Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 9 November 2021

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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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imperialis, Esox Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:59, Pl. 9 (fig. 2) [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Palermo, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:34 [ref. 3595]. Sphyraena acus was placed on the Official Index and Esox imperialis on the Official List. See also Sphyraena acus Lacep├Ęde 1803 [note: because of changes, synonyms of T. imperialis may not be synonyms of Tylosurus imperialis imperialis] and a new petition will be submitted to preserve use of acus as in current literature. This subspecies occurs in the Mediterranean Sea. •Valid as Belone imperialis (Rafinesque 1810) -- (Mees 1962:38 [ref. 13277]). •Synonym of Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Collette & Berry 1965:391 [ref. 13367]). •Synonym of Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803), but a valid subspecies imperialis -- (Parin 1973:260 [ref. 7191], Masuda et al. 1984 [ref. 6441], Collette & Parin in Whitehead et al. 1986:607 [ref. 13676], Collette & Parin 1990:596 [ref. 16473], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:154 [ref. 27754], Collette & Banford 2001:53 [ref. 25982], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:60 [ref. 26753], Collette 2003:9, 10 [ref. 27306], Paxton et al. 2006:719 [ref. 28995], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:34 [ref. 36649], Collette 2016:2121 [ref. 34601], Collette 2016:2126 [ref. 34601]). •Valid as Tylosurus imperialis (Rafinesque 1810) -- (Fricke et al. 2007:70 [ref. 29533], Wirtz et al. 2013:121 [ref. 32972], Parenti 2019:101 [ref. 37117], Bariche & Fricke 2020:42 [ref. 37515], Ketsilis-Rinis & Koutsidi in Bo et al. 2020:617 [ref. 37876], Michailidis in Gerovasileiou et al. 2020:355 [ref. 37890]). Current status: Valid as Tylosurus imperialis (Rafinesque 1810). Belonidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Morocco south to Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.