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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the genus Sargocentron: [ 74 ] records


alboruber, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:333, 372 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] China. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:35 [ref. 20740]. Originally albo-ruber. Based on a figure and manuscript. •Synonym of Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1998:65 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

andamanense, Holocentrum Day [F.] 1871:686 [10] [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1870 (pt 3); ref. 1078] Port Blair, Andaman Islands. Holotype (unique): ZSI F1003. Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:158 [ref. 23762]. On p. 10 of separate. Original genus should have been spelled Holocentrus. •Synonym of Sargocentron caudimaculatum (Rüppell 1838) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:7 [ref. 5144], Randall 1995:95 [ref. 22896], Randall 1998:14 [ref. 23300], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2249 [ref. 24790], Randall 2005:93 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron caudimaculatum (Rüppell 1838). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

ataja, Holacanthus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:526, 530 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Off Customs dock, Port Sudan harbor, Sudan, Red Sea, 3–4 m Neotype: BPBM 28183. Unneeded replacement name for Sciaena rubra Forsskål 1775. Neotype (same as for Sciaena rubra Forsskål 1775) selected by Randall & Heemstra 1985:17 [ref. 5144]. •Synonym of Sargocentrum rubrum (Forsskål 1775) -- (Fricke 2008:24 [ref. 30182]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae. Habitat: marine.

aureoruber, Holocenthrus Fowler [H. W.] 1904:504, Pl. 10 (upper fig.) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 12 (pt 4); ref. 1367] Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 27472. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:113 [ref. 13621]. Genus should have been spelled Holocentrus. •Synonym of Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:16 [ref. 5144], Randall 1998:65 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

binotatum, Holocentrum Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1834:679, Pl. 14 (fig. 4) [Voyage de découvertes de "l'Astrolabe" Zoologie, v. 3 (Pt 2); ref. 3573] New Guinea; Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Syntypes: MNHN A-2636 (1) Guam. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:14 [ref. 20740]. •Synonym of Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:19 [ref. 5144], Randall 1998:74 [ref. 23300], Myers & Donaldson 2003:617 [ref. 27495]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

bleekeri, Holocentrum Weber [M.] 1913:181 [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Karkaralong Island, Siboga station 129; Banda Island, Siboga station 240 [Indonesia]. Syntypes: (2) whereabouts unknown. Based on Holocentrum argenteum of Bleeker (not of Valenciennes); based on literature and on specimens. •Synonym of Sargocentron microstoma (Günther 1859) -- (Randall 1998:54 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron microstoma (Günther 1859). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

borodinoensis, Sargocentron Kotlyar [A. N.] 2017:33, Figs. 1, 2a [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 57 (no. 1); ref. 35137] Philippine Sea, Borodino submarine elevation, depth 100-190 meters. Holotype (unique): ZIN 56055. •Valid as Sargocentron borodinoensis Kotlyar 2017. Current status: Valid as Sargocentron borodinoensis Kotlyar 2017. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Philippine Sea. Habitat: marine.

bowiei, Holocentrus Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1905:353, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 29 (no. 1422); ref. 10653] Tahiti, Society Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 53044. •Synonym of Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1998:75 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

bullisi, Holocentrus Woods [L. P.] 1955:113, Fig. 18 [Fieldiana Zoology v. 37 (no. 4); ref. 12538] Campeche Banks, Oregon station 222, 22°32'N, 88°47'W, Yucatán, Mexico, depth 29 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 164980 [ex FMNH 46912]. Paratypes: FMNH 46193 (1), 47921 (9), 48730 (1), 59868-71 (1, 3, 9, 1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:47 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Holocentrus bullisi Woods 1955 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:114 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:247 [ref. 24472], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1015 [ref. 23897]). •Valid as Adioryx bullisi (Woods 1955) -- (Boschung 1992:91 [ref. 23239], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:70 [ref. 27192]). •Valid as Sargocentron bullisi (Woods 1955) -- (Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:272 [ref. 14275], Andreata & Séret 1996:584 [ref. 16204], Kotlyar 1996:83 [ref. 23292], Kotlyar 1998:200 [ref. 24674], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:185 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:155 [ref. 27754], Greenfield 2003:1201 [ref. 27041], Nelson et al. 2004:110 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:112 [ref. 32708], Pinheiro et al. 2015:10 [ref. 34324]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron bullisi (Woods 1955). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

caudimaculatus, Holocentrus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1838:97, 103 [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 1335. Paralectotypes: NMW 78546 (1); SMF 2932 (1, dry), 3077 (1, dry), 7901 (1). Lectotype established by Dor 1984:19 [ref. 29757] if not designated earlier. •Valid as Adioryx caudimaculatus (Rüppell 1838) -- (Dor 1984:70 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Sargocentron caudimaculatum (Rüppell 1838) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:111 [ref. 6441], Randall & Heemstra 1985:5 [ref. 5144], Randall & Heemstra 1986:418 [ref. 5707], Paxton et al. 1989:380 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:17 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:65 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:18 [ref. 25356] as caudimaculatus, Randall 1995:95 [ref. 22896], Kotlyar 1996:84 [ref. 23292], Allen 1997:68 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:30 [ref. 26476] as caudimaculatus dated 1835, Kuiter 1997:62 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:65 [ref. 25919], Randall 1998:14 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:200 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:84 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:135 [ref. 24106], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2249 [ref. 24790], Allen 2000:85 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:488 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:601 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:145 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:9 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:96 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:488 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:617 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:31 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:9 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:135 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:93 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:310 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:782 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2009:34 [ref. 30213], Satapoomin 2009:53 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2010:83 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:373 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:174 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:252 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:73 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:42 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:86 [ref. 34690], Fricke et al. 2018:115 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:46 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:85 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:67 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:353 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron caudimaculatum (Rüppell 1838). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan and Minami Tori Shima, south to Western Australia at 17°30'S, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

cornutum, Holocentrum Bleeker [P.] 1854:240 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 16901] Ceram or Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Lectotype: BMNH 1880.4.21.21. Paralectotypes: (3) RMNH 5433 (none in size range). Lectotype selected by Randall 1998:17 [ref. 23300]. •Valid as Sargocentron cornutum (Bleeker 1854) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:112 [ref. 6441], Randall et al. 1990:65 [ref. 15987], Kotlyar 1996:84 [ref. 23292], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:190 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:68 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:60 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:65 [ref. 25919], Randall 1998:17 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:201 [ref. 24674], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2235 [ref. 24790], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:601 [ref. 25122], Allen 2000:96 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:32 [ref. 27510], Randall 2005:96 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:782 [ref. 29066], Satapoomin 2009:53 [ref. 30463], Fricke et al. 2011:373 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:174 [ref. 31980], Kottelat 2013:301 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:42 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2019:85 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron cornutum (Bleeker 1854). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean and Western Pacific: Andaman Sea and Indonesia east to New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) and Vanuatu, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

coruscum, Holocentrum Poey [F.] 1860:158 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. No types known. Type catalog: Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35195]. •Valid as Holocentrus coruscus Poey 1860 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:114 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:245 [ref. 24472], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1016 [ref. 23897]). •Valid as Neoniphon coruscum (Poey 1860) -- (Robertson et al. 2020:156 [ref. 38098]). •Valid as Sargocentron coruscum (Poey 1860) -- (Kotlyar 1996:84 [ref. 23292], Kotlyar 1998:200 [ref. 24674], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:185 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:155 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:104 [ref. 26784], Greenfield 2003:1201 [ref. 27041], Smith et al. 2003:17 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:110 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:112 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:34 [ref. 33341], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35195]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron coruscum (Poey 1860). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.) south to Venezuela, including Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

diadema, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1802:335, 372 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality [probably South Seas]. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:35 [ref. 20740]. Based on Commerson manuscript and drawing. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:137 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Figured on Pl. 32 (fig. 3) of Lacepède 1801 [ref. 2710], but with vernacular name. •Valid as Adioryx diadema (Lacepède 1802) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:54 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:70 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Sargocentron diadema (Lacepède 1802) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:112 [ref. 6441], Randall & Heemstra 1985:7 [ref. 5144], Randall & Heemstra 1986:418 [ref. 5707], Allen & Swainston 1988:42 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:380 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:17 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:65 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:75 [ref. 23929], Goren & Dor 1994:18 [ref. 25356], Kotlyar 1996:84 [ref. 23292], Allen 1997:66 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:30 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:60 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:65 [ref. 25919], Randall 1998:21 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:201 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:84 [ref. 23965], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2235 [ref. 24790], Johnson 1999:725 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:9 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:85 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:490 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:601 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:145 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:9 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:96 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:490 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:617 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:32 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:9 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:136 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:94 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:310 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:782 [ref. 29066], Randall 2007:152 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:35 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:83 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:373 [ref. 31242], Hubert et al. 2012:5 [ref. 31846], Allen & Erdmann 2012:174 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:252 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:42 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:87 [ref. 34690], Koeda et al. 2016:17 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:115 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:46 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:18 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:85 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:67 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:353 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron diadema (Lacepède 1802). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to Ryukyu Islands and Ogasawara islands, south to Western Australia, Elizabeth and Middleton Reefs, New Caledonia and Austral Islands. Habitat: marine.

dimidicauda, Holocentrum Marshall [T. C.] 1953:49, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Ichthyological Notes, Department of Harbours and Marine, Queensland No. 2; ref. 12701] Caloundra, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): DHMB 174 [? now at QM]. •Synonym of Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål 1775) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:381 [ref. 12442], Randall 1998:65 [ref. 23300], Allen et al. 2006:784 [ref. 29066]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

diploxiphus, Holocentrum Günther [A.] 1872:660, Pl. 60 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1871 (pt 3) (art. 1) (for 21 Nov. 1871); ref. 1997] Savai'i Island, Samoa. Syntypes: BMNH 1871.9.13.123 (1), 1871.9.13.214 (1). •Synonym of Sargocentron punctatissimum (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall 1998:61 [ref. 23300], Mundy 2005:312 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron punctatissimum (Cuvier 1829). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

dorsomaculatus, Adioryx Shimizu [T.] & Yamakawa [T.] 1979:119, Figs. 3C, 4A, 5A, 9 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 26 (no. 2); ref. 8788] Ishigaki Island, Yaeyama Islands, southern Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype: HUMZ 41396. Paratypes: BMNH 1979.5.24.1 (1); BSKU 50001-02 (1, 1); HUMZ 40256 (1), 62846 (1); USNM 219673 (1); ZUMT 54050 (1). •Valid as Sargocentron dorsomaculatum (Shimizu & Yamakawa 1979) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:111 [ref. 6441], Kotlyar 1996:84 [ref. 23292], Randall 1998:24 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:201 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:84 [ref. 23965], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2235 [ref. 24790], Nakabo 2000:488 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:488 [ref. 26001], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:88 [ref. 34690]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron dorsomaculatum (Shimizu & Yamakawa 1979). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Ryukyu Islands, Palau Islands and Caroline Islands. Habitat: marine.

elongatum, Holocentrum Bliss [R.] (ex Steindachner) 1883:52 [Transactions of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius (N. S.) v. 13; ref. 16966] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MCZ 5673 (1), 5925 (2); USNM 153565 [ex MCZ 5925] (1). •Synonym of Sargocentron tiere (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:20 [ref. 5144], Randall 1998:81 [ref. 23300], Fricke 1999:141 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron tiere (Cuvier 1829). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

ensifer, Holocentrus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:176 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50637. Paratypes: AMNH 2287 (1), ANSP 24216 (1); BPBM 1693 (1); FMNH 3952 (1); CAS [ex IU 9806] (1, missing); MCZ 28895 (1); CAS-SU 7458 (1); USNM 126155 [ex USFC 2708] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:63 [ref. 12291], Böhlke 1984:113 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:47 [ref. 12367]. The name ensifer can be a gerund (noun in apposition) or an adjective (C. R. Robins, pers. Comm.), so we suggest using ensifer since Jordan & Evermann use ensifer while in the masculine genus Holocentrus. •Valid as Sargocentron ensiferum (Jordan & Evermann 1903) -- (Randall 1998:26 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:201 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:84 [ref. 23965], Nakabo 2000:487 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:487 [ref. 26001], Myers & Donaldson 2003:617 [ref. 27495], Koeda et al. 2016:17 [ref. 35333]). •Valid as Sargocentron ensifer (Jordan & Evermann 1903) -- (Randall & Greenfield 1999:2235 [ref. 24790], Randall 1999:9 [ref. 25829], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:601 [ref. 25122], andall 2005:94 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:311 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:152 [ref. 30952], Shao et al. 2008:245[ref. 29952], Fricke et al. 2011:373 [ref. 31242], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:89 [ref. 34690]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron ensifer (Jordan & Evermann 1903). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific, antiequatorial: South China Sea, Ryukyu Islands and southern Japan, Hawaiian Islands; New Caledonia, Pitcairn Group. Habitat: marine.

erythraeum, Holocentrum Günther [A.] 1859:32 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] San Cristobal Island, Solomon Islands. Syntypes: BMNH 1852.9.13.120 (1), 1855.11.7.45 (1, stuffed). Also listed was Plate V, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." •Synonym of Sargocentron tiere (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall 1998:81 [ref. 23300], Mundy 2005:313 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron tiere (Cuvier 1829). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

gladispinis, Holocenthrus Fowler [H. W.] 1904:225, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 56; ref. 1365] Tahiti, Society Islands. Holotype (unique): ANSP 14140. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:113 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Sargocentron punctatissimum (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall 1998:61 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron punctatissimum (Cuvier 1829). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

gracilispinis, Holocenthrus Fowler [H. W.] 1904:228, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 56; ref. 1365] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: ANSP 27271. Paratypes: ANSP 17124 (1) and 17126 (1) [dry skins, both missing]. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:113 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Sargocentron punctatissimum (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall 1998:61 [ref. 23300], Mundy 2005:312 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron punctatissimum (Cuvier 1829). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

hastatum, Holocentrum Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:208, Pl. 59 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] West Africa. Lectotype: MNHN A-2672. Paralectotypes: MNHN A-2667 to 2668 (1, 1). Appeared first as name only in Cuvier 1829:150 [ref. 995]. Lectotype figured in Duhamel, Pêches, II, p. 208, Pl. 5 (fig. 2) according to Bauchot 1970:14 [ref. 20740] (not researched). •Valid as Holocentrus hastatus Cuvier 1829 -- (Nielsen 1973:342 [ref. 6885]). •Valid as Adioryx hastatus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Ben-Tuvia 1990:627 [ref. 17305]). •Valid as Sargocentron hastatum (Cuvier 1829) -- (Ben-Tuvia in Whitehead et al. 1986:754 [ref. 13676] as hastatus, Anato et al. 1991:292 [ref. 20017], Kotlyar 1996:84 [ref. 23292], Kotlyar 1998:200 [ref. 24674], Afonso et al. 1999:70 [ref. 25466], Wilk et al. 2005:86 [ref. 28205], Wirtz et al. 2007:28 [ref. 30263], Wirtz et al. 2013:121 [ref. 32972], Greenfield 2016:2200 [ref. 34606], Carneiro et al. 2019:156 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron hastatum (Cuvier 1829). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

holocentrus, Perca Forster [J. R.] in Lichtenstein 1844:191 [Descriptiones animalium quae in itinere ad Maris Australis; ref. 17531] Otahaitee [= Tahiti, Society Islands]. No types known. Preoccupied by Perca holocentrus Euphrasen 1795. Forster in Lichtentsein described four different varieties and mentioned more, which represent different species; one variety was attributed by Lichtenstein (editor, p. 191, footnote) "Holocentrum tiere Cuv. Val.? II. p. 151". •Synonym of Sargocentron tiere (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall 1998:81 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron tiere (Cuvier 1829). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

hormion, Sargocentron Randall [J. E.] 1998:29, Pl. 2c; Fig. 10 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 27; ref. 23300] Off West Harbor, Pitcairn Island, depth 12-15 meters. Holotype: BPBM 16664. Paratypes: AMS I.38144-001 (1); ANSP 83964 [ex BPBM 1972] (1); AMNH 72751-52 (1, 1); BMNH 1997.8.28.15 (1); BPBM 1972 (1), 12861 (1), 16635 (2), 16785 (2), 17250 (1); CAS 96182 (1); MNHN 1997-3320 (1); NSMT P53955 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 55264 (1); USNM 345846 (1). •Valid as Sargocentron hormion Randall 1998 -- (Randall & Greenfield 1999:2235 [ref. 24790], Randall 1999:9 [ref. 25829], Randall 2005:94 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron hormion Randall 1998. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Central Pacific. Habitat: marine.

inaequalis, Sargocentron Randall [J. E.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 1985:8, Pl. 1 (fig. G); Figs. 6, 7d [Ichthyological Bulletin of the J. L. B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology No. 49; ref. 5144] North of Isle Diabole, Solomon Islands, Chagos Archipelago [Indian Ocean]. Holotype: ROM 40371. Paratypes: BPBM 29392 (2); CAS 35031 (1), 35471 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 19250-51 (1, 1). •Valid as Sargocentron inaequalis Randall & Heemstra 1985 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1986:419 [ref. 5707], Winterbottom et al. 1989:17 [ref. 13251], Kotlyar 1996:84 [ref. 23292], Randall 1998:34 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:201 [ref. 24674], Fricke 1999:137 [ref. 24106], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2235 [ref. 24790], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Fricke et al. 2009:35 [ref. 30213]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron inaequalis Randall & Heemstra 1985. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Comoro Islands, Seychelles, Réunion (western Mascarenes), Chagos Archipelago, west coast of India, Line Islands (Kiribati); probably more widespread. Habitat: marine.

iota, Sargocentron Randall [J. E.] 1998:36, Pl. 3 (fig. B); Fig. 13 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 27; ref. 23300] Off Kahe Point Beach Park, Oahu, Hawaiian Island, depth 11 meters. Holotype: BPBM 11988. Paratypes: AMS I.24149-001 (1); BMNH 1983.12.24.1 (1); BPBM 9569 (1), 31121 (1), 33615 (1); CAS 95801 (3); NSMT-P 53813 (2); ROM 65622 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 55265 (1); USNM 257193 (1), 258854 (2), 288236 (1). •Valid as Sargocentron iota Randall 1998 -- (Myers 1999:84 [ref. 23965], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2235 [ref. 24790], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:9 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:95 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:311 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:152 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2011:373 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:175 [ref. 31980], Hagiwara & Motomura 2019:2 [ref. 36848]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron iota Randall 1998. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western and central Pacific: Christmas Island and Indonesia east to Hawaiian Islands, north to Amami Islands (Japan), south to New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

ittodai, Holocentrus Jordan [D. S.] & Fowler [H. W.] 1902:16, Fig. 4 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 26 (no. 1306); ref. 12309] Naha, Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 7746. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:63 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Adioryx ittodai (Jordan & Fowler 1902) -- (Allen & Cross 1983:7 [ref. 8381]). •Valid as Sargocentron ittodai (Jordan & Fowler 1902) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:112 [ref. 6441], Randall & Heemstra 1985:10 [ref. 5144], Randall & Heemstra 1986:419 [ref. 5707], Paxton et al. 1989:380 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:66 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:76 [ref. 23929], Goren & Dor 1994:18 [ref. 25356] as ittadai, Kotlyar 1996:84 [ref. 23292], Allen 1997:68 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:66 [ref. 25919], Randall 1998:40 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:201 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:84 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:137 [ref. 24106], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2235 [ref. 24790], Nakabo 2000:490 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:601 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:9 [ref. 25806], Nakabo 2002:490 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830] with authors as Jordan and Evermann, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:136 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:95 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:783 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2009:35 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:84 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:175 [ref. 31980], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:90 [ref. 34690], Koeda et al. 2016:17 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:2 [ref. 35354], Kotlyar 2017:34 [ref. 35137], Golani & Fricke 2018:46 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron ittodai (Jordan & Fowler 1902). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), Seychelles, Comoro Islands, Christmas Island, and western Mascarenes east to Marquesas Islands, north to Japan and south to New South Wales (Australia). Habitat: marine.

lacteoguttatum, Holocentrum Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:214 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Indian seas. Lectotype: MNHN A-2634. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-2530 [ex MNHN A-2634] (1). Type catalog: Klausewitz & Bauchot 1967:121-122, Fig. 1 [ref. 20909], Bauchot 1970:15 [ref. 20740]. Originally as lacteo-guttatum. Lectotype established in Klausewitz & Bauchot 1967:122, fig. 1 on p. 123 [ref. 20909]. •Valid as Adioryx lacteoguttatus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Dor 1984:70 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Sargocentron lacteoguttatum (Cuvier 1829) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:112 [ref. 6441]). •Synonym of Sargocentron punctatissimum (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:15 [ref. 5144], Randall & Heemstra 1986:420 [ref. 5707], Randall et al. 1990:67 [ref. 15987], Randall 1998:60 [ref. 23300], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:601 [ref. 25122], Mundy 2005:312 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:153 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2018:116 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:46 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron punctatissimum (Cuvier 1829). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

laticeps, Holocentrum Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:211 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] No Locality. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:35 [ref. 20740]. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

leo, Holocentrum Cuvier [G.] 1829:150 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Bora Bora, Society Islands. Neotype: MNHN 0000-9523. Non-types: MNHN 0000-9526 (1) Seychelles. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:15 [ref. 20740]. Available from footnote 2 for account of Holocentrum as "Hol. leo, Nob., Ren., I, xxvii, 148, très mauv. fig.", in reference to Renard plate. See also Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:204 [ref. 4879]. Lectotype designation [incorrect]: Bauchot 1970:15 [ref. 20740], based on description in ref. 4879. Neotype designated by Randall 1998:76 [ref. 23300]. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:141 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Synonym of Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1998:74 [ref. 23300], Fricke 1999:140 [ref. 24106], Mundy 2005:313 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:784 [ref. 29066]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

leonoides, Holocentrum Bleeker [P.] 1849:71 [Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia (Singapore) v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 316] Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. No types known. •Synonym of Sargocentron caudimaculatum (Rüppell 1838) -- (Randall 1998:14 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron caudimaculatum (Rüppell 1838). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

lepros, Adioryx Allen [G. R.] & Cross [N. J.] 1983:5, Fig. 1 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 8381] Off Smith Point, Christmas Island, Indian Ocean, depth 30-35 meters. Holotype: WAM P.26089-001. Paratypes: BMNH 1982.7.2.1 (1); MNHN 1982-1013 (1); USNM 233061 (1); WAM P.26106-010 (1), P.27663-004 (1) [from addenda, p. 8]. Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:15 and errata sheet [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:16 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Sargocentron lepros (Allen & Cross 1983) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:380 [ref. 12442], Kotlyar 1996:84 [ref. 23292], Allen 1997:68 [ref. 23977], Randall 1998:42 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:202 [ref. 24674], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2235 [ref. 24790], Randall 1999:9 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:85 [ref. 37268], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Randall 2005:95 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:783 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2011:373 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:175 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:43 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron lepros (Allen & Cross 1983). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Cocos-Keeling and Christmas Island east to Samoa and Pitcairn Group, south to Chesterfield Islands (New Caledonia). Habitat: marine.

macrosquamis, Sargocentron Golani [D.] 1984:40, Figs. 1-2 [Cybium v. 8 (no. 2); ref. 8224] Eastern end of D'Arros Island, Amirante Islands, Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: FMNH 86961. Paratypes: TAU [= SMNHTAU] 7830 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:77 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Sargocentron macrosquamis Golani 1984 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:11 [ref. 5144], Randall & Heemstra 1986:419 [ref. 5707], Winterbottom et al. 1989:18 [ref. 13251], Goren & Dor 1994:18 [ref. 25356], Kotlyar 1996:85 [ref. 23292], Randall 1998:45 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:202 [ref. 24674], Fricke 1999:137 [ref. 24106], Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Fricke et al. 2018:116 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:46 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron macrosquamis Golani 1984. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and eastern Mascarenes east to Maldives and Chagos Archipelago. Habitat: marine.

marginatum, Holocentrum Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:216 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Indian seas. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-4047. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:16 [ref. 20740], Bauchot & Daget 1996:241 [ref. 22899]. •Synonym of Holocentrus ruber (Forsskål 1775) -- (authors). •Synonym of Sargocentron praslin (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:14 [ref. 5144], Randall 1998:58 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron praslin (Lacepède 1802). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

marisrubri, Sargocentron Randall [J. E.], Golani [D.] & Diamant [A.] 1989:189, Figs. 1A, 2-4 [Israel Journal of Zoology v. 35; ref. 14254] Fringing reef, about 1 mile north of Port Sudan Harbor, Sudan, Red Sea, depth 49 meters. Holotype: BPBM 19761. Paratypes: BMNH 1987.6.1.19 (1); BPBM 31051 (1); CAS 60392 (1); HUJ 11637 (1), 11732 (2); USNM 287467 (1). Type catalog: Golani 2006:24 [ref. 28840]. •Valid as Sargocentron marisrubri Randall, Golani & Diamant 1989 -- (Goren & Dor 1994:18 [ref. 25356], Randall 1998:46 [ref. 23300], Khalaf & Zajonz 2007:424 [ref. 31739], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:63 [ref. 35264], DiBattista et al. 2015:19 [ref. 35706], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[4] 242 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:46 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron marisrubri Randall, Golani & Diamant 1989. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

megalops, Sargocentron Randall [J. E.] 1998:48, Fig. 19 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 27; ref. 23300] 3/4 miles south of northwestern corner of Henderson Island, Pitcairn Group. Holotype (unique): BPBM 17111. •Valid as Sargocentron megalops Randall 1998 -- (Randall & Greenfield 1999:2235 [ref. 24790], Randall 1999:9 [ref. 25829], Randall 2005:96 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron megalops Randall 1998. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Pitcairn Islands. Habitat: marine.

melanopterus, Holocentrum Bleeker [P.] 1855:302 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 9 (no. 2); ref. 16847] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 29396. Paralectotypes: (1). Lectotype selected by Randall & Heemstra 1985:19 [ref. 5144]. •Synonym of Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:19 [ref. 5144], Randall 1998:74 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

melanospilos, Holocentrum Bleeker [P.] 1858:2 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 3 (art. 14); ref. 13958] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5437. Later spelled melanospilus by Bleeker. •Valid as Sargocentron melanospilos (Bleeker 1858) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:12 [ref. 5144], Randall & Heemstra 1986:420 [ref. 5707], Randall et al. 1989 [ref. 14254], Paxton et al. 1989:380 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:66 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:18 [ref. 25356], Kotlyar 1996:85 [ref. 23292], Allen 1997:68 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:66 [ref. 25919], Randall 1998:51 [ref. 23300], Anderson et al. 1998:22 [ref. 23611], Kotlyar 1998:202 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:84 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:138 [ref. 24106], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2235 [ref. 24790], Nakabo 2000:488 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:601 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:147 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:96 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:97 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:488 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Allen et al. 2006:783 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2009:35 [ref. 30213], Satapoomin 2009:53 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2010:84 [ref. 31256], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:63 [ref. 35264], Fricke et al. 2011:374 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:176 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:73 [ref. 32988], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:94 [ref. 34690], Fricke et al. 2018:116 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:46 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:86 [ref. 36673], Psomadakis et al. 2020:353 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron melanospilos (Bleeker 1858). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Comoro Islands, Madagascar and Réunion (western Mascarenes) east to Wake Atoll, Marshall Islands, Samoa and Tonga, north to Ryukyu and Ogasawara islands, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

microstoma, Holocentrum Günther [A.] 1859:34 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Lectotype: BMNH 1858.4.21.235. Paralectotypes: BMNH 2012.11.10.1 (1). Also listed was Plate VI. fig. A, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." Lectotype selected by Randall & Heemstra 1985:13 [ref. 5144]. •Valid as Sargocentron microstoma (Günther 1859) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:112 [ref. 6441] as microstomum, Randall & Heemstra 1985:13 [ref. 5144], Randall & Heemstra 1986:420 [ref. 5707], Paxton et al. 1989:380 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:18 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:66 [ref. 15987], Kotlyar 1996:85 [ref. 23292], Allen 1997:68 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:60 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:66 [ref. 25919], Randall 1998:54 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:202 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:85 [ref. 23965], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2235 [ref. 24790], Allen 2000:85 [ref. 37268] as microstomus, Nakabo 2000:491 [ref. 25086], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:491 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:617 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:96 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:312 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:783 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2011:374 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:176 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2018:116 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:86 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron microstoma (Günther 1859). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Seychelles, Madagascar, Chagos Archipelago and Maldives east to Hawaiian Islands, Line Islands and Gambier Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands and Bonin-Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, New Caledonia, Tonga and Austral Islands. Habitat: marine.

orientale, Holocentrum Cuvier [G.] 1829:150 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Puducherry, India. Neotype: MNHN-5516 (dry). Cuvier specimens: MNHN A-0073 (2), A-0077 (1), A-0078 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:17 [ref. 20740]. Available from footnote 2 of account of Holocentrum as "Hol. orientale, Nob., Seb., III, xxvii, 1." Described also by Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:197 [ref. 4879] from specimens from Pondicherry, the Red Sea and the Indian archipelago. Lectotype selected by Bauchot 1970:17 [ref. 20740] from Pondicherry specimen, but this is incorrect; this specimen was correctly designated the neotype by Randall 1998:67 [ref. 23300]. Predated by Holocentrus orientale Cuvier in Guérin-Méneville 1827-31, Pl. 27 [ref. 29508]. •Synonym of Adioryx ruber (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:71 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:16 [ref. 5144], Randall 1998:65 [ref. 23300], Parenti & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:397 [ref. 29507]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

orientale, Holocentrus Cuvier [G.] in Guérin-Méneville 1828:no page number, Livraison 13 [Planches de Seba v. 3; ref. 29508] No types known. Text applies to Pl. 27 (no. 1) published in 1827. Predates Holocentrus orientale Cuvier 1829. See Parenti & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:397, 399 [ref. 29507]. •Synonym of Sargocentron rubrum (Forrskål 1775) -- (Parenti & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:397, 399 [ref. 29507]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

pauciradiatus, Holocentrus Tortonese [E.] 1939:276 [100], Pl. 6 (fig. 1) [Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata della R. Università di Torino. (Ser. 3) v. 47 (no. 100); ref. 4414] St. Cristobal, Solomon Islands. Holotype (unique): MZUT 3264. Type catalog: Tortonese 1940:143 [ref. 21559]. On p. 100 of separate. •Synonym of Sargocentron tiereoides (Bleeker 1853) -- (Randall 1998:84 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron tiereoides (Bleeker 1853). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

poco, Adioryx Woods [L. P.] 1965:1, Fig. 1 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 377; ref. 9268] About 1/4 miles north of Green Cay, (north of Rose Island), Bahamas, depth 0-50 feet. Holotype: ANSP 101995. Paratypes: ANSP 103011 (1); FMNH 72758 (1); UF 12334 (1). Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:114 [ref. 21035], Böhlke 1984:113 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:5 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Holocentrus poco (Woods 1955) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:114 [ref. 23100], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1018 [ref. 23897], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:154 [ref. 27754]). •Valid as Sargocentron poco (Woods 1965) -- (Kotlyar 1996:85 [ref. 23292], Kotlyar 1998:200 [ref. 24674], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:186 [ref. 25013], Greenfield 2003:1202 [ref. 27041], Nelson et al. 2004:110 [ref. 27807], Dennis et al. 2004:73 [ref. 31601], Page et al. 2013:112 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:34 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron poco (Woods 1965). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

poecilopterus, Holocentrum Bleeker [P.] 1855:356 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 7 (no. 3); ref. 16936] Cocos-Keeling Islands, Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5423. •Synonym of Sargocentron tiere (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall 1998:81 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron tiere (Cuvier 1829). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

polynesiae, Holocenthrus Fowler [H. W.] 1904:229, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 56; ref. 1365] Thornton Island [Caroline Atoll], Polynesia, southern Pacific. Holotype: ANSP 23277 (dry skin, missing). Paratypes: ANSP 23278-79 (2, dry skins, missing). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:113 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Sargocentron tiere (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall 1998:81 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron tiere (Cuvier 1829). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

praslin, Perca Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1802:397, 419 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Savo, Solomon Islands [New Georgia Sound, Solomon Sea, western Pacific], depth 1-2 meters [Original locality Port Praslin, New Ireland, Papua New Guinea]. Neotype: BPBM 20293. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:35 [ref. 20740], Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:117 [ref. 12478]. Based on Commerson manuscript. Neotype designated by Randall & Heemstra 1985:14 [ref. 5144]. •Valid as Sargocentron praslin (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:14 [ref. 5144], Randall & Heemstra 1986:420 [ref. 5707], Randall 1995:96 [ref. 22896], Kotlyar 1996:85 [ref. 23292], Randall 1998:58 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:203 [ref. 24674], Iwatsuki et al. 1999:51 [ref. 23927], Myers 1999:85 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:138 [ref. 24106], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2250 [ref. 24790], Allen 2000:85 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:489 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:601 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:489 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:617 [ref. 27495], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:97 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:783 [ref. 29066], Motomura et al. 2010:84 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:374 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:176 [ref. 31980], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:95 [ref. 34690], Fricke et al. 2018:116 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:86 [ref. 36673], Psomadakis et al. 2020:354 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron praslin (Lacepède 1802). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Society Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

pulchella, Perca Bennett [E. T.] 1827:377, Pl. 9 (fig. 3) [Zoological Journal, London v. 3 (no. 11, art. 37); ref. 16782] Sumatra, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2) whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Sargocentron diadema (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall 1998:21 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron diadema (Lacepède 1802). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

punctatissimum, Holocentrum Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:215 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Strong Island, Caroline Islands, western Pacific. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-0107. Paralectotypes: MNHN A-2632 (2), A-2633 (2). Type catalog: Klausewitz & Bauchot 1967:122, Fig. 2 on p. 123 [ref. 20909], Bauchot 1970:18 [ref. 20740]. Lectotype selected by Klausewitz & Bauchot 1967:122 [ref. 20909]. •Valid as Sargocentron punctatissimum (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:15 [ref. 5144], Randall & Heemstra 1986:420 [ref. 5707], Allen & Swainston 1988:42 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:380 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:53 [ref. 14125], Winterbottom et al. 1989:18 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:67 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:18 [ref. 25356], Kotlyar 1996:85 [ref. 23292], Allen 1997:66 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:60 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:67 [ref. 25919], Randall 1998:60 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:203 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:85 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:138 [ref. 24106], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2235 [ref. 24790], Randall 1999:9 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:85 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:491 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:601 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:491 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:617 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:32 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:97 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:312 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:783 [ref. 29066], Randall 2007:153 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:35 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:85 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:374 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:177 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:43 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:96 [ref. 34690], Koeda et al. 2016:18 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:2 [ref. 35354], Fricke et al. 2018:116 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:46 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:18 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:86 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron punctatissimum (Cuvier 1829). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Easter Island, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, New Caledonia and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

puncticulatus, Holocentrus Barbour [T.] 1905:117, Pl. 2 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 46 (no. 7); ref. 15336] Flatts Inlet, Bermuda, depth about 10 feet. Holotype (unique): MCZ 29054. •Synonym of Sargocentron coruscum (Poey 1860) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:185 [ref. 25013], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35195]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron coruscum (Poey 1860). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

rubellio, Holocentrus Seale [A.] 1906:22, Fig. 5 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 3999] Tahiti, Society Islands. Holotype (unique): BPBM 1395. •Synonym of Sargocentron caudimaculatum (Rüppell 1838) -- (Randall 1998:14 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron caudimaculatum (Rüppell 1838). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

ruber, Centropomus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1802:253, 273 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Mauritius; Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:36 [ref. 20740], Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:114 [ref. 12478]. Based on Commerson manuscript. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Holocentrus by Sciaena rubra Forsskål 1775. •Synonym of Sargocentron seychellense (Smith & Smith 1963) -- (Fricke 1999:139 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron seychellense (Smith & Smith 1963). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Rocky bottoms and coral reefs. Habitat: marine.

ruber, Holocentrus Bennett [J. W.] 1828:unnum. p., Pl. 4 [A selection from the most remarkable and interesting fishes found on the coast of Ceylon First Edition; ref. 16785] South coast of Sri Lanka. No types known. Secondarily preoccupied in Holocentrus by Sciaena ruber Forsskål 1775 -- (see Pethiyagoda et al. 1994:44 [ref. 21456]). Also objectivley invalid; preoccupied by Holocentrus ruber Rafinesque 1814 -- (see Eschmeyer & Pethiyagoda 1996:143 [ref. 22472]). •Synonym of Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kotlyar, pers. comm., 3/03). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

rubra, Sciaena Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:48, xi [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Off Customs dock, Port Sudan harbor, Sudan, Red Sea, depth 3-4 meters. Neotype: BPBM 28183. Neotype designated by Randall & Heemstra 1985:17 [ref. 5144]. Authorship according to Fricke 2008:23 [ref. 30182]. •Valid as Holocentrus ruber (Forsskål 1775) -- (Nielsen 1973:342 [ref. 6885]). •Valid as Adioryx ruber (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:50 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:41 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:70 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Dispinus ruber (Forsskål 1775) -- (Chen et al. 1997:31 [ref. 26476]). •Valid as Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål 1775) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:112 [ref. 6441], Randall & Heemstra 1985:16 [ref. 5144], Ben-Tuvia in Whitehead et al. 1986:754 [ref. 13676], Randall & Heemstra 1986:420 [ref. 5707], Allen & Swainston 1988:42 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:381 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:67 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:76 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:159 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:18 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:96 [ref. 22896], Kotlyar 1996:85 [ref. 23292], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:191 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:66 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:351 [ref. 23967], Kuiter 1997:60 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:67 [ref. 25919], Randall 1998:65 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:203 [ref. 24674], Khan 1998:230 [ref. 24980], Golani 1998:97 [ref. 27567], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2251 [ref. 24790], Johnson 1999:725 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:489 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:601 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:146 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:52 [ref. 25480], Allen 2000:96 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2000:177 [ref. 25987], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:62 [ref. 26753], Nakabo 2002:489 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:24 [ref. 27712], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Golani 2005:30 [ref. 37112], Randall 2005:97 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:784 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2007:72 [ref. 29533], Fricke 2008:23 [ref. 30182], Satapoomin 2009:54 [ref. 30463], Fricke et al. 2011:374 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:177 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:73 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:67 [ref. 34464], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:414 [ref. 33460], Fricke et al. 2014:43 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:182 [ref. 34104], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:98 [ref. 34690], Motomura et al. 2017:59 [ref. 35490], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[20] 258 [ref. 36492], Fricke et al. 2018:117 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:46 [ref. 36273], Satapoomin in Kimura et al. 2018:72 [ref. 36460], Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:95 [ref. 36864], Fricke et al. 2019:87 [ref. 36673], Bariche & Fricke 2020:118 [ref. 37515]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar east to Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia) and Lord Howe Island; southeastern Atlantic; Mediterranean Sea and Sea of Marmara (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.

rubra, Sciaena Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:82 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] No types known. Based on Perca rubra Catesby, not available. Also objectively invalid; preoccupied by Sciaena rubra Forsskål 1775; from America. •Synonym of Holocentrus rufus (Walbaum 1792) -- (Woods 1955:104 [ref. 12538]). •In the synonymy of Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål 1775) -- (J. E. Randall, pers. comm.). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron rubrum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

seychellensis, Holocentrus Smith [J. L. B.] & Smith [M. M.] 1963:9, Pl. 87 (fig. E) [The fishes of Seychelles; ref. 5319] Mahé, Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 994. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 995 (9). Described in more detail by Smith 1963:33 [ref. 32120]. •Valid as Sargocentron seychellense (Smith & Smith 1963) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1985:18 [ref. 5144], Randall & Heemstra 1986:421 [ref. 5707], Winterbottom et al. 1989:18 [ref. 13251], Randall 1995:96 [ref. 22896], Kotlyar 1996:85 [ref. 23292], Randall 1998:69 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:203 [ref. 24674], Fricke 1999:139 [ref. 24106], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Fricke et al. 2009:35 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2018:117 [ref. 35805], Zajonz et al. 2019:67 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron seychellense (Smith & Smith 1963). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Socotra, Seychelles, Comoro Islands, Madagascar, Réunion and Mauritius (Mascarenes), southwestern Indian Ocean. (western Mascarenes), Cargados Carajos, Oman, Chagos Archipelago. Habitat: marine.

shimizui, Sargocentron Randall [J. E.] 1998:Fig. 28 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 27; ref. 23300] Dodepo and Pasejogo islands, 0°21'33"N, 121°34'10"E, Gulf of Tomini, Sulawesi, Indonesia, depth 2.5-6 meters. Holotype: USNM 146022. Paratypes: BPBM 31977 (1). •Valid as Sargocentron shimizui Randall 1998 -- (Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Allen & Erdmann 2012:177 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron shimizui Randall 1998. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Gulf of Tomini, Sulawesi. Habitat: marine.

spinifera, Sciaena Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:49, xii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): ZMUC P4043 (dry half skin). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:58 [ref. 9588]; Fricke 2008:24 [ref. 30182]. Holotype figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:Pl. 16 [ref. 20847]. Authorship according to Fricke 2008:24 [ref. 30182]. •Valid as Adioryx spinifer (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:52 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:71 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål 1775) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:111 [ref. 6441], Randall & Heemstra 1985:19 [ref. 5144], Randall & Heemstra 1986:421 [ref. 5707], Allen & Swainston 1988:42 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:381 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:18 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:67 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:18 [ref. 25356] as spinifer, Randall 1995:96 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:191 [ref. 27969], Kotlyar 1996:85 [ref. 23292], Allen 1997:66 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:31 [ref. 26476] as spinifer, Kuiter 1997:62 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:67 [ref. 25919], Randall 1998:74 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:203 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:85 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:140 [ref. 24106], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2252 [ref. 24790], Randall 1999:9 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:487 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:601 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:147 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:96 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:487 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:617 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:136 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:98 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:313 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:784 [ref. 29066], Randall 2007:153 [ref. 30952], Fricke 2008:24 [ref. 30182], Fricke et al. 2009:35 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:85 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:374 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:178 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:252 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:73 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:43 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Motomura et al. 2015:17 [ref. 34709], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:99 [ref. 34690], Koeda et al. 2016:18 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:117 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:47 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:87 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:67 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:354 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West-Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

spinosissimum, Holocentrum Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:22, Pl. 8 A [Fauna Japonica Parts 2-4; ref. 4371] No locality stated [Nagasaki, Japan]. Lectotype: RMNH D232 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH D233 (1, stuffed), 386 (2). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:37 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Sargocentron spinosissimum (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:112 [ref. 6441], Kotlyar 1996:85 [ref. 23292], Randall 1998:78 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:203 [ref. 24674], Nakabo 2000:491 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:601 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:491 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:226, 551 [ref. 26218], Mundy 2005:313 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:154 [ref. 30952], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:101 [ref. 34690], Sonoyama et al. 2020:34 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron spinosissimum (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Western and central North Pacific: Taiwan to Ryukyu Islands, Japan and southern Korea, Ogasawara Islands, Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

suborbitale, Holocentrum Gill [T. N.] 1863:86 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 1679] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Syntypes: ?CAS 79588 [ex IU 6101] (1), USNM 2319 and 2320 (mixed, total 40). Sargocentron is neuter, so suborbitale would be the correct spelling. •Valid as Sargocentron suborbitalis [or suborbitale] (Gill 1863) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:95 [ref. 22193], Schneider & Krupp in Fischer et al. 1995:1185 [ref. 22829], Kotlyar 1996:85 [ref. 23292], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:212 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:276 [ref. 24023], Kotlyar 1998:203 [ref. 24674] as suborbitale, Thomson et al. 2000:60 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:110 [ref. 27807], Béarez & Séret 2009:146 [ref. 36646], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:190 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:113 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34871] as suborbitalis, Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923]). •Valid as Neoniphon suborbitalis (Gill 1863) -- (Fourriére et al. 2016:443 [ref. 34668], González-Murcia et al. 2019:292 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron suborbitale (Gill 1863). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California (Mexico) south to Ecuador, including Clipperton and Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

sur, Holocentrum Montrouzier [X.] 1857:426 [148] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 148 of reprint. •Unidentifiable, may be genus Sargocentron -- (J. E. Randall, pers. comm.). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

tagen, Holocentrum Montrouzier [X.] 1857:427 [149] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 149 of reprint. •Unidentifiable, may be genus Sargocentron -- (J. E. Randall, pers. comm.). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

termastigma, Faremusca lacteoguttata Fowler [H. W.] 1946:127, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 98; ref. 1456] Aguni Shima, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype (unique): ANSP 72003. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:114 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Sargocentron punctatissimum (Cuvier 1829) -- (Randall 1998:61 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron punctatissimum (Cuvier 1829). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

tetracanthus, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:334, 372 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Donated by "la république batave". No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:35 [ref. 20740]. •Unidentifiable, may be genus Sargocentron -- (J. E. Randall, pers. comm.). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

thorntonensis, Holocenthrus Fowler [H. W.] 1904:231, Fig. 4 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 56; ref. 1365] Thornton Island, South Pacific, 10°00'01"S, 150°14'30"W. Holotype (unique): ANSP 23769. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:114 [ref. 13621]. Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

tiere, Holocentrum Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:202 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Matavai barrier reef, Tahiti, Society Islands, French Polynesia, South Pacific. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-2628. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:19 [ref. 20740]. Redescribed in Lesson 1830:221, Pl. 25 (fig. 1) [ref. 2776]. •Valid as Sargocentron tiere (Cuvier 1829) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:112 [ref. 6441], Randall & Heemstra 1985:20 [ref. 5144], Randall & Heemstra 1986:421 [ref. 5707], Allen & Swainston 1988:42 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:381 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:18 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:68 [ref. 15987], Kotlyar 1996:86 [ref. 23292], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:192 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:66 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:68 [ref. 25919], Randall 1998:81 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:203 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:85 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:141 [ref. 24106], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2253 [ref. 24790], Randall 1999:9 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:85 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:490 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:601 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:147 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:490 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:617 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:98 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:313 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:784 [ref. 29066], Randall 2007:154 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:35 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:374 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:178 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:43 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:102 [ref. 34690], Koeda et al. 2016:18 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:117 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:87 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron tiere (Cuvier 1829). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar, Seychelles and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia, Tonga, and Austral Islands. Habitat: marine.

tiereoides, Holocentrum Bleeker [P.] 1853:334 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 5117] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Non-types: RMNH 5429 (3, no specimen of correct length). Original as tiereoïdes. •Valid as Sargocentron tiereoides (Bleeker 1853) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:112 [ref. 6441], Randall & Heemstra 1985:20 [ref. 5144], Randall & Heemstra 1986:421 [ref. 5707], Paxton et al. 1989:381 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:18 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:68 [ref. 15987], Kotlyar 1996:86 [ref. 23292], Allen 1997:68 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:60 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:68 [ref. 25919], Randall 1998:84 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:203 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:85 [ref. 23965], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2235 [ref. 24790], Allen 2000:85 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:491 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:601 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:491 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:617 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:99 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:314 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:785 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2009:36 [ref. 30213], Satapoomin 2009:54 [ref. 30463], Allen & Erdmann 2012:178 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:43 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2019:88 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron tiereoides (Bleeker 1853). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Comoro Islands and Réunion (western Mascarenes) east to Hawaiian Islands, Line Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to Ryukyu Islands and Wake Atoll, south to Vanuatu and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

tortugae, Holocentrus Jordan [D. S.] & Thompson [J. C.] 1905:236, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 24 (for 1904); ref. 2538] Garden Key, Dry Tortugas, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 8412. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:63 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Sargocentron coruscum (Poey 1860) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:185 [ref. 25013], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:30 [ref. 35195]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron coruscum (Poey 1860). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

tripetalon, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:334, 372 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Donated by "la république batave" [Java, Indonesia]. No types known. Spelled tripetalon on p. 334; tripetalus on p. 372; first reviser not researched. •Unidentifiable, may be genus Sargocentron -- (J. E. Randall, pers. comm.). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

unipunctatum, Holocentrum Günther [A.] 1874:95, Pl. 65 (fig. A) [Andrew Garrett's Fische der Südsee Bd 1 (Heft 3); ref. 18231] Solomon Islands. Lectotype: BMNH 1871.3.29.2. Paralectotype: BMNH 1871.9.13.166 (1) Tonga. Lectotype selected by Randall 1998:76 [ref. 23300]. •Synonym of Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1998:74 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

verticalis, Holocentrus Seale [A.] 1906:22, Fig. 6 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 3999] Tahiti, Society Islands. Holotype: BPBM 1394. Paratypes: ANSP 90602 [ex BPBM 1392] (1); 90645 [ex BPBM 1393] (1); BPBM 1391 (1); USNM 109394 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:114 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1998:75 [ref. 23300]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.

violaceum, Holocentrum Bleeker [P.] 1853:335 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 5117] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype: SMNS 10599 or RMNH 5432. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1880.4.21.16 (1); RMNH 1642 (1), 28983 [ex RMNH 5432] (4). Type catalog: Fricke 1991:15 [ref. 13474] and Fricke 2005:43 [ref. 29864] regards SMNS 10599 as holotype, but Randall & Heemstra 1985:22 [ref. 5144] believe RMNH 5432 is probably the holotype but they did not examine SMNS 10599. •Valid as Sargocentron violaceum (Bleeker 1853) -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:112 [ref. 6441], Randall & Heemstra 1985:21 [ref. 5144], Randall & Heemstra 1986:422 [ref. 5707], Allen & Swainston 1988:42 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:381 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:18 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:68 [ref. 15987], Kotlyar 1996:86 [ref. 23292], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:193 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:66 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:62 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:68 [ref. 25919], Randall 1998:88 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:204 [ref. 24674], Myers 1999:85 [ref. 23965], Randall & Greenfield 1999:2235 [ref. 24790], Nakabo 2000:488 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:602 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:25 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:488 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:33 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:99 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:785 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2011:374 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:179 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:74 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:43 [ref. 33932], Eguchi & Motomura 2016:102 [ref. 34690], Fricke et al. 2018:117 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:88 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron violaceum (Bleeker 1853). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles and Madagascar east to Line Islands and Samoa, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to northern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

wilhelmi, Holocentrum de Buen [F.] 1963:25 [Boletin de la Sociedad de Biologia de Concepción v. 35/36 (1960-61); ref. 4325] Easter Island, southeastern Pacific. Holotype: EBMC 125. Paratypes: CIZ (4); EBMC 72-75 (2), 243 (1), 10.187 (1). •Valid as Sargocentron wilhelmi (de Buen 1963) -- (Pequeño 1989:53 [ref. 14125], Randall 1998:90 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:204 [ref. 24674]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron wilhelmi (de Buen 1963). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Easter Island, southeastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

xantherythrus, Holocentrus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:175 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50635. Paratypes: AMNH 2286 (1); ANSP 24215 (1), ?27272 (1), ?28103 (1), 83959 (1); BPBM 1692 (1); CAS 1492 (1, missing); FMNH 4190 (1); IU 9805 (1, missing at CAS); MCZ 28894 (1); CAS-SU 7457 (2); USFC 2706 (1), 2733 (1); USNM 50636 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:63 [ref. 12291], Böhlke 1984:114 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:47 [ref. 12367] as 2 specimens at FMNH, originally 1. •Valid as Sargocentron xantherythrum (Jordan & Evermann 1903) -- (Randall 1998:92 [ref. 23300], Kotlyar 1998:204 [ref. 24674], Mundy 2005:314 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:155 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Valid as Sargocentron xantherythrum (Jordan & Evermann 1903). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands and Johnston Atoll. Habitat: marine.

xanthurus, Holocentrus Fowler [H. W.] 1944:166, Fig. 5 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 96; ref. 1451] Vanuatu. Holotype (unique): ANSP 71356 [not 70356]. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:114 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall 1998:75 [ref. 23300]). •Valid as Sargocentron xanthurum (Fowler 1944) -- (Kotlyar 1998:204 [ref. 24674]). Current status: Synonym of Sargocentron spiniferum (Forsskål 1775). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.