Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 8 September 2021

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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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rafale, Tylosurus acus Collette [B. B.] & Parin [N. V.] 1970:49, Fig. 12 [Atlantide Report No. 11; ref. 7415] Off Freetown, Sierra Leone. Holotype: USNM 188847. Paratypes: BMNH 1969.7.30.1 (1), CBAT (Centro Biol. Aguát. Trop., Lisboa) (4 lots, 4), IFAN (5 lots, 8), IOM (2 lots, 2), IRSNB 547-548 (1, 1), MNHN 1969-0182 (1), MRAC (2 lots, 2), MSNG (1), UF (7 lots, 23) to USNM, USNM (13 lots, 35; orig. 6 lots, 12), ZMUC (2 lots, 2). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:22 [ref. 20755], Collette et al. 1992:4-5 [ref. 19410] including 7 more lots transferred from UF (TABL) to USNM, Collette et al. 1997:9 [ref. 22813]. Should be regarded as a synonym of Tylosurus imperialis (Rafinesque 1810) following ICZN Opinion 900, but see comments under Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803). This subspecies (or species) occurs in the Gulf of Guinea, eastern Atlantic. •Synonym of Tylosurus acus (Lacepède 1803), but a valid subspecies rafale as described -- (Collette & Parin 1990:596 [ref. 16473], Afonso et al. 1999:70 [ref. 25466], Collette & Banford 2001:53 [ref. 25982], Collette 2003:10 [ref. 27306], Collette 2016:2126 [ref. 34601], Almeida & Alves 2019:269 [ref. 37509]). •Valid as Tylosurus rafale Collette & Parin 1970 -- (Wirtz et al. 2007:28 [ref. 30263], Wirtz et al. 2013:121 [ref. 32972], Wirtz et al. 2014:4 [ref. 33516]). Current status: Valid as Tylosurus rafale Collette & Parin 1970. Belonidae. Distribution: Central Atlantic; eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.