosargus aries (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

armatus, Pagellus Castelnau [F. L.] 1861:27 [Mémoire sur les poissons de l'Afrique australe; ref. 767] Market at Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Holotype (unique): not at MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:67 [ref. 20898]. •Possibly a synonym of Dentex macrophthalmus (Bloch 1791) -- (Parenti 2019:61 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Uncertain as Dentex macrophthalmus (Bloch 1791). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

arthurius, Pagrus Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1906:517, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 31 (no. 1493); ref. 2531] Port Arthur, Manchuria, China. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 9880. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:79 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Pagrus auratus (Forster 1801) -- (Paulin 1990:261 [ref. 15774]). •Synonym of Chrysophrys auratus (Forster 1801) -- (Parenti 2019:78 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Chrysophrys auratus (Forster 1801). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ascensionis, Sargus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:61 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Ascension Island. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-8582 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:58 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Bauchot & Hureau 1990:798 [ref. 18793], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2579 [ref. 34618]). •Valid as Diplodus ascensionis (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Wirtz et al. 2014:8 [ref. 33516], Fricke et al. 2016:12 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:79 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus ascensionis (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Distribution: Southern central Atlantic: Ascension Island endemic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

atkinsoni, Salema Fowler [H. W.] 1940:2, Figs. 1-4 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 49; ref. 1434] Brought by off-shore trawlers into Cape May, New Jersey, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ANSP 69130. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:157 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Lagodon rhomboides (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Parenti 2019:51 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Lagodon rhomboides (Linnaeus 1766). Sparidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

aurata, Sciaena Forster [J. R.] in Richardson 1842:392 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 9 (no. 59) (art. 42); ref. 21247] Not available, Forster name mentioned in synonymy of Pagrus latus (Parenti 2019:91 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae.

aurata, Sciana Forster [J. R.] in Lichtenstein 1844:307 [Descriptiones animalium quae in itinere ad Maris Australis; ref. 17531] Aestuario Reginae Charlottae, in Nova Zelandia [= Queen Charlotte Sound, Marlborough Sounds, South Island, New Zealand]. No types known. Lichtenstein (editor, p. 308, footnote) treats as a synonym of "Labrus auratus Bl. Schn. pag. 266." Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

aurata, Sparus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:277 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea; Venezuela. No types known. Based on multiple sources, including Mediterranean records by Artedi, Gronow and Hasselquist, but also "Cochicato" of Loefling 1758:104 [ref. 35527], which is a species of Calamus from Venezuela; see remarks under Sparus aurata cochicato Bloch & Schneider 1801. •Valid as Sparus aurata Linnaeus 1758 -- (Tortonese 1973:405 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:906 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:810 [ref. 18793], Coad 1996:86 [ref. 25304], Arruda 1997:91 [ref. 24952], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:97 [ref. 26753], Parin 2003:S12 [ref. 28536], Golani 2005:45 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:89 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:103 [ref. 30517], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:171 [ref. 31251], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:49 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:370 [ref. 33547], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2614 [ref. 34618], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[22] 260 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:101 [ref. 36273], Martins & Carneiro 2018:135 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:557 [ref. 36612], Ćaleta et al. 2019:190 [ref. 37026], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36864], Eagderi et al. 2019:115 [ref. 37020], Parenti 2019:88 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Sparus aurata Linnaeus 1758. Sparidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic: British Isles south to Senegal, including Cape Verde Islands; introduced in Madeira and Persian Gulf; Red Sea (Mediterranean immigrant). Habitat: brackish, marine.

auratoides, Sparus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:51 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:25 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Sparus aurata Linnaeus 1758 -- (Parenti 2019:89 [ref. 36892], Parenti 2019:117 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Sparus aurata Linnaeus 1758. Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

auratus, Labrus Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:266 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Queen Charlotte Sound, Marlborough Sounds, South Island, New Zealand. No types known. Based on "Sciaena aurata" in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage); see Forster 1844:307 [ref. 18092]. Schneider apparently did not see figure or specimen so authorship is regarded as Forster in Bloch & Schneider. •Valid as Pagrus auratus (Forster 1801) -- (Paulin et al. 1989:188 [ref. 24556], Paulin 1990:261 [ref. 15774], Yamada in Amaoka et al. 1990:277 [ref. 16024], Francis 1993:161 [ref. 25479], Randall et al. 1997:195 [ref. 25919], Johnson 1999:737 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Carpenter 2001:3002 [ref. 26104], Bray et al. 2006:1229 [ref. 29091]). •Valid as Chrysophrys auratus (Forster 1801) -- (Randall et al. 1990:195 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:193 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:600 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:176 [ref. 25488], Gomon 2008:589 [ref. 30616], Trnski & Roberts 2015:1288 [ref. 34203], Hoschke et al. 2019:156 [ref. 36626], Parenti 2019:77 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Chrysophrys auratus (Forster 1801). Sparidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Japan, China Sea; Australia, New Zealand. Habitat: brackish, marine.

auratus, Sparus Houttuyn [M.] 1782:318 [Verhandelingen der Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen, Haarlem v. 20 (pt 2); ref. 2220] A misidentification of Sparus aurata [auratus] Linnaeus (see Boeseman 1995:6 [ref. 21811]). •In the synonymy of Pagrus auratus (Forster 1801) -- (Paulin 1990:261 [ref. 15774]). •In the synonymy of Sparus aurata Linnaeus 1758. Current status: Synonym of Sparus aurata Linnaeus 1758. Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

aureti, Lithognathus Smith [J. L. B.] 1962:113, Pl. 2 [South African Journal of Science v. 58 (no. 4); ref. 6457] Walvis Bay, Namibia, southeastern Atlantic. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 635. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 635 (1). •Valid as Lithognathus aureti Smith 1962 -- (Smith & Smith 1986:587 [ref. 5710], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:801 [ref. 18793], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:162 [ref. 25472], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:226 [ref. 28072], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2579 [ref. 34618], Parenti 2019:63 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Lithognathus aureti Smith 1962. Sparidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic: Namibia to Cape Town (South Africa). Habitat: marine.

auricularis, Sargus Günther [A.] 1859:438 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] No locality. Holotype (unique): BMNH. Proposed conditionally but available (before 1961). •Synonym of Diplodus vulgaris (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817) -- (Parenti 2019:83 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus vulgaris (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

auriga, Pagrus Valenciennes [A.] 1843:34 [Ichthyologie des îles Canaries v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 4502] Canary Islands, eastern Atlantic. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-3830 (dry). Other material: MNHN A-0682 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:54 [ref. 20898] with holotype and paratype. •Synonym of Sparus caeruleostictus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Tortonese 1973:405 [ref. 7192]). •Valid as Argyrops auriga (Valenciennes 1843) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:122 [ref. 19754]). •Valid as Pagrus auriga Valenciennes 1843 -- (Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:902 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:807 [ref. 18793], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:163 [ref. 25472], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:96 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:44 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:88 [ref. 29533], Wirtz et al. 2013:126 [ref. 32972] needs confirmation, Bañón et al. 2014:323 [ref. 33674], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2609 [ref. 34618], Freitas et al. 2018:77 [ref. 36259], Martins & Carneiro 2018:137 [ref. 36550], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:84 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Pagrus auriga Valenciennes 1843. Sparidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Spain south to Angola, including Madeira and Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.

auripes, Chrysophrys Richardson [J.] 1846:241 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, Chinese Seas, China. Lectotype: BMNH 2004.10.17.1 (left half skin). Type information: Whitehead 1970:213 [ref. 11606]. Based on a specimen and drawing. Lectotype selected by Iwatsuki 2013. •May be a junior synonym of Acanthopagrus latus (Houttuyn 1782) -- (Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2006:15 [ref. 28673]). •Mention -- (Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2009:51 [ref. 30528]). •Synonym of Acanthopagrus latus (Houttuyn 1782) -- (Kume & Yoshino 2008:53 [ref. 29572], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2010:132 [ref. 30738], Iwatsuki 2013:73 [ref. 32744], Kottelat 2013:352 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2019:69 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthopagrus latus (Houttuyn 1782). Sparidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

auriventris, Sargus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1855:435 [Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855; ref. 3449] Mozambique. No types known. Also described as new in Peters 1855:243 [ref. 13448]. •Synonym of Rhabdosargus sarba (Gmelin 1789) (author often seen as Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:593 [ref. 5710], Bauchot & Skelton 1986:332 [ref. 6210], Bray et al. 2006:1230 [ref. 29091], Tanaka & Iwasuki 2013:9 [ref. 32775], Siddiqui at al. 2014:87 [ref. 33479], Parenti 2019:87 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Rhabdosargus sarba (Gmelin 1789). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

australis, Chrysophrys Günther [A.] 1859:494 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Australian seas and rivers. Syntypes: BMNH 1844.2.15.57-58 (2 right half skins), 1846.10.22.21 (right half skin), 1847.6.17.75 (right half skin), 1848.10.25.26 (left half skin), 1855.9.19.2 (1, skin), 1858.8.16.30 (left half skin), 1863.1.15.25 (right half skin). Also listed was Plate XXVIII. fig. B, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." The Owen 1853 reference has not been researched. but the species is a nomen nudum. •Valid as Acanthopagrus australis (Günther 1859) -- (Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:178 [ref. 6441], Kuiter 1993:192 [ref. 23929] with author as Owen 1853, Kuiter 1997:176 [ref. 25488], Johnson 1999:737 [ref. 25471] with author as Owen 1853, Carpenter 2001:2995 [ref. 26104], Allen et al. 2002:343 [ref. 25930], Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2006:13 [ref. 28673], Bray et al. 2006:1226 [ref. 29091], Kume & Yoshino 2008:53 [ref. 29572], Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2009:44 [ref. 30528], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2010:133 [ref. 30738], Iwatsuki et al. 2010:115 [ref. 31106], Iwatsuki 2013:87 [ref. 32744], Trnski & Roberts 2015:1286 [ref. 34203], Parenti 2019:68 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Acanthopagrus australis (Günther 1859). Sparidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: eastern Australia and one specimen from New Zealand. Habitat: brackish, marine.

australis, Smaris Regan [C. T.] 1921:416 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9) v. 7 (no. 41); ref. 3672] 15-20 miles off Umvoti River, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 120-130 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1921.3.1.14-15 (2). •Valid as Spicara australis (Regan 1921) -- (Heemstra 1986:595 [ref. 5660], Parenti 2019:54 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Spicara australis (Regan 1921). Sparidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa). Habitat: marine.

axilaris, Sparus Perez [L.] 1820:97, Pl. (unnumbered) [Periódico de la Sociedad Médico-Quirúrgica de Cadiz v. 1; ref. 26491] Mare Baeticum [off Andalusia, southern Spain]. Holotype (unique) (?): whereabouts unknown. Included in synonymy of Pagellus acarne Cuv. & Val. (an error for Pagrus acarne Risso 1827) in Machado 1857:14 [ref. 17320], with description repeated from Perez in footnote. Parenti & Poly 2004:171 [ref. 27808] suggest continued use of acarne Risso 1827 based on invalidation of axilaris by reversal of precedence (Art. 23.9). •The same as the well known Pagellus acarne (Risso 1827) -- (Parenti & Poly 2004:171 [ref. 27808], Parenti 2019:64 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pagellus acarne (Risso 1827). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

axillaris, Caesio Boulenger [G. A.] 1900:10, Pl. 1 [Marine Investigations in South Africa No. 8; ref. 14723] Buffalo Bay, in False Bay, South Africa, depth 20 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1889.12.17.21. •Valid as Spicara axillaris (Boulenger 1900) -- (Heemstra 1986:595 [ref. 5660], Parenti 2019:54 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Spicara axillaris (Boulenger 1900). Sparidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, southwestern Indian Ocean: Cape Town to KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa). Habitat: marine.

axillaris, Sparus Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] 1817:7 [Lista de los peces del mar de Andalucía; ref. 17319] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only, not available. See also Sparus axillaris Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler in Graells 1887:179 [ref. 30438]. •In genus Pagellus Valenciennes 1830. Current status: Synonym of Pagellus. Sparidae.

axillaris, Sparus Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] in Graells 1887:179 [Revista de los Progresos de las Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Madrid v. 22 (no. 3); ref. 30438] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only, not available. See Sparus axillaris Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817. •In genus Pagellus Valenciennes 1830. Sparidae.

baissaci, Polysteganus Smith [M. M.] 1978:563, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 91 (no. 3); ref. 6936] Northwest of Gunner's Coin [Guoin], 19°56'30"S, 57°37'E, Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 29. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 1350 (1). •Valid as Polysteganus baissaci Smith 1978 -- (Fricke 1999:294 [ref. 24106], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2011:18 [ref. 31500], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2015:146 [ref. 34109], Parenti 2019:62 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Polysteganus baissaci Smith 1978. Sparidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: Mauritius (Mascarenes) endemic. Habitat: marine.

bajonado, Sparus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Parra) 1801:284 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Vicinity of Nassau, Bahamas [original locality Cuba]. Neotype: LACM 4419. Neotype designated by Randall & Caldwell 1966:28 [ref. 9053]. Based on the 'Bajonado' of Parra 1787:13, Pl. 8 (fig. 1) [ref. 6840]. •Valid as Sparus bajonado Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Randall & Caldwell 1966:26 [ref. 9053]). •Valid as Calamus bajonado (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:183 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:141 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:441 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:228 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:267 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:162 [ref. 27754], Carpenter 2003:1562 [ref. 27092], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:85 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:36 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:392 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:56 [ref. 33341], Parenti 2019:74 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Calamus bajonado (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sparidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda and northern Gulf of Mexico south to Brazil. Habitat: marine.

barnardi, Dentex Cadenat [J.] in Blache, Cadenat & Stauch 1970:325, Fig. 843 [Clés de détermination des poissons de mer signalés dans l'Atlantique oriental v. 18; ref. 17964] Southeastern Atlantic, 9°20'S, 13°04'E, depth 20-22 meters. Syntypes: Guinean Trawling Survey (4, ? now 0); IRSNB 529 (1, as holotype) IRSNB 530-544 (5, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1, 4, 4, 1, 1, 3, 2, 3, 1, 1); MRAC 97752 (1), 97754-63 (10), 128025-26 (1, 1), 128361 (1), 174608-09 (1, 1), 177456-58 (3). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:27 [ref. 20755], with holotype. Appeared in key with figure as, "D. [Dentex] barnardi Cadenat 1964 (= D. canariensis sensu Poll 1954)." No publication in 1964 found. •Valid as Dentex barnardi Cadenat 1970 -- (Bauchot & Hureau 1990:791 [ref. 18793], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:161 [ref. 25472], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2584 [ref. 34618], Parenti 2019:59 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Dentex barnardi Cadenat 1970. Sparidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic Gabon south to Angola. Habitat: marine.

belayewi, Petrus Hora [S. L.] & Misra [K. S.] 1943:12, Figs. 6-7 [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 13086] Rivers and Hors, Iraq. Holotype (unique): ZSI F-13628/1. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:145 [ref. 20743]. See Das 2003:376 [ref. 27706]. •Probably a synonym of Acanthopagrus berda (Forsskål 1775) -- (Coad 1991:26 [ref. 15702]). •Mention -- (Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2006:13 [ref. 28673]). •In genus Sparidentex -- (Kume & Yoshino 2008:52 [ref. 29572], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2010:132 [ref. 30738] with uncertain status). •Valid as Sparidentex belayewi (Hora & Misra 1943) -- (Amir et al. 2014:476 [ref. 33280], Ali et al. 2018:329 [ref. 36183], Eagderi et al. 2019:115 [ref. 37020], Parenti 2019:87 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Sparidentex belayewi (Hora & Misra 1943). Sparidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf endemic. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

bellottii, Pagellus Steindachner [F.] 1882:41 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 19 (no. 5) (for 9 Feb. 1882); ref. 20486] Arglim Bank, Canary Islands; Gorée, Senegal [eastern Atlantic]. Syntypes: MSNG (2). Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1882:5 [p. 5 in separate], Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [ref. 18784]. •Valid as Pagellus bellottii Steindachner 1882 -- (Bauchot & Bauchot 1983:1136 [ref. 35088], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:899 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:804 [ref. 18793], Afonso et al. 1999:75 [ref. 25466], Wirtz et al. 2007:35 [ref. 30263], Fricke et al. 2014:1 [ref. 33592], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2605 [ref. 34618], Almeida & Alves 2019:273 [ref. 37097], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:65 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Pagellus bellottii Steindachner 1882. Sparidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Gibraltar south to Angola, offshore islands including São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

bellottii, Sargus Steindachner [F.] 1882:41 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 19 (no. 5) (for 9 Feb. 1882); ref. 20486] Arglim Bank, Canary Islands. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1882:6 [p. 6 of separate], Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [ref. 18784]. •Valid as Diplodus bellottii (Steindachner 1882) -- (Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:892 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:796 [ref. 18793], Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2592 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:160 [ref. 36550], Parenti 2019:79 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus bellottii (Steindachner 1882). Sparidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Strait of Gibraltar south to Senegal. Habitat: marine.

berda, Sparus Fabricius [J. C.] in Niebuhr (ex Forsskål) 1775:32, xi [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Al-Luhayya [Luhaiya], Yemen, Red Sea, approximately 15°41'52"N, 41°41'07"E. Holotype (unique): ZMUC P50555 (left dry skin, poor condition). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:67 [ref. 9588]. Holotype figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:Pl. 6 [ref. 20847]. New name for Chaetodon bifasciatus Forsskål 1775. Authorship follows Fricke 2008:40 [ref. 30182]. •Valid as Sparus berda Fabricius 1775 (author often seen as Forsskål) -- (Yu & Zhou in Kuang et al. 1986:242 [ref. 26639], Ye in Pan et al. 1991:403 [ref. 23876]). •Valid as Acanthopagrus berda (Fabricius 1775) (author often seen as Forsskål) -- (Roberts 1978:59 [ref. 8886], Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:178 [ref. 6441], Dor 1984:157 [ref. 29757], Smith & Smith 1986:581 [ref. 5710], Bauchot & Skelton 1986:331 [ref. 6210], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:532 [ref. 25598], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:847 [ref. 20764], Coad 1991:26 [ref. 15702], Kottelat et al. 1993:116 [ref. 23448], Skelton 1993:356 [ref. 24071], Goren & Dor 1994:43 [ref. 25356], Poll & Gosse 1995:123 [ref. 24781], Randall 1995:223 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:360 [ref. 27969], Larson & Williams 1997:361 [ref. 23967], Kuiter 1997:178 [ref. 25488], Carpenter et al. 1997:180 [ref. 23922], Nakabo 2000:857 [ref. 25086], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:619 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:68 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:135 [ref. 25480], Allen et al. 2000:109 [ref. 27467], Sakai et al. 2001:100 [ref. 25693], Carpenter 2001:2996 [ref. 26104], Skelton 2001:356 [ref. 27406], Allen et al. 2002:343 [ref. 25930], Nakabo 2002:857 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:212 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:287 [ref. 28239], Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2006:2 [ref. 28673], Bray et al. 2006:1226 [ref. 29091], Iwatsuki et al. 2006:406 [ref. 29239], Kume & Yoshino 2008:53 [ref. 29572], Allen et al. 2008:136 [ref. 30265], Fricke 2008:40 [ref. 30182], Iwatsuki 2009:165 [ref. 30483], Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2009:43 [ref. 30528], Coad 2010:262 [ref. 36620], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2010:124 [ref. 30738], Iwatsuki et al. 2010:115 [ref. 31106], Marshall 2011:263 [ref. 31755], Iwatsuki 2013:87 [ref. 32744], Kottelat 2013:352 [ref. 32989], Saddiqui et al. 2014:74 [ref. 33479], Psomadakis et al. 2015:260 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:328 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:218 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:100 [ref. 36273], Suresh et al. 2018:244 [ref. 36495], Eagderi et al. 2019:112 [ref. 37020], Parenti 2019:68 [ref. 36892], Zajonz et al. 2019:79 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Acanthopagrus berda (Fabricius 1775). Sparidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indian Ocean: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Madagascar and Persian Gulf east to Malaysia and Singapore. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

bermudensis, Diplodus Caldwell [D. K.] 1965:217, Fig. 1 [Fieldiana Zoology v. 44 (no. 23); ref. 9202] Whalebone Bay, St. George's Island, Bermuda. Holotype: FMNH 72520. Paratypes: ANSP 101207-10 (1, 1, 4, 31); FMNH 4976-81 (1, 8, 1, 1, 1, 1), 48092 (6), 48108 (7), 48120 (2), 48160 (22, now 21), 48199 (118), 48291 (9), 48327 (3); LACM 3337 (5); UMMZ 172336 (1 of 122), 172364 (1); USNM 177982 (6), 178505 (1), 178524 (1), 178593 (56), 178656 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:157 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:32 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Diplodus bermudensis Caldwell 1965 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:268 [ref. 25013], Carpenter 2003:1572 [ref. 27092], Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:79 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus bermudensis Caldwell 1965. Sparidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda. Habitat: marine.

bertheloti, Pagrus Valenciennes [A.] 1843:33 [Ichthyologie des îles Canaries v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 4502] Canary Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-7750 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:55 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Sparus caeruleostictus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Tortonese 1973:405 [ref. 7192]). •Synonym of Pagrus caeruleostictus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Bauchot & Hureau 1990:807 [ref. 18793], Parenti 2019:84 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pagrus caeruleostictus (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bifasciatus, Chaetodon Forsskål [P. S.] in Niebuhr 1775:64, xiii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): ZMUC-P50557 (dry skin). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:67 [ref. 9588]. Holotype figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:Pl. 35 [ref. 20847]. •Valid as Neosparus bifasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Akazaki 1994:327 [ref. 23561], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377]). •Valid as Acanthopagrus bifasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:157 [ref. 29757], Smith & Smith 1986:581 [ref. 5710], Goren & Dor 1994:43 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:223 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:180 [ref. 23922], Fricke 1999:291 [ref. 24106], Heemstra et al. 2004:3321 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:211 [ref. 28072], Kume & Yoshino 2008:53 [ref. 29572], Fricke et al. 2009:65 [ref. 30213], Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2009:44 [ref. 30528], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2010:134 [ref. 30738], Iwatsuki et al. 2010:115 [ref. 31106], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2011:39 [ref. 31505], Fricke et al. 2013:260 [ref. 32706], Kottelat 2013:442 [ref. 32989], Iwatsuki 2013:87 [ref. 32744], Ali et al. 2018:328 [ref. 36183], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[21] 259 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:100 [ref. 36273], Jawad et al. 2018:111 [ref. 36262], Eagderi et al. 2019:112 [ref. 37020], Parenti 2019:68 [ref. 36892], Zajonz et al. 2019:79 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Acanthopagrus bifasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Sparidae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: Mozambique Channel, Socotra, Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman and Iran to Pakistan. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bilobatus, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:45, 141, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Indo-Pacific. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:70 [ref. 20898]. •Incertae sedis in Sparidae (Parenti 2019:90 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

bilunulata, Aurata Risso [A.] 1827:356, Pl. 12 (fig. 29) [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:64 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Pagellus bogaraveo (Brünnich 1768) -- (Parenti 2019:65 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pagellus bogaraveo (Brünnich 1768). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

bleekeri, Argyrops Oshima [M.] 1927:141 [Japanese Journal of Zoology v. 1 (no. 5); ref. 15868] Meitsu, Nago, Miyazaki, Japan. Neotype: MUFS 47655. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:47 [ref. 31432]. Neotype designated by Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2018:411 [ref. 35983]. •Valid as Argyrops bleekeri Oshima 1927 -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:123 [ref. 19754], Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:177 [ref. 6441], Chen et al. 1997:94 [ref. 26476], Nakabo 2000:858 [ref. 25086], Shinohara et al. 2001:326 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:858 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:342, 615 [ref. 26218], Ho & Shao 2011:47 [ref. 31432], Motomura et al. 2017:153 [ref. 35490], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2018:405 [ref. 35983], Parenti 2019:73 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Argyrops bleekeri Oshima 1927. Sparidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

blochii, Cantharus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:339 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-8810 (2), 0000-9056 (2), A-7991 (1, dry), A-7992 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:39-40 [ref. 20898]. Based on Sparus brama Bloch, Pl. 279 and specimens; Valenciennes also described Cantharus brama on p. 328. •Valid as Pachymetopon blochii (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:588 [ref. 5710], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:803 [ref. 18793], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:162 [ref. 25472], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:229 [ref. 28072], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2603 [ref. 34618], Parenti 2019:52 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Pachymetopon blochii (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, southwestern Indian Ocean: Namibia to Cape Agulhas (South Africa) Habitat: marine.

bocagii, Pagrus Lowe [R. T.] in Günther 1861:391, Pl. 11 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1860 (pt 3, art. 9) (art. 9); ref. 18177] Lisbon, Portugal. •Synonym of Sparus caeruleostictus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Tortonese 1973:405 [ref. 7192]). •Synonym of Pagrus caeruleostictus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Parenti 2019:84 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pagrus caeruleostictus (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bogaraveo, Sparus Brünnich [M. T.] 1768:49 [Ichthyologia Massiliensis, sistens piscium descriptiones eorumque apud incolas nomina; ref. 17290] Marseille, France, western Mediterranean Sea. No types known. The description actually corresponds to Boops boops (Linnaewus 1758) -- under study. •Valid as Pagellus bogaraveo (Brünnich 1768) -- (Tortonese 1973:412 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:900 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:805 [ref. 18793], Golani 1996:26 [ref. 22271], Santos et al. 1997:91 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:90 [ref. 24952], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:95 [ref. 26753], Palma & Andrade 2004:449 [ref. 27717], Golani 2005:44 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:88 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:48 [ref. 36649], Fricke et al. 2014:1 [ref. 33592], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2606 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:144 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:557 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:65 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Pagellus bogaraveo (Brünnich 1768). Sparidae. Distribution: Western Baltic Sea, North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, eastern Atlantic: Norway and Iceland south to Mauritania, including Madeira. Habitat: brackish, marine.

boops, Sparus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:280 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Neotype designated by Fricke 1999:40 [ref. 24101], but withdrawn in Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Valid as Boops boops (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:407 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:884 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:790 [ref. 18793], Santos et al. 1997:90 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:88 [ref. 24952], Afonso et al. 1999:75 [ref. 25466], Fricke 1999:40 [ref. 24101], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:89 [ref. 26753], Roe et al. 2002:903 [ref. 26504], Parin 2003:S10 [ref. 28536], Golani 2005:41 [ref. 37112], Fricke 2007:26 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:86 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:97 [ref. 30517], Wirtz et al. 2007:34 [ref. 30263], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:170 [ref. 31251], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:46 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2013:125 [ref. 32972], Parin et al. 2014:367 [ref. 33547], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2581 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:148 [ref. 36550], Almeida & Alves 2019:272 [ref. 37097], Artüz & Fricke 2019:556 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:97 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:49 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Boops boops (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Distribution: Western Baltic Sea, North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic: Norway south to Angola, including Madeira, Canary Islands, São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brachysomus, Sparus Lockington [W. N.] 1880:284 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 149); ref. 17550] Magdalena Bay, Baja California, Mexico. Lectotype: USNM 26983 (poor condition). Paralectotypes: (several, apparently lost). Lectotype established by Randall & Caldwell 1966:43 by use of "type" [ref. 9053]. •Valid as Calamus brachysomus (Lockington 1880) -- (Randall & Caldwell 1966:29 [ref. 9053], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:218 [ref. 9277], Allen & Robertson 1994:156 [ref. 22193], Bianchi in Fischer et al. 1995:1616 [ref. 22830], Franke & Acero P. 1996:767 [ref. 22923], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:289 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:415 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:362 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:347 [ref. 24550], Thomson et al. 2000:132 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:446 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:609 [ref. 34923], Kells et al. 2016:246 [ref. 35888], Parenti 2019:74 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Calamus brachysomus (Lockington 1880). Sparidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California (Mexico) south to Peru. Habitat: marine.

brama, Cantharus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:328 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-8804 (1) Corsica, 0000-8807 (1) Messina A-7790 (1, dry) Cabinet du Roi; ZMB 1150 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:40 [ref. 20898]. Not an original description; based on Sparus brama Bloch. •In the synonymy of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:57 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brama, Cynaedus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:56 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Jamaica and Carolina, U.S.A. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.76 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin) Carolinas. Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:222 [ref. 13434] but as holotype. •Synonym of Stenotomus chrysops (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Wheeler 1958:222 [ref. 13434], Parenti 2019:67 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Stenotomus chrysops (Linnaeus 1766). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

brama, Sparus Bloch [M. E.] 1791:77, 269 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 5; ref. 4867] Channel between France and British Isles. Holotype (unique): ZMB 1150. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Sparus brama Bonnaterre 1788; replacement not researched. On p. 61 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 8 [ref. 21381]. •Synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:414 [ref. 7192], Parenti 2019:56 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

breca, Sparus Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] in Machado 1857:23 [Catálogo de los peces que habitán ó frecuentan las costas de Cadiz y Huelva con inclusion de los del Rio Guadalquivir.; ref. 17320] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only; not available. Based on Sparus breca Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817 [ref. 17319], apparently an unpublished work. Also appeared as name only in Graells 1887:179 [ref. 30438] with discussion on authorship. • In genus Pagellus Valenciennes 1830. Sparidae.

breca, Sparus Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] 1817:5 [Lista de los peces del mar de Andalucía; ref. 17319] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only, not available. Possibly appeared in an unpublished work. See also Sparus breca Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler in Machado 1857. Also appeared in Graells 1887:179 [ref. 30438] with discussion of authorship. •In genus Pagellus Valenciennes 1830. Sparidae.

breviceps, Pagellus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:199 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Marseille, France, western Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0050 (3). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:51 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Pagellus bogaraveo (Brünnich 1768) -- (Tortonese 1973:412 [ref. 7192], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:95 [ref. 26753], Parenti 2019:66 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pagellus bogaraveo (Brünnich 1768). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brevis, Dentex Kner [R.] 1865:63 [Fische Frigatte "Novara" v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2638] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. •Synonym of Petrus rupestris (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:589 [ref. 5710], Parenti 2019:61 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Petrus rupestris (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

bruneus, Sparus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:280 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Rhode Island, U.S.A. No types known. Based on "Sparus" of Schöpf 1788:154bis [ref. 18700]. Name should have been brunneus. •Synonym of Calamus bajonado (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Parenti 2019:74 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Calamus bajonado (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

brunnichii, Sparus Shaw [G.] 1803:424 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. This name also used by Shaw on p. 462 for another species. Based on Sparus bogaraveo of Lacepède. •Synonym of Sparus bogaraveo Brünnich 1768 -- (Parenti 2019:65 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pagellus bogaraveo (Brünnich 1768). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

buchanani, Datnia Cuvier [G.] 1829:148 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] [Indian seas]. Unneeded replacement name for Coius datnia Hamilton 1822. Named Datnia argentea in Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:139 [ref. 4879]. •Synonym of Sparidentex datnia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:353 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2019:87 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Sparidentex datnia (Hamilton 1822). Sparidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

bufalus, Sparus Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1847:col. 121 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Not available, Chiereghini name and description mentioned in synonymy of Maena osbeckii Cuvier [= Valenciennes] (Parenti 2019:91 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae.

bufonites, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:47, 141, Pl. 2 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Indo-Pacific. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:70 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Rhabdosargus sarba (Gmelin 1789) (author often seen as Forsskål 1775) -- (Bauchot & Skelton 1986:332 [ref. 6210], Tanaka & Iwasuki 2013:9 [ref. 32775], Siddiqui at al. 2014:87 [ref. 33479], Parenti 2019:86 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Rhabdosargus sarba (Gmelin 1789). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bugaravella, Pagrus Risso [A.] 1827:359 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Pagellus bogaraveo (Brünnich 1768) -- (Parenti 2019:65 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pagellus bogaraveo (Brünnich 1768). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

butcheri, Mylio Munro [I. S. R.] 1949:191, Pl. 17 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 12 (pt 4); ref. 13024] Gippsland Lakes, Victoria, Australia. Holotype: AMS IB.1895. Paratypes: AMS IB.1896 (1); CSIRO (11, not found in 1997); QM I.7721-22 (1, 1). See Paulin et al. 1989:261 [ref. 24556]. •Valid as Acanthopagrus butcheri (Munro 1949) -- (Cadwallader & Backhouse 1983:96 [ref. 25473], Kuiter 1993:192 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:599 [ref. 22532], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Walker & Neira 2001:135 [ref. 25903], Allen et al. 2002:344 [ref. 25930], Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2006:13 [ref. 28673], Bray et al. 2006:1227 [ref. 29091], Kume & Yoshino 2008:53 [ref. 29572], Gomon 2008:588 [ref. 30616], Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2009:49 [ref. 30528], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2010:133 [ref. 30738], Iwatsuki et al. 2010:115 [ref. 31106], Iwatsuki 2013:87 [ref. 32744], Morgan et al. 2014:33 [ref. 36567], Kuiter 2018:66 [ref. 36369], Parenti 2019:69 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Acanthopagrus butcheri (Munro 1949). Sparidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: New South Wales (Australia), Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia and Western Australia (north to Shark Bay). Habitat: brackish, marine.

cadenati, Diplodus sargus de la Paz [R.], Bauchot [M.-L.] & Daget [J.] 1974:113, Figs. 2, 3A-B [Ichthyologia v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 18899] Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Canary Islands. Holotype: MNHN 1971-29. Paratypes: BMNN 1858.8.3.7 (1), 1858.8.3.8 (1); MNHN 1941-0042 (1), 1974-0056 [ex IFAN Dakar 4867] (1), A-4103 (2), A-6153 (1, dry). •Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:895 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:799 [ref. 18793], Santos et al. 1997:90 [ref. 23531], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2598 [ref. 34618]). •Valid as Diplodus cadenati de la Paz, Bauchot & Daget 1974 -- (Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Martins & Carneiro 2018:155 [ref. 36550], Parenti 2019:79 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus cadenati de la Paz, Bauchot & Daget 1974. Sparidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to Senegal, including Madeira and Azores. Habitat: brackish, marine.

caeruleops, Argyrops Iwatsuki [Y.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 2018:413, Figs. 8A, 9A-B [Zootaxa 4438 (no. 3); ref. 35983] Off southern Oman (purchased in Chagaruchi fish market, Pusan, South Korea). Holotype: MUFS 29073. Paratypes: MUFS. •Valid as Argyrops caeruleops Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2018 -- (Parenti 2019:73 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Argyrops caeruleops Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2018. Sparidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Oman to probably western Pakistan. Habitat: marine.

caeruleosticta, Chrysophrys Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:110 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Gorée, Senegal; Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, eastern Atlantic. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-8666 (1) Gorée. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:44 [ref. 20898] as coeruleosticta. •Valid as Sparus caeruleostictus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Tortonese 1973:405 [ref. 7192]). •Valid as Pagrus caeruleostictus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:903 [ref. 13676] as coeruleostictus, Bauchot & Hureau 1990:807 [ref. 18793], Afonso et al. 1999:75 [ref. 25466], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:96 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:44 [ref. 37112] as coeruleostictus, Fricke et al. 2007:88 [ref. 29533], Wirtz et al. 2007:35 [ref. 30263], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:48 [ref. 36649], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2610 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:139 [ref. 36550], Almeida & Alves 2019:273 [ref. 37097] as coeruleostictus, Elbaraasi et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:84 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Pagrus caeruleostictus (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Portugal south to Angola, including Canary Islands, São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: brackish, marine.

caffer, Pagrus Castelnau [F. L.] 1861:30 [Mémoire sur les poissons de l'Afrique australe; ref. 767] Durban, KwaZulu- Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): apparently lost. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:68 [ref. 20898] as cafer. •Synonym of Acanthopagrus berda (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:581 [ref. 5710], Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2006:12 [ref. 28673], Kume & Yoshino 2008:53 [ref. 29572]). •Synonym of Acanthopagrus vagus (Peters 1852) -- (Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2010:130 [ref. 30738], Parenti 2019:71 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthopagrus vagus (Peters 1852). Sparidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

cagarella, Smaris Cuvier [G.] 1829:187 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Mediterranean Sea. •Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese et al. 1973:418 [ref. 7202], Heemstra 1990:769 [ref. 18769], Parenti 2019:55 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

caissoti, Sparus Risso [A.] 1810:257 [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:70 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:84 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

calamara, Chrysophrys Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:117 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Malabar, India. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-5261. Syntypes: RMNH D420 (1, dry) Java, SMF 3021 [ex RMNH] (1) Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:43 [ref. 20898] with 5261 as a paratype. Tentatively secondarily preoccupied (and apparently described independently) in Acanthopagrus by Sparus calamara Cuvier 1829. Lectotype selected by Iwatsuki et al. 2010:126 [ref. 31106], but lectotype designation is invalid. •Synonym of Acanthopagrus berda (Fabricius 1775) (author often seen as Forsskål) -- (Bauchot & Skelton 1986:331 [ref. 6210], Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2006:12 [ref. 28673], Kume & Yoshino 2008:53 [ref. 29572] but should be dated to Cuvier 1829, Parenti 2019:68 [ref. 36892]). •Mention -- ( Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2010:129 [ref. 30738]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthopagrus berda (Fabricius 1775). Sparidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

calamara, Chrysophrys berda var. Day [F.] 1876:140, Pls. 34 (fig. 2), 35 (fig. 2) [The fishes of India Part 2; ref. 1081] Menon & Yazdani 1968:144-145 [ref. 20743] credit this name to Day with ZSI F1785 as holotype from Sind, but the name dates to Cuvier 1829. •In the synonymy of Acanthopagrus berda (Fabricius 1775) (author often seen as Forsskål) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:847 [ref. 20764], Kume & Yoshino 2008:53 [ref. 29572]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthopagrus berda (Fabricius 1775). Sparidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

calamara, Sparus Cuvier [G.] 1829:182 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Vizagapatam, India. Holotype: whereabouts unknown. Available from footnote as, "Sp. calamara, N., Russel, 92." Based on a drawing in Russell, 1803, Pl. 92. •Synonym of Acanthopagrus berda (Fabricius 1775) (author often seen as Forsskål) -- (Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2006:12 [ref. 28673], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2010:124 [ref. 30738], Iwatsuki et al. 2010:123 [ref. 31106], Kottelat 2013:352 [ref. 32989], Siddiqui et al. 2014:74 [ref. 33479], Parenti 2019:68 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthopagrus berda (Fabricius 1775). Sparidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

calamus, Pagellus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:206, Pl. 152 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Martinique Island, West Indies. Lectotype: MNHN A-8101 [or A-8108] (dry). Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-5565 (1) also type of Calamus pennatula, 0000-5566 (1), 0000-8664 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:51-52 [ref. 20898]. Lectotype established by Randall & Caldwell 1966:36 [ref. 9053]. •Valid as Calamus calamus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Randall & Caldwell 1966:34 [ref. 9053], Robins & Ray 1986:183 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:441 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:229 [ref. 24474], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:267 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:162 [ref. 27754], Carpenter 2003:1563 [ref. 27092], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:85 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:36 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:393 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708], Robertson et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34961], Parenti 2019:74 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Calamus calamus (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda and North Carolina (U.S.A.) south to Brazil, including Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

calamus, Pagrus Cuvier [G.] 1829:183 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Antilles. Not available, no distinguishing features (Parenti 2019:91 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae.

calops, Labrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:451, 522 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Normandy, France. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:97 [ref. 19171]. •Synonym of Pagellus bogaraveo (Brünnich 1768) -- (Parenti 2019:65 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pagellus bogaraveo (Brünnich 1768). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

campechanus, Calamus Randall [J. E.] & Caldwell [D. K.] 1966:18, Fig. 8 [Bulletin of the Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History No. 2; ref. 9053] 11 kilometers northeast of Progresso, Campeche Bank, off northwestern Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 143147. Paratypes: IMSUT no cat. no. (3); IMSUT no cat. no. (6); LACM 4397 [ex part UMMZ 143140] (1); UMMZ 143140 (4); UPR 1534 [ex part UMMZ 143140] (1). •Valid as Calamus campechanus Randall & Caldwell 1966 -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:348 [ref. 24550], Carpenter 2003:1564 [ref. 27092], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:394 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708], Parenti 2019:75 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Calamus campechanus Randall & Caldwell 1966. Sparidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bay of Campeche (Gulf of Mexico) Habitat: marine.

canariensis, Boops Valenciennes [A.] 1839:[36], Pl. 10 (fig. 1) [Ichthyologie des îles Canaries v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 4502] St. Croix de Tenerife, Canary Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-8724. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:35 [ref. 20898]. Dates to Pl. 10 in 1839, p. 36 published in 1843. •Synonym of Boops boops (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Bauchot & Hureau 1990:790 [ref. 18793], Parenti 2019:50 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Boops boops (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

canariensis, Dentex Steindachner [F.] 1881:99 [Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 18 (no. 11) (for 5 May 1881); ref. 20484] Canary Islands. Syntypes: (8) NMW 8821 (1). Species described in more detail in Steindachner 1881:393 [p. 1 in separate] [ref. 4232]. •Valid as Dentex canariensis Steindachner 1881 -- (Tortonese 1973:407 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:886 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:791 [ref. 18793], Wirtz et al. 2013:126 [ref. 32972] needs confirmation, Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2585 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:141 [ref. 36550], Parenti 2019:59 [ref. 36892], Spinelli & Castriota 2019:639 [ref. 37189]). Current status: Valid as Dentex canariensis Steindachner 1881. Sparidae. Distribution: Southwestern Mediterranean Sea: Valencia (Spain); eastern Atlantic: Cape Bojador (western Sahara) south to Angola Habitat: marine.

canariensis, Pagellus Valenciennes [A.] 1838:[35], Pl. 10 [Ichthyologie des îles Canaries v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 4502] Canary Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-0491. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:52 [ref. 20898]. Dates to Pl. 10 in 1838, p. 35 published in 1843. •Synonym of Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:901 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:805 [ref. 18793], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2607 [ref. 34618], Parenti 2019:66 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

canescens, Pachymetopon Norman [J. R.] 1935:14, Pl. 2 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 32 (pt 1, no. 2); ref. 3224] Believed to be False Bay, South Africa. Holotype: BMNH 1935.1.23.5 [ex SAM]. Paratypes: SAM (1) not found. •Synonym of Pachymetopon blochii (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:588 [ref. 5710], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:803 [ref. 18793], Parenti 2019:52 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pachymetopon blochii (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

caninus, Pagellus Poey [F.] 1860:199 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Holotype (unique): apparently lost. Poey specimens: MCZ 21834-35 (2), 21840 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:201-202 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Calamus bajonado (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Randall & Caldwell 1966:26 [ref. 9053], Parenti 2019:74 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Calamus bajonado (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

cantabricus, Sparus Asso y del Rio [I. J. de] 1801:35, Pl. 34 (fig. 2) [Anales de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid. v. 4 (no. 10); ref. 6523] Eastern Spain, western Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Pagellus bogaraveo (Brünnich 1768) -- (Tortonese 1973:412 [ref. 7192], Parenti 2019:65 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pagellus bogaraveo (Brünnich 1768). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cantarella, Sparus Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1847:col. 123 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Not available, Chiereghini name mentioned in synonymy of Cantharus vulgaris Valenciennes 1830 (Parenti 2019:91 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae.

cantharenus, Sparus Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1847:col. 123 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Not available, Chiereghini name and brief description mentioned in synonymy (Parenti 2019:91 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae.

cantharus, Sparus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:280 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Neotype designated by Fricke 1999:41 [ref. 24101], but withdrawn in Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Valid as Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:414 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:907 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:811 [ref. 18793], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:164 [ref. 25472], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:xi [ref. 21953], Santos et al. 1997:90 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:91 [ref. 24952], Fricke 1999:41 [ref. 24101], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:98 [ref. 26753], Parin 2003:S12 [ref. 28536], Golani 2005:45 [ref. 37112], Fricke 2007:26 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:89 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:103 [ref. 30517], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:49 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2013:127 [ref. 32972], Parin et al. 2014:371 [ref. 33547], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2619 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:149 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:557 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:56 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Distribution: Western Baltic Sea, North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic: Norway south to Namibia, including Madeira, Canary Islands and Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

capensis, Charax Castelnau [F. L.] 1861:19 [Mémoire sur les poissons de l'Afrique australe; ref. 767] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. No types at MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:65 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Diplodus hottentotus (Smith 1844) -- (Parenti 2019:80 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus hottentotus (Smith 1844). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

capensis, Pagellus (Lithognathus) Swainson [W.] 1839:222, Pl. 114 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Cuvier, Pl. 141 --which is Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:Pl. 141 [ref. 999]. •Synonym of Lithognathus lithognathus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:587 [ref. 5710], Parenti 2019:64 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Lithognathus lithognathus (Cuvier 1829). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

capensis, Sargus Smith [A.] 1844:no pagination, Pl. 23 (fig. 2) [Illustrations of the zoology of South Africa v. 4; ref. 4035] Southeastern coast of South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1845.7.3.52 (stuffed and mounted). •Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Smith & Smith 1986:586 [ref. 5710], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:799 [ref. 18793], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:161 [ref. 25472], Randall 1995:226 [ref. 22896], Fricke 1999:293 [ref. 24106], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377]). •Valid as Diplodus capensis (Smith 1844) -- (Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:223 [ref. 28072], Siddiqui at al. 2014:83 [ref. 33479], Psomadakis et al. 2015:262 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2593 [ref. 34618], Fricke et al. 2018:219 [ref. 35805], Jawad et al. 2018:113 [ref. 36262], Parenti 2019:80 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus capensis (Smith 1844). Sparidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic: Angola to South Africa; southwestern Indian Ocean: South Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius (Mascarenes). Not Oman, India and Pakistan [ref. 34520]. Habitat: marine.

caprinus, Stenotomus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] (ex Bean) 1882:278 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 282); ref. 2472] Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. (stomach contents). Syntypes: USNM 30795 (2). Appeared first as name only in Goode & Bean 1882:238 [ref. 20598], then as above. Appeared later as Bean in Goode & Bean 1882:426 [ref. 1840] using specimens from USNM 30795 (2). Authorship attributed to Jordan & Gilbert since their description appears to be independent of Bean. •Synonym of Stenotomus chrysops (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:349 [ref. 24550]). •Valid as Stenotomus caprinus Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:184 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:143 [ref. 23239], Carpenter 2003:1576 [ref. 27092], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:404 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708], Parenti 2019:67 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Stenotomus caprinus Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Sparidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina to Florida (U.S.A.); Gulf of Mexico south to Yucatan (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

caraibica, Box vulgaris var. Günther [A.] 1859:419 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] St. Vincent, West Indies. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1855.8.16.69. •Incertae sedis in Sparidae -- (Parenti 2019:89 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

cardinalis, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:46, 141 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] China and Japan. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:71 [ref. 20898]. •Valid as Evynnis cardinalis (Lacepède 1802) -- (Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:177 [ref. 6441], Zheng 1989:325 [ref. 21202], Nakabo 2000:858 [ref. 25086], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:619 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:137 [ref. 25480], Shinohara et al. 2001:326 [ref. 25995], Carpenter 2001:2994 [ref. 26104], Nakabo 2002:858 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:342, 615 [ref. 26218] with year as 1803, Iwatsuki et al. 2007:44 [ref. 29100], Guan et al. 2012:217 [ref. 31832], Shinohara et al. 2014:263 [ref. 33330], Iwatsuki in Kimura et al. 2018:169 [ref. 36460], Parenti 2019:83 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Evynnis cardinalis (Lacepède 1802). Sparidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: northern Vietnam and China to Japan. Habitat: marine.

caribaeus, Sargus Poey [F.] 1860:197 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 21713 (3). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:202 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Archosargus rhomboidalis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:72 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Archosargus rhomboidalis (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

carpenteri, Dentex Iwatsuki [Y.], Newman [S. J.] & Russell [B. C.] 2015:111, Figs. 1A-B, 2, 5A [Zootaxa 3957 (no. 1); ref. 33802] Off Ningaloo Reef near Exmouth, Western Australia (22°10.02’S, 113°46.21’E), depth 200-210 meters. Holotype: WAM P.33486-001. Paratypes: WAM. •Valid as Dentex carpenteri Iwatsuki, Newman & Russell 2015 -- (Parenti 2019:59 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Dentex carpenteri Iwatsuki, Newman & Russell 2015. Sparidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

carponemus, Sparus Parkinson [S.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:361, 363 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Queen Charlotte's Bay, New Zealand. Not available; name on painting, mentioned in passing (Parenti 2019:92 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae.

castelnaui, Cantharus Bleeker [P.] 1859:59 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 21; ref. 373] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. •Synonym of Pachymetopon blochii (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:588 [ref. 5710] as castelnau, Parenti 2019:52 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pachymetopon blochii (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

castelnaui, Pagrichthys Bleeker [P.] 1859:61 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 21; ref. 373] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. No types known. •Synonym of Pachymetopon blochii (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Parenti 2019:52 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pachymetopon blochii (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

catenula, Labrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:426, 468, Pl. 3 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Grand Gulf of India and seas near gulf [= Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean]. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-0691 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:97 [ref. 19171], Bauchot & Daget 1972:63 [ref. 20898]. Based on a Commerson drawing, but specimen at MNHN. •Same as Sparus mylio Lacepède 1802. •Synonym of Acanthopagrus bifasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Fricke 1999:291 [ref. 24106], Kume & Yoshino 2008:53 [ref. 29572]). •Valid as Acanthopagrus catenula (Lacepède 1801) -- (Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2011:45 [ref. 31505], Iwatsuki 2013:87 [ref. 32744], Saddiqui et al. 2014:76 [ref. 33479], Al-Badri & Jawad 2014:432 [ref. 33633], Psomadakis et al. 2015:260 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:328 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:218 [ref. 35805], Jawad et al. 2018:111 [ref. 36262], Eagderi et al. 2019:113 [ref. 37020], Parenti 2019:69 [ref. 36892], Zajonz et al. 2019:79 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Acanthopagrus catenula (Lacepède 1801). Sparidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf, Socotra and southern Oman to South Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius and Rodriguez. Habitat: brackish, marine.

caudimacula, Sargus Poey [F.] 1860:198 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 21715 (1), USNM 4693 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:203 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Diplodus argenteus (Valenciennes 1830), but a valid subspecies caudimacula (Poey 1860) -- (Cervigón 1992:443 [ref. 23827], Carpenter 2003:1571 [ref. 27092]). •Valid as Diplodus caudimacula (Poey 1860) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:349 [ref. 24550], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:162 [ref. 27754], Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:80 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus caudimacula (Poey 1860). Sparidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Caribbean Sea to southern Florida (U.S.A.). Habitat: marine.

centrodontus, Sparus Delaroche [F. E.] 1809:345 [59], Pl. 23 (fig. 11) [Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 13; ref. 17380] [Iviça] Ibiza, Baleares Islands, Spain, western Mediterranean Sea. No types known. On p. 59 and Pl. 4 of separate. •Synonym of Pagellus bogaraveo (Brünnich 1768) -- (Tortonese 1973:412 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:900 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:805 [ref. 18793], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:95 [ref. 26753], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2606 [ref. 34618], Parenti 2019:65 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pagellus bogaraveo (Brünnich 1768). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cerasinus, Polysteganus Iwatsuki [Y.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 2015:144, Fig. 4 [Zootaxa 4059 (no. 1); ref. 34109] Saya de Malha Bank, Mascarene Plateau, 19.10°54.75'S, 60°58.17'E, depth 127 meters. Holotype (unique): SAIAB 84183. •Valid as Polysteganus cerasinus Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2015 -- (Parenti 2019:62 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Polysteganus cerasinus Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2015. Sparidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Saya de Malha Bank endemic. Habitat: marine.

cervigoni, Calamus Randall [J. E.] & Caldwell [D. K.] 1966:14, Fig. 6 [Bulletin of the Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History No. 2; ref. 9053] North of Carúpano, Venezuela, depth 18.3-26.2 fathoms. Holotype: LACM 4398. Paratypes: LACM 4399 (1), 7207 (3), 7474-76 (3, 1, 7); MBUCV-V-2701 (2); MOBR-EDIMAR-P- 872 (4); UMMZ 187496 [ex part MHNLS 872] (1); UPR 1210 (2), 2436 (1); USNM 231723 [ex USNM 260173-F3] (1). Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:5 [ref. 24196], Lasso et al. 1999:112 [ref. 33859]. •Valid as Calamus cervigoni Randall & Caldwell 1966 -- (Cervigón 1992:442 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:230 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Carpenter 2003:1565 [ref. 27092], Parenti 2019:75 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Calamus cervigoni Randall & Caldwell 1966. Sparidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: eastern Venezuela. Habitat: marine.

cervinus, Charax Lowe [R. T.] 1838:177 [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 2 (pt 3, art. 14); ref. 2831] Lanzarote, Canary Islands [eastern Atlantic]. Neotype: BMNH 1859.5.4.4 [or 1859.5.4.1]. Neotype designated by Bauchot & Daget 1971:321 [ref. 23129]. •Valid as Diplodus cervinus (Lowe 1838) -- (Tortonese 1973:409 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:892 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:796 [ref. 18793], Randall 1995:225 [ref. 22896], Arruda 1997:89 [ref. 24952], Fricke 1999:293 [ref. 24106], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:92 [ref. 26753] but as a valid subspecies, Golani 2005:42 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:87 [ref. 29533], Casu et al. 2009:142 [ref. 30209] as a subspecies, Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2593 [ref. 34618] as a valid subspecies, Golani et al. 2017:529 [ref. 35726] hybrid with D. cervinus x D. levantinus, also valid, Martins & Carneiro 2018:153 [ref. 36550], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:97 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:80 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus cervinus (Lowe 1838). Sparidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to South Africa, including Madeira, Canary Islands and Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.

cetti, Sparus Risso [A.] 1810:256 [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:71 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Dentex dentex (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Bauchot & Daget 1972:71 [ref. 20898], Parenti 2019:60 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Dentex dentex (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

chilensis, Sparus Molina [J. I.] 1782:223 [Saggio sulla storia naturale del Chile, del Signor Abate Giovanni Ignazio Molina.; ref. 17783] Chile. No types known. Family uncertain, may be in Cheilodactylidae (Parenti 2019:90 [ref. 36892]). •Incertae sedis -- (Parenti 2019:90 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

chinensis, Pagrus Steindachner [F.] 1870:625 [3] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 61 (1. Abth.); ref. 4218] China. Holotype (unique): NMW. On p. 3 of separate. •Synonym of Pagrus auratus (Forster 1801) -- (Paulin 1990:261 [ref. 15774]). •Synonym of Chrysophrys auratus (Forster 1801) -- (Parenti 2019:78 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Chrysophrys auratus (Forster 1801). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

chinshira, Acanthopagrus Kume [M.] & Yoshino [T.] 2008:47, Figs. 1-3 [Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science (Ser. A) Suppement No. 2; ref. 29572] Nakagusuku Hama Fish Market, Nakagusuku Bay, Okinawa Island, Japan. Holotype: NSMT-P 73081 [ex URM-P 41079]. Paratypes: FAKU 130713 [ex URM-P 41059] (1); MUFS 23014 [ex URM-P 36915] (1), 23015 [ex URM-P 41157] (1); NSMT-P 63507 [ex URM-P 40969] (1); URM-P 23780 (1), 41058 (1), 40887-89 (3), 40891 (1), 41060-61 (2), 41083 (1), 41141 (1), 41144 (1). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Acanthopagrus chinshira Kume & Yoshino 2008 -- (Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2009:44 [ref. 30528], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2010:133 [ref. 30738], Iwatsuki et al. 2010:115 [ref. 31106], Iwatsuki 2013:87 [ref. 32744], Parenti 2019:69 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Acanthopagrus chinshira Kume & Yoshino 2008. Sparidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Hong Kong (southern China) and Taiwan to Okinawa (Ryukyu Islands, Japan). Habitat: marine.

chrisops, Scomber Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] in Machado 1857:24 [Catálogo de los peces que habitán ó frecuentan las costas de Cadiz y Huelva con inclusion de los del Rio Guadalquivir.; ref. 17320] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only; not available. Name from Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817:8 [ref. 17319], apparently an unpublished work. Not an independent name, but based on a misidentification of Sparus chrysops Linnaeus 1766. Also appeared in Graells 1887:182 [ref. 30438] with comments on authorship on page 141. Sparidae.

chrysargyra, Chrysophris Cuvier [G.] 1829:182 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] India. No types known. Available from footnote as, "Chr. chrysargyra, N., Chitchillée, Russel, 91." •Synonym of Rhabdosargus sarba (Gmelin 1789) (author often seen as Forsskål 1775) -- (Bauchot & Skelton 1986:332 [ref. 6210] but dating to Valenciennes 1830, Tanaka & Iwasuki 2013:9 [ref. 32775], Siddiqui at al. 2014:87 [ref. 33479], Parenti 2019:87 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Rhabdosargus sarba (Gmelin 1789). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

chrysargyra, Chrysophrys Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:107 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Vizagapatam, India. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:65 [ref. 20898]. Based on Russell 1803:73, Pl. 91 [ref. 13862]. •Objective synonym of Chrysophris chrysargyra Cuvier 1829. •Synonym of Rhabdosargus sarba (Gmelin 1789) (author often seen as Forsskål 1775) -- (Tanaka & Iwasuki 2013:9 [ref. 32775], Siddiqui at al. 2014:87 [ref. 33479], Parenti 2019:87 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Rhabdosargus sarba (Gmelin 1789). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

chryselis, Smaris Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:419, Pl. 165 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Naples, Italy; Nice, Corsica, France; Sicily, Italy; Malaga, Spain, western Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-9309 (1) Corsica, 0000-9319 (1) Sicily. Type catalog: Bauchot 1974:985 [ref. 21548]. •Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese et al. 1973:418 [ref. 7202], Heemstra 1990:769 [ref. 18769], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:99 [ref. 26753], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2616 [ref. 34618]). •Synonym of Spicara flexuosa Rafinesque 1810 -- (Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:910 [ref. 13676], Parin 2003:S12 [ref. 28536], Parin et al. 2014:371 [ref. 33547], Parenti 2019:54 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara flexuosa Rafinesque 1810. Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

chrysops, Sparus Linnaeus [C.] (ex Garden) 1766:471 [Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2786] Carolina [South Carolina, U.S.A.]. Holotype (unique): Linn. Soc. Lond. 104 (right half-skin). Type information: Goode & Bean 1885:198 [ref. 1841], Wheeler 1985:59 [ref. 20705]. Based on 'Porgee' in manuscript description, and 1 specimen sent by A. Garden [South Carolina]. Misspelled chrisops (and misidentified) by Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817:5 [ref. 17319], see Graells 1887:179 [ref. 30438]. •Valid as Stenotomus chrysops (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Smith 1986:430 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:184 [ref. 23100], McAllister 1990:150 [ref. 14674], Murdy et al. 1997:231 [ref. 23144], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:43 [ref. 26158], Carpenter 2003:1577 [ref. 27092], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Parenti 2019:67 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Stenotomus chrysops (Linnaeus 1766). Sparidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia (Canada) south to Florida (U.S.A.). Habitat: marine.

chrysopterus, Sparus Kishinouye [K.] 1907:327 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 19 (no. 229); ref. 15151] Kiusiu; Shikoku; Inland Sea; Pacific coast of Hondo, Japan. Holotype (unique): Apparently lost. •Mention -- (Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2006:15 [ref. 28673]). •Synonym of Acanthopagrus latus (Houttuyn 1782) -- (Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2010:132 [ref. 30738], Iwatsuki 2013:73 [ref. 32744], Kottelat 2013:352 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2019:69 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthopagrus latus (Houttuyn 1782). Sparidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

ciavolus, Labrus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:40 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:22 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943], Parenti 2019:55 [ref. 36892], Parenti 2019:102 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

ciliaris, Pagrus von Bonde [C.] 1923:19, Pl. 5 [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa Rep. 3 (art. 1); ref. 521] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, Pickle station 386, depth 38 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ?SAIAB [formerly RUSI] missing. •Synonym of Argyrops spinifer (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:582 [ref. 5710], Siddiqui at al. 2014:79 [ref. 33479], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2018:425 [ref. 35983], Parenti 2019:74 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Argyrops spinifer (Forsskål 1775). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

cinctus, Sparus Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:282 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Marseille, France, Mediterranean Sea, No types known. Based on Sparus sp., 'Sparius fascia subcaudali ...' of Brünnich 1768:39, No. 58 [ref. 17290]. •Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fricke et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:82 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cinereus, Sparus Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1847:col. 121 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Not available, Chiereghini name mentioned in synonymy (Parenti 2019:92 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae.

cirrus, Centracanthus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:43, Pl. 10 (fig. 1) [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Originally as Centracantus but spelling Centracanthus placed on Official List. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:19 [ref. 3595]. •Valid as Centracanthus cirrus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Tortonese et al. 1973:417 [ref. 7202], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:908 [ref. 13676], Heemstra 1990:768 [ref. 18769], Santos et al. 1997:93 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:92 [ref. 24952], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:98 [ref. 26753], Parin 2003:S12 [ref. 28536], Fricke et al. 2007:89 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:49 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:371 [ref. 33547], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2582 [ref. 34618], Artüz & Fricke 2019:557 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:89 [ref. 36892], Parenti 2019:101 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Valid as Centracanthus cirrus Rafinesque 1810. Sparidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; eastern Atlantic: Portugal south to Mauritania, including Madeira and Canary Islands. Habitat: marine.

cochicato, Sparus aurata var. Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:271 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Cumaná, Venezuela, Caribbean Sea. No types known. Based on "Cochicato ist Sparus aurata dentibus teretibus ..." of Loefling 1766:150 [ref. 35526], which is based on "Cochicato" of Loefling 1758:104 [ref. 35527]. •Uncertain in genus Calamus Swainson 1839 -- (Parenti 2019:90 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

coeruleopunctatus, Dentex (Polysteganus) Klunzinger [C. B.] 1870:763 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 20; ref. 2621] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Lectotype: ZMB 7989. Paralectotypes: SMNS 1873 (1). Type catalog: Fricke 1992:18 [ref. 20296], Fricke 2005:60 [ref. 29864]. Lectotype designated by Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2015:140 [ref. 34109]. •Valid as Polysteganus coeruleopunctatus (Klunzinger 1870) -- (Dor 1984:160 [ref. 29757], Smith & Smith 1986:590 [ref. 5710], Baranes & Golani 1993:308 [ref. 22372], Goren & Dor 1994:44 [ref. 25356], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:232 [ref. 28072], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2011:18 [ref. 31500], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2015:135 [ref. 34109], Fricke et al. 2018:220 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:101 [ref. 36273], Parenti 2019:62 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Polysteganus coeruleopunctatus (Klunzinger 1870). Sparidae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: East Africa south to KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), east to Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

color, Sparus maena var. Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1847:col. 121 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Not available, Chiereghini name mentioned in synonymy (Parenti 2019:92 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae.

congoensis, Dentex Poll [M.] 1954:310, Fig. 89 [Résultats Scientifiques. Expédition Océanographique Belge dans les Eaux Côtières Africaines de l'Atlantique Sud (1948-1949). Bruxelles. v. 4 (no. 3A); ref. 12663] Atlantic, 40 miles southwest of Moita Seca, 6°20'S, 11°35'E, depth 130-150 meters. Holotype: IRSNB 230. Paratypes: IRSNB 231-239 (1, 1, 1, 3, 8, 2, 4, 15, 1); MRAC 97792-97 (6), 798-802 (5), 803-804 (2), 805-808 (4). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:27 [ref. 20755], Derijst 1991:38 [ref. 21528]. •Valid as Dentex congoensis Poll 1954 -- (Bauchot & Hureau 1990:794 [ref. 18793], Afonso et al. 1999:75 [ref. 25466], Wirtz et al. 2007:35 [ref. 30263], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2586 [ref. 34618], Almeida & Alves 2019:272 [ref. 37097], Parenti 2019:60 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Dentex congoensis Poll 1954. Sparidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal south to Angola, including São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

coracinus, Chrysophrys Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:133 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types at MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:65 [ref. 20898]. Based on literature sources. •Unidentifiable in Sparidae -- (Fricke 1999:291 [ref. 24106], Parenti 2019:89 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

coupei, Pagellus Dieuzeide [R.] 1960:109, Figs. 1, 2, 5 [Bulletin des Travaux, Station d'Agriculture et de Pêche de Castiglione (Nouv. sér.) No. 10 (for 1958-1959); ref. 11908] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Valid as Pagellus coupei Dieuzeide 1960 -- (Tortonese 1973:412 [ref. 7192]). •Synonym of Pagellus bellottii Steindachner 1882 -- (Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:899 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:804 [ref. 18793], Fricke et al. 2014:2 [ref. 33592], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2605 [ref. 34618], Parenti 2019:65 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pagellus bellottii Steindachner 1882. Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

crassirostris, Chrysophrys Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:98, Pl. 146 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Corsica, near Ajaccio, France, western Mediterranean Sea; Peloponese; Spain. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-8615 (1) Corsica, 0000-8617 (1) Morée. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:44 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Sparus aurata Linnaeus 1758 -- (Tortonese 1973:405 [ref. 7192] as aurata, Parenti 2019:89 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Sparus aurata Linnaeus 1758. Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

crenidens, Sparus Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xv [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea; Egypt, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea. Lectotype: ZMUC P 50551. Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:67 [ref. 9588]. Syntype figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:Pl. 5 [ref. 20847]. Lectotype selected by Iwatsuki & Maclaine 2013:245 [ref. 35123]. For authorship see Fricke (2008:40 [ref. 30182]). •Valid as Crenidens crenidens (Forsskål 1775), subspecies crenidens -- (Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:222 [ref. 28072]). •Valid as Crenidens crenidens (Forsskål 1775) -- (Tortonese 1973:416 [ref. 7192], Dor 1984:159 [ref. 29757], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:885 [ref. 13676], Smith & Smith 1986:585 [ref. 5710], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:848 [ref. 20764], Goren & Dor 1994:43 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:225 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:181 [ref. 23922], Golani 1998:97 [ref. 27567], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:177 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:42 [ref. 37112], Iwatsuki & Maclaine 2013:245 [ref. 35123], Bogorodsky et al. 2017:[3] [ref. 35520], Ali et al. 2018:329 [ref. 36183], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[21] 259 [ref. 36492], Fricke et al. 2018:219 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:101 [ref. 36273], Suresh et al. 2018:246 [ref. 36495], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:97 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:50 [ref. 36892], Zajonz et al. 2019:79 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Crenidens crenidens (Forsskål 1775). Sparidae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: East Africa, South Africa and Gulf of Aden east to Socotra and Madagascar; Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.

cristiceps, Chrysophrys Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:132 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-8066 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:44 [ref. 20898]. •Valid as Chrysoblephus cristiceps (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:583 [ref. 5710], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:217 [ref. 28072]). Current status: Valid as Chrysoblephus cristiceps (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, southwestern Indian Ocean: Cape of Good Hope to KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa). Habitat: marine.

cristiceps, Polyamblyodon (Leptometopon) Smith [J. L. B.] 1940:178, Figs. 1-2 [Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa v. 28 (pt 2); ref. 4069] Delagoa Bay, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean, depth up to 20 fathoms. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 438 [ex AMG]. Paratypes: (6 examined) SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 447 (3 + head). •Synonym of Polyamblyodon gibbosum (Pellegrin 1914) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:590 [ref. 5710]). •Synonym of Polyamblyodon gibbosus (Pellegrin 1914) -- (Parenti 2019:52 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Polyamblyodon gibbosus (Pellegrin 1914). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

cuninghamii, Dentex Regan [C. T.] 1905:325 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 15 (no. 87) (art. 41); ref. 15381] Coast of Angola. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1905.2.24.6. •Synonym of Pagellus bellottii Steindachner 1882 -- (Bauchot & Hureau 1990:804 [ref. 18793], Fricke et al. 2014:2 [ref. 33592], Parenti 2019:65 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pagellus bellottii Steindachner 1882. Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

curtus, Pagellus Couch [J.] 1844:394, Fig. [The Zoologist: a Popular Miscellany of Natural History v. 2; ref. 18050] England. Holotype (unique): BMNH (not found). •Synonym of Pagellus bogaraveo (Brünnich 1768) -- (Parenti 2019:66 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pagellus bogaraveo (Brünnich 1768). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

curvidens, Gymnocrotaphus Günther [A.] 1859:432 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Holotype (unique): BMNH (stuffed). Also listed was Plate XXII, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." •Valid as Gymnocrotaphus curvidens Günther 1859 -- (Smith & Smith 1986:586 [ref. 5710], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:225 [ref. 28072], Parenti 2019:51 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Gymnocrotaphus curvidens Günther 1859. Sparidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, southwestern Indian Ocean: Cape of Hope to Durban (South Africa) Habitat: marine.

cuvieri, Chrysophrys Day [F.] 1875:141, Pl. 34 (fig. 3) [The fishes of India Part 1; ref. 1080] Seas of India. Syntypes and/or Day specimens: AMS B.8225 (1, syntype) Madras; BMNH 1975.9.30.21 (1, dry); RMNH 1060 (1); ZSI 1782 (1, figured), 1791-92 (2). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:160 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:296 [ref. 25110]. •Mention -- (Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2006:15 [ref. 28673]). •In Sparidentex -- (Kume & Yoshino 2008:52 [ref. 29572]). •Synonym of Sparidentex hasta (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Randall 1995:228 [ref. 22896], Bray et al. 2006:1230 [ref. 29091], Siddiqui at al. 2014:87 [ref. 33479], Eagderi et al. 2019:115 [ref. 37020], Parenti 2019:87 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Sparidentex hasta (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

cyanopteron, Chrysophrys Valenciennes [A.] 1846:no p., Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Voyage autour du monde sur la frégate "la Vénus"; ref. 6165] Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-8072 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:44-45 [ref. 20898]. Dates to publication in plate; corresponding text published as Valenciennes 1855:330 [ref. 4504] with species placed in synonymy of Chrysophrys taurina Jenyns 1840. •Synonym of Calamus taurinus (Jenyns 1840) -- (Parenti 2019:76 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Calamus taurinus (Jenyns 1840). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

czerskii, Sparus swinhonis Berg [L. S.] 1915:558, Fig. [Ezhegodnik, Zoologicheskago Muzeya Imperatorskoi Akademii Nauk v. 19 (no. 4) (for 1914); ref. 14995] Mouth of Tumen River, North Korea. Syntypes: (8) ZIN 16936 (5, lost). •Synonym of Sparus swinhonis (Günther 1874), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Berg 1949:1050 [ref. 20662]). •Synonym of Acanthopagrus schlegelii (Bleeker 1854), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:11 [ref. 24670]). •Tentatively valid as Acanthopagrus czerskii (Berg 1914) -- (Dolganov et al. 2008:221 [ref. 29802]). •Synonym of Acanthopagrus schlegelii (Bleeker 1854) -- (Parin 2003:S10 [ref. 28536], Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2006:13 [ref. 28673], Parin et al. 2014:367 [ref. 33547], Parenti 2019:71 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthopagrus schlegelii (Bleeker 1854). Sparidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific (if valid). Habitat: brackish, marine.

datnia, Coius Hamilton [F.] 1822:88, 369, Pl. 9 (fig. 29) [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Ganges River mouths, India. No types known. Day specimens: AMS B.8265 (1), B.8280 (1). See Kottelat 2000:92 [ref. 25865]. •Synonym of Acanthopagrus latus (Houttuyn 1782) -- (Dor 1984:157 [ref. 29757], Ataur Rahman 2003:352 [ref. 31338]). •Valid as Acanthopagrus datnia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Ataur Rahman 1989:327 [ref. 24860]). •Valid as Sparidentex datnia -- (Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2006:12 [ref. 28673], Kume & Yoshino 2008:52 [ref. 29572], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2010:132 [ref. 30738], Kottelat 2013:353 [ref. 32989], Amir et al. 2014:476 [ref. 33280], Parenti 2019:87 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Sparidentex datnia (Hamilton 1822). Sparidae. Distribution: Northeastern Indian Ocean: mouth of Ganges River, India. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

dentatus, Chrysophrys Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1908:173 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 14320] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAM 9977. •Valid as Porcostoma dentata (Gilchrist & Thompson 1908) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:591 [ref. 5710], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:234 [ref. 28072], Parenti 2019:85 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Porcostoma dentata (Gilchrist & Thompson 1908). Sparidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) to Beira (Mozambique). Habitat: marine.

dentex, Sparus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:281 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Valid as Dentex dentex (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:407 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:887 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:793 [ref. 18793], Arruda 1997:89 [ref. 24952], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:89 [ref. 26753], Parin 2003:S10 [ref. 28536], Palma & Andrade 2004:449 [ref. 27717], Golani 2005:42 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:86 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:98 [ref. 30517], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:47 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:367 [ref. 33547], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2587 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:142 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:556 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:97 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:60 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Dentex dentex (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic: British Isles south to Mauritania, including Madeira. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dispar, Dentex Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:239 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Red Sea. Not available; name only mentioned in passing under Dentex multidens. Not treated as a Pentapodus by Russell 1990 [ref. 19228]. Family placement may be incorrect. •In the synonymy of Dentex multidens Valenciennes 1830 -- (Dor 1984:156 [ref. 29757]). Current status: Synonym of Dentex multidens Valenciennes 1830. Sparidae.

dubius, Sparus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:68 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Questionable synonym of Diplodus annularis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:79 [ref. 36892], Parenti 2019:117 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Uncertain as Diplodus annularis (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

durbanensis, Sargus Castelnau [F. L.] 1861:18 [Mémoire sur les poissons de l'Afrique australe; ref. 767] Durban, Natal, South Africa. Holotype (unique): not at MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:68 [ref. 20898]. •Valid as Sparodon durbanensis (Castelnau 1861) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:593 [ref. 5710], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:240 [ref. 28072], Parenti 2019:88 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Sparodon durbanensis (Castelnau 1861). Sparidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, southwestern Indian Ocean: Cape of Good Hope to KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa). Habitat: marine.

edita, Parargyrops Tanaka [S.] 1916:141 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 28 (no. 330); ref. 4326] Tokyo fish market, Japan, but probably came from Shimonoseki or Korea. Holotype: ZUMT 7089. Paratypes: whereabouts unknown. Species originally published in Japanese in above reference, later illustrated and described in more detail in English and Japanese in Tanaka 1916:425, Pls. 116 (fig. 342), 117 (fig. 343) [ref. 14939]. •Valid as Parargyrops edita Tanaka 1916 -- (Ye in Pan et al. 1991:401 [ref. 23876], Chen et al. 1997:93 [ref. 26476], Parenti 2019:85 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Parargyrops edita Tanaka 1916. Sparidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: East China Sea to Japan. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

ehrenbergii, Pagrus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:155 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4598 (3) Egypt, ZMB 1093 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:55 [ref. 20898]. •Valid as Sparus ehrenbergi (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Tortonese 1973:406 [ref. 7192]). •Synonym of Pagrus caeruleostictus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:900 [ref. 13676] as coeruleostictus, Bauchot & Hureau 1990:807 [ref. 18793], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:96 [ref. 26753], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2610 [ref. 34618]). •Valid as Evynnis ehrenbergii (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Iwatsuki et al. 2007:44 [ref. 29100], Parenti 2019:83 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Evynnis ehrenbergii (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: West Africa, Habitat: marine.

elongatus, Dentex Marion de Procé [P.-M.] 1822:132 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris [Sér. 3] [v. 9] (for 1822); ref. 17601] Manila Bay, Philippines. No types known. •Incertae sedis in Sparidae -- (Parenti 2019:89 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

elongatus, Smaris Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Rüppell 1828:13 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Not available, name only (Parenti 2019:91 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae.

emarginatus, Cantharus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:338 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-8808 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:41 [ref. 20898]. •Valid as Spondyliosoma emarginatum (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:594 [ref. 5710], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:241 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2018:221 [ref. 35805], Parenti 2019:57 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Spondyliosoma emarginatum (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: Saldanha Bay to KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa); Madagascar. Habitat: brackish, marine.

erythrinus, Sparus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:279 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea; America. No types known. Neotype designated by Fricke 1999:41 [ref. 24101], but withdrawn in Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Misspelled erhitrinus by Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817:5 [ref. 17319], see Graells 1887:179 [ref. 30438]. •Valid as Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:411 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:901 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:805 [ref. 18793], Arruda 1997:90 [ref. 24952], Fricke 1999:40 [ref. 24101], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:95 [ref. 26753], Parin 2003:S11 [ref. 28536], Golani 2005:44 [ref. 37112], Fricke 2007:26 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:88 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:101 [ref. 30517], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:171 [ref. 31251], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:48 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2013:126 [ref. 32972], Fricke et al. 2014:1 [ref. 33592], Parin et al. 2014:370 [ref. 33547], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2607 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:146 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:557 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:66 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Distribution: Western Baltic Sea, North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic: Norway south to Guinea-Bissau, including Madeira and Canary Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

erytrostoma, Dentex Risso [A.] 1827:364, Pl. 12 (fig. 31) [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Dentex macrophthalmus (Bloch 1791) -- (Parenti 2019:61 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Dentex macrophthalmus (Bloch 1791). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

estuarius, Chrysophrys Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1908:170 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 14320] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: SAM 9999 (3). •Synonym of Acanthopagrus berda (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:581 [ref. 5710], Bauchot & Skelton 1986:331 [ref. 6210], Kume & Yoshino 2008:53 [ref. 29572]). •Valid as Acanthopagrus estuarius (Gilchrist & Thompson 1908) -- (Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2006:13 [ref. 28673]). Current status: Valid as Acanthopagrus estuarius (Gilchrist & Thompson 1908). Sparidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: South Africa and Mozambique. Habitat: brackish.

fascialis, Pagellus Castelnau [F. L.] 1861:28 [Mémoire sur les poissons de l'Afrique australe; ref. 767] Algoa Bay, South Africa. Holotype (unique): not at MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:67 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Chrysoblephus laticeps (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Parenti 2019:77 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Chrysoblephus laticeps (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

fasciata, Sargus (Charax) Swainson [W.] 1839:222 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Cuvier, Pl. 144 -- which is Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:Pl. 144 [ref. 996]. •Species inquirenda in Characidae -- (Reis et al. 2003:159 [ref. 27061] as Charax fasciata). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Sargus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:59 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Cape Verde Islands. Syntypes: MNHN A-8099 (1, dry), A-8100 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:58 [ref. 20898] as holotype and paratype. •Valid as Diplodus fasciatus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Bauchot & Hureau 1990:797 [ref. 18793], Wirtz et al. 2013:126 [ref. 32972], Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2595 [ref. 34618], Parenti 2019:80 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus fasciatus (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Cape Verde Islands endemic. Habitat: marine.

fasciolatus, Dentex Valenciennes [A.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:242 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Red Sea. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:65 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Cheimerius nufar (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Dor 1984:158 [ref. 29757], Siddiqui at al. 2014:80 [ref. 33479], Parenti 2019:58 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Cheimerius nufar (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

filamentosus, Pagrus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:158 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Saint-Denis, Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-8633. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:55 [ref. 20898] with 8633 as holotype. Based on a specimen and an illustration from Malacca so syntypes; the available specimen should be selected as lectotype. Lectotype selected by Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2018:420 [ref. 35983]. •Valid as Argyrops filamentosus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Dor 1984:158 [ref. 29757], Smith & Smith 1986:582 [ref. 5710], Randall 1995:224 [ref. 22896], Goren & Dor 1994:43 [ref. 25356], Fricke 1999:292 [ref. 24106], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:214 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2009:65 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2018:218 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:100 [ref. 36273], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2018:418 [ref. 35983], Eagderi et al. 2019:113 [ref. 37020], Parenti 2019:73 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Argyrops filamentosus (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: East Africa and Persian Gulf to Madagascar and western Mascarenes. Habitat: marine.

filosus, Dentex Valenciennes [A.] 1841:[37], Pl. 6 [Ichthyologie des îles Canaries v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 4502] Canary Islands. Syntypes: MNHN A-7749 (1), B-2878 (1). Dates to Pl. 6 in Sept. 1841, p. 37 published in 1843. •Synonym of Dentex gibbosus (Rafinesque 1810) -- (Tortonese 1973:408 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:888 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:792 [ref. 18793], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:90 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:42 [ref. 37112], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2588 [ref. 34618], Parenti 2019:60 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Dentex gibbosus (Rafinesque 1810). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

flavipinnis, Pagrus Günther [A.] 1859:490 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Not available, name on specimen from Bay of Bengal mentioned under Chrysophrys hasta (Parenti 2019:91 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae.

flavodorsalis, Polysteganus Iwatsuki [Y.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 2015:141, Figs. 3A-C [Zootaxa 4059 (no. 1); ref. 34109] Nazareth Bank, Mascarene Plateau, 11.15°41.11'S, 61°04.54'E, depth 302-305 meters. Holotype: SAIAB 84079. Paratypes: SAIAB. •Valid as Polysteganus flavodorsalis Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2015 -- (Parenti 2019:62 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Polysteganus flavodorsalis Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2015. Sparidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Cargados Carajos and Nazareth Bank, Mascarene Plateau. Habitat: marine.

flavolineatus, Sargus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:60 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Cuba. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-8573. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:58-59 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Archosargus rhomboidalis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:72 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Archosargus rhomboidalis (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

flavops, Argyrops Iwatsuki [Y.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 2018:422, Figs. 11A, 12A-C [Zootaxa 4438 (no. 3); ref. 35983] Mutrah Fish Market, Oman. Holotype: MUFS 33612. Paratypes: MUFS. •Valid as Argyrops flavops Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2018 -- (Parenti 2019:73 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Argyrops flavops Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2018. Sparidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Oman to Pakistan. Habitat: marine.

flexuosa, Spicara Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:51 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:24 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Tortonese et al. 1973:418 [ref. 7202]). •Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra 1990:769 [ref. 18769], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:99 [ref. 26753], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:50 [ref. 36649]). •Valid as Spicara flexuosa Rafinesque 1810 -- (Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:910 [ref. 13676], Parin 2003:S12 [ref. 28536], Golani 2005:45 [ref. 37112], Vasil'eva 2007:105 [ref. 30517], Parin et al. 2014:371 [ref. 33547], Artüz & Fricke 2019:557 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:54 [ref. 36892], Parenti 2019:101 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Valid as Spicara flexuosa Rafinesque 1810. Sparidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, Black Sea, northeastern Atlantic: Portugal. Habitat: brackish, marine.

forskalii, Crenidens Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:378, Pl. 162 quater [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea; Suez, Egypt, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea; Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-8744. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-8743 (3) Massawa. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:177 [ref. 20718]. A note in v. 6 indicates that Pl. 162 quater (and others) will accompany v. 7 [ref. 4881]. Text published in Sept. 1830, plate in Apr. 1831. Lectotype selected by Iwatsuki & Maclaine 2013:245 [ref. 35123]. •Synonym of Crenidens crenidens (Forsskål 1775) -- (Tortonese 1973:416 [ref. 7192], Dor 1984:159 [ref. 29757], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:885 [ref. 13676], Iwatsuki & Maclaine 2013:245 [ref. 35123], Fricke et al. 2018:219 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:101 [ref. 36273], Parenti 2019:50 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Crenidens crenidens (Forsskål 1775). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

fourmanoiri, Dentex Akazaki [M.] & Séret [B.] 1999:179, Figs. 1-2 [Proc. 5th Indo-Pac. Fish Conf., Noumea; ref. 23938] East of Chesterfield Islands, New Caledonia, 19°27'S, 158°34'E, depth 217 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1998-301. Paratypes: MNHN 1997-4140 to 4142 (3, 2, 2), 1998-302 (5); MUFS 14775 (1, dissected), 14874 (1); NSMT-P 54577 (1). •Valid as Dentex fourmanoiri Akazaki & Séret 1999 -- (Carpenter 2001:2999 [ref. 26104], Iwatsuki et al. 2007:33 [ref. 29100], Fricke 2011:402 [ref. 31242], Iwatsuki et al. 2015:114 [ref. 33802] misspelled once as formanoiri, Parenti 2019:60 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Dentex fourmanoiri Akazaki & Séret 1999. Sparidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Chesterfield Islands, Grande Terre and Ile des Pins (New Caledonia). Habitat: marine.

gagarella, Smaris Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:420 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Marseille, France, western Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-9109 (2) Martigues, 0000-9135 (2) Marseilles. Type catalog: Bauchot 1974:986 [ref. 21548]. •Synonym of Spicara flexuosa Rafinesque 1810 -- (Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:910 [ref. 13676]). •Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese et al. 1973:418 [ref. 7202], Heemstra 1990:770 [ref. 18769], Parenti 2019:55 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

garitius, Labrus Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1847:col. 123 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Not available, Chiereghini name mentioned in synonymy (Parenti 2019:91 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae.

germanum, Pachymetopon Barnard [K. H.] 1934:230, Fig. 2 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 10) v. 13 (no. 74) (art. 16); ref. 195] Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: BMNH 1932.7.28.1 (1) [ex SAM], SAM (1) not found. •Valid as Polyamblyodon germanum (Barnard 1934) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:590 [ref. 5710], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:231 [ref. 28072]). •Valid as Polyamblyodon germanus (Barnard 1934) -- (Parenti 2019:52 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Polyamblyodon germanus (Barnard 1934). Sparidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: East London (South Africa) to Delagoa Bay (Mozambique). Habitat: marine.

gibbiceps, Chrysophrys Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:127, Pl. 147 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Holotype: MNHN A-8129 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:45 [ref. 20898]. •Valid as Chrysoblephus gibbiceps (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:584 [ref. 5710], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:218 [ref. 28072], Parenti 2019:76 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Chrysoblephus gibbiceps (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, southwestern Indian Ocean: Cape of God Hope to KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa). Habitat: marine.

gibbosus, Pachymetopon Pellegrin [J.] 1914:264 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 39; ref. 14169] Fort Dauphin, Madagascar. Holotype: MNHN 1914-0016. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:170 [ref. 20718], Fricke et al. 2018:220 [ref. 35805]. •Valid as Polyamblyodon gibbosum (Pellegrin 1914) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:590 [ref. 5710], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:225 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2018:220 [ref. 35805]) •Valid as Polyamblyodon gibbosus (Pellegrin 1914) -- (Parenti 2019:52 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Polyamblyodon gibbosus (Pellegrin 1914). Sparidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), southern Mozambique and Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

gibbosus, Sparus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:47 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:25 [ref. 3595]. •Valid as Dentex gibbosus (Rafinesque 1810) -- (Tortonese 1973:408 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:888 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:792 [ref. 18793], Afonso et al. 1999:85 [ref. 25466], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:90 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:42 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:86 [ref. 29533], Wirtz et al. 2007:35 [ref. 30263], Bañon et al. 2010:17 [ref. 31029], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:46 [ref. 36649], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2588 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:140 [ref. 36550], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:97 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:60 [ref. 36892], Parenti 2019:101 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Valid as Dentex gibbosus (Rafinesque 1810). Sparidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Portugal south to Angola, including Madeira and Canary Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

glaucum, Pachymetopon Norman [J. R.] 1935:20, Fig. 6 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 32 (pt 1, no. 2); ref. 3224] East London, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1935.1.23.10 [ex SAM]. •Synonym of Pachymetopon grande Günther 1859 -- (Smith & Smith 1986:588 [ref. 5710], Parenti 2019:52 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pachymetopon grande Günther 1859. Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

globiceps, Chrysophrys Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:100 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Syntypes: MNHN A-8159 (1, dry), A-8160 (1, dry), A-8161 (1, dry), A-8163 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:45 [ref. 20898]. •Valid as Rhabdosargus globiceps (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:592 [ref. 5710], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:809 [ref. 18793], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:163 [ref. 25472] with Cuvier 1830 as author, Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:235 [ref. 28072], Tanaka & Iwasuki 2013:2 [ref. 32775], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2612 [ref. 34618], Parenti 2019:86 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Rhabdosargus globiceps (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, southwestern Indian Ocean: Angola to KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa). Habitat: brackish, marine.

gobioides, Dentex Valenciennes [A.] (ex Solander) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:234 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:66 [ref. 20898]. •Incertae sedis in Sparidae -- (Parenti 2019:89 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

gora, Smaris Risso [A.] 1827:347 [as 357 on page] [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1974:992 [ref. 21548]. •Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:55 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

goreensis, Box Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:364 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Gorée, Senegal. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-8729 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:36 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Bauchot & Hureau 1990:809 [ref. 18793], Parenti 2019:53 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

goreensis, Pagellus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:203 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Gorée, Senegal. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5380 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:53 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Lithognathus mormyrus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Bauchot & Hureau 1990:802 [ref. 18793], Parenti 2019:64 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Lithognathus mormyrus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gracilis, Cynaedus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:57 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.22 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:223 [ref. 13434] but as holotype. •Synonym of Boops boops (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Wheeler 1958:223 [ref. 13434], Parenti 2019:50 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Boops boops (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gracilis, Smaris Bonaparte [C. L.] 1836:fasc. 15-17, punt.80, Pl. 90 (fig. 1) [Iconografia della fauna italica; ref. 4892] Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: ANSP 12586-99 (14). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:100 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Spicara smaris (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese et al. 1973:419 [ref. 7202], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:911 [ref. 13676], Heemstra 1990:771 [ref. 18769], Golani 2005:46 [ref. 37112], Parenti 2019:56 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara smaris (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

graecus, Scatharus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:376, Pl. 162 ter. [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Moree, Greece, Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-4912 (not found). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:70 [ref. 20898]. A note in v. 6 indicates that Pl. 162 ter (and others) will accompany v. 7. •Possibly a synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:414 [ref. 7192], Parenti 2019:57 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

grande, Pachymetopon Günther [A.] 1859:424 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1851.10.26.5 (stuffed). Also listed was Plate XXVI, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." For locality see Günther 1886:367 [ref. 18205]. •Valid as Pachymetopon grande Günther 1859 -- (Smith & Smith 1986:588 [ref. 5710], Afonso et al. 1999:85 [ref. 25466] with question, Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:229 [ref. 28072], Wirtz et al. 2007:35 [ref. 30263], Fricke et al. 2018:220 [ref. 35805], Parenti 2019:52 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Pachymetopon grande Günther 1859. Sparidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: Cape of Good Hope to Durban (South Africa); Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

griseus, Cantharus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:333 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Dieppe; Abbeville; Boulogne; Calais, France. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-1717 (1) Abbeville, 0000-8802 (1) Abbeville, 0000-9124 (1) Dieppe, A-7989 (1, dry) Manche. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:41 [ref. 20898] as holotype and paratypes. •Synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:414 [ref. 7192], Parenti 2019:57 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

guentheri, Pachymetopon Steindachner [F.] 1869:126 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 6 (no. 16) (for 17 June 1869); ref. 20469] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Syntypes: NMW 77049 (2). Species originally spelled Güntheri, change mandatory. Species later described in more detail in Steindachner 1869:135 [p. 16 of separate] [ref. 4216]. •Synonym of Pachymetopon grande Günther 1859 -- (Smith & Smith 1986:588 [ref. 5710], Parenti 2019:52 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pachymetopon grande Günther 1859. Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

guentherii, Pagellus de Brito Capello [F.] 1867:253, Pl. 4 (fig. 3) [Jornal do Sciências Mathemáticas, Physicas e Naturaes, Lisboa v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 14042] Portugal. Original as güntherii. •Possibly a synonym of Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:415 [ref. 7192], Parenti 2019:66 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Uncertain as Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

guttatus, Smaris Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Rüppell 1828:13 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Not available, name only (Parenti 2019:91 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae.

guttulatus, Pagrus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:160 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Australia; King George Sound, Western Australia; Jervis Bay, New Zealand. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-8641 (1),0000- 8627 to 0000-8629 (1, 2, 1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:55-56 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Pagrus auratus (Forster 1801) -- (Paulin 1990:261 [ref. 15774], Bray et al. 2006:1229 [ref. 29091]). •Synonym of Chrysophrys auratus (Forster 1801) -- (Parenti 2019:77 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Chrysophrys auratus (Forster 1801). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gymnodon, Sciaena Pallas [P. S.] 1814:252 [Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica v. 3; ref. 3351] Shores of the Crimea, Ukraine (Black Sea). •Synonym of Smaris smaris (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berg 1949:1052 [ref. 20662]). •Synonym of Spicara smaris (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Popova 1998:122 [ref. 23588]). •Synonym of Spicara flexuosa Rafinesque 1810 -- (Parin 2003:S12 [ref. 28536], Parin et al. 2014:371 [ref. 33547], Parenti 2019:54 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara flexuosa Rafinesque 1810. Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

haffara, Sparus Fabricius [J. C.] in Niebuhr (ex Forsskål) 1775:33, xi [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] No locality stated (Red Sea). No types known. Authorship follows Fricke 2008:42 [ref. 30182]. •Valid as Rhabdosargus haffara (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:160 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:44 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:227 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:182 [ref. 23922], Golani 1998:97 [ref. 27567], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Golani 2005:45 [ref. 37112], Fricke 2008:42 [ref. 30182], Tanaka & Iwasuki 2013:2 [ref. 32775], Siddiqui at al. 2014:88 [ref. 33479], Psomadakis et al. 2015:263 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:329 [ref. 36183], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[21] 259 [ref. 36492], Fricke et al. 2018:221 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:101 [ref. 36273], Jawad et al. 2018:113 [ref. 36262], Eagderi et al. 2019:115 [ref. 37020], Parenti 2019:86 [ref. 36892]). •Valid as Rhabdosargus haffara (Fabricius 1775). Current status: Valid as Rhabdosargus haffara (Fabricius 1775). Sparidae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: East Africa and Madagascar to Persian Gulf; Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.

hasta, Dentex Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:255 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Malabar, India. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-9054 (2, poor condition). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:48 [ref. 20898]. Not the same as Acanthopagrus hasta (Bloch & Schneider 1801). •In Sparidentex -- (Kume & Yoshino 2008:52 [ref. 29572]). •Valid as Sparidentex hasta (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Randall 1995:228 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:183 [ref. 23922], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Bray et al. 2006:1230 [ref. 29091], Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2009:51 [ref. 30528], Coad 2010:266 [ref. 36620], Kottelat 2013:349 [ref. 32989], Amir et al. 2014:476 [ref. 33280], Siddiqui at al. 2014:89 [ref. 33479], Psomadakis et al. 2015:264 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:329 [ref. 36183], Eagderi et al. 2019:115 [ref. 37020], Parenti 2019:87 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Sparidentex hasta (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf east to India. Ballast water introduction in Perth, Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

hasta, Sparus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:275 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Coromande Coast, India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 8796 (left skin). •Valid as Acanthopagrus hasta (Bloch & Schneider 2001) -- (Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2009:43 [ref. 30528]). •Synonym of Acanthopagrus berda (Fabricius 1775) (author often seen as Forsskål) -- (Bauchot & Skelton 1986:331 [ref. 6210], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2010:124 [ref. 30738], Iwatsuki et al. 2010:123 [ref. 31106], Kottelat 2013:352 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2019:68 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthopagrus berda (Fabricius 1775). Sparidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

helenae, Sargus Sauvage [H.-E.] 1879:205 [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 3; ref. 13259] Saint Helena Island, southern central Atlantic. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-0952. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:59 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Edwards & Glass 1987:641 [ref. 9166], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:800 [ref. 18793], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2579 [ref. 34618]). •Valid as Diplodus helenae (Sauvage 1879) -- (Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Brown et al. 2019:180 [ref. 36444], Parenti 2019:80 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus helenae (Sauvage 1879). Sparidae. Distribution: Southern central Atlantic: Saint Helena endemic. Habitat: marine.

heterodus, Sparus (Chrysophrys) Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1877:833 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1876; ref. 3454] Congo River, Africa. Syntypes: (4) ZMB 8919 (3 or 4). •Incertae sedis in Sparidae (Parenti 2019:90 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

holbrookii, Sargus Bean [T. H.] 1878:198 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 1 (no. 28); ref. 16021] Savannah Bank, Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 20979 (orig. 6, now 4). •Valid as Diplodus holbrooki (Bean 1878) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:182 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:142 [ref. 23239], Murdy et al. 1997:232 [ref. 23144]). •Valid as Diplodus holbrookii (Bean 1878) -- (Carpenter 2003:1573 [ref. 27092], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:401 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708], Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:80 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus holbrookii (Bean 1878). Sparidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Chesapeake Bay south to Florida (U.S.A.); northern Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: brackish, marine.

holubi, Pagrus (Chrysophrys) Steindachner [F.] 1881:203 [25], Pl. 2 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 83 (1. Abth.); ref. 4231] Algoa Bay, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: NMW 22361 (2). On p. 25 of separate. •Synonym of Boopsoidea inornata Castelnau 1861 -- (Smith & Smith 1986:582 [ref. 5710], Parenti 2019:63 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Boopsoidea inornata Castelnau 1861. Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

holubi, Sargus Steindachner [F.] 1881:208 [30], Pl. 3 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 83 (1. Abth.); ref. 4231] Algoa Bay, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: NMW 60953 (1), 60955 (1). On p. 30 of separate. •Valid as Rhabdosargus holubi (Steindachner 1881) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:592 [ref. 5710], Bauchot & Skelton 1986:332 [ref. 6210], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:236 [ref. 28072], Tanaka & Iwasuki 2013:2 [ref. 32775], Parenti 2019:86 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Rhabdosargus holubi (Steindachner 1881). Sparidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, southwestern Indian Ocean: Cape of Good Hope to KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa). Habitat: brackish, marine.

honoratus, Sparus Thunberg [C. P.] 1787:23 [Museum naturalium Academiae Upsaliensis. ... Praesidae; ref. 17911] Description is in footnote 15. •Incertae sedis in Sparidae (Parenti 2019:90 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

hottentotus, Sargus Smith [A.] 1844:no pagination, Pl. 23 (fig. 1) [Illustrations of the zoology of South Africa v. 4; ref. 4035] Southeastern coast of South Africa. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1845.7.3.51 (stuffed and mounted). •Synonym of Diplodus cervinus (Lowe 1838), but a valid subspecies -- (Smith & Smith 1986:586 [ref. 5710], Randall 1995:225 [ref. 22896]). •Valid as Diplodus hottentotus (Smith 1844) -- (Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:224 [ref. 28072], Siddiqui at al. 2014:85 [ref. 33479], Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:80 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus hottentotus (Smith 1844). Sparidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, southwestern Indian Ocean: Sozuth Africa to Mozambique. Habitat: marine.

hudsoni, Lutianus Evermann [B. W.] & Shaw [T.] 1927:116 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 1286] Nanking, China. Holotype (unique): CAS 505. Synonym of Acanthopagrus schlegelii (Bleeker 1854) -- (Parenti 2019:70 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthopagrus schlegelii (Bleeker 1854). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

humerimaculatus, Sargus Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:297 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype (unique): not at MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:68-69 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Archosargus rhomboidalis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Bauchot & Daget 1972:68 [ref. 20898], Parenti 2019:72 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Archosargus rhomboidalis (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

humilis, Pagellus Poey [F.] 1868:308 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Havana, Cuba. Holotype: apparently lost. Poey specimens: MCZ 21843 (2). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:202 [ref. 22926] with MCZ 21843 as cotypes. •Synonym of Calamus penna (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Randall & Caldwell 1966:22 [ref. 9053], Parenti 2019:75 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Calamus penna (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

hurta, Sparus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:279 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea. Holotype: NRM 13. Type catalog: Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:247 [ref. 20707] who suggest selecting NHRM LP 13 as neotype for Sparus mormyrus Linnaeus 1758 of which hurta is a synonym. •Synonym of Lithognathus mormyrus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:64 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Lithognathus mormyrus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

hypselosoma, Dentex Bleeker [P.] 1854:402 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 13964] Nagasaki, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 5678. Paralectotypes: RMNH 35385 (1). Lectotype selecteds by Iwatsuki, et al. 2007:39 [ref. 29100]. •Valid as Dentex hypselosomus Bleeker 1854 -- (Iwatsuki et al. 2007:34 [ref. 29100] replacing Chrysophrys tumifrons Temminck & Schlegel 1843, Motomura et al. 2010:127 [ref. 31256], Shinohara et al. 2014:262 [ref. 33330], Iwatsuki et al. 2015:114 [ref. 33802], Parenti 2019:60 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Dentex hypselosomus Bleeker 1854. Sparidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: China and Taiwan north to southern Korea and Japan. Habitat: marine.

indicus, Crenidens Day [F.] 1873:clxxxvi [Sea-fishes of India and Burma.; ref. 17372] Northern Indian Ocean. Lectotype: ZSI 1774. Paralectotypes: AMS B.8216 (1), RMNH 1038 (1), ZMB 8912, ZSI F1775-76 (2). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:145 [ref. 20743] with a holotype and paratypes, Whitehead & Talwar 1976:160 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:297-298 [ref. 25110]. •Synonym of Crenidens crenidens (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:159 [ref. 29757], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:848 [ref. 20764]). •Synonym of Crenidens crenidens (Forsskål 1775), but a valid subspecies -- (Randall 1995:225 [ref. 22896], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377]). •Valid as Crenidens indicus Day 1873 -- (Iwatsuki & Maclaine 2013:245 [ref. 35123], Siddiqui at al. 2014:82 [ref. 33479], Psomadakis et al. 2015:262 [ref. 34104], Bogorodsky et al. 2017:[8] [ref. 35520], Jawad et al. 2018:112 [ref. 36262], Eagderi et al. 2019:114 [ref. 37020], Parenti 2019:50 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Crenidens indicus Day 1873. Sparidae. Distribution: Red Sea, northern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf east to India and Nicobar Islands. Habitat: marine.

inornata, Boopsoidea Castelnau [F. L.] 1861:26 [Mémoire sur les poissons de l'Afrique australe; ref. 767] Kalk Bay and Algoa Bay, South Africa. Types not at MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:64 [ref. 20898]. Genus spelled Boopsidea in species heading, but Boopsoidea on p. 25 and p. v. •Valid as Boopsoidea inornata Castelnau 1861 -- (Smith & Smith 1986:582 [ref. 5710], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:215 [ref. 28072], Parenti 2019:63 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Boopsoidea inornata Castelnau 1861. Sparidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic and southwestern Indian Ocean: Cape of God Hope to KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa). Habitat: marine.

insidiator, Smaris Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:414 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000 9311 (2), 0000-9318 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot 1974:986 [ref. 21548]. •Synonym of Centracanthus cirrus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Tortonese et al. 1973:417 [ref. 7202], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:908 [ref. 13676], Heemstra 1990:768 [ref. 18769], Parenti 2019:89 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Centracanthus cirrus Rafinesque 1810. Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

insignis, Exocallus De la Pylaie [A. J. M.] 1835:532 [Congrès Scientifique de France v. 2 (Sept. 1834) (art. 5); ref. 1086] Based on Boops vulgaris of Cuvier. •Synonym of Boops boops (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:50 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Boops boops (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

insularum, Diplodus sargus Cadenat [J.] 1964:962, Figs. 5, 12, 24 [Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér A) Sciences Naturelles v. 26 (no. 3); ref. 1449] Cape Verde Islands. Syntypes: (6) MNHN 1964-0575 to 0578 (1, 1, 1, 1), 1971-0002 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:51 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Bauchot & Hureau 1990:800 [ref. 18793], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2599 [ref. 34618] as subspecies lineatus). •Synonym of Diplodus lineatus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:81 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus lineatus (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

italicus, Smaris Risso [A.] 1827:346, Pl. 12 (fig. 30) [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1974:990 [ref. 21548]. •Questionably a synonym of Spicara smaris (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Döderlein 1891:253 [ref. 17416], Parenti 2019:56 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara smaris (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

jamalensis, Sparidentex Amir [S. A.], Siddiqui [P. J. A.] & Masroor [R.] 2014:472, Figs. 1, 2a, c, e [Pakistan Journal of Zoology v. 46 (no. 2); ref. 33280] West Wharf fish harbour, Karachi, Pakistan, 24°50'57.08" N, 66°58'38.27"E. Holotype: PMNH 52062. Paratypes: CEMB-P2022-0555 to -0563 (9), PMNH 52063 (1). •Valid as Sparidentex jamalensis Amir, Siddiqui & Masroor 2014 -- (Siddiqui at al. 2014:90 [ref. 33479], Psomadakis et al. 2015:264 [ref. 34104], Parenti 2019:88 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Sparidentex jamalensis Amir, Siddiqui & Masroor 2014. Sparidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Pakistan; possibly more widespread. Habitat: brackish.

japonica, Evynnis Tanaka [S.] 1931:29 [Journal of the Faculty of Science Imperial University of Tokyo. Sec. 4, Zoology v. 3 (pt 1); ref. 17358] Japan and China. No types known. New name for Chrysophrys cardinalis of Temminck & Schlegel, not Sparus cardinalis Lacepède 1802. •Valid as Evynnis japonica Tanaka 1931 -- (Sheiko 1983:18 [ref. 37041], Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:177 [ref. 6441], Chen et al. 1997:93 [ref. 26476], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:11 [ref. 24670], Nakabo 2000:858 [ref. 25086], Shimizu 2001:31 [ref. 25799], Shinohara et al. 2001:326 [ref. 25995], Carpenter 2001:3001 [ref. 26104], Nakabo 2002:858 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:342, 616 [ref. 26218], Parin 2003:S11 [ref. 28536] with genus as Evynnus). •Synonym of Evynnis tumifrons (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Iwatsuki et al. 2007:41 [ref. 29100], Parin et al. 2014:369 [ref. 33547], Parenti 2019:83 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Evynnis tumifrons (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

jusculum, Maena Cuvier [G.] 1829:186 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-9105 (2) Messina, 0000-9151 (2) Martigues, 0000-9313 (2) Malaga. Type catalog: Bauchot 1974:983 [ref. 21548]. Appeared in more detail in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:395 [ref. 996]. •Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese et al. 1973:418 [ref. 7202], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:910 [ref. 13676], Heemstra 1990:769 [ref. 18769], Parenti 2019:55 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

kendalli, Calamus Evermann [B. W.] & Marsh [M. C.] 1899:354 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 25 (for 1899) Appendix 7; ref. 1283] Mayagüez, Puerto Rico. Holotype: USNM 49362. Paratypes: (2) USNM 126846 [ex USBF 1039] (1). •Synonym of Calamus pennatula Guichenot 1868 -- (Randall & Caldwell 1966:29 [ref. 9053], Parenti 2019:76 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Calamus pennatula Guichenot 1868. Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

kotschyi, Sargus Steindachner [F.] 1876:203 [155] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] Persian Gulf; Madagascar. Syntypes: (several) NMW 82859 (1). On p. 155 of separate. Species currently recognized as based on Persian Gulf syntype; Madagascar material based on Diplodus capensis (Smith 1844). •Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Abou-seedo et al. 1990:217 [ref. 23688], Randall 1995:226 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:182 [ref. 23922], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Siddiqui at al. 2014:80 [ref. 33479]). •Valid as Diplodus kotschyi (Steindachner 1876) -- (Ali et al. 2018:329 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Eagderi et al. 2019:114 [ref. 37020], Parenti 2019:81 [ref. 36892], Zajonz et al. 2019:80 [ref. 36871] as cf. kotschyi). Current status: Valid as Diplodus kotschyi (Steindachner 1876). Sparidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf and Oman east to India. Habitat: marine.

labiosus, Sargus Bourjot [A.] 1870:48 [Bulletin de la Société de Climatologie d'Alger 1870; ref. 36067] Algier, Algeria, western Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •In the synonymy of Sargus fasciatus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Maire 1916: 316 [ref. 36565]). •In the synonymy of Diplodus fasciatus (Valenciennes 1830). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus fasciatus (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae.

laniarius, Pagrus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:163 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Lectotype: RMNH D398. Paralectotypes: RMNH D399 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:68 [ref. 20898]. Lectotype established in Bauchot & Daget 1972:68 [ref. 20898]. •Valid as Pterogymnus laniarius (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:592 [ref. 5710], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:163 [ref. 25472] with Cuvier 1830 as author, Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:235 [ref. 28072], Parenti 2019:85 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Pterogymnus laniarius (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, southwestern Indian Ocean: Cape of Good Hope to East London (South Africa). Habitat: marine.

lata, Sciaena Solander [D. C.] in Richardson 1842:392 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 9 (no. 59) (art. 42); ref. 21247] Not available, manuscript name mentioned in synonymy of Pagrus latus (Parenti 2019:91 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae.

laticeps, Chrysophrys Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:122 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Syntypes: MNHN A-8068 (1, dry), A-8070 (1, dry), A-8076 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:46 [ref. 20898]. •Valid as Chrysoblephus laticeps (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:584 [ref. 5710], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:161 [ref. 25472], Fricke 1999:290 [ref. 24106], Parenti 2019:77 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Chrysoblephus laticeps (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, southwestern Indian Ocean: Cape of Good Hope (South Africa) to Mauritius. Habitat: marine.

latus, Pagrus Richardson [J.] & Solander [D. C.] in Richardson 1842:392 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 9 (no. 59) (art. 42); ref. 21247] Between Opooragi and Owbooragi, New Zealand. No types known. Based on Solander manuscript and Parkinson figure; authorship suggested here is Richardson & Solander. •Synonym of Pagrus auratus (Forster 1801) -- (Paulin 1990:261 [ref. 15774]). •Synonym of Chrysophrys auratus (Forster 1801) -- (Parenti 2019:77 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Chrysophrys auratus (Forster 1801). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

latus, Sparus Houttuyn [M.] 1782:322 [Verhandelingen der Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen, Haarlem v. 20 (pt 2); ref. 2220] Hirado Bay, Nagasaki, Japan (new locality). Neotype: MUSF 36814. See Boeseman 1995:6 [ref. 21811]. Neotype selected by Iwasuki 2013:73 [ref. 32744]. •Valid as Sparus latus Houttuyn 1782 -- (Yu & Zhou in Kuang et al. 1986:243 [ref. 26639], Ye in Pan et al. 1991:404 [ref. 23876]). •Valid as Acanthopagrus latus (Houttuyn 1782) -- (Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:178 [ref. 6441], Dor 1984:157 [ref. 29757], Allen & Swainston 1988:84 [ref. 25477], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:531 [ref. 25598], Zheng 1989:326 [ref. 21202], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:847 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:116 [ref. 23448], Goren & Dor 1994:43 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:223 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:132 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:180 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:94 [ref. 26476], Takahashi et al. 1997:45 [ref. 24971], Coad 1998:103 [ref. 23869], Mizuno et al. 1999:9 [ref. 25311], Nakabo 2000:857 [ref. 25086], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:619 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:136 [ref. 25480], Shimizu 2001:31 [ref. 25799], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Carpenter 2001:2997 [ref. 26104], Allen et al. 2002:344 [ref. 25930], Nakabo 2002:857 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:342, 615 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Khan 2003:9 [ref. 27710], Ataur Rahman 2003:352 [ref. 31338], Bray et al. 2006:1227 [ref. 29091], Kume & Yoshino 2008:53 [ref. 29572], Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2009:44 [ref. 30528], Coad 2010:262 [ref. 36620], Iwatsuki et al. 2010:115 [ref. 31106], Esmaeili et al. 2010:375 [ref. 33391], Larson et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32988], Iwatsuki 2013:67 [ref. 32744] (and limited to localities below), Kottelat 2013:352 [ref. 32989], Siddiqui et al. 2014:74 [ref. 33479], Iwatsuki in Kimura et al. 2018:168 [ref. 36460], Parenti 2019:69 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Acanthopagrus latus (Houttuyn 1782). Sparidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Vietnam and China to Korea and Japan; introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

leonina, Perca Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:113 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Near Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Holotype: BMNH 1853.11.12.34 (skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:222 [ref. 13434]. •Synonym of Archosargus probatocephalus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Wheeler 1958:222 [ref. 13434], Parenti 2019:72 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Archosargus probatocephalus (Walbaum 1792). Sparidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

leucophaeus, Pagrus Plumier [C.] in Lacepède 1802:293 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Regarded as name only, not available (Parenti 2019:91 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae.

leucosteus, Calamus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] in Jordan 1885:879 [91] [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 13 (1885); ref. 2385] Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A. Lectotype: CAS-SU 10693. Paralectotypes: CAS 23508 [ex IU 1176] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:79 [ref. 12291]. On p. 91 of separate. SU 10693 is also labelled the type and was cited as such by Böhlke 1953:79 [ref. 12291]; the original description does not rule out more than one specimen; if more than 1 then Böhlke established a lectotype. •Valid as Calamus leucosteus Jordan & Gilbert 1885 -- (Randall & Caldwell 1966:22 [ref. 9053], with CAS 23508 as type, Robins & Ray 1986:183 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:141 [ref. 23239], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:348 [ref. 24550], Carpenter 2003:1566 [ref. 27092], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:395 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708], Parenti 2019:75 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Calamus leucosteus Jordan & Gilbert 1885. Sparidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina south to Florida (U.S.A.); Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

levantinus, Diplodus Fricke [R.], Golani [D.] & Appelbaum-Golani [B.] 2016:3, Figs. 1-4 [Scientia Marina v. 80 (no. 3); ref. 34520] Israel, off Jaffa, eastern Mediterranean Sea, ca. 32°03'N, 34°45'E. Holotype: HUJ 20535. Paratypes: HUJ, MSNG. •Valid as Diplodus levantinus Fricke, Golani & Appelbaum-Golani 2016 -- (Golani et al. 2017:529 [ref. 35726] hybrid with D. cervinus x D. levantinus, also valid, Parenti 2019:81 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus levantinus Fricke, Golani & Appelbaum-Golani 2016. Sparidae. Distribution: Southeastern Mediterranean Sea: Israel endemic. Habitat: marine.

lineatus, Box Boulenger [G. A.] 1892:134 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1892 (pt 1); ref. 14506] Muscat, Oman, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH uncat. •Valid as Boops lineatus (Boulenger 1892) -- (Randall 1995:224 [ref. 22896], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Parenti 2019:50 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Boops lineatus (Boulenger 1892). Sparidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Yemen to Gulf of Oman. Habitat: marine.

lineatus, Sargus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:59 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] No locality. Holotype: MNHN A-8102 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:59 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies lineatus -- (Bauchot & Hureau 1990:800 [ref. 18793], Wirtz et al. 2013:126 [ref. 32972], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2599 [ref. 34618]). •Valid as Diplodus lineatus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:81 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus lineatus (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Cape Verde Islands endemic. Habitat: marine.

lineatus, Sparus Osbeck [P.] 1770:100 [Nova Acta Physico-Medica Academiae Caesareae Leopoldina-Carolinae Naturae Curiosorum v. 4; ref. 18497] Spain. No types known. Name also appeared in Walbaum 1792:300 [ref. 4572]. •Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Döderlein 1891:242 [ref. 17416], Parenti 2019:55 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

lineatus, Sparus Montagu [G.] 1818:451, Pl. 23 [Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society, Edinburgh v. 2 (Pt. 2, art. 27); ref. 17785] South coast of Devonshire, England. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Sparus lineatus Osbeck 1770. •Synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:414 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:811 [ref. 18793], Parenti 2019:57 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lineopunctatus, Dentex Boulenger [G. A.] 1903:66, Pl. 6 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 3 (pt 3); ref. 15011] KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1903.2.6.5. •Synonym of Polysteganus coeruleopunctatus (Klunzinger 1870) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:590 [ref. 5710]). •Valid as Polysteganus lineopunctatus (Boulenger 1903) -- (Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2015:140 [ref. 34109], Parenti 2019:62 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Polysteganus lineopunctatus (Boulenger 1903). Sparidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: South Africa and Mozambique. Habitat: marine.

linnei, Cantharus Malm [A. W.] 1877:97, 384 [ ref. 2881] Original as Linnéi. Tentatively regarded as an unneeded replacement name for Sparus cantharus Linnaeus 1758 (to avoid "Strickland tautonomy"). Locality Sweden. •Synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:57 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lippei, Pagellus Steindachner [F.] 1894:137 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 31 (no. 14) (for 25 May 1894); ref. 20493] Fernando Póo Island [Bioco Island], Equatorial Guinea, Gulf of Guinea. Holotype (unique): NMW 61094. Species illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1894:443, Pl. 1 [ref. 14564]. •Possible synonym of Pagellus bellottii Steindachner 1882 -- (Bauchot & Hureau 1990:804 [ref. 18793], Parenti 2019:65 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Uncertain as Pagellus bellottii Steindachner 1882. Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

lithognathus, Pagrus Cuvier [G.] 1829:183 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-8662 (2), A-8109 (1, dry); RMNH 1009 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:53 [ref. 20898] for Valenciennes 1830. Available from brief description; described more fully in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:204, Pl. 151 [ref. 996] as Pagellus lithognathus. •Valid as Lithognathus lithognathus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:587 [ref. 5710], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:162 [ref. 25472], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:226 [ref. 28072], Parenti 2019:64 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Lithognathus lithognathus (Cuvier 1829). Sparidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, southwestern Indian Ocean: Orange River mouth to KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa). Habitat: brackish, marine.

longifilis, Pagrus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:159 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Trincomalee, Sri Lanka. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-8635. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:56 [ref. 20898], with MNHN 8635 as holotype. •Synonym of Argyrops spinifer (Forsskål 1775) -- (Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2018:425 [ref. 35983], Parenti 2019:73 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Argyrops spinifer (Forsskål 1775). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

longispinnis, Chrysophrys Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:116 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Bengal, India. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-5282. Paralectotype: MNHN 0000-5282 (now 1), Bengal, ZMB 8598 (1, stuffed) [recognized as latus] Japan. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:46 [ref. 20898]. Spelled longispinis on p. x of table of contents. Lectotype selected by Iwatsuki 2013:76 [ref. 32744]. •Synonym of Acanthopagrus berda (Forsskål 1775) -- (Bauchot & Skelton 1986:331 [ref. 6210]). • Not A. berda; two species are represented in the types -- (Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2006:15 [ref. 28673]). •Mention -- (Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2009:51 [ref. 30528]). •Status uncertain -- (Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2010:132 [ref. 30738]). •Valid as Acanthopagrus longispinnis (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Kume & Yoshino 2008:53 [ref. 29572], Iwatsuki 2013:76 [ref. 32744], Siddiqui et al. 2014:74 [ref. 33479], Suresh et al. 2018:245 [ref. 36495], Parenti 2019:70 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Acanthopagrus longispinnis (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean: India. Habitat: marine.

lophus, Sparus Fowler [H. W.] 1925:234, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 77; ref. 5570] KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 30 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ANSP 53032. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:157 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Chrysoblephus lophus (Fowler 1925) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:584 [ref. 5710], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:220 [ref. 28072], Parenti 2019:77 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Chrysoblephus lophus (Fowler 1925). Sparidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) endemic. Habitat: marine.

lupus, Cynaedus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:54 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Several localities. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.20 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin) Indian Ocean. Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:223 [ref. 13434] but as holotype. •Synonym of Argyrozona argyrozona (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Wheeler 1958:223 [ref. 13434], Parenti 2019:58 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Argyrozona argyrozona (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

macracanthus, Crenidens Günther [A.] 1874:368 [2] [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 14 (no. 83) (art. 47); ref. 2006] Chennai, Bay of Bengal, India. [Original locality: Madras, India.] Holotype (unique): BMNH 1868.10.27.28. •Valid as Crenidens macracanthus Günther 1874 -- (Iwatsuki & Maclaine 2013:241 [ref. 35123], Bogorodsky et al. 2017:[7] [ref. 35520], Parenti 2019:50 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Crenidens macracanthus Günther 1874. Sparidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: India. Habitat: marine.

macrocephalus, Labrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:432, 480, Pl. 26 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] No locality. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:99 [ref. 19171], Bauchot & Daget 1972:67 [ref. 20898]. Based on a Commerson figure. •Incertae sedis in Sparidae -- (Parenti 2019:90 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

macrocephalus, Pagrus Basilewsky [S.] 1855:222, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [not Pl. 3 (fig. 1)] [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Gulf of Pechili; Oriental Sea, Beijing [Peking], China. No types at ZIN. •Synonym of Acanthopagrus schlegelii (Bleeker 1854) -- (Sadovy & Cornish 2000:137 [ref. 25480]). •Valid as Sparus macrocephalus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Cheng & Zhou 1997:299 [ref. 26385], Wang et al. 2001:225 [ref. 26566]). •In genus Pagrus and may be a synonym of Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel 1844) -- (Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2006:14-15 [ref. 28673]). •Synonym of Acanthopagrus schlegelii (Bleeker 1854) -- (Parin 2003:S10 [ref. 28536], Kume & Yoshino 2008:53 [ref. 29572], Parin et al. 2014:367 [ref. 33547], Parenti 2019:70 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthopagrus schlegelii (Bleeker 1854). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

macrodens, Dentex Castelnau [F. L.] 1861:30 [Mémoire sur les poissons de l'Afrique australe; ref. 767] Algoa Bay, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): not at MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:66 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Argyrozona argyrozona (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Parenti 2019:58 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Argyrozona argyrozona (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

macrophthalmus, Smaris Cadenat [J.] 1937:471, Figs. 23-23bis [Revue des Travaux de l'Institut des Pêches Maritimes v. 10 (fasc. 4, no. 40); ref. 17134] West Africa (eastern Atlantic). Syntypes: MHNLR P.398 (3). Type catalog: Aloncle 1968:687 [ref. 20713]. •Synonym of Spicara alta (Osório 1917) -- (Heemstra 1990:769 [ref. 18769], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2615 [ref. 34618], Parenti 2019:54 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara alta (Osório 1917). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

macrophthalmus, Sparus Bloch [M. E.] 1791:93, Pl. 272 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 5; ref. 4867] No locality. Syntypes: ZMB 1114 (1), 8597 (1, left skin). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:142 [ref. 24282]. On p. 73 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 8 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Polysteganus macrophthalmus (Bloch 1791) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:591 [ref. 5710]). •Valid as Dentex macrophthalmus (Bloch 1791) -- (Tortonese 1973:408 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:888 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:794 [ref. 18793], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:161 [ref. 25472], Afonso et al. 1999:75 [ref. 25466], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:90 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:42 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:86 [ref. 29533], Wirtz et al. 2007:35 [ref. 30263], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:47 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2013:126 [ref. 32972], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2589 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:143 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:556 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:97 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:61 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Dentex macrophthalmus (Bloch 1791). Sparidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, eastern Atlantic: Portugal south to Namibia. Habitat: marine.

macrops, Calamus Poey [F.] 1872:181, Pl. 7 (fig. 3) [Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York v. 10 (no. 6-7) (art. 10); ref. 3508] Havana, Cuba. Holotype: MCZ 21839. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:202 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Calamus bajonado (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Randall & Caldwell 1966:26 [ref. 9053], Parenti 2019:74 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Calamus bajonado (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

maculata, Sparus Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] in Machado 1857:24 [Catálogo de los peces que habitán ó frecuentan las costas de Cadiz y Huelva con inclusion de los del Rio Guadalquivir.; ref. 17320] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only; not available. Based on Sparus maculatus Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817 [ref. 17319], apparently an unpublished work. Also appeared as name only, as Sparus maculatus, in Graells 1887:179 [ref. 30438] with discussion on authorship. •In genus Pagellus Valenciennes 1830. Sparidae.

maculatus, Sparus Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] 1817:5 [Lista de los peces del mar de Andalucía; ref. 17319] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only, not available. Possibly appeared in an unpublished work. See also Sparus maculata Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler in Machado 1857. Also appeared as name only in Graells 1887:179 [ref. 30438] with discussion on authorship. •In genus Pagellus Valenciennes 1830. Sparidae.

madagascariensis, Chrysophrys Valenciennes [A.] (ex Commerson) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:135 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Fort Dauphin, Madagascar. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:65 [ref. 20898]. Based on a drawing in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist); figure reproduced in Lacepède 1801: Pl. 17 (fig. 3) with vernacular name. •Synonym of Acanthopagrus berda (Fabricius 1775) (author often seen as Forsskål) -- (Bauchot & Skelton 1986:331 [ref. 6210], Kume & Yoshino 2008:53 [ref. 29572], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2010:124 [ref. 30738], Iwatsuki et al. 2010:123 [ref. 31106], Kottelat 2013:352 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2018:218 [ref. 35805], Parenti 2019:68 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthopagrus berda (Fabricius 1775). Sparidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

maena, Sparus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:278 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Valid as Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese et al. 1973:417 [ref. 7202], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:910 [ref. 13676], Heemstra 1990:769 [ref. 18769], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:99 [ref. 26753], Parin 2003:S13 [ref. 28536], Golani 2005:45 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:89 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:106 [ref. 30517], Bañon et al. 2010:18 [ref. 31029], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:50 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:372 [ref. 33547], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2616 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:161 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:557 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:55 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic: Portugal south to Mauritania, including Canary Islands. Habitat: marine.

major, Chrysophrys Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:71, Pl. 35 [Fauna Japonica Parts 2-4; ref. 4371] All bays of Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D405 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH D404 (1, stuffed), D413 (1, stuffed), D415 (1, stuffed), 961 (10), 2182 (1, stuffed). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:76 [ref. 12876]. The genus Pagrus Cuvier 1816 is currently restricted to the Mediterranean and Atlantic. •Synonym of Pagrus auratus (Forster 1801) -- (Paulin 1990:261 [ref. 15774], Carpenter 2001:3002 [ref. 26104]). •Valid as Pagrosomus major (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Cheng & Zhou 1997:298 [ref. 26385] dated 1842). •Valid as Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:124 [ref. 19754], Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:177 [ref. 6441], Yamakawa in Okamura et al. 1985:513, 690 [ref. 8056], Chen et al. 1997:93 [ref. 26476] dated 1844, Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:11 [ref. 24670], Mizuno et al. 1999:9 [ref. 25311], Nakabo 2000:858 [ref. 25086], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:619 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:137 [ref. 25480], Shinohara et al. 2000:179 [ref. 25987], Shimizu 2001:31 [ref. 25799], Shinohara et al. 2001:326 [ref. 25995], Wang et al. 2001:227 [ref. 26566] dated 1842, Nakabo 2002:858 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:342, 616 [ref. 26218], Parin 2003:S11 [ref. 28536], Shinohara et al. 2005:435 [ref. 28370], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:48 [ref. 36649], Motomura et al. 2010:127 [ref. 31256], Larson et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32988], Parin et al. 2014:370 [ref. 33547], Iwatsuki in Kimura et al. 2018:170 [ref. 36460], Parenti 2019:84 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Sparidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: northern Vietnam and China to Korea, Russia and Japan; introduced elsewhere. Habitat: marine.

marginata, Chrysophrys Günther [A.] 1859:491 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Not available, name on specimen mentioned under Chrysophrys hasta -- (Parenti 2019:90 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae.

maridola, Labrus Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1847:col. 123 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Not available, Chiereghini name mentioned in synonymy (Parenti 2019:91 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae.

marmoreus, Dentex Solander [D. C.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1850:481 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 22; ref. 1014] Tahiti, Society Islands. Name only, not available (Parenti 2019:90 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

maroccanus, Dentex Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:234 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Coast of Africa near Morocco. Holotype (unique): ZMB 8597. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:66 [ref. 20898], Paepke 1999:142 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Dentex maroccanus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Tortonese 1973:408 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:889 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:795 [ref. 18793], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:91 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:42 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:87 [ref. 29533], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2590 [ref. 34618], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:97 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:61 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Dentex maroccanus Valenciennes 1830. Sparidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay (strays to North Sea) south to Gulf of Guinea. Habitat: marine.

martinicus, Smaris Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:424 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Martinique Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9094. Type catalog: Bauchot 1974:986 [ref. 21548]. •Valid as Spicara martinicus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Parenti 2019:55 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Spicara martinicus (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic Ocean: West Indies. Habitat: marine.

maruda, Sparus Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:277 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). •Synonym of Spicara smaris (Linnaeus, 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:56 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara smaris (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mascarenensis, Polysteganus Iwatsuki [Y.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 2011:14, Fig. 1 [Zootaxa No. 3018; ref. 31500] Mascarene Plateau, Mascarene Islands, 15°23.32'S, 61°13.41'E, depth 258-288 meters. Holotype: SAIAB 84109. Paratypes: SAIAB 84095 (1), 85544 (1). Plus images, availability of specimens uncertain -- they should be considered to be paratypes. •Valid as Polysteganus mascarenensis Iwatsuki & Heemsta 2011 -- (Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2015:146 [ref. 34109], Parenti 2019:62 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Polysteganus mascarenensis Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2011. Sparidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Saya de Malha Bank, Mascarene Plateau and Mascarene Islands. Habitat: marine.

massiliensis, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:33, 108 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:89 [ref. 20898], Bauchot 1974:992 [ref. 21548]. Unneeded new name for and objective synonym of Sparus zebra Brünnich 1768. Objective synonym of Spicara zebra Brünnich 1768. •Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:55 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

matsubarai, Cheimerius Akazaki [M.] 1962:132, 347, Fig. 31 [Studies on the spariform fishes; ref. 5771] Off Naze, Amami-oshima Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Neotype: MIKU 30984 [MIKU 1962 lost]. Paratypes: MIKU 1961 (1) [not seen at FAKU]. Neotype designated by Tanaka & Iwatsuki 2015:200 [ref. 33947]. •Valid as Cheimerius matsubarai Akazaki 1962 -- (Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:177 [ref. 6441], Nakabo 2000:859 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:859 [ref. 26001]). •Valid as Amamiichthys marsubarai (Akazaki 1962) -- (Tanaka & Iwatsuki 2015:199 [ref. 33947], Parenti 2019:58 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Amamiichthys matsubarai (Akazaki 1962). Sparidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Ryukyu Islands (Japan) endemic. Habitat: marine.

maurii, Smaris Bonaparte [C. L.] 1836:fasc. 15-17, punt.80, Pl. 90 bis (fig. 3) [Iconografia della fauna italica; ref. 4892] Italy (Mediterranean Sea). Syntypes: ANSP 12582-83 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:100 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Spicara smaris (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese et al. 1973:419 [ref. 7202], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:911 [ref. 13676], Heemstra 1990:771 [ref. 18769], Parenti 2019:56 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara smaris (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mauropsaro, Sparus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Forsskål) 1801:279 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Istanbul or Izmir, Turkey, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Based on "Sparus Μαυρόψαρο" of Forsskål 1775:16 [ref. 1351]. Probably not independent of Sparus maurosparus Walbaum 1792. Type locality and synonymy see Fricke 2008:42 [ref. 30182]. •Synonym of Rhabdosargus sarba (Forsskål 1775) -- (Parenti 2019:87 [ref. 36892] as maurosparus). •Synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fricke 2008:42 [ref. 30182], Parenti 2019:57 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

maurosparus, Sparus Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:301 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Istanbul or Izmir, Turkey, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Based on "Sparus Μαυρόψαρο" of Forsskål 1775:16 [ref. 1351]. Name should have been mauropsarus. Type locality and synonymy see Fricke 2008:42 [ref. 30182]. •Synonym of Rhabdosargus sarba (Forsskål 1775) -- (Siddiqui at al. 2014:87 [ref. 33479]). •Synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fricke 2008:42 [ref. 30182]). Current status: Synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

medius, Grammateus Poey [F.] 1872:183, Pl. 7 (fig. 4) [Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York v. 10 (no. 6-7) (art. 10); ref. 3508] Havana, Cuba. Lectotype: MCZ 21842. Paralectotypes: MCZ 21838 (1). Lectotype established by Randall & Caldwell 1966:26 [ref. 9053]. •Synonym of Calamus penna (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Randall & Caldwell 1966:23 [ref. 9053], Parenti 2019:75 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Calamus penna (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

megacephalus, Chrysophrys (Calamus) Swainson [W.] 1839:222 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Martinique Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-8109 (dry). Based on Cuvier Pl. 152 -- which is Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:Pl. 152 [ref. 996]. •Synonym of Calamus calamus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Parenti 2019:75 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Calamus calamus (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

megalommatus, Pagrus Klunzinger [C. B.] 1870:762 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 20; ref. 2621] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMNS 2756. Klunzinger material: NMW 78714 (2); SMNS uncat. (skeleton, not found); ZMB 7871 (1). Type catalog: Fricke 2005:60 [ref. 29864]. •Valid as Argyrops megalommatus (Klunzinger 1870) -- (Dor 1984:158 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:43 [ref. 25356], DiBattista et al. 2015:20 [ref. 35706], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2018:420 [ref. 35983], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[5] 243 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:100 [ref. 36273], Parenti 2019:73 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Argyrops megalommatus (Klunzinger 1870). Sparidae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

melanotus, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:44, 137 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Japan. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:89 [ref. 20898]. New name for Perca argentata Bloch 1792. Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

melanura, Sciaena Pallas [P. S.] 1814:254 [Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica v. 3; ref. 3351] Evpatoria, Black Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Diplodus annularis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Popova 1998:121 [ref. 23588], Parin 2003:S10 [ref. 28536], Parin et al. 2014:368 [ref. 33547], Fricke et al. 2016:12 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:79 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus annularis (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

melanurus, Smaris Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:422 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Gorée, Senegal, eastern Atlantic. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9314. Type catalog: Bauchot 1974:987 [ref. 21548]. •Valid as Pterosmaris melanurus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Tortonese et al. 1973:419 [ref. 7202], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:909 [ref. 13676]). •Valid as Spicara melanura (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Parenti 2019:55 [ref. 36892]). •Valid as Spicara melanurus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Heemstra 1990:770 [ref. 18769], Wirtz et al. 2013:127 [ref. 32972], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2617 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Spicara melanurus (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Morocco south to Angola, including Madeira and Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.

melanurus, Sparus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:278 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. The specific name melanurus [black tail] is an indeclinable noun. •Valid as Oblada melanurus (Linnaeus 1758) (often seen as melanura) -- (Tortonese 1973:411 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:897 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:803 [ref. 18793], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:94 [ref. 26753], Parin 2003:S11 [ref. 28536], Golani 2005:43 [ref. 37112] as melanura, Fricke et al. 2007:88 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:101 [ref. 30517], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:48 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2013:126 [ref. 32972], Parin et al. 2014:369 [ref. 33547], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2602 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:151 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:557 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:51 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Oblada melanurus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to Angola, including Madeira and Canary Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mendola, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:27, 85 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:89 [ref. 20898], Bauchot 1974:992 [ref. 21548]. •Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:55 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

mercatoris, Lagodon Delsman [N. C.] 1941:70, Fig. 9 [Mémoires du Musée royal d'histoire naturelle de Belgique (Ser. 2) No. 21; ref. 13171] 15-20 miles off Dry Tortugas, Florida, U.S.A., depth 20-30 fathoms. Holotype (unique): IRSNB 55. Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:27 [ref. 20755]. •Synonym of Lagodon rhomboides (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Parenti 2019:51 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Lagodon rhomboides (Linnaeus 1766). Sparidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

microdon, Chrysophris Cuvier [G.] 1829:182 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] "Our seas". Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

microlepis, Cantharus Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1909:231 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 6 (pt 3, no. 5); ref. 1650] Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1921.3.1.34 [?ex SAM 10200]. •Synonym of Spondyliosoma emarginatum (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:594 [ref. 5710], Parenti 2019:57 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spondyliosoma emarginatum (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

microlepis, Pagellus Regan [C. T.] 1921:419 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9) v. 7 (no. 41); ref. 3672] 15-20 miles off Umvoti River, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 25 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH. •Synonym of Spondyliosoma emarginatum (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Parenti 2019:57 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spondyliosoma emarginatum (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

microps, Pagellus Guichenot [A.] 1853:83, Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [Sagra, R. de la, Histoire physique, politique et naturelle de l'Ile de Cuba; ref. 18164] Havana, Cuba. Holotype: MNHN 0000-5567. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:53 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Calamus penna (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Randall & Caldwell 1966:22 [ref. 9053], Parenti 2019:75 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Calamus penna (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

micropterus, Pagrus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:163 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Tamise River, New Zealand. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:68 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Pagrus auratus (Forster 1801) -- (Paulin 1990:261 [ref. 15774]). •Synonym of Chrysophrys auratus (Forster 1801) -- (Parenti 2019:77 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Chrysophrys auratus (Forster 1801). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

miles, Dentex Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1908:155 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 14320] KawZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAM 9942. •Synonym of Cheimerius nufar (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:583 [ref. 5710], Siddiqui at al. 2014:80 [ref. 33479], Parenti 2019:58 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Cheimerius nufar (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

milneri, Pagellus Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1879:134 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 2 (no. 74); ref. 18134] Charlotte Harbor, Florida, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 6134 (143.5 mm). Paralectotypes: USNM 6134 (second spec.). Lectotype established by Randall & Caldwell 1966:26 [ref. 9053]. •Synonym of Calamus penna (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Randall & Caldwell 1966:22 [ref. 9053], Parenti 2019:75 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Calamus penna (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

minutus, Sparus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:49 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:26 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Boops boops (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:103 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Boops boops (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

miqueli, Sparus pagrus Bauchot [M.-L.] & Hureau [J.-C.] 1978:97 [Cybium 3e série. Bulletin de la Société Française d'Ichtyologie No. 4; ref. 18916] Off Abidjan, Ivory Coast, 5°15'N, 4°01'W. Holotype: MNHN 1978-0463. Paratypes: MNHN 1978-0464 to 0467 (1, 1, 1, 1). •Synonym of Pagrus africanus Akazaki 1962 -- (Bauchot & Hureau 1990:806 [ref. 18793], Parenti 2019:84 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pagrus africanus Akazaki 1962. Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mochara, Sparus Osbeck [P.] 1770:100 [Nova Acta Physico-Medica Academiae Caesareae Leopoldina-Carolinae Naturae Curiosorum v. 4; ref. 18497] Spain. No types known. Name also appeared in Walbaum 1792:301 [ref. 4572], name mentioned in description of Sparus scriptus. •Synonym of Sparus aurata Linnaeus 1758 -- (Parenti 2019:88 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Sparus aurata Linnaeus 1758. Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mononematos, Evynnis Guan [Z.-C.], Tang [W.-Q.] & Wu [H.-L.] 2012:217, Figs. 2-5 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 37 (no. 1); ref. 31832] Minaan-Taiwan bank fishing grounds, China. Holotype: SOU A000055. Paratypes: (16) all at SOU. •Valid as Evynnis mononematos Guan, Tang & Wu 2012 -- (Parenti 2019:83 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Evynnis mononematos Guan, Tang & Wu 2012. Sparidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Taiwan bank fishing grounds, China. Habitat: marine.

mormyrus, Sparus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:281 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea. Possible holotype: NRM 13. Type catalog: Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:247 [ref. 20707] who suggest a neotype designation. •Valid as Lithognathus mormyrus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:410 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:896 [ref. 13676], Smith & Smith 1986:587 [ref. 5710], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:802 [ref. 18793], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:162 [ref. 25472], Goren & Dor 1994:44 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:226 [ref. 22896], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:93 [ref. 26753], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:227 [ref. 28072], Golani 2005:43 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:87 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:100 [ref. 30517], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:48 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2013:126 [ref. 32972], Parin et al. 2014:369 [ref. 33547], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2601 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:147 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:557 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:64 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Lithognathus mormyrus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to South Africa, including Madeira and Canary Islands; Western Indian Ocean: South Africa north to Mozambique. Habitat: brackish, marine.

morrisoni, Acanthopagrus Iwatsuki [Y.] 2013:79, Fig. 4 (a) [Journal of Fish Biology v. 83 (no. 1); ref. 32744] Hooley Creek, Ashburton River, Western Australia, Australia. Holotype: WAM P.33303-001. Paratypes: WAP P.33491-001 (2), 33513-001 (1). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Acanthopagrus morrisoni Iwatsuki 2013 -- (Parenti 2019:70 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Acanthopagrus morrisoni Iwatsuki 2013. Sparidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: Pilbara (Western Australia). Habitat: marine.

mu, Calamus Randall [J. E.] & Caldwell [D. K.] 1966:11, Fig. 5 [Bulletin of the Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History No. 2; ref. 9053] Apparently from the commercial fishery, Port of Victoria, about 20°S, Brazil. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 52137 [ex MNRJ 6800, V.236]. •Valid as Calamus mu Randall & Caldwell 1966 -- (Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:85 [ref. 27192], Parenti 2019:75 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Calamus mu Randall & Caldwell 1966. Sparidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazil. Habitat: marine.

multidens, Dentex Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:238 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Al-Luhayya, Yemen, Red Sea; and no locality. Syntypes: MNHN A-8085 (1, dry) no locality. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:48 [ref. 20898] as holotype and paratype. •Valid as Pentapodus multidens (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Dor 1984:156 [ref. 29757]); not treated by Russell 1990 [ref. 19228] in Pentapodus. •Valid (though identity doubtful) as Dentex multidens Valenciennes 1830 -- (Goren & Dor 1994:44 [ref. 25356]). •Valid as Dentex multidens Valenciennes 1830 -- (Parenti 2019:61 [ref. 36892]). •Uncertain in family Sparidae – (Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:74 [ref. 35264]). Sparidae. Distribution: Red Sea [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

mupa, Sparus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:48 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:25 [ref. 3595]. •Questionable synonym of Pagellus bogaraveo (Brünnich 1768) -- (Parenti 2019:65 [ref. 36892], Parenti 2019:118 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Uncertain as Pagellus bogaraveo (Brünnich 1768). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mylio, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1802:41, 131 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-0691. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:62-63 [ref. 20898]. Figure on Pl. 26 (fig. 2) of Lacepède 1801 [ref. 2710]. •Synonym of Acanthopagrus bifasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Fricke 1999:291 [ref. 24106], Kume & Yoshino 2008:53 [ref. 29572]). •Synonym of Acanthopagrus catenula (Lacepède 1801) -- (Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2011:45 [ref. 31505], Saddiqui et al. 2014:76 [ref. 33479], Parenti 2019:69 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthopagrus catenula (Lacepède 1801). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nasutus, Chrysophrys Castelnau [F. L.] 1861:24 [Mémoire sur les poissons de l'Afrique australe; ref. 767] Table Bay, Cape town, South Africa, southeastern Atlantic. Holotype (unique): MZULG (on display). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:66 [ref. 20898]. Possibly appeared by mistake as Chrysophrys acutus in early literature, and was wrongly listed in the Catalog of Fishes 1998:39. •Valid as Cymatoceps nasutus (Castelnau 1861) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:585 [ref. 5710], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:222 [ref. 28072], Parenti 2019:78 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Cymatoceps nasutus (Castelnau 1861). Sparidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, southwestern Indian Ocean: Cape of God Hope to KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa). Habitat: brackish, marine.

natalensis, Cantharus Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1908:167 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 14320] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1935.1.23.7 [ex SAM]. Non-types: SAM 10006-07 (1, 1), 10390 (1), 17607 (1). •Synonym of Pachymetopon aeneum (Gilchrist & Thompson 1908) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:588 [ref. 5710], Parenti 2019:52 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pachymetopon aeneum (Gilchrist & Thompson 1908). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

natalensis, Chrysophrys Castelnau [F. L.] 1861:25 [Mémoire sur les poissons de l'Afrique australe; ref. 767] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:66 [ref. 20898] as type not at MNHN. •Synonym of Rhabdosargus sarba (Gmelin 1789) (author often seen as Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:593 [ref. 5710], Bauchot & Skelton 1986:332 [ref. 6210], Tanaka & Iwatsuki 2013:9 [ref. 32775], Siddiqui at al. 2014:87 [ref. 33479], Parenti 2019:87 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Rhabdosargus sarba (Gmelin 1789). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

natalensis, Dentex Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1908:156 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 14320] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: (2) SAM 9908 (1). •Synonym of Polysteganus coeruleopunctatus (Klunzinger 1870) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:591 [ref. 5710]). •Synonym of Polysteganus lineopunctatus (Boulenger 1903) -- (Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2015:140 [ref. 34109], Parenti 2019:62 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Polysteganus lineopunctatus (Boulenger 1903). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

natalensis, Pagellus Steindachner [F.] 1903:134 [12] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 71; ref. 15046] Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: (several) ?NMW 77528 (2). •Synonym of as Pagellus bellottii Steindachner 1882, but a valid subspecies -- (Bauchot & Bauchot 1983:1136 [ref. 35088], Smith & Smith 1986:589 [ref. 5710], Parenti 2019:65 [ref. 36892]). •Tentatively valid as Pagellus natalensis Steindachner 1903 -- (Leis et al. 2002:367 [ref. 25993]). •Valid as Pagellus natalensis Seindachner 1903 -- (Fricke et al. 2014:1 [ref. 33592], Fricke et al. 2018:220 [ref. 35805]. Parenti 2019:66 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Pagellus natalensis Steindachner 1903. Sparidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: South Africa to Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

natalensis, Sargus Steindachner [F.] 1861:180 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 11; ref. 18748] Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): not found at NMW. Preoccupied by Chrysophys natalensis Steindachner 1861, but check if an original description. •Synonym of Rhabdosargus globiceps (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:592 [ref. 5710], Parenti 2019:86 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Rhabdosargus globiceps (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

niger, Rhabdosargus Tanaka [F.] & Iwatsuki [Y.] 2013:3, Figs. 1a [Ichthyological Research v. 60 (no. 4); ref. 32775] Southwestern Kalimantan, Indonesia (according to Korean fisheries company). Holotype: MZB 20726. Paratypes: MUFS 29085-29086 (2). •Valid as Rhabdosargus niger Tanaka & Iwatsuki 2013 -- (Siddiqui at al. 2014:88 [ref. 33479], Parenti 2019:86 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Rhabdosargus niger Tanaka & Iwatsuki 2013. Sparidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Southwestern Kalimantan (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

nigricauda, Coleosmaris Norman [J. R.] 1931:359, Fig. 4 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 10) v. 7 (no. 40); ref. 3220] Accra, Ghana, eastern Atlantic. Syntypes: BMNH 1930.8.26.63-64 (2). •Synonym of Spicara melanurus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2617 [ref. 34618]). •Valid as Spicara nigricauda (Norman 1931) -- (Heemstra 1990:771 [ref. 18769], Afonso et al. 1999:75 [ref. 25466], Wirtz et al. 2007:35 [ref. 30263], Parenti 2019:56 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Spicara nigricauda (Norman 1931). Sparidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Ghana south to Angola, and offshore islands. Habitat: marine.

nigripinnis, Pagrus Boulenger [G. A.] 1903:67, Pl. 7 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 3 (pt 3); ref. 15011] KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1903.2.6.6. •Synonym of Cymatoceps nasutus (Castelnau 1861) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:585 [ref. 5710], Parenti 2019:78 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Cymatoceps nasutus (Castelnau 1861). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nigrirostris, Sparus Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] 1817:5 [Lista de los peces del mar de Andalucía; ref. 17319] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only, not available. Possibly in an unpublished work. See also Sparus nigrirostris Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler in Machado 1857. Also appeared in Graells 1887:179 [ref. 30438] with discussion on authorship. Sparidae.

nigrofasciatus, Sargus Regan [C. T.] 1908:253, Pl. 41 [Annals of the Natal Museum v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 14355] 16 miles northeast of Bird Island, Algoa Bay, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 40 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1905.6.8.37-39 (3). •Synonym of Rhabdosargus globiceps (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:592 [ref. 5710] with author as Cuvier 1830, Bauchot & Hureau 1990:809 [ref. 18793], Tanaka & Iwasuki 2013:2 [ref. 32775], Parenti 2019:86 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Rhabdosargus globiceps (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

noct, Sargus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:51 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Egypt, Red Sea; Suez, Egypt, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-8565 to 0000-8566 (1, 1) Suez, 0000-8564 (1) and 0000-8575 (2) Red Sea; ?RMNH 985 [ex ZMB] (3). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:59-60 [ref. 20898]. •Mention -- (Tortonese 1973:414 [ref. 7192]). •Valid as Diplodus noct (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Dor 1984:159 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:43 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:226 [ref. 22896], Siddiqui at al. 2014:84 [ref. 33479], DiBattista et al. 2015:20 [ref. 35706], Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Golani et al. 2017:530 [ref. 35726], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[5] 243 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:101 [ref. 36273], Jawad et al. 2018:113 [ref. 36262], Parenti 2019:81 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus noct (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

nodosus, Calamus Randall [J. E.] & Caldwell [D. K.] 1966:36, Fig. 20 [Bulletin of the Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History No. 2; ref. 9053] About 25 miles south-southwest of Destin, Florida, U.S.A., depth 20 fathoms. Holotype: LACM 8669. Paratypes: ANSP 102735 (1); BMNH 1965.5.10.1 (1); CAS 23716 [ex IU 205] (1), 23717 [ex IU 317] (1), CAS-SU 62514 (2); CUMV 48293 (1); FMNH 7060 (2), IMSUT uncat. (2); LACM 8670-76 (7); MCZ 43997 (3); TU 37765 (1); UF 12504 (1), 19334 (1), 217344 [ex UMML 17344] (1); UMMZ 173982 (1), 173992 (1); UPR 1529 (1), 1535-36 (2); USNM 158603 (1), 35040 (1), 38212 (1), 62576 (lost), 151912 (1), 152069 (2), 152098-99 (2), 152101 (1); 164642 (1), 158603 (1), 164642 (1). Type catalog: Suttkus 1970:126 [ref. 20861], Gilbert 1974:113 [ref. 21035], Bart & Taylor 1993:55 [ref. 20906]. •Valid as Calamus nodosus Randall & Caldwell 1966 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:183 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:142 [ref. 23239], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:162 [ref. 27754], Carpenter 2003:1567 [ref. 27092], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:396 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708], Robertson et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34961], Parenti 2019:75 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Calamus nodosus Randall & Caldwell 1966. Sparidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina south to Florida (U.S.A.); Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

notialis, Argyrops Iwatsuki [Y.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 2018:412, Figs. 2B, 3B, 4B [Zootaxa 4438 (no. 3); ref. 35983] Off Carnarvon, near mouth of Shark Bay, Western Australia. Holotype: WAM P.34506-001. Paratypes: MUFS, WAM. •Valid as Argyrops notialis Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2018 -- (Parenti 2019:73 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Argyrops notialis Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2018. Sparidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Perth to north of Port Hedland (Western Australia). Habitat: marine.

novaecaledoniae, Chrysophrys Castelnau [F. L.] 1873:110 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 2; ref. 758] Nouméa, New Caledonia. Holotype: NMV 51854 [=A9738]. •Valid as Acanthopagrus novaecaledoniae (Castelnau 1873) -- (Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2006:13 [ref. 28673], Kume & Yoshino 2008:53 [ref. 29572]). •Mention -- (Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2009:51 [ref. 30528]). •Synonym of Acanthopagrus latus (Houttuyn 1782) -- (Iwatsuki 2013:1[76] [ref. 32744] with question, Kottelat 2013:352 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2019:69 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthopagrus latus (Houttuyn 1782). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

nufar, Dentex Valenciennes [A.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:240 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Egypt, Red Sea; Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-9021 to 0000-9024 (1, 2, 2, 2); ZMB 1116 (4). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:49 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Dentex canariensis Steindachner 1881 -- (Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2585 [ref. 34618] by mistake?). •Valid as Cheimerius nufar (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Dor 1984:158 [ref. 29757], Smith & Smith 1986:583 [ref. 5710], Goren & Dor 1994:43 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:225 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:181 [ref. 23922], Fricke 1999:292 [ref. 24106], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:216 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2009:65 [ref. 30213], Siddiqui at al. 2014:80 [ref. 33479], Tanaka & Iwatsuki 2015:203 [ref. 33947], Psomadakis et al. 2015:261 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2018:219 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:101 [ref. 36273], Eagderi et al. 2019:113 [ref. 37020], Parenti 2019:58 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Cheimerius nufar (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: East Africa, South Africa (Cape Province northward), Persian Gulf, Madagascar and western Mascarenes (Réunion, Mauritius) east to Pakistan. Habitat: marine.

nuphar, Dentex (Polysteganus) Klunzinger [C. B.] 1870:764 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 20; ref. 2621] Not available, alternate name or spelling for Dentex nufar Valenciennes 1830 as "Polysteganus nufar oder nuphar" (Parenti 2019:90 [ref. 36892]). •In the synonymy of Cheimerius nufar (Valenciennes 1830). Current status: Synonym of Cheimerius nufar (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae.

oblada, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:27, 78 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Family placement may be incorrect. •Synonym of Oblada melanura (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:51 [ref. 36892]). •Synonym of Oblada melanurus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Oblada melanurus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

olivieri, Lithognathus Penrith [M. J.] & Penrith [M.-L.] 1969:100, Pl. 1 [Cimbebasia (Series A, Naturwetenskappe) v. 1 (no. 5); ref. 7837] Angra Fria, off Southwest Africa, 18°17'S, 11°57'E. Holotype: SMP 4332. Paratypes: SAM 25205 (1), SMP 4333 (1). •Synonym of Lithognathus aureti Smith 1962 -- (Smith & Smith 1986:587 [ref. 5710]). •Valid as Lithognathus olivieri Penrith & Penrith 1969 -- (Bauchot & Hureau 1990:802 [ref. 18793], •Synonym of Lithognathus mormyrus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Bauchot & Hureau 1990:802 [ref. 18793], Parenti 2019:64 [ref. 36892]).). Current status: Valid as Lithognathus olivieri Penrith & Penrith 1969. Sparidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic: Namibia endemic. Habitat: marine.

omanensis, Acanthopagrus Iwatsuki [Y.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 2010:130, Figs. 1B, 3B, 4B, 5C-D [Copeia 2010 (no. 1); ref. 30738] Duqm, 19°39'44"N, 57°42'22"E, Oman. Holotype: BPBM 36099. Paratypes: BPBM 40887 (1) •Valid as Acanthopagrus omanensis Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2010 -- (Iwatsuki et al. 2010:115 [ref. 31106], Iwatsuki 2013:87 [ref. 32744], Parenti 2019:70 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Acanthopagrus omanensis Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2010. Sparidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Oman. Habitat: marine.

omanensis, Diplodus cervinus Bauchot [M.-L.] & Bianchi [G.] 1984:103, Fig. A [Cybium v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 8978] Kuria Muria Bay [Oman], Arabian Sea, 17°44'N, 55°62'E, depth 55 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1984-0358. Paratypes: MNHN 1984-0359 (1). •Synonym of Diplodus cervinus (Lowe 1838), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Randall 1995:225 [ref. 22896], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377]). •Valid as Diplodus omanensis Bauchot & Bianchi 1984 -- (Amir et al. 2013:220 [ref. 32960], Siddiqui at al. 2014:84 [ref. 33479], Psomadakis et al. 2015:262 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:81 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus omanensis Bauchot & Bianchi 1984. Sparidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Oman and Pakistran. Habitat: marine.

onias, Cynaedus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:55 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.83 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:223 [ref. 13434] but as holotype. •Synonym of Boops salpa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Wheeler 1958:223 [ref. 13434]). •Synonym of Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:53 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

ophthalmicus, Sparus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:48 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:26 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Oblada melanura (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:51 [ref. 36892], Parenti 2019:118 [ref. 37117]). •Synonym of Oblada melanurus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Oblada melanurus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

opsophthalmus, Dentex macrophthalmus forma Ananiadès [C. I.] 1950:9, Fig. 1 [Praktika toy Ellenikou ydrobiologikou institoutou = Praktika of the Hellenic Hydrobiological Institute. v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 19937] Aegean Sea, Mediterranean Sea. •Synonym of Dentex macrophthalmus (Bloch 1791), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Tortonese 1973:408 [ref. 7192], Parenti 2019:61 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Dentex macrophthalmus (Bloch 1791). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

orbicularis, Cantharus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:331 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Corsica, near Ajaccio, France, western Mediterranean Sea; Spain. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-8809 (1) Corsica. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:41-42 [ref. 20898] as holotyp •Synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:414 [ref. 7192], Parenti 2019:57 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

orbitarius, Pagellus Poey [F.] 1860:201 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Lectotype: MCZ 21851. Poey specimens: MCZ 21841 (1), 21846-50 (1, 1, 1, 1, 1), 21852 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:201 [ref. 22926]. Lectotype selected by Caldwell & Randall 1966:36 [ref. 9053]; Howell Rivero indicates that MCZ 21849 is the holotype but that specimen is too small (Caldwell & Randall 1966:36 [ref. 9053]). Lectotype found (pers. comm. K. Hartel, 9/09). •Synonym of Calamus calamus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:267 [ref. 25013], Parenti 2019:75 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Calamus calamus (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

orientalis, Sparus Hasselquist [F.] 1762:386 [Reise nach Palästina; ref. 18250] Smirna [İzmir], Turkey, Aegean Sea, Mediterranean Sea. Not available, published in a rejected work (ICZN Opinion 57) (see Parenti 2019:92 [ref. 36892]). Based on Hasselquist 1757:339 [ref. 30181], also a rejected work (ICZN Opinion 57). •In the synonymy of Boops boops (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Boops boops (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae.

orientalis, Sparus Walbaum [J. J.] (ex Hasselquist) 1792 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Smirna [İzmir], Turkey, Aegean Sea, Mediterranean Sea. Based on Hasselquist 1762:386 [ref. 18250], a rejected work (ICZN Opinion 57). •In the synonymy of Boops boops (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Boops boops (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae.

ornatus, Smaris Roux [C.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:417 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Name mentioned in passing under Smaris alcedo (Parenti 2019:91 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae.

ornatus, Sparus Roux [C.] in Döderlein 1891:253 [Manuale Ittiologico del Mediterraneo ossia sinossi metodica delle varie specie di pesci riscontrate sin qui nel Mediterraneo ossia senossi metodica delle di Sicilia. 5 parts.; ref. 17416] Not available, name mentioned in synonymy (Parenti 2019:92 [ref. 36892]). Also objectively invalid, preoccupied by Sparus ornatus Sevastianoff 1805. Sparidae.

orphus, Aurata Risso [A.] 1827:356 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-0863. Type catalog: Bertin 1945:377 [ref. 21554], Bauchot & Daget 1972:35 [ref. 20898]. Secondarily preoccupied in Pagrus by Sparus orphus Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Bauchot & Hureau 1990:808 [ref. 18793], Parenti 2019:84 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

orphus, Sparus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:279 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] No locality. No types known. •Synonym of Sparus pagrus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Tortonese 1973:406 [ref. 7192]). •Synonym of Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:84 [ref. 36892] with question). Current status: Synonym of Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

osbeck, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:33, 108 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:90 [ref. 20898], Bauchot 1974:992 [ref. 21548]. New name for Sparus lineatus Bonnaterre 1788, which was a substitute for Sparus radiatus Osbeck 1771. •Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese et al. 1973:417 [ref. 7202], Heemstra 1990:769 [ref. 18769], Parenti 2019:55 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

osbeckii, Maena Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:397 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Provence, Nice, Naples, Sicily; Corsica and France, western Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Döderlein 1891:241 [ref. 17416], Parenti 2019:55 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

ovicephalus, Sparus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:280 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] New York, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ZMB 33006 (stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:142 [ref. 24282]. •Synonym of Archosargus probatocephalus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Parenti 2019:72 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Archosargus probatocephalus (Walbaum 1792). Sparidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

oviceps, Archosargus Ginsburg [I.] 1952:94, Fig. 7 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 42 (no. 3); ref. 1805] Barataria Bay, Louisiana, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 144151. Paratypes: (77) FMNH 50101 (2); USNM 726 (1), 727 (1), 728 (2), 730 (1), 19525 (1), 31041 (1), 62282 (3), 144152-55 (1, 5, 2, 14), 144156-60 (1, 1, 30, 10, 1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:11 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Archosargus probatocephalus (Walbaum 1792), but a valid subspecies -- (Lee et al. 1980:754 [ref. 22416], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:352 [ref. 24550], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:389 [ref. 28815], Parenti 2019:72 [ref. 36892]). •Synonym of Archosargus probatocepahlus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Carpenter 2003:1559 [ref. 27092]). Current status: Synonym of Archosargus probatocephalus (Walbaum 1792). Sparidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

ovis, Sparus Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:392, Pl. 2 (fig. 5) [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] Various localities, New York and New Jersey, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Archosargus probatocephalus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Parenti 2019:72 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Archosargus probatocephalus (Walbaum 1792). Sparidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

owenii, Pagellus Günther [A.] 1859:478 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] British Isles. Syntypes: (6) BMNH 1848.1.12.12 (1, stuffed) Firth of Forth, 1856.12.10.28-30 (3 right half skins), 1856.12.10.40 (left half skin). Based on 6 specimens and literature sources. •Synonym of Pagellus acarne (Risso 1827) -- (Tortonese 1973:412 [ref. 7192], Parenti 2019:65 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pagellus acarne (Risso 1827). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

oxyrhynchus, Sparus Viviani [D.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:80 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Not available, name mentioned in passing in account of Charax puntazzo (Gmelin) (Parenti 2019:92 [ref. 36892]). •Synonym of Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum 1792) -- (Parenti 2019:82 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum 1792). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

oxyrhyncus, Sparus Nardo [G. D.] 1827:31, 38 (no. 118) [Giornale di fisica, chimica e storia naturale, medicina, ed arti. (series 2) Dec. II, v. 10; ref. 3146] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Also in Nardo 1827:col. 480 and 486 [ref. 19740] and spelled oxyrhynchus. •Synonym of Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum 1792) -- (Fricke et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:82 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum 1792). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pacificus, Acanthopagrus Iwatsuki [Y.], Kume [M.] & Yoshino [T.] 2010:116, Figs. 1, 2A, 3A-D, 4A [Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science (Ser. A) v. 36 (no. 4); ref. 31106] Iriomote Island, 24°21'32.4"N, 123°44'52.4"E, [Iriomote Island according to fish buyer], Yaeyama Group, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype: NSMT-P 93818. Paratypes: FRLM 13420-13421 (2), MUMF 23438-23439 (2), URM-P 1062-1063 (2). Plus many non-type specimens from many localities. •Valid as Acanthopagrus pacificus Iwatsuki, Kume & Yoshino 2010 -- (Larson et al. 2013:139 [ref. 32988], Iwatsuki 2013:87 [ref. 32744], Kottelat 2013:352 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:150 [ref. 34464], Trnski & Roberts 2015:1287 [ref. 34203], Motomura et al. 2017:153 [ref. 35490], Iwatsuki in Kimura et al. 2018:168 [ref. 36460], Parenti 2019:70 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Acanthopagrus pacificus Iwatsuki, Kume & Yoshino 2010. Sparidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Ryukyu Islands to northern Australia (and one specimen from New Zealand). Habitat: marine.

pagel, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:28, 86 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Mediterranean Sea (including France; Spain; Sardinia; Malta; Rome and Venice, Italy); Atlantic (including Germany, Netherlands, Antilles). No types known. Unnecessary replacement name for Sparus erythrinus Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:66 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pagrus, Sparus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:279 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Southern Europe (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. •Valid as Sparus pagrus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Tortonese 1973:406 [ref. 7192]). •Valid as Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:904 [ref. 13676], Inada in Nakamura et al. 1986:218 [ref. 14235], Robins & Ray 1986:184 [ref. 23100], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:808 [ref. 18793], Boschung 1992:142 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:443 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:235 [ref. 24474], Andreata & Séret 1996:586 [ref. 16204], Santos et al. 1997:92 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:91 [ref. 24952], Afonso et al. 1999:85 [ref. 25466], Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:104 [ref. 25942], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:162 [ref. 27754], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:96 [ref. 26753], López et al. 2002:65 [ref. 26808], Carpenter 2003:1575 [ref. 27092], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:86 [ref. 27192], Palma & Andrade 2004:449 [ref. 27717], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], Golani 2005:44 [ref. 37112], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:403 [ref. 28815], Fricke et al. 2007:89 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:49 [ref. 36649], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708], Pinheiro et al. 2015:20 [ref. 34324], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2611 [ref. 34618], Nión et al. 2016:48 [ref. 35565], Martins & Carneiro 2018:136 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:557 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:84 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, eastern Atlantic: British Isles south to Canary Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

palmaris, Roughleyia Whitley [G. P.] 1935:234, Fig. 7 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 19 (no. 4); ref. 4683] Port Hedland, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.12965 [not I.12065]. •Mention -- (Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2009:51 [ref. 30528], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2010:132 [ref. 30738]). •Valid as Acanthopagrus palmaris (Whitley 1935) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:84 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:132 [ref. 23977], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2002:345 [ref. 25930], Carpenter 2001:2994 [ref. 26104], Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2006:13 [ref. 28673], Bray et al. 2006:1227 [ref. 29091], Kume & Yoshino 2008:53 [ref. 29572], Iwatsuki et al. 2010:115 [ref. 31106], Larson et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32988], Iwatsuki 2013:87 [ref. 32744], Parenti 2019:70 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Acanthopagrus palmaris (Whitley 1935). Sparidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: Pilbara (Western Australia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

parvulus, Dentex de Brito Capello [F.] 1867:250 [Jornal do Sciências Mathemáticas, Physicas e Naturaes, Lisboa v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 14042] Portugal. Holotype (unique): destroyed in fire. •Probably a synonym of Dentex macrophthalmus (Bloch 1791) -- (Tortonese 1973:415 [ref. 7192]). •Synonym of Dentex maroccanus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Bauchot & Hureau 1990:795 [ref. 18793], Parenti 2019:61 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Dentex maroccanus Valenciennes 1830. Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

passeroni, Sparus Risso [A.] 1810:253, Pl. 7 (fig. 24) [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:71 [ref. 20898]. •Incertae sedis in Sparidae (Parenti 2019:90 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

penna, Pagellus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:209 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Brazil. Lectotype: MNHN 1989-1332 [ex MNHN 0000-5564]. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-5565 (1), B-2353 [ex MNHN 0000-5564] (1); ?ZMB 1108 [ex MNHN] (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:54 [ref. 20898]. Appeared as "Pagr. penna, Nob." in footnote in Cuvier 1829:183 [ref. 995]. Lectotype established by Randall & Caldwell 1966:25 [ref. 9053]. •Valid as Calamus penna (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Randall & Caldwell 1966:22 [ref. 9053], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:360 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:183 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:142 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:442 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:231 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:162 [ref. 27754], Carpenter 2003:1568 [ref. 27092], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:85 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:37 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:397 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:56 [ref. 33341], Marceniuk et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35324], Parenti 2019:75 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Calamus penna (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bahamas and Florida (U.S.A.) south to Brazil, including Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

pennatula, Calamus Guichenot [A.] 1868:116 [Mémoires de la Société Impériale des Sciences Naturelles de Cherbourg v. 14 (= Ser. 2, v. 4); ref. 14096] Martinique Island, West Indies. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-5565. Paralectotypes: MNHN A-8191 [? = A-8108] (1) [also lectotype of Pegallus calamus]. Type information: Bauchot & Daget 1972:38-39 [ref. 20898]. Lectotype established by Randall & Caldwell 1966:30 [ref. 9053]. •Valid as Calamus pennatula Guichenot 1868 -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:361 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:442 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:233 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:162 [ref. 27754], Carpenter 2003:1569 [ref. 27092], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:85 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:37 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:398 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:56 [ref. 33341], Parenti 2019:76 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Calamus pennatula Guichenot 1868. Sparidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

pernambucensis, Pagellus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Bloch) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:210 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Pernambuco, Brazil [probably erroneous]. Lectotype: ZMB 8155 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: ZMB (1, lost). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:67 [ref. 20898], Paepke 1999:141 [ref. 24282]. Lectotype selected by Paepke 1999:141 [ref. 24282]. •Synonym of Lithognathus mormyrus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:64 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Lithognathus mormyrus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

plumatula, Calamus Guichenot [A.] 1868:119 [Mémoires de la Société Impériale des Sciences Naturelles de Cherbourg v. 14 (= Ser. 2, v. 4); ref. 14096] Martinique Island, West Indies. Holotype: MNHN 0000-5566. Paratypes: MNHN A-8130 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:39 [ref. 20898]. Holotype established originally. •Synonym of Calamus bajonado (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Randall & Caldwell 1966:26 [ref. 9053], Parenti 2019:74 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Calamus bajonado (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

poki, Sparus Walbaum [J. J.] (ex Schöpf) 1792:296 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated [New York, U.S.A.]. No types known. Originally Sparus poki vel porgee, as a variety of Sparus argyrops Linnaeus 1766. Name not available, not binominal. Based on 'Sparus, Poki oder Porgee, zu Neu=York' in Schöpf 1788:153 [ref. 18700]. •Apparently a synonym of Archosargus probatocephalus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Parenti 2019:72 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Archosargus probatocephalus (Walbaum 1792). Sparidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

poki, Sparus ovicephalus var. Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:280 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Carolinas, U.S.A. Apparently independent of poki Walbaum 1792. •Apparently a synonym of Archosargus probatocephalus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Parenti 2019:72 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Archosargus probatocephalus (Walbaum 1792). Sparidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

polinymus, Sparus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:49, Pl. 12 (fig. 2) [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily (Mediterranean Sea). Spelled polynymus on plate. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:26 [ref. 3595] as Sparus polynymus. •Synonym of Spicara smaris (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Döderlein 1891:247 [ref. 17416], Parenti 2019:56 [ref. 36892], Parenti 2019:103 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara smaris (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

polli, Dentex Roux [C.] 1954:468, Fig. 1 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 26 (no. 4); ref. 12469] Marine station at Pointe-Noire, Republic of the Congo, western Africa. Syntypes: (3) MNHN 1985-0583 (2). Spelled poli on p. 468 and polli on p. 469; named for M. Poll so polli is correct. •Synonym of Dentex angolensis Poll & Maul 1953 -- (Bauchot & Hureau 1990:793 [ref. 18793], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2583 [ref. 34618], Parenti 2019:59 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Dentex angolensis Poll & Maul 1953. Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

ponticus, Charax puntazzo var. Nordmann [A. von] 1840:387, Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Voyage dans la Russie méridionale et la Crimée; ref. 3209] Sevastopool in Crimea, Ukraine, Black Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Puntazzo puntazzo (Cetti 1777) -- (Tortonese 1973:413 [ref. 7192]). •Synonym of Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum 1792) -- (Fricke et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:82 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum 1792). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ponticus, Spicara flexuosa Shcherbuka [A. Ya.] 1982:184 Black Sea. •Synonym of Spicara flexuosa Rafinesque 1810 -- (Parin et al. 2014:372 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara flexuosa Rafinesque 1810. Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

porgee, Sparus Walbaum [J. J.] (ex Schöpf) 1792:296 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated [New York, U.S.A.]. No types known. Originally as Sparus poki vel porgee, as a variety of Sparus argyrops Linnaeus 1766. Name not available, not binominal. Based on 'Sparus, Poki oder Porgee, zu Neu=York' in Schöpf 1788:153 [ref. 18700]. •Apparently a synonym of Archosargus probatocephalus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Parenti 2019:72 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Archosargus probatocephalus (Walbaum 1792). Sparidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

porgee, Sparus ovicephalus var. Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:280 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Carolinas, U.S.A. Alternate name for Sparus ovicephalus poki. •Apparently a synonym of Archosargus probatocephalus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Parenti 2019:72 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Archosargus probatocephalus (Walbaum 1792). Sparidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

porgy, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:38, 120 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Carolina, U.S.A. No types known. Apparently an unjustified emendation of Sparus porgee Walbaum 1792. •Apparently a synonym of Archosargus probatocephalus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Parenti 2019:72 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Archosargus probatocephalus (Walbaum 1792). Sparidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

pourtalesii, Sargus Steindachner [F.] 1881:160 [Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 18 (no. 16) (for 23 June 1881); ref. 20482] Galápagos Islands. Syntypes: (several) MCZ 4886 (4), 25751 (1); NMW 76393-96 (2, 1, 1, 1), 81043 (1); USNM 153618 [ex MCZ 4886] (1). Species illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1881:55 [p. 39 of separate], Pl. 10 (figs. 10-10b) [ref. 13333]. •Valid as Archosargus pourtalesii (Steindachner 1881) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:156 [ref. 22193], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:413 [ref. 24023] as pourtalesi, McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Parenti 2019:71 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Archosargus pourtalesii (Steindachner 1881). Sparidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

praeorbitalis, Dentex Günther [A.] 1859:368 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Cape seas, South Africa. Holotype (unique): BMNH uncat. (stuffed, not seen). Also listed was Plate XXIII. fig. A, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." •Valid as Polysteganus praeorbitalis (Günther 1859) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:591 [ref. 5710], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:232 [ref. 28072], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2011:16 [ref. 31500], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2015:146 [ref. 34109], Fricke et al. 2018:220 [ref. 35805], Parenti 2019:62 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Polysteganus praeorbitalis (Günther 1859). Sparidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: Algoa Bay (South Africa) to Beira (Motambique); Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

prayensis, Diplodus Cadenat [J.] 1964:955, 965, Figs. 8, 14, 20 [Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér A) Sciences Naturelles v. 26 (no. 3); ref. 1449] Port of Praia, São Thiago Island [São Tiago, also Santiago], Cape Verde Islands. Holotype: MNHN 1964-0579 [ex IFAN 693]. Paratypes: (3) MNHN 1964-0580 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:50-51 [ref. 20898]. •Valid as Diplodus prayensis Cadenat 1964 -- (Bauchot & Hureau 1990:798 [ref. 18793], Wirtz et al. 2013:126 [ref. 32972], Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2596 [ref. 34618], Parenti 2019:81 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus prayensis Cadenat 1964. Sparidae. Distribution: Eastern Alantic: Cape Verde Islands endemic. Habitat: marine.

probatocephalus, Sparus Walbaum [J. J.] (ex Schöpf) 1792:295 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated [New York, U.S.A.]. No types known. Based on 'Sparus, Sheepshead in Neuyork' in Schöpf 1788:152 [ref. 18700]. •Valid as Archosargus probatocephalus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Lee et al. 1980:754 [ref. 22416], Robins & Ray 1986:181 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:389 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:150 [ref. 14674], Boschung 1992:141 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:440 [ref. 23827], Murdy et al. 1997:234 [ref. 23144], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:351 [ref. 24550], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:162 [ref. 27754], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:429 [ref. 26158], Smith et al. 2003:36 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:145 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:389 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:350 [ref. 35886], Spier et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36103], Parenti 2019:72 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Archosargus probatocephalus (Walbaum 1792). Sparidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia (Canada) south to Brazil, including Gulf of Mexico, but except West Indies and Bahamas. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

proridens, Calamus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1884:150 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 417); ref. 18881] Key West, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 35056. •Valid as Calamus proridens Jordan & Gilbert 1884 -- (Randall & Caldwell 1966:32 [ref. 9053], Robins & Ray 1986:183 [ref. 23100], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:162 [ref. 27754], Carpenter 2003:1570 [ref. 27092], Smith et al. 2003:37 [ref. 27621] dated 1844, Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:399 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708], Parenti 2019:76 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Calamus proridens Jordan & Gilbert 1884. Sparidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.) and northern Gulf of Mexico to Bay of Campeche (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

pseudodentex, Sparus Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:276 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Genoa, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Based on "Bufala" of Cetti 1777:120 [ref. 18872]. •Synonym of Dentex dentex (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:60 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Dentex dentex (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pseudodentex, Sparus dentex var. Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:272 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Genoa, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Based on "Bufala" of Cetti 1777:120 [ref. 18872]. Probably not independent of Sparus pseudodentex Walbaum 1792. •Synonym of Dentex dentex (Linnaeus, 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:60 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Dentex dentex (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

psittacus, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:47, 141 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Indian seas. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-3847 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:62 [ref. 20898]. Figured on Pl. 26 (fig. 3) of Lacepède 1801 [ref. 2710]. •Synonym of Rhabdosargus sarba (Gmelin 1789) (author often seen as Forsskål 1775) -- (Bauchot & Skelton 1986:332 [ref. 6210], Fricke 1999:294 [ref. 24106], Tanaka & Iwasuki 2013:9 [ref. 32775], Siddiqui at al. 2014:87 [ref. 33479], Parenti 2019:86 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Rhabdosargus sarba (Gmelin 1789). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

puchellus, Sargus De la Pylaie [A. J. M.] 1835:532 [Congrès Scientifique de France v. 2 (Sept. 1834) (art. 5); ref. 1086] No distinguishing features, not available; from Ile Dieu, France. Sparidae.

pugicephalus, Chrysophrys Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1909:234 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 6 (pt 3, no. 5); ref. 1650] Off Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAM 9943. •Synonym of Chrysoblephus laticeps (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:584 [ref. 5710], Parenti 2019:77 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Chrysoblephus laticeps (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

puniceus, Chrysophrys Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1908:173 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 14320] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAM 9916. Non-types: ?BMNH 1922.2.9.18 (1) Delagoa Bay. •Valid as Chrysoblephus puniceus (Gilchrist & Thompson 1908) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:584 [ref. 5710], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:221 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2018:219 [ref. 35805], Parenti 2019:77 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Chrysoblephus puniceus (Gilchrist & Thompson 1908). Sparidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) and southern Mozambique; Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

puntazzo, Sparus Cetti [F.] 1777:115 [Anfibi e pesci di Sardegna; ref. 18872] Sardinia, Italy, western Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Not available, used as a vernacular name only, from Sardegna [Sardinia, Italy]. Dates to Walbaum (ex Cetti) 1792. •In the synonymy of Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum 1792) -- (Parenti 2019:81 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum 1792). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

puntazzo, Sparus Walbaum [J. J.] (ex Cetti) 1792:282 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Sardinia, Italy, western Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Species name misspelled pantazzo by Cuvier 1831:133 [ref. 30376] with author Risso. •Valid as Puntazzo puntazzo (Cetti 1777) -- (Tortonese 1973:413 [ref. 7192] but dated to Gmelin 1789, Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:170 [ref. 31251] dated to Cetti 1784). •Valid as Diplodus puntazzo (Cetti 1777) -- (Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:893 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:798 [ref. 18793], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:92 [ref. 26753], Parin 2003:S11 [ref. 28536], Golani 2005:43 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:87 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:99 [ref. 30517], Casu et al. 2009:142 [ref. 30209], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:47 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:368 [ref. 33547]). •Valid as Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum 1792) -- (Wirtz et al. 2013:126 [ref. 32972], Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2597 [ref. 34618], Golani et al. 2017:529 [ref. 35726], Martins & Carneiro 2018:154 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:556 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:97 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:81 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum 1792). Sparidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to South Africa, including Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

quadrituberculatus, Pagrus Ranzani [C.] 1842:348, Pl. 32 (fig. 1) [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 5; ref. 9017] Brazilian seas. Holotype (unique): MZUB 979. •Synonym of Calamus bajonado (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Randall & Caldwell 1966:26 [ref. 9053], Parenti 2019:74 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Calamus bajonado (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

rabaji, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:724, 725 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. No types known. New name for Chaetodon bifasciatus Forsskål 1775. •Synonym of Acanthopagrus bifasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:157 [ref. 29757], Kume & Yoshino 2008:53 [ref. 29572], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2011:39 [ref. 31505], Saddiqui et al. 2014:77 [ref. 33479], Parenti 2019:69 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthopagrus bifasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

randalli, Acanthopagrus Iwatsuki [Y.] & Carpenter [K. E.] 2009:44, Fig. 1, 2A, 3A [Zootaxa No. 2267; ref. 30528] Off Bahrain, from fish market in Kuwait City, Persian Gulf. Holotype: BPBM 33135. Paratypes: MTUF-P 27226 (1). •Valid as Acanthopagrus randalli Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2009 -- (Iwatsuki et al. 2010:115 [ref. 31106], Iwatsuki 2013:87 [ref. 32744], Eagderi et al. 2019:113 [ref. 37020], Parenti 2019:70 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Acanthopagrus randalli Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2009. Sparidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf endemic. Habitat: marine.

raucus, Sargus Geoffroy St. Hilaire [E.] 1809:Pl. 18 (fig. 1) [Poissons du Nil v. 1 (part 1); ref. 4182] Neotype locality: Bardawil Lagoon, northern Sinai, Egypt. Original locality: Egypt, eastern Mediterranean Sea. Neotype: HUJ 6047. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:69 [ref. 20898]. Description published in a later edition by Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1837:340 [ref. 4186]. The material used for the description, MNHN 0000-5740 (2 specimens) from Alexandria (Egypt), was identified by Bauchot & Daget 1971:322 [ref. 23129] as Diplodus cervinus (Lowe 1838), so the description is partly based on that species. None of the specimens in MNHN 0000-5740 agrees with the holotype that was illustrated as above on Pl. 18 (fig. 1). Neotype designated by Fricke et al. 2016:11 [ref. 34520]. •Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fricke et al. 2016:11, 14 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:82 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

regularis, Dentex Cantraine [F. J.] 1833:226 Still researching. Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

rhomboidalis, Perca Linnaeus [C.] 1758:293 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] America [Jamaica]. No types known. Type catalog: Goode & Bean 1885:201 [ref. 1841], Wheeler 1985:58-59 [ref. 20705] who suggests a putative neotype. •Valid as Archosargus rhomboidalis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:182 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:440 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:223 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:350 [ref. 24550], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:162 [ref. 27754], Carpenter 2003:1560 [ref. 27092], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:85 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:36 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:145 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:390 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:56 [ref. 33341], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Spier et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36717], Parenti 2019:72 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Archosargus rhomboidalis (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: New Jersey (U. S. A.) and northeastern Gulf of Mexico south to Brazil. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rhomboides, Sparus Linnaeus [C.] 1766:470 [Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2786] America [Carolina, U.S.A.] and Jamaica. No types known. Based on the Perca rhomboidalis of Catesby 1743:4, Pl. 4 (v. 2) [ref. 774], and Sparus striis longitudinalibus varius of Browne 1756:446 [ref. 30188] [Jamaica]. •Valid as Lagodon rhomboides (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Lee et al. 1980:755 [ref. 22416], Smith 1986:429 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:182 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:142 [ref. 23239], Murdy et al. 1997:233 [ref. 23144], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:352 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:268 [ref. 25013], Carpenter 2003:1574 [ref. 27092], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:402 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:352 [ref. 35886], Parenti 2019:51 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Lagodon rhomboides (Linnaeus 1766). Sparidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Cape Cod south to Florida (U.S.A.); northern Gulf of Mexico to Yucatan (Mexico). Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

rivulatus, Dentex Bennett [E. T.] 1835:91 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1835 (pt 3); ref. 16793] Near Trabzon [Trebizond], Turkey, Black Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Dentex dentex (Linnaeus 1758) (Parenti 2019:60 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Dentex dentex (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

robinsoni, Chrysophrys Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1908:170 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 14320] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAM 10000. •Synonym of Acanthopagrus berda (Fabricius 1775) (author often seen as Forsskål) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:581 [ref. 5710], Bauchot & Skelton 1986:331 [ref. 6210], Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2006:12 [ref. 28673], Kume & Yoshino 2008:53 [ref. 29572], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2010:124 [ref. 30738], Iwatsuki et al. 2010:123 [ref. 31106], Kottelat 2013:352 [ref. 32989], Siddiqui et al. 2014:74 [ref. 33479], Golani & Fricke 2018:100 [ref. 36273], Parenti 2019:68 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthopagrus berda (Fabricius 1775). Sparidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

rondeletii, Demius Gistel [J.] 1848:Pl. 19 (fig. 1) [Naturgeschichte des Thierreichs; ref. 1822] Appeared in caption as "Sparus Sargus. (Demius Rondeletii.)" Regarded as not available, name in synonymy. Genus should have been Denius as on p. X. Sparidae.

rondeletii, Sargus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:14, Pl. 141 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Naples; Marseille; Toulouse; Malta; Alexandria, Egypt, Mediterranean Sea; Lac de Bizerte, Tunisia. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-8529 to 0000-8530 (1, 1), 0000-8602 (1), 0000-8671 (1), A-8098 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:60-61 [ref. 20898]. Name spelled Sargus rondeleti by Berthelot 1840:90 [ref. 30346]. •Synonym of Diplodus sargus, subspecies sargus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:92 [ref. 26753]). •Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:409 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:894 [ref. 13676], Golani 2005:43 [ref. 37112], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:47 [ref. 36649], Fricke et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34520], Artüz & Fricke 2019:557 [ref. 36612], Parenti 2019:82 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rostratus, Pagellus Lowe [R. T.] 1838:177 [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 2 (pt 3, art. 14); ref. 2831] Off Madeira. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:411 [ref. 7192], Parenti 2019:66 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

royerii, Smaris Bowdich [S. L.] 1825:123, Fig. 26 [Fishes of Madeira; ref. 590] Madeira. No types known. •Synonym of Centracanthus cirrus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Tortonese et al. 1973:417 [ref. 7202] as royeri, Heemstra 1990:768 [ref. 18769], Parenti 2019:89 [ref. 36892], Parenti 2019:7 [ref. 36934]). Current status: Synonym of Centracanthus cirrus Rafinesque 1810. Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

rubellio, Sparus Olafsen [E.] & Povelsen [B.] 1775:208 [Reise Island 1774-75 v. 1 (pts 1-2); ref. 18494] Iceland. •Synonym of Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:66 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pagellus erythrinus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rubens, Sparus totius Olafsen [E.] & Povelsen [B.] 1775:208 [Reise Island 1774-75 v. 1 (pts 1-2); ref. 18494] Iceland. Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

ruber, Pagrus Steindachner [F.] 1883:124 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 20 (no. 15) (for 14 June 1883); ref. 20490] Tokyo, Japan. Syntypes: (several) NMW 81050 (2). Species described in more detail in Steindachner & Döderlein 1883:20 [ref. 4247]. •Synonym of Pagrus auratus (Forster 1801) -- (Paulin 1990:261 [ref. 15774]). •Synonym of Chrysophrys auratus (Forster 1801) -- (Parenti 2019:78 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Chrysophrys auratus (Forster 1801). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ruber, Pagrus Boulenger [G. A.] 1888:658 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1887 (pt 4); ref. 14479] Muscat, Oman, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: BMNH 1887.11.11.143 (1, stuffed/mounted), BMNH 1887.11.11.142 (1). Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Pagrus ruber Steindachner 1883. •Synonym of Argyrops spinifer (Forsskål 1775) -- (Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2018:425 [ref. 35983], Parenti 2019:74 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Argyrops spinifer (Forsskål 1775). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

rubroptera, Chrysophrys Tirant [G.] 1883:[14] [Bulletin de la Société des Études Indo-chinoises. Saigon. 1883; ref. 17920] Hué, Vietnam. Syntypes: MHNL 4200-0044 [2478] (2). Type catalog: Chevey 1937:248 [ref. 31779]. On p. 14 of reprint in 1929 [ref. 16215]. •Tentatively a synonym of Acanthopagrus latus (Houttuyn 1782) -- (Kottelat 1987:18, 21 [ref. 11434]). •Mention -- (Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2006:13 [ref. 28673]). •Mention -- (Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2009:51 [ref. 30528]). •Synonym of Acanthopagrus latus (Houttuyn 1782) -- (Kume & Yoshino 2008:53 [ref. 29572], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2010:132 [ref. 30738], Iwatsuki 2013:73, 76 [ref. 32744], Kottelat 2013:352 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2019:69 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthopagrus latus (Houttuyn 1782). Sparidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

rupestris, Dentex Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:231 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Syntypes: MNHN A-0784 (1, dry), A-8147 (1, dry), A-8148 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:49-50 [ref. 20898]. •Valid as Petrus rupestris (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:589 [ref. 5710], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:230 [ref. 28072], Parenti 2019:61 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Petrus rupestris (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: Mossel Bay to KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa). Habitat: marine.

salin, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:43, 137 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Brazil. No types known. •Synonym of Archosargus rhomboidalis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:72 [ref. 36892]) Current status: Synonym of Archosargus rhomboidalis (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

salpa, Sparus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:280 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Valid as Boops salpa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:170 [ref. 31251]). •Valid as Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:413 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:905 [ref. 13676], Smith & Smith 1986:593 [ref. 5710], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:809 [ref. 18793], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:163 [ref. 25472], Santos et al. 1997:92 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:91 [ref. 24952], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:97 [ref. 26753], Parin 2003:S12 [ref. 28536], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:239 [ref. 28072], Golani 2005:45 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:89 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:102 [ref. 30517], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:49 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2013:126 [ref. 32972], Parin et al. 2014:370 [ref. 33547], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2613 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:150 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:557 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:53 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to South Africa, including Madeira and Canary Islands; southwestern Indian Ocean: South Africa. Habitat: marine.

salpoides, Box Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:365 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Indian Seas [probably erroneous] Syntypes: MNHN 0000-8730 (2), 8731 (1); ?ZMB 1156 [ex MNHN] (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:36 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:53 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

salviani, Sargus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:28 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-8533 (1), 0000-8534 (1), 0000-8549 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:61 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Diplodus vulgaris (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817) -- (Tortonese 1973:410 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:801 [ref. 18793], Fricke et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:83 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus vulgaris (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

sarba, Sparus Gmelin [J. F.] (ex Forsskål) 1789:31, xi [Caroli a Linné ... Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18139] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Lectotype: ZMUC P50553 (dry skin). Paralectotypes: ZMUC P50554 (1, dry skin) [Suez?]. Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:67 [ref. 9588]. Based on "Sparus sarba or salpa" of Forsskål in Niebuhr 1775:xi, 31 [ref. 1351]. Lectotype selected by Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:16 [ref. 20847]. Lectotype figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:Pls. 5-6 [ref. 20847]. Originally described from Jeddah and Suez. Authorship follows Fricke 2008:42 [ref. 30182]. •Valid as Sparus sarba Forsskål 1775 -- (Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:178 [ref. 6441], Yamakawa in Okamura et al. 1985:515, 691 [ref. 8056], Nakabo 2000:856 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:856 [ref. 26001]). •Valid as Rhabdosargus sarba (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:160 [ref. 29757], Smith & Smith 1986:593 [ref. 5710], Bauchot & Skelton 1986:332 [ref. 6210], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:849 [ref. 20764], Kuiter 1993:193 [ref. 23929], Poll & Gosse 1995:123 [ref. 24781], Goren & Dor 1994:44 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:227 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:183 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:94 [ref. 26476], Cheng & Zhou 1997:301 [ref. 26385], Kuiter 1997:176 [ref. 25488], Fricke 1999:294 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:737 [ref. 25471], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:619 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:138 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Carpenter 2001:3003 [ref. 26104], Allen et al. 2002:345 [ref. 25930], Youn 2002:342, 616 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Heemstra et al. 2004:3321 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:237 [ref. 28072], Bray et al. 2006:1229 [ref. 29091], Fricke 2008:42 [ref. 30182], Gomon 2008:588 [ref. 30616], Fricke et al. 2009:65 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:127 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2013:260 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32988], Siddiqui at al. 2014:87 [ref. 33479], Psomadakis et al. 2015:263 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:329 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:221 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:101 [ref. 36273], Jawad et al. 2018:113 [ref. 36262] as R. sarba s.l., Iwatsuki in Kimura et al. 2018:170 [ref. 36460], Suresh et al. 2018:247 [ref. 36495], Eagderi et al. 2019:115 [ref. 37020], Hoschke et al. 2019:156 [ref. 36626], Parenti 2019:86 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Rhabdosargus sarba (Gmelin 1789). Sparidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar, Mascarenes and Persian Gulf east to Philippines, north to southern Japan, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia) and Tuross River (New South Wales, Australia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

sargo, Sparus Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:379 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. No types known. Corresponds to Sparus anularis on p. 372. As S. sargo vel annularis in Devincenzi 1925:302 [ref. 22561]. Also appeared in Devincenzi 1925:303, 322; Devincenzi regarded as a synonym of Diplodus argenteus (C.V.) [= Sargus argenteus Valenciennes 1830]. •Synonym of Diplodus argenteus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Fricke et al. 2016:12 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:79 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus argenteus (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

sargus, Cynaedus Meuschen [F. C.] 1778:25 [Museum Gronovianum; ref. 17682] Not available, published in a rejected work (Opinion 260) -- (Parenti 2019:90 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae.

sargus, Sparus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:278 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Spelled sargius in Rafinesque 1810:24 [ref. 3595]. •Valid as Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:409 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:894 [ref. 13676], Abou-seedo et al. 1990:217 [ref. 23688], Randall 1995:226 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:182 [ref. 23922], Arruda 1997:89 [ref. 24952], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:92 [ref. 26753] but as a valid subspecies, Parin 2003:S11 [ref. 28536], Golani 2005:43 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:87 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:99 [ref. 30517], Casu et al. 2009:142 [ref. 30209] as a subspecies, Lipej & Dulčić 2010:47 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:368 [ref. 33547], Fricke et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34520], Golani et al. 2017:529 [ref. 35726], Martins & Carneiro 2018:158 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:557 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:97 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:82 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, Black Sea, but not in southeastern Mediterranean. Habitat: brackish, marine.

saura, Moena Sarato [C.] 1889:2-3 [Moniteur des Étrangers à Nice; ref. 22353] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Questionably a synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Monod & Hureau 1974:66 [ref. 22352], Parenti 2019:55 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Uncertain as Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

savla, Sparus Osbeck [P.] 1770:100 [Nova Acta Physico-Medica Academiae Caesareae Leopoldina-Carolinae Naturae Curiosorum v. 4; ref. 18497] Name also appeared in Walbaum 1792:272 [ref. 4572]. •Synonym of Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:53 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

schlegelii, Chrysophrys Bleeker [P.] 1854:400 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 13964] Nagasaki, Japan. Syntypes: (2). •Valid as Acanthopagrus schlegelii (Bleeker 1854) [usually seen as schlegeli] -- (Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:178 [ref. 6441], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:530 [ref. 25598], Takahashi et al. 1997:45 [ref. 24971], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:750 [ref. 24702], Popova 1998:121 [ref. 23588], Sato et al. 1998:40 [ref. 24972], Nakabo 2000:856 [ref. 25086], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:619 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:136 [ref. 25480], Shinohara et al. 2000:179 [ref. 25987], Sakai et al. 2001:100 [ref. 25693], Shimizu 2001:31 [ref. 25799], Nakabo 2002:856 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:342, 615 [ref. 26218] as schlegeli, Parin 2003:S10 [ref. 28536], Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2006:13 [ref. 28673], Kume & Yoshino 2008:53 [ref. 29572], Dolganov et al. 2008:221 [ref. 29802], Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2009:43 [ref. 30528], Iwatsuki et al. 2010:115 [ref. 31106], Motomura et al. 2010:126 [ref. 31256], Iwatsuki 2013:87 [ref. 32744], Parin et al. 2014:367 [ref. 33547], Iwatsuki in Kimura et al. 2018:169 [ref. 36460], Parenti 2019:70 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Acanthopagrus schlegelii (Bleeker 1854). Sparidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: northern Vietnam and China to Korea and Japan. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sciandra, Sparus Rosenthal [F. C.] 1822:5-6, Pl. 14, fig. 1 [Ichthyotomische Tafeln. Berlin; ref. 19804] On pp. 5-6 in Rosenthal (Ichthyotomische Tafeln; Zweite Lieferung, Viertes Heft, 1822, pp. [3]-23). •Synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Döderlein 1891:196 [ref. 17416], Parenti 2019:57 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

scombroides, Sparus Günther [A.] 1860:507 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Also as Chromis scomberoides; not available, name on specimens mentioned under Gazza argentaria (Parenti 2019:92 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae.

scriptus, Sparus Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:301 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Hispanorum. Predated by and based on Sparus mochara Osbeck 1770. •Synonym of Sparus aurata Linnaeus 1758 -- (Parenti 2019:89 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Sparus aurata Linnaeus 1758. Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sedecim, Pagrus Ginsburg [I.] 1952:93, Fig. 6 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 42 (no. 3); ref. 1805] 25 miles south of Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A., depth 45 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 151881. Paratypes: USNM 20981 (6), 21339 (1), 22868-69 (1, 1), 30838 (1), 83181 (1), 87741 (1), 151910-11 (1, 2). •Synonym of Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:104 [ref. 25942], Carpenter 2003:1575 [ref. 27092], Parenti 2019:85 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

semilunata, Aurata Risso [A.] 1827:355 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:64 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Sparus aurata Linnaeus 1758 -- (Parenti 2019:89 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Sparus aurata Linnaeus 1758. Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

senegalensis, Cantharus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:337 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Gorée, Senegal. Holotype: MNHN 0000-6230. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:42 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Bauchot & Hureau 1990:811 [ref. 18793], Parenti 2019:57 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

senegalensis, Diplodus Cadenat [J.] 1964:968, Figs. 6, 7, 25 [Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér A) Sciences Naturelles v. 26 (no. 3); ref. 1449] Port-Étienne, Mauritania; coasts of Senegal. Syntypes: (15). •Synonym of Diplodus bellottii (Steindachner 1882) -- (Bauchot & Hureau 1990:796 [ref. 18793], Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2592 [ref. 34618], Parenti 2019:79 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus bellottii (Steindachner 1882). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

sheepshead, Sparus Schöpf [J. D.] in Walbaum 1792:296 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Not available, name mentioned in description of Sparus probatocephalus (see Parenti 2019:92 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae.

sheim, Acanthopagrus Iwatsuki [Y.] 2013:85, Fig. 4 (c) [Journal of Fish Biology v. 83 (no. 1); ref. 32744] Off Hawar Island, Oatar. Holotype: MUFS 33838. Paratypes: MUFS 33852-54 (3). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Acanthopagrus sheim Iwatsuki 2013 -- (Siddiqui et al. 2014:77 [ref. 33479], Psomadakis et al. 2015:261 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:328 [ref. 36183], Ali et al. 2019:38 [ref. 36839], Eagderi et al. 2019:113 [ref. 37020], Parenti 2019:71 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Acanthopagrus sheim Iwatsuki 2013. Sparidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf and Oman east to Pakistan and western India. Habitat: marine.

simus, Cantharus Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1909:231 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 6 (pt 3, no. 5); ref. 1650] Fish market, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1935.1.23.8 [ex SAM]. •Synonym of Pachymetopon aeneum (Gilchrist & Thompson 1908) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:588 [ref. 5710], Parenti 2019:52 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pachymetopon aeneum (Gilchrist & Thompson 1908). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

sivicolus, Acanthopagrus Akazaki [M.] 1962:187, 355, Fig. 36 [Studies on the spariform fishes; ref. 5771] Oshima, northern Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype: MIKU 1907 [not seen at FAKU]. Paratypes: FAKU 31311 (1); MIKU 1906 (1), 1908-1910 (2), 1925-1926 (2), 1957 (1), 1960 (1), 1981 (1). •Valid as Acanthopagrus sivicolus Akazaki 1962 -- (Sakazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:178 [ref. 6441], Shen & Lin 1984:14 [ref. 13822], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:532 [ref. 25598], Nakabo 2000:857 [ref. 25086], Sakai et al. 2001:100 [ref. 25693], Nakabo 2002:857 [ref. 26001], Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2006:13 [ref. 28673], Kume & Yoshino 2008:53 [ref. 29572], Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2009:49 [ref. 30528], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2010:133 [ref. 30738], Iwatsuki et al. 2010:115 [ref. 31106], Motomura et al. 2010:127 [ref. 31256], Iwatsuki 2013:87 [ref. 32744], Parenti 2019:71 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Acanthopagrus sivicolus Akazaki 1962. Sparidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Ryukyu Islands and Amami Islands (Japan) Habitat: brackish, marine.

slava, Maena Nardo [G. D.] 1847:col. 122 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Not available, name only (Parenti 2019:91 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae.

smaris, Sparus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:278 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Southern Europe (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. •Valid as Smaris smaris (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berg 1949:1052 [ref. 20662]). •Valid as Spicara smaris (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese et al. 1973:418 [ref. 7202], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:911 [ref. 13676], Heemstra 1990:771 [ref. 18769], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:751 [ref. 24702], Popova 1998:122 [ref. 23588], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:99 [ref. 26753], Parin 2003:S13 [ref. 28536], Golani 2005:45 [ref. 37112], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:179 [ref. 28369], Vasil'eva 2007:107 [ref. 30517], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:169 [ref. 31251], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:50 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:372 [ref. 33547], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2618 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:162 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:557 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:56 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Spicara smaris (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic: Portugal south to Morocco, including Canary Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

spariformis, Dentex Ogilby [J. D.] 1910:91 [On some new fishes from the Queensland coast; ref. 3289] 36 miles south 12°West from Moreton Island, Queensland, Australia, depth 7 fathoms. Lectotype: QM I.1549. Paralectotypes: (5) AMS I.12538 (1); QM I.477 (1). Lectotype selected by Iwatsuki et al. 2007:40 [ref. 29100] •Valid as Allotaius spariformis (Ogilby 1910) -- (Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847]). •Synonym of Dentex tumifrons (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Carpenter 2001:3000 [ref. 26104], Bray et al. 2006:1228 [ref. 29091]). •Valid as Dentex spariformis Ogilby 1910 -- (Iwatsuki et al. 2007:39 [ref. 29100], Larson et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32988], Iwatsuki et al. 2015:114 [ref. 33802], Parenti 2019:61 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Dentex spariformis Ogilby 1910. Sparidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Queensland (Australia) and Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

sparlotus, Sparus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:49 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:26 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Diplodus annularis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Döderlein 1891:215 [ref. 17416], Fricke et al. 2016:12 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:79 [ref. 36892], Parenti 2019:104 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus annularis (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sparoides, Labeo Bowdich [S. L.] 1825:122, Fig. 29 [Fishes of Madeira; ref. 590] Madeira, northeastern Atlantic Ocean. •Synonym of Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:53 [ref. 36892], Parenti 2019:7 [ref. 36934]). Current status: Synonym of Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

sparolus, Sparus Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1847:col. 123 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Not available, Chiereghini name mentioned in synonymy of Sargus annularis (see Parenti 2019:92 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae.

sparulus, Sparus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:48 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:25 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Diplodus annularis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:79 [ref. 36892], Parenti 2019:118 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus annularis (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

sparulus, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:26, 76, not Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN A-0125 (2, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1978:31 [ref. 20862]. Illustration is of Abudefduf sparoides (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) in Pomacentridae according to Fricke 1999:367 [ref. 24106]. •Synonym of Diplodus annularis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fricke 1999:367 [ref. 24106], Fricke et al. 2016:12 [ref. 34520]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus annularis (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

speciosa, Maena Cocco [A.] 1846:750 [Atti della Settima Adunanza degli Scienziati Italiani Sesta Riunione, Milano Settima Riunione, Napoli; ref. 26448] Name in synonymy of Maena osbeckii with question mark, not available (Parenti 2019:91 [ref. 36892]). Also in Bonaparte 1846:52 [ref. 519]. Sparidae.

spicaroides, Sparus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:68 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Family may be incorrect. •Incertae sedis in Sparidae (Parenti 2019:90 [ref. 36892]). •Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:118 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

spinifer, Sparus Forsskål [P. S.] in Niebuhr 1775:32, xi [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Neotype: KAU 13-421 [at SMF]. Neotype designated by Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2018:432 [ref. 35983]. •Valid as Argyrops spinifer (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:166 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:123 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:158 [ref. 29757], Smith & Smith 1986:582 [ref. 5710], Allen & Swainston 1988:84 [ref. 25477], Baranes & Golani 1993:308 [ref. 22372], Goren & Dor 1994:43 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:224 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:361 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:132 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:181 [ref. 23922], Fricke 1999:292 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:737 [ref. 25471], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:137 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Carpenter 2001:2998 [ref. 26104], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:214 [ref. 28072], Bray et al. 2006:1228 [ref. 29091], Fricke et al. 2009:65 [ref. 30213], Iwatsuki 2009:166 [ref. 30483], Larson et al. 2013:140 [ref. 32988], Siddiqui at al. 2014:79 [ref. 33479], Psomadakis et al. 2015:261 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:329 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:219 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:100 [ref. 36273], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2018:425 [ref. 35983], Jawad et al. 2018:111 [ref. 36262] as A. spinifer s.l., Eagderi et al. 2019:113 [ref. 37020], Parenti 2019:73 [ref. 36892], Zajonz et al. 2019:79 [ref. 36871] as cf. spinifer). Current status: Valid as Argyrops spinifer (Forsskål 1775). Sparidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indian Ocean: East Africa and Persian Gulf east to western Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

striatus, Sargus Bliss [R.] 1883:50 [Transactions of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius (N. S.) v. 13; ref. 16966] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MCZ 5731. •Synonym of Diplodus cervinus (Lowe 1838), but a valid subspecies -- (Fricke 1999:293 [ref. 24106], Heemstra et al. 2004:3321 [ref. 27945]). •Valid as Diplodus striatus (Bliss 1883) -- (Fricke et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:82 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus striatus (Bliss 1883). Sparidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: Mauritius and Rodrigues Island (Mascarenes endemic). Habitat: marine.

striatus, Sparus Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:282 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Manuscript name mentioned under Sparus forsteri, not available (see Parenti 2019:92 [ref. 36892]). Based on description in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). See account of Sparus forsteri. Sparidae.

strongilus, Sparus Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xv [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Turkey; Alexandria (Egypt), Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Spelled strongylus in Bloch & Schneider 1801:285 [ref. 471]. •Probably a synonym of Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:53 [ref. 36892]). •Synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaesu 1758) -- (Fricke 2008:42 [ref. 30182]). Current status: Synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

swinhonis, Chrysophrys Günther [A.] 1874:155 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 13 (no. 74) (art. 23); ref. 14189] Chefoo, Yellow Sea, Shantung Province, China. Syntypes: (4) BMNH 1874.1.16.2 (1?). •Mention -- (Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2006:13 [ref. 28673]). •Synonym of Acanthopagrus schlegelii (Bleeker 1854) -- (Parin 2003:S10 [ref. 28536], Kume & Yoshino 2008:53 [ref. 29572], Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2009:50 [ref. 30528], Parin et al. 2014:367 [ref. 33547], Parenti 2019:70 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthopagrus schlegelii (Bleeker 1854). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

synodon, Dentex Risso [A.] 1840:382 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 6 (pt. 1); ref. 18638] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. •Synonym of Dentex gibbosus (Rafinesque 1810) -- (Parenti 2019:60 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Dentex gibbosus (Rafinesque 1810). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

taiwanensis, Acanthopagrus Iwatsuki [Y.] & Carpenter [K. E.] 2006:4, Figs. 1A, 2D-E, 3A-4A, 5A-B [Zootaxa No. 1202; ref. 28673] Estuary basin of Tung-kang river (purchsed at Tung-kang fish market), southwestern Taiwan. Holotype: MUFS 22854. Paratypes: MUFS 11870 (1), 22165-66 (1, 1), 22855 (1), 22857 (1). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:47 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Acanthopagrus taiwanensis Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2006 -- (Iwatsuki et al. 2006:406 [ref. 29239], Kume & Yoshino 2008:53 [ref. 29572], Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2009:49 [ref. 30528], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2010:133 [ref. 30738], Iwatsuki et al. 2010:115 [ref. 31106], Ho & Shao 2011:47 [ref. 31432], Iwatsuki 2013:87 [ref. 32744], Parenti 2019:71 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Acanthopagrus taiwanensis Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2006. Sparidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Taiwan. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tanuda, Cantharus Risso [A.] 1827:366 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-0865. Type catalog: Bertin 1945:377 [ref. 21554], Bauchot & Daget 1972:42 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:414 [ref. 7192], Parenti 2019:57 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tarwhine, Roughleyia Whitley [G. P.] 1931:319 [Australian Zoologist v. 6 (pt 4); ref. 4672] Batchelor, Macleay River, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype: AMS I.15267. Specimens illustrated in Stead 1908:78, Pl. 47 [ref. 18743]. •Synonym of Rhabdosargus sarba (Gmelin 1789) (author often seen as Forsskål 1775) -- (Bray et al. 2006:1230 [ref. 29091], Tanaka & Iwasuki 2013:9 [ref. 32775], Siddiqui at al. 2014:87 [ref. 33479], Parenti 2019:87 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Rhabdosargus sarba (Gmelin 1789). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

taurina, Chrysophrys Jenyns [L.] 1840:56, Pl. 12 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] San Cristóbal Island [Chatham Island], Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1918.1.31.10 (skin in alcohol). •Valid as Calamus taurinus (Jenyns 1840) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:156 [ref. 22193], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:416 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:365 [ref. 24555], Thomson et al. 2000:132 [ref. 25640], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Parenti 2019:76 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Calamus taurinus (Jenyns 1840). Sparidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

tenellus, Sparus Pallas [P. S.] 1814:274 [Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica v. 3; ref. 3351] "Inter pisciculos Ponticos". •Incertae sedis in Sparidae (Parenti 2019:90 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

thorpei, Rhabdosargus Smith [M. M.] 1979:704, Fig. 1A [Copeia 1979 (no. 4); ref. 6940] Mabibi (Hulley Point), KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, 27°20'S, 32°45'E. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 688. Paratypes: AMS 1.20759-001 (1); BMNH 1978.9.12.5 (1); BPBM 22396 (1); CAS 41751 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 681-682 (1, 1), 687 (1), 689-695 (1 ea.), 946-947 (1, 1), ?11157 (1); SAM 28455 (1); USNM 218874 (1); ZUMT 54143 (1). •Valid as Rhabdosargus thorpei Smith 1979 -- (Smith & Smith 1986:593 [ref. 5710], Bauchot & Skelton 1986:332 [ref. 6210], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:238 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2009:66 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2018:221 [ref. 35805], Parenti 2019:87 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Rhabdosargus thorpei Smith 1979. Sparidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: East Africa and South Africa to Europa Island, Madagascar and Réunion (Mascarenes). Habitat: brackish, marine.

thunberg, Labrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:427, 468 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Japan. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:100 [ref. 19171]. Based on a drawing labelled Sciaena fusca by Thunberg. •Incertae sedis in Sparidae -- (Parenti 2019:90 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

torvus, Cynaedus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:54 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Several localities. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.21 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin) Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:223 [ref. 13434] but as holotype. •Synonym of Chrysoblephus laticeps (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Wheeler 1958:223 [ref. 13434], Parenti 2019:77 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Chrysoblephus laticeps (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

trachurus, Gasterosteus Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] in Graells 1887:181 [Revista de los Progresos de las Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Madrid v. 22 (no. 3); ref. 30438] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only; not available. Name from Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817:7 [ref. 17319], possibly an unpublished work. Not the same as Gasterosteus trachurus Cuvier 1829. •In the synonymy of Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae.

trachurus, Gasterosteus Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] 1817:7 [Lista de los peces del mar de Andalucía; ref. 17319] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only, not available. Possibly an unpublished work. See also Gasterosteus trachurus Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler in Graells 1887:181 [ref. 30438]. Not the same as Gasterosteus trachurus Cuvier 1829. •In the synonymy of Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae.

tricuspidatus, Sparus Spinola [M.] 1807:367, Pl. 28 (figs 1a-b) [Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 10; ref. 18741] Gulf of Genoa, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese et al. 1973:417 [ref. 7202], Heemstra 1990:769 [ref. 18769], Parenti 2019:55 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

tricuspidens, Austrosparus Smith [J. L. B.] 1942:282 [Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa v. 29 (pt 4); ref. 4070] Knysna, Cape Province, South Africa. Syntypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 57 [ex AMG] (1). •Synonym of Rhabdosargus holubi (Steindachner 1881) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:592 [ref. 5710], Tanaka & Iwasuki 2013:8 [ref. 32775], Parenti 2019:86 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Rhabdosargus holubi (Steindachner 1881). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tridens, Sargus Poey [F.] 1875:131 [57] [Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid v. 4 (for 13 Jan. 1875); ref. 3509] Cuba. No types known. On p. 57 of separate. •Synonym of Archosargus rhomboidalis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:72 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Archosargus rhomboidalis (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

trifasciatus, Sparus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:50 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:26 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Diplodus cervinus (Lowe 1838) -- (Tortonese 1973:409 [ref. 7192] with question, Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:892 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:796 [ref. 18793], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:92 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:42 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:80 [ref. 36892] with question, Parenti 2019:104 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus cervinus (Lowe 1838). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

tumifrons, Chrysophrys Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:70, Pl. 34 [Fauna Japonica Parts 2-4; ref. 4371] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D418 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH 960 (1) [not this species]. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:75 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Dentex tumifrons (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:177 [ref. 6441], Yamakawa in Okamura et al. 1985:511, 689 [ref. 8056], Allen & Swainston 1988:84 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:132 [ref. 23977], C/hen et al. 1997:92 [ref. 26476] dated 1844, Akazaki & Séret 1999:177 [ref. 23938], Nakabo 2000:859 [ref. 25086], Carpenter in Randall & Lim 2000:619 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:137 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:326 [ref. 25995], Carpenter 2001:3000 [ref. 26104], Nakabo 2002:859 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:342, 615 [ref. 26218], Shinohara et al. 2005:435 [ref. 28370], Bray et al. 2006:1228 [ref. 29091] dated 1844, Shinohara et al. 2011:49 [ref. 31715]). •Valid as Evynnis tumifrons (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Iwatsuki et al. 2007:41 [ref. 29100], Guan et al. 2012:217 [ref. 31832], Parin et al. 2014:369 [ref. 33547], Parenti 2019:83 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Evynnis tumifrons (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Sparidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: China and Taiwan north to Sea of Japan (Russia), but excluding Ryukyu Islands. Habitat: marine.

typicus, Diplodus sargus Cadenat [J.] 1964:960, Figs. 4, 11, 23 [Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér A) Sciences Naturelles v. 26 (no. 3); ref. 1449] Mediterranean Sea; African Atlantic coasts. No types known. •Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758) in part -- (Fricke et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34520]). •Synonym of Diplodus cadenati (de la Paz, Bauchot & Daget 1974) in part -- (Fricke et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34520] with first author as Paz, Parenti 2019:79 [ref. 36892], Parenti 2019:82 [ref. 36892]). •Synonym of Diplodus sargus, subspecies cadenati de La Paz, Bauchot & Daget 1974 -- (Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2598 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

undulosus, Dentex Regan [C. T.] 1908:252, Pl. 40 [Annals of the Natal Museum v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 14355] 16 miles northeast of Bird Island, KwaZulu-Natal, and Table Bay, Cape Colony, South Africa. Syntypes: (more than 1) BMNH 1899.2.10.2 (1). •Valid as Polysteganus undulosus (Regan 1908) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:591 [ref. 5710], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:233 [ref. 28072], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2011:16 [ref. 31500], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2015:147 [ref. 34109], Parenti 2019:63 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Polysteganus undulosus (Regan 1908). Sparidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atrlantic, southwestern Indian Ocean: Cape of Good Hope (South Africa) to Delagoa Bay (Mozambique). Habitat: marine.

unicolor, Chrysophrys Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:299 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Dick Hartog and Shark Bay, Western Australia. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0704 (5) Shark Bay. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:46-47 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Pagrus auratus (Forster 1801) -- (Paulin 1990:261 [ref. 15774], Bray et al. 2006:1229 [ref. 29091]). •Synonym of Chrysophrys auratus (Forster 1801) -- (Gomon et al. 1994:602 [ref. 22532], Parenti 2019:77 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Chrysophrys auratus (Forster 1801). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

unimaculata, Perca Bloch [M. E.] 1792:75, Pl. 308 (fig. 1) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 6; ref. 470] Brazil. Also as p. 64 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 9 [ref. 21381]. •Synonym of Archosargus rhomboidalis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:350 [ref. 24550], Carpenter 2003:1560 [ref. 27092], Parenti 2019:72 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Archosargus rhomboidalis (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

urta, Sparus Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] 1817:5 [Lista de los peces del mar de Andalucía; ref. 17319] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only, not available. Name appeared with reference to Linnaeus, apparently erroneously. Also appeared as name only in Graells 1887:179 [ref. 30438]. •In genus Pagrus Cuvier 1816. Sparidae.

vagus, Chrysophrys Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1852:681 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1852; ref. 18539] Sena, Zambezi River, Mozambique, approximately 17°27'30"S, 35°01'55"E. Holotype (unique): ZMB 1087. Also in Peters 1868:11, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [ref. 3440]. •Synonym of Acanthopagrus berda (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith & Smith 1986:581 [ref. 5710], Bauchot & Skelton 1986:331 [ref. 6210], Bray et al. 2006:1226 [ref. 29091], Iwatsuki et al. 2006:406 [ref. 29239], Kume & Yoshino 2008:53 [ref. 29572]). •Valid as Acanthpagrus vagus (Peters 1852) -- (Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:212 [ref. 28072], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2010:130 [ref. 30738], Iwatsuki et al. 2010:115 [ref. 31106], Iwatsuki 2013:87 [ref. 32744], Parenti 2019:71 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Acanthopagrus vagus (Peters 1852). Sparidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: South Africa and Mozambique. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

vaigiensis, Dentex Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:302 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Waigeo [Waigiou], Indonesia; Rawak Island, Bismarck Archipelago. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:66 [ref. 20898]. Family uncertain (Parenti 2019:90 [ref. 36892]). •Incertae sedis -- (Parenti 2019:90 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

varatulus, Sparus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:48 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:26 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Döderlein 1891:247 [ref. 17416], Fricke et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:82 [ref. 36892], Parenti 2019:104 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

variabilis, Dentex Valenciennes [A.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:241 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Red Sea. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:67 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Cheimerius nufar (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Dor 1984:158 [ref. 29757], Siddiqui at al. 2014:80 [ref. 33479], Parenti 2019:58 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Cheimerius nufar (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

variegatus, Sparus Bonnaterre [J. P.] 1788:98 [Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature... Ichthyologie; ref. 4940] Marseille, France, western Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Based on Sparus sp. of Brünnich 1768:39, No. 58 [ref. 17290]. Not used as valid after 1899; therefore reversal of priority in favor of Smaris melanurus Valenciennes 1830 is followed (Art. 23.9). •Synonym of Spicara melanurus (Valenciennes 1830). Current status: Synonym of Spicara melanurus (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

versicolor, Labrus Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:404, Pl. 3 (fig. 7) [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Stenotomus chrysops (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Smith 1986:430 [ref. 22186], Parenti 2019:67 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Stenotomus chrysops (Linnaeus 1766). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

versicolor, Sparus Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] in Machado 1857:23 [Catálogo de los peces que habitán ó frecuentan las costas de Cadiz y Huelva con inclusion de los del Rio Guadalquivir.; ref. 17320] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only; not available. See also Sparus versicolor Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817 [ref. 17319]. Also appeared in Graells 1887:179 [ref. 17319] with discussion on authorship. •In the synonymy of Pagellus bellottii Steindachner 1882. Current status: Synonym of Pagellus bellottii Steindachner 1882. Sparidae.

versicolor, Sparus Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] 1817:5 [Lista de los peces del mar de Andalucía; ref. 17319] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only, not available. See also Sparus versicolor Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler in Machado 1857. Also appeared in Graells 1887:179 [ref. 30438] with discussion on authorship. •In the synonymy of Pagellus bellottii Steindachner 1882. Current status: Synonym of Pagellus bellottii Steindachner 1882. Sparidae.

vetula, Sargus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:48 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-8544 (1) Martigues, 0000-8543 (2, poor condition) Naples. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:61-62 [ref. 20898] as holotype and paratypes •Synonym of Diplodus sargus subspecies sargus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:92 [ref. 26753]). •Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:409 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:894 [ref. 13676], Fricke et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:82 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vetula, Sparus Couch [J.] 1823:79 [The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London v. 14 (pt 1, art. 4)(for 1822); ref. 18046] Cornwall, England. No types known. •Synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Günther 1859:414 [ref. 1961], Parenti 2019:57 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

violaceus, Sparus Shaw [G.] 1803:410, Pl. 59 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] No locality. Unneeded replacement name for Sparus chrysops of Bloch. •Synonym of Stenotomus chrysops (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Parenti 2019:67 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Stenotomus chrysops (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

virescens, Sparus Pallas [P. S.] 1814:273 [Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica v. 3; ref. 3351] "Ad littus meridionale Chersonesi tauricae". •Incertae sedis in Sparidae (Parenti 2019:90 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish.

virginiae, Mimocubiceps Fowler [H. W.] 1944:2, Fig. [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 130; ref. 1446] Ventnor Beach, New Jersey, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ANSP 70616. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:21 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Stenotomus chrysops (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Parenti 2019:67 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Stenotomus chrysops (Linnaeus 1766). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

viridiaureus, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:40, 131 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Coasts of New Guinea. No types known. Originally as viridi-aureus, correction mandatory. •Incertae sedis in Sparidae (Parenti 2019:90 [ref. 36892]). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

viridis, Sparus dilute Klein [J. T.] 1775 [Neuer Schauplatz v. 1; ref. 2618] Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

vomerina, Maena Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:400, Pl. 164 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Marseille, France, western Mediterranean Sea.; Malta, Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-9016 (1) Martigues, 0000-9107 (1) Malta. Type catalog: Bauchot 1974:983 [ref. 21548]. Misspelled vomeriana by Griffith & Smith 1834:Pl. 49 (opp. p. 170) [ref. 1908]. •Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese et al. 1973:418 [ref. 7202] with question, Heemstra 1990:769 [ref. 18769], Parenti 2019:55 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

vulgaris, Boops Bowdich [S. L.] 1825:122 [Fishes of Madeira; ref. 590] Appeared as "The boga, or boops vulgaris, Cuvier' sparus boops, Linnaeus." No description and not regarded as a replacement name; not available; from Madeira. Sparidae.

vulgaris, Boops Risso [A.] 1827:350 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Based on Sparus boops Linnaeus 1758, vulgaris apparently to avoid Strickland tautonymy. •Synonym of Boops boops (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:49 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Boops boops (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vulgaris, Box Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:348, Pl. 161 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Toulon, Nice, Naples, Genes, Sicily; Corsica and France, western Mediterranean Sea; [Ivica] Ibiza, Balearic Islands, Mediterranean Sea; Biserte Lake, Midi, Tenerife, Madeira. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-8674 to 0000-8679 (1, 3, 1, 1, 1, 1), 0000-8723 (1), 0000-8725 to 0000-8726 (1, 2). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:36-38 [ref. 20898]. Based on literature and specimens. Name appeared on plate as Boops vulgaris. •Synonym of Boops boops (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:407 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:790 [ref. 18793], Golani 2005:41 [ref. 37112], Parenti 2019:49 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Boops boops (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vulgaris, Cantharus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:319, Pl. 160 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Provence, Naples, Rome, Malta, [Iviça] Ibiza, Baleares Islands, Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5554 (1) Ivaça, 8780 (1) Naples, 8800 (1) Naples. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:42-43 [ref. 20898]. Appeared first as Le Canthère vulgaire -- not Latinized and not available. Based on literature and specimens; not regarded as an unneeded new name for Sparus cantharus Linnaeus 1758. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Cantharus vulgaris Schinz 1822. •Synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:414 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:811 [ref. 18793], Parenti 2019:56 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vulgaris, Cantharus Schinz [H. R.] 1822:451 [Das Thierreich v. 2; ref. 3926] Unneeded new name for and objective synonym of Sparus cantharus Linnaeus 1758 (see Daget 1968:1059 [ref. 26392]). •Objective synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Daget 1968:1059 [ref. 26392], Parenti 2019:56 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vulgaris, Dentex Risso [A.] 1827:364 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

vulgaris, Dentex Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:220, Pl. 153 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-9121 (1) Nice, A-8111 (1, dry) Iviça. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:50 [ref. 20898]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Dentex vulgaris Risso 1827. •Synonym of Dentex dentex (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:407 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:887 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:793 [ref. 18793], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:90 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:42 [ref. 37112], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:47 [ref. 36649], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2587 [ref. 34618], Parenti 2019:60 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Dentex dentex (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vulgaris, Maena Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:390 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Toulon, France; Naples, Italy; [Iviça] Ibiza, Balearic Islands, Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-9100 (1) Toulon, 0000-9101 (3) Toulon, 0000-9102 (1) Iviça, 0000-9152 (1) Corsica, 0000-9153 (1) Sicily, 0000-9154 (1) Naples, 0000-9179 (2) Iviça. Type catalog: Bauchot 1974:984-985 [ref. 21548]. •Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese et al. 1973:418 [ref. 7202], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:910 [ref. 13676], Heemstra 1990:769 [ref. 18769], Parenti 2019:55 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

vulgaris, Pagrus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:142, Pl. 148 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Northern Ocean; Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-8623 (1) Morée, Greece, A-0693 (1) Goreé, A-5461 (1) Cape Verde Is. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:56-57 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Sparus pagrus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Tortonese 1973:406 [ref. 7192]). •Synonym of Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:904 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:808 [ref. 18793], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:96 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:44 [ref. 37112], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2611 [ref. 34618], Parenti 2019:85 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vulgaris, Pagrus Fleming [J.] 1828:211 [A history of British animals; ref. 1339] Britain. Based in part on Sparus pagrus Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Pagellus acarne (Risso 1827) -- (Parenti 2019:65 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pagellus acarne (Risso 1827). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

vulgaris, Pagrus Cuvier [G.] 1829:182 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

vulgaris, Sargus Geoffroy St. Hilaire [E.] 1817:342, Pl. 18 (fig. 2) [Poissons du Nil v. 1 (part 1); ref. 4184] Egypt, eastern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:69 [ref. 20898]. •Valid as Diplodus vulgaris (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817) -- (Tortonese 1973:410 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:895 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:801 [ref. 18793], Arruda 1997:89 [ref. 24952], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:93 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:43 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:87 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:100 [ref. 30517], Casu et al. 2009:142 [ref. 30209], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:47 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:368 [ref. 33547], Fricke et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34520], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2600 [ref. 34618], Golani et al. 2017:529 [ref. 35726], Martins & Carneiro 2018:159 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:557 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:83 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus vulgaris (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817). Sparidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to South Africa, including Madeira, Canary and Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.

vulgaris, Smaris Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:407 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-9108 (2) Naples, 0000-9138 (3) Morée, 0000-9303 (1) Iviça, 0000-9304 (4) Toulon, 0000-9306 (1) Sicily, A-5499 (1) Mediterranean. Type catalog: Bauchot 1974:987-988 [ref. 21548]. •Synonym of Spicara smaris (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese et al. 1973:419 [ref. 7202], Heemstra 1990:771 [ref. 18769], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:99 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:45 [ref. 37112], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:50 [ref. 36649], Parenti 2019:56 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara smaris (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

xanthopoda, Chrysophrys Richardson [J.] 1846:241 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, Chinese Seas, China. Holotype: BMNH 2010.12.6.1 (stuffed, left half skin). Type information: Whitehead 1970:213 [ref. 11606]. •May be a junior synonym of Acanthopagrus latus (Houttuyn 1782) -- (Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2006:15 [ref. 28673]). •Mention -- (Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2009:51 [ref. 30528]). •Synonym of Acanthopagrus latus (Houttuyn 1782) -- (Kume & Yoshino 2008:53 [ref. 29572], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2010:132 [ref. 30738], Iwatsuki 2013:73 [ref. 32744], Kottelat 2013:352 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2019:69 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthopagrus latus (Houttuyn 1782). Sparidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

zanthurus, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:38 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Seas near Carolina, U.S.A. and Jamaica. No types known. Spelled zanturus on p. 38; zanthurus on p. 121. •Synonym of Stenotomus chrysops (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Parenti 2019:67 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Stenotomus chrysops (Linnaeus 1766). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

zebra, Sparus Brünnich [M. T.] 1768:47 [Ichthyologia Massiliensis, sistens piscium descriptiones eorumque apud incolas nomina; ref. 17290] Marseille, France, western Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese et al. 1973:417 [ref. 7202], Heemstra 1990:769 [ref. 18769], Parenti 2019:55 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara maena (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

zipolus, Sparus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:50 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:26 [ref. 3595] as Sparus zippolus. •Synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:119 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Spondyliosoma cantharus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.