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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Sphyrnidae: [ 30 ] records


bigelowi, Sphyrna Springer [S.] 1944:274, Fig. 1 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 34 (no. 8); ref. 10186] Off Santa Maria, Uruguay, southwestern Atlantic. Holotype: USNM 87682. Paratypes: MCZ 463-S (1); USNM 120751 [ex USNM 87682] (1). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:4 [ref. 21812]. •Synonym of Sphyrna tudes (Valenciennes 1822) -- (Gilbert 1967:54 [ref. 21135], Gilbert 1973:33 [ref. 7164], Compagno 1984:551 [ref. 6846], Springer 1990:110 [ref. 19320], Soto 2001:84 [ref. 26637], Compagno 2003:504 [ref. 26984], Castro 2011:525 [ref. 31457]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyrna tudes (Valenciennes 1822). Sphyrnidae. Habitat: marine.

blochii, Zygaena Cuvier [G.] 1816:127 [Le Règne Animal v. 2; ref. 993] No locality. Holotype (unique): ZMB 7835 (stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:170 [ref. 21041], Paepke 1999:143 [ref. 24282]. Based on Bloch Pl. 117 and brief description. •Valid as Sphyrna blochii (Cuvier 1816) -- (Gilbert 1967:20 [ref. 21135], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:224 [ref. 36138], Paxton et al. 1989:86 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:23 [ref. 15987], Randall 1995:38 [ref. 22896], Mishra et al. 1999:82 [ref. 25315]). •Valid as Eusphyra blochii (Cuvier 1816) -- (Compagno 1984:540 [ref. 6846], Allen & Swainston 1988:24 [ref. 25477], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:26 [ref. 20764], Last & Stevens 1994:271 [ref. 23873], Allen 1997:44 [ref. 23977], Compagno 1998:1363 [ref. 23785], Morón et al. 1999:148 [ref. 24253] as Eusphyrna, Compagno 1999:484 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Compagno et al. 2005:45 [ref. 29145], Hoese et al. 2006:110 [ref. 29001], Last el al. 2010:134 [ref. 32461], Larson et al. 2013:12 [ref. 32988] as blochi, Ebert et al. 2013:339 [ref. 33045], Psomadakis et al. 2015:87 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:44 [ref. 34211], White et al. 2017:184 [ref. 35860], Ali et al. 2018:302 [ref. 36183], Kumar et al. 2018:297 [ref. 36178], Suresh et al. 2018:43 [ref. 36495], White & Ko'ou 2018:42 [ref. 35922], Eagderi et al. 2019:8 [ref. 37020] as Eusphyrna blochii). Current status: Valid as Eusphyra blochii (Cuvier 1816). Sphyrnidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf east to Philippines, north to China, south to northern Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

carolinensis, Squalus (Cestrorhinus) Blainville [H. de] 1816:121 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. •In the synonymy of Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus 1758) or Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith 1834) -- (Gilbert 1973:33 [ref. 7164]). •In the synonymy of Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1984:553 [ref. 6846]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus 1758). Sphyrnidae.

chiereghini, Sphyrna Nardo [G. D.] 1847:col. 112 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Not available, name only based on Squalus tiburo of Chiereghini (manuscript). •In the synonymy of Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell 1837) -- (Gilbert 1967:26 [ref. 21135]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell 1837). Sphyrnidae.

corona, Sphyrna Springer [S.] 1940:163, Fig. 4 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 1 (no. 5); ref. 10182] (Pacific) Panama. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 11882. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:9 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Sphyrna corona Springer 1940 -- (Gilbert 1967:62 [ref. 21135], Compagno 1984:543 [ref. 6846], Allen & Robertson 1994:24 [ref. 22193], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:717 [ref. 22829], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:43 [ref. 24555], Compagno 1999:484 [ref. 25589], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:69 [ref. 27705], Nelson et al. 2004:54 [ref. 27807], Castro 2011:507 [ref. 31457], Page et al. 2013:52 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:97 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:44 [ref. 34211], Ehemann et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36194]). Current status: Valid as Sphyrna corona Springer 1940. Sphyrnidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

couardi, Sphyrna Cadenat [J.] 1951:41, 99 [Initiations Africaines. III. Poissons de mer du Sénégal; ref. 12676] Senegal. No types known. Only briefly characterized but regarded as available. •Valid as Sphyrna couardi Cadenat 1951 -- (Gilbert 1967:45 [ref. 21135], Compagno 1984:544 [ref. 6846], Springer 1990:109 [ref. 19320], Afonso et al. 1999:82 [ref. 25466] with question, Wirtz et al. 2007:24 [ref. 30263] with question). •Synonym of Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith 1834) -- (Quattro et al. 2013:176 [ref. 32875], Weigmann 2016:45 [ref. 34211], Compagno 2016:1331 [ref. 34544] as lewini). Current status: Synonym of Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith 1834). Sphyrnidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal to Congo (if valid). Habitat: brackish, marine.

diplana, Sphyrna Springer [S.] 1941:46, Figs. 1-2 [Proceedings of the Florida Academy of Sciences v. 5; ref. 10183] Off Englewood, Florida, U.S.A., Gulf of Mexico, western Atlantic. Holotype: USNM 108451. Paratypes: USNM 108452 (1, head only), 110296-97 (2, jaws only). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:6 [ref. 21812]. •Synonym of Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith 1834) -- (Gilbert 1967:38 [ref. 21135], Gilbert 1973:33 [ref. 7164], Dor 1984:11 [ref. 29757], Compagno 1984:545 [ref. 6846], Springer 1990:109 [ref. 19320], Gomon et al. 1994:139 [ref. 22532], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:718 [ref. 22829], Compagno 1998:1364 [ref. 23785], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:54 [ref. 24550], Soto 2001:85 [ref. 26637], Compagno 2003:500 [ref. 26984], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:70 [ref. 27705], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:36 [ref. 27735], Castro 2011:509 [ref. 31457], Quattro et al. 2013:176 [ref. 32875], Psomadakis et al. 2015:87 [ref. 34104], Compagno 2016:1331 [ref. 34544]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith 1834). Sphyrnidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dissimilis, Zygaena Murray [J. A.] 1887:103, Pl. [Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 17806] Karachi, Pakistan. Published in 3 places, earliest not determined. As above, in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. [see ref. 17806], and in Murray 1887 [ref. 17805]. •Synonym of Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell 1837) -- (Gilbert 1967:26 [ref. 21135], Compagno 1984:548 [ref. 6846]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell 1837). Sphyrnidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

erythraea, Zygaena Klunzinger [C. B.] (ex Ehrenberg) 1871:666 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:170 [ref. 21041] dated to 1899 with ZMB 7814 as holotype. Regarded as not available; appeared above as name in synonymy; also as name in synonymy in Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1899: 8, Pl. 6 (fig. 2) [ref. 4977]. Subsequent publication in an available way not researched. •In the synonymy of Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith 1834) -- (Gilbert 1967:38 [ref. 21135], Gilbert 1973:33 [ref. 7164], Dor 1984:11 [ref. 29757], Compagno 1984:545 [ref. 6846]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith 1834). Sphyrnidae.

gilberti, Sphyrna Quattro [J. M.], Driggers III [W. B.], Grady [J. M.], Ulrich [G. F.] & Roberts [M. A.] 2013:171, Figs. 5-6, 7A [Zootaxa 3702 (no. 2); ref. 32875] Bulls head, South Carolina, USA. Holotype: UF 183577. Paratypes: UF 183578 (2), 183579 (2). •Valid as Sphyrna gilberti Quattro, Driggers III, Grady, Ulrich & Roberts 2013 -- (Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:141 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:44 [ref. 34211] second author as Driggers without III). Current status: Valid as Sphyrna gilberti Quattro, Driggers III, Grady, Ulrich & Roberts 2013. Sphyrnidae. Distribution: Southeastern USA, possibly elsewhere. Habitat: marine.

indica, Zygaena van Hasselt [J. C.] 1823:315 [Algemeene Konst- en Letter-bode voor het Jaar I Deel (no. 20); ref. 4513] Vizagapatam, India; Java, Indonesia, Java Sea, eastern Indian Ocean. No types known. Based on figure in Russel, 1823, I., p. 8, pl. XII (see Alfred 1961:81, Pl. 3 [ref. 20553]). Also in van Hasselt 1824:90 [ref. 5104]. Should be suppressed and the use of the name lewini continued. •Available name -- (Kottelat 1987:369 [ref. 5962]). •Synonym of [later] Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith 1834) -- (Gilbert 1967:37 [ref. 21135] with question, Compagno 1984:545 [ref. 6846], Last el al. 2010:134 [ref. 32461]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith 1834). Sphyrnidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

laticeps, Zygaena Cantor [T. E.] 1837:315, Pls. l-3 [Calcutta Medical and Physical Society. Quarterly. 1837 (art. 10); ref. 17332] Bay of Bengal, India. Syntypes: (at least 2). •Synonym of Sphyrna blochii (Cuvier 1816) -- (Gilbert 1967:21 [ref. 21135]). •Synonym of Eusphyra blochii (Cuvier 1816) -- (Compagno 1984:540 [ref. 6846]). •Valid as Eusphyra laticeps (Cuvier 1816) -- (Fernando et al. 2019:226 [ref. 36642]). Current status: Valid as Eusphyra laticeps (Cantor 1837). Sphyrnidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: India and Sri Lanka. Habitat: brackish, marine.

latycephala, Zygaena van Hasselt [J. C.] 1823:315 [Algemeene Konst- en Letter-bode voor het Jaar I Deel (no. 20); ref. 4513] Not available, name only (but drawings were made); from Java. See Kottelat 1987:369 [ref. 5962]. Appeared as platycephala in van Hasselt 1924:90 [ref. 5104]. •In the synonymy of Sphyrna blochii (Cuvier 1816) -- (Gilbert 1967:21 [ref. 21135]). •In the synonymy of Eusphyra blochii (Cuvier 1816) -- (Compagno 1984:540 [ref. 6846], Last el al. 2010:98 [ref. 32461]). Current status: Synonym of Eusphyra blochii (Cuvier 1816). Sphyrnidae.

leeuwenii, Cestracion Day [F.] 1865:271 [The fishes of Malabar; ref. 1074] Malabar coast, India, Arabian Sea, western Indian Ocean. Unexplained new spelling for Zygaena lewini Griffith & Smith 1834. •Synonym of Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith 1834) -- (Gilbert 1967:38 [ref. 21135], Gilbert 1973:33 [ref. 7164], Compagno 1984:545 [ref. 6846]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith 1834). Sphyrnidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lewini, Zygaena Griffith [E.] & Smith [C. H.] 1834:640, Pl. 50 [The class Pisces, arranged by the Baron Cuvier; ref. 1908] [South coast of New Holland] southern Australia. No types known. Name available from Pl. 50. Based on a drawing by Mr. Lewin. Misspelled leeuwenii by Rochebrune 1883:44 [ref. 18639]. •Valid as Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith 1834) -- (Gilbert 1967:37 [ref. 21135], Gilbert 1973:33 [ref. 7164], Kyushin et al. 1982:23 [ref. 19754], Quéro in Whitehead et al. 1984:123 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:545 [ref. 6846], Dor 1984:11 [ref. 29757], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:7 [ref. 6441], Nakaya in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:51, 300 [ref. 8057], Bass 1986:97 [ref. 5635], Robins & Ray 1986:30 [ref. 23100], Allen & Swainston 1988:24 [ref. 25477], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:224 [ref. 36138], Paxton et al. 1989:87 [ref. 12442], Springer 1990:109 [ref. 19320], Randall et al. 1990:23 [ref. 15987], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:28 [ref. 20764], Boschung 1992:24 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:186 [ref. 23827], Allen & Robertson 1994:25 [ref. 22193], Gomon et al. 1994:139 [ref. 22532], Last & Stevens 1994:272 [ref. 23873], Goren & Dor 1994:4 [ref. 25356], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:718 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:38 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:67 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:44 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:5 [ref. 26476], Cheng & Zhou 1997:35 [ref. 26385] with author as Griffith, Grove & Lavenberg 1997:96 [ref. 24023], Murdy et al. 1997:27 [ref. 23144], Larson & Williams 1997:343 [ref. 23967], Arruda 1997:19 [ref. 24952], Randall et al. 1997:23 [ref. 25919], De la Cruz-Agüero & Cota-Gómez 1998:356 [ref. 23520], Compagno 1998:1364 [ref. 23785], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:93 [ref. 23897], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:40 [ref. 24555], Myers 1999:36 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:24 [ref. 24106], Aguilera 1998:45 [ref. 24221], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:97 [ref. 24490], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:53 [ref. 24550], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:234 [ref. 24754], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:117 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:68 [ref. 25466], Johnson 1999:720 [ref. 25471], Compagno 1999:484 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:140 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:97 [ref. 25191], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:119 [ref. 25206], Thomson et al. 2000:282 [ref. 25640], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:184 [ref. 25703], Randall & Earle 2000:5 [ref. 25806], Shane 2001:162 [ref. 25756], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Soto 2001:65 [ref. 26637], Camargo & Isaac 2001:139 [ref. 27639] as Cuvier & Griffith & Smith 1834, Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:173 [ref. 26753], Nakabo 2002:140 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:56, 475 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:22 [ref. 26830], Collette et al. 2003:98 [ref. 26784], Compagno 2003:500 [ref. 26984], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27192], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:609 [ref. 27495], Smith et al. 2003:6 [ref. 27621], Randall et al. 2004:5 [ref. 27624], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:70 [ref. 27705], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:36 [ref. 27735], Nelson et al. 2004:54 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:68 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:16 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:92 [ref. 28379], Randall et al. 2005:131 [ref. 28745], Compagno et al. 2005:46 [ref. 29145], Vaske et al. 2005:78 [ref. 36155], Hoese et al. 2006:110 [ref. 29001], Wirtz et al. 2007:24 [ref. 30263], Randall 2007:37 [ref. 30952], Khalaf & Zajonz 2007:423 [ref. 31739], White 2008:73 [ref. 30617], Béarez & Séret 2009:145 [ref. 36646], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:187 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:69 [ref. 31256], Last el al. 2010:136 [ref. 32461], Fricke et al. 2011:346 [ref. 31242], Castro 2011:509 [ref. 31457], Moore et al. 2012:11 [ref. 31771], Weigmann 2012:8 [ref. 31968], Allen & Erdmann 2012:59 [ref. 31980], Yamashita et al. 2012:125 [ref. 32408], Naylor et al. 2012:32 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Fricke et al. 2013:250 [ref. 32706], Page et al. 2013:52 [ref. 32708], Quattro et al. 2013:159 [ref. 32875], Wirtz et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32972] needs confirmation, Larson et al. 2013:13 [ref. 32988], Ebert et al. 2013:333 [ref. 33045], Yoshida et al. 2013:11 [ref. 34464], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:20 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:2 [ref. 33516], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:88 [ref. 34104], Pinheiro et al. 2015:3 [ref. 34324], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:143 [ref. 34871], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:97 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:45 [ref. 34211], Compagno 2016:1331 [ref. 34544], Fourriére et al. 2016:440 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:605 [ref. 34923], Koeda et al. 2016:5 [ref. 35333], Nión et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35565], Kells et al. 2016:72 [ref. 35888], Ebert et al. 2017:56 [ref. 35618], White et al. 2017:186 [ref. 35860], Ali et al. 2018:302 [ref. 36183], Ehemann et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36194], Fricke et al. 2018:17 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:13 [ref. 36273], Kumar et al. 2018:297 [ref. 36178], Spier et al. 2018:4 [ref. 36103], Suresh et al. 2018:44 [ref. 36495], White & Ko'ou 2018:43 [ref. 35922], Ehemann et al. 2019:[4] [ref. 36861], Eagderi et al. 2019:8 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:42 [ref. 36673], González-Murcia et al. 2019:288 [ref. 36544], Zajonz et al. 2019:59 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith 1834). Sphyrnidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and warm temperate seas (including Caribbean Sea, Red Sea, Persian Gulf). Habitat: brackish, marine.

ligo, Sphyrna Fraser-Brunner [A.] 1950:214, Fig. 1 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 22 (no. 3); ref. 12952] Clarence River, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype: BMNH 1890.9.23.231 [ex Imperial Inst.] (embryo). •Synonym of Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell 1837) -- (Gilbert 1967:26 [ref. 21135], Compagno 1984:548 [ref. 6846], Paxton et al. 1989:87 [ref. 12442], Hoese et al. 2006:111 [ref. 29001]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell 1837). Sphyrnidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

malleus, Zygaena Valenciennes [A.] 1822:223, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Mémoires du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 9; ref. 17862] France; Brazil, southwestern Atlantic; Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Gilbert 1967:31 [ref. 21135], Gilbert 1973:32 [ref. 7164] as Cuvier 1816, Springer 1990:110 [ref. 19320], Soto 2001:66 [ref. 26637], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:15 [ref. 26753] with authorship as Cuvier 1817, Mundy 2005:93 [ref. 28379], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:9 [ref. 36649], Dyldin 2015:54 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus 1758). Sphyrnidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

media, Sphyrna Springer [S.] 1940:162, Fig. 3 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 1 (no. 5); ref. 10182] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Holotype: CAS-SU 11583. Paratypes: USNM 28160 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:9-10 [ref. 12291], Howe & Springer 1993:9 [ref. 21812]. •Valid as Sphyrna media Springer 1940 -- (Gilbert 1967:54 [ref. 21135], Compagno 1984:547 [ref. 6846], Cervigón 1992:186 [ref. 23827], Allen & Robertson 1994:25 [ref. 22193], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:719 [ref. 22829], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:40 [ref. 24555], Compagno 1999:484 [ref. 25589], Soto 2001:65, 83 [ref. 26637], Compagno 2003:501 [ref. 26984], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27192], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:71 [ref. 27705], Nelson et al. 2004:54 [ref. 27807], Castro 2011:514 [ref. 31457], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:99 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:45 [ref. 34211], Fourriére et al. 2016:453 [ref. 34668], Ehemann et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36194], Ehemann et al. 2019:[4] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Sphyrna media Springer 1940. Sphyrnidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic and eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

mokarran, Zygaena Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1837:66, Pl. 17 (fig. 3) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 3590 (stuffed). Type catalog and lectotype designation: Klausewitz 1960:293 [ref. 21330]. •Valid as Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell 1837) -- (Gilbert 1967:26 [ref. 21135], Quéro in Whitehead et al. 1984:124 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:548 [ref. 6846], Dor 1984:11 [ref. 29757], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:7 [ref. 6441], Bass 1986:97 [ref. 5635], Robins & Ray 1986:30 [ref. 23100], Allen & Swainston 1988:24 [ref. 25477], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:224 [ref. 36138], Paxton et al. 1989:87 [ref. 12442], Springer 1990:109 [ref. 19320], Randall et al. 1990:23 [ref. 15987], Boschung 1992:24 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:187 [ref. 23827], Baranes & Golani 1993:301 [ref. 22372], Allen & Robertson 1994:25 [ref. 22193], Last & Stevens 1994:274 [ref. 23873], Goren & Dor 1994:4 [ref. 25356], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:720 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:38 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:68 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:44 [ref. 23977], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:99 [ref. 24023] [but see McCosker 1998:809 [ref. 24025]], Compagno 1998:1365 [ref. 23785], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:94 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:45 [ref. 24221], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:40 [ref. 24555], Myers 1999:36 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:24 [ref. 24106], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:100 [ref. 24490], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:53 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:118 [ref. 25013], Johnson 1999:720 [ref. 25471], Compagno 1999:484 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:140 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:97 [ref. 25191], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:146 [ref. 27754], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Soto 2001:65, 85 [ref. 26637], Nakabo 2002:140 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:22 [ref. 26830], Compagno 2003:502 [ref. 26984], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27192], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S92 [ref. 27377], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:71 [ref. 27705], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:36 [ref. 27735], Nelson et al. 2004:54 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:68 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:16 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:93 [ref. 28379], Randall et al. 2005:131 [ref. 28745], Compagno et al. 2005:46 [ref. 29145], Hoese et al. 2006:111 [ref. 29001], Randall 2007:38 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:10 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:187 [ref. 30957], Last el al. 2010:138 [ref. 32461], Fricke et al. 2011:346 [ref. 31242], Castro 2011:516 [ref. 31457], Moore et al. 2012:11 [ref. 31771], Allen & Erdmann 2012:60 [ref. 31980], Naylor et al. 2012:33 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Fricke et al. 2013:250 [ref. 32706], Page et al. 2013:52 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32972], Larson et al. 2013:13 [ref. 32988], Ebert et al. 2013:340 [ref. 33045], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:20 [ref. 33341], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:88 [ref. 34104], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:99 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:45 [ref. 34211], Compagno 2016:1333 [ref. 34544], White et al. 2017:188 [ref. 35860], Ali et al. 2018:302 [ref. 36183], Ehemann et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36194], Fricke et al. 2018:17 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:13 [ref. 36273], Kumar et al. 2018:297 [ref. 36178], White & Ko'ou 2018:44 [ref. 35922], Ehemann et al. 2019:[4] [ref. 36861], Eagderi et al. 2019:8 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:42 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell 1837). Sphyrnidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical through warm temperate seas (including Caribbean Sea, Red Sea, Persian Gulf). Habitat: brackish, marine.

nana, Sphyrna Sadowsky [V.] 1965:6, Figs. 2, 7 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 15 (no. 1); ref. 9252] Off Cananéia, 25°S, 47°52'W, Brazil, depth 8 meters. Holotype: MZUSP [ex DZSASP] 4304. Type catalog: Britski 1969:201 [ref. 12401]. •Synonym of Sphyrna media Springer 1940 -- (Gilbert 1967:54 [ref. 21135], Compagno 1984:547 [ref. 6846], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:719 [ref. 22829], Soto 2001:66, 83 [ref. 26637], Compagno 2003:501 [ref. 26984], Castro 2011:514 [ref. 31457]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyrna media Springer 1940. Sphyrnidae. Habitat: marine.

oceanica, Cestracion Garman [S.] 1913:158 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 36; ref. 1545] Society Islands, French Polynesia, South Pacific. Syntypes: MCZ 460-S (3), USNM 153587 [ex MCZ 460] (1). Type catalog: Howe & Springer 1993:10 [ref. 21812], Hartel & Dingerkus 1997:xl [ref. 23119]. •Synonym of Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith 1834) -- (Gilbert 1967:38 [ref. 21135], Gilbert 1973:33 [ref. 7164], Dor 1984:11 [ref. 29757], Compagno 1984:545 [ref. 6846], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:54 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith 1834). Sphyrnidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

peruana, Zygaena Philippi [R. A.] 1887:545 [13], Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Anales de la Universidad de Chile Sec. 1, v. 71; ref. 3464] Peru. Holotype (unique): DBCUCH. On p. 13 of separate. Sphyrnidae. Habitat: marine.

pictus, Squalis (Cestrorhinus) Blainville [H. de] 1816:121 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris v. 8; ref. 306] Not available, name only. •In the synonymy of Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus 1758) or Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith 1834) -- (Gilbert 1973:33 [ref. 7164]). •In the synonymy of Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Compagno 1984:553 [ref. 6846]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus 1758). Sphyrnidae.

subarcuata, Zygaena Storer [D. H.] 1848:71 [Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History v. 3 (1848-1851); ref. 18844] Harbor at Provincetown, Massachusetts, U.S.A., Cape Cod Bay, western North Atlantic. Holotype (unique): MCZ. Non-types: ?MCZ 1416-S (1), 89507-08 (1, 1). •Synonym of Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Gilbert 1967:31 [ref. 21135], Gilbert 1973:32 [ref. 7164], Compagno 1984:553 [ref. 6846], Castro 2011:529 [ref. 31457], Dyldin 2015:54 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus 1758). Sphyrnidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tiburo, Squalus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:234 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] America. No types known. •Valid as Sphyrna tiburo (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Gilbert 1967:47 [ref. 21135], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:43 [ref. 9277], Uyeno & Miyake in Uyeno et al. 1983:59 [ref. 14275], Compagno 1984:550 [ref. 6846], Robins & Ray 1986:31 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:24 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:187 [ref. 23827], Allen & Robertson 1994:25 [ref. 22193], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:721 [ref. 22829], Murdy et al. 1997:26 [ref. 23144], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:95 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:45 [ref. 24221], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:40 [ref. 24555], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:103 [ref. 24490], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:52 [ref. 24550], Compagno 1999:484 [ref. 25589], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:146 [ref. 27754], Soto 2001:65, 84 [ref. 26637], Camargo & Isaac 2001:139 [ref. 27639], Branstetter in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:45 [ref. 26158], Compagno 2003:503 [ref. 26984], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27192], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:72 [ref. 27705], Compagno et al. 2005:47 [ref. 29145], Nelson et al. 2004:54 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:187 [ref. 30957], Castro 2011:521 [ref. 31457], Naylor et al. 2012:32 [ref. 34345] see remarks, Page et al. 2013:52 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:99 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:45 [ref. 34211], Fourriére et al. 2016:453 [ref. 34668], Kells et al. 2016:72 [ref. 35888], Ebert et al. 2017:56 [ref. 35618], Spier et al. 2018:4 [ref. 36103], Ehemann et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36194], Ehemann et al. 2019:[4] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Sphyrna tiburo (Linnaeus 1758). Sphyrnidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic and eastern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tudes, Zygaena Valenciennes [A.] 1822:225, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Mémoires du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 9; ref. 17862] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Lectotype: MNHN A-1049. Paralectotypes: MNHN A-1019 (1) Cayenne, MNHN (1, lost) Coromandel. Type catalog: Bertin 1939:74 [ref. 20739]. Lectotype selected by Gilbert 1967:65 [ref. 21135]. •Valid as Sphyrna tudes (Valenciennes 1822) -- (Gilbert 1967:64 [ref. 21135], Gilbert 1973:33 [ref. 7164], Uyeno & Miyake in Uyeno et al. 1983:60 [ref. 14275], Quéro in Whitehead et al. 1984:124 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:551 [ref. 6846], Robins & Ray 1986:31 [ref. 23100], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:224 [ref. 36138], Springer 1990:110 [ref. 19320], Cervigón 1992:188 [ref. 23827], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:96 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:45 [ref. 24221], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:105 [ref. 24490], Compagno 1999:484 [ref. 25589], Soto 2001:65, 83 [ref. 26637], Camargo & Isaac 2001:139 [ref. 27639], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:15 [ref. 26753], López et al. 2002:62 [ref. 26808], Compagno 2003:504 [ref. 26984], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27192], Fricke et al. 2007:14 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:9 [ref. 36649], Castro 2011:525 [ref. 31457], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:97 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:45 [ref. 34211], Nión et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35565], Ali et al. 2018:303 [ref. 36183], Kumar et al. 2018:297 [ref. 36178], Ehemann et al. 2019:[4] [ref. 36861]). Current status: Valid as Sphyrna tudes (Valenciennes 1822). Sphyrnidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic and eastern Pacific; Mediterranean Sea. Habitat: marine.

vespertina, Sphyrna Springer [S.] 1940:161, Fig. 2 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 1 (no. 5); ref. 10182] Panama City, (Pacific) Panama. Holotype: CAS-SU 11584. Paratypes: CM 5675 (1); CAS-SU 11881 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:10 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Sphyrna tiburo (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Gilbert 1967:53 [ref. 21135], Compagno 1984:550 [ref. 6846], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:721 [ref. 22829], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:40 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:52 [ref. 24550], Compagno 2003:503 [ref. 26984], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:73 [ref. 27705], Castro 2011:521 [ref. 31457]). •Valid as Sphyrna vespertina Springer 1940 -- (Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:100 [ref. 34398], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:605 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Sphyrna vespertina Springer 1940. Sphyrnidae. Distribution: Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

voracissima, Zyganna Billberg [G. J.] 1833:51 [Linnéska Samfundets Handlingar v. 1 (for 1832); ref. 34146] Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic [original: "Europa, America"]. No types known. Syntypes: NRM 88 (1). Unnecessary replacement name for "Zygaena Linn." (is Squalus zygaena Linnaeus 1758); see Kullander 2016:113 [ref. 34147]. •Synonym of Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kullander 2016:113 [ref. 34147]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus 1758). Sphyrnidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vulgaris, Zygaena Cloquet [H.] 1830:621 (v. 60) [Dictionnaire des sciences Naturelles; ref. 852] Mediterranean Sea, Arabian Sea, and Red Sea. whereabouts unknown. Based on Squalus zygaena Linnaeus 1758, probably to avoid strickland tautonymy. •Synonym of Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Gilbert 1973:32 [ref. 7164], Compagno 1984:553 [ref. 6846], Dyldin 2015:54 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus 1758). Sphyrnidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

zygaena, Squalus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:234 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic [original: "Europa, America"]; localities include Spain; Marseille, France; Rome, Italy; Lesbos Island, Greece; Syria, Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: NRM 88 (1). Type catalog: Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:208 [ref. 20707]. Originally based on multiple species and at least 24 pre-Linnaean sources including Artedi 1738:68 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:96 [ref. 30349] as Squalus capite latissimo transverso mallei instar; Rondelet 1554:389 [ref. 30354] as Zygæna, Salviani 1558:128 [ref. 30229] as Libella, Willughby 1686:55 [ref. 30164] and Ray 1713:20 [ref. 30231] as Zygæna. Spelled zygena by Bonnaterre 1788:9 [ref. 4940], and zigoena by Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817:11 [ref. 17319], see Graells 1887:185 [ref. 30438]. Spelled zygoena by Chevey 1932:6 [ref. 23060] as Cestracion. Name spelled Squalus zigaena by Sonnini 1803:74 [ref. 30464] and Berthelot 1840:115 [ref. 30346]. •Valid as Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Gilbert 1967:31 [ref. 21135], Gilbert 1973:32 [ref. 7164], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:43 [ref. 9277], Quéro in Whitehead et al. 1984:125 [ref. 13675], Compagno 1984:553 [ref. 6846], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:7 [ref. 6441], Bass 1986:97 [ref. 5635], Robins & Ray 1986:30 [ref. 23100], Allen & Swainston 1988:24 [ref. 25477], Scott & Scott 1988:29 [ref. 25518], Gubanov & Timoxin 1989:224 [ref. 36138], Paulin et al. 1989:26 [ref. 24556], Paxton et al. 1989:87 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:13 [ref. 14125], McAllister 1990:32 [ref. 14674], Springer 1990:110 [ref. 19320], Cervigón 1992:188 [ref. 23827], Francis 1993:157 [ref. 25479], Francis & Randall 1993:128 [ref. 20996], Kuiter 1993:11 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:140 [ref. 22532], Last & Stevens 1994:275 [ref. 23873], Compagno et al. in Fischer et al. 1995:722 [ref. 22829], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:69 [ref. 27969], Murdy et al. 1997:28 [ref. 23144], Santos et al. 1997:9 [ref. 23531], Allen 1997:44 [ref. 23977], Cheng & Zhou 1997:35 [ref. 26385], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:100 [ref. 24023], Arruda 1997:19 [ref. 24952], Compagno 1998:1366 [ref. 23785], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:39 [ref. 24555], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:7 [ref. 24670], Fricke 1999:25 [ref. 24106], Morón et al. 1999:148 [ref. 24253], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:118 [ref. 25013], Capapé et al. 1999:50 [ref. 25276], Compagno 1999:484 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:140 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:580 [ref. 25122], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:119 [ref. 25206], Hutchins 2001:14 [ref. 25847], Wang et al. 2001:34 [ref. 26566], Soto 2001:65, 85 [ref. 26637], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:15 [ref. 26753], Branstetter in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:46 [ref. 26158], Nakabo 2002:140 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:56, 475 [ref. 26218], López et al. 2002:62 [ref. 26808], Compagno 2003:505 [ref. 26984], Gadig & Gomes in Menezes et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27192], Espinosa Pérez et al. 2004:73 [ref. 27705], Nelson et al. 2004:54 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:68 [ref. 28072], Mundy 2005:93 [ref. 28379], Compagno et al. 2005:46 [ref. 29145], Hoese et al. 2006:111 [ref. 29001], Fricke et al. 2007:15 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:16 [ref. 30517], Randall 2007:39 [ref. 30952], White 2008:74 [ref. 30617], George 2009:55 [ref. 30539], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:9 [ref. 36649], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:187 [ref. 30957], Castro 2011:529 [ref. 31457], Yamashita et al. 2012:125 [ref. 32408], Naylor et al. 2012:33 [ref. 34345], Page et al. 2013:52 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32972], Ebert et al. 2013:340 [ref. 33045], Parin et al. 2014:24 [ref. 33547], Duffy 2015:108 [ref. 34217], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:107 [ref. 36167], Dyldin 2015:54 [ref. 34524], Pinheiro et al. 2015:4 [ref. 34324], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:100 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:45 [ref. 34211], Compagno 2016:1335 [ref. 34544], Fourriére et al. 2016:453 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:605 [ref. 34923], Nión et al. 2016:20 [ref. 35565], Kells et al. 2016:72 [ref. 35888], Ebert et al. 2017:57 [ref. 35618], White et al. 2017:190 [ref. 35860], Ali et al. 2018:303 [ref. 36183], Dyldin & Orlov 2018:165 [ref. 35920], Ehemann et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36194], Fricke et al. 2018:18 [ref. 35805], Kumar et al. 2018:297 [ref. 36178], Spier et al. 2018:4 [ref. 36103], White & Ko'ou 2018:44 [ref. 35922], Ehemann et al. 2019:[4] [ref. 36861], Eagderi et al. 2019:8 [ref. 37020], Hoschke et al. 2019:153[ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus 1758). Sphyrnidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in warm temperate seas, occasionally in tropical seas (including Caribbean Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Persian Gulf). Habitat: brackish, marine.