Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 8 September 2021

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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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afer, Gymnothorax Bloch [M. E.] 1795:85, Pl. 417 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 9; ref. 464] Guinea. Syntypes: ZMB 3991 (1,), 7784 (1, stuffed), 7785 (1, stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:103 [ref. 24282]. On p. 73 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 12 [ref. 21381]. As Muraenophis afra in Lacepède 1803:628, 641 [ref. 4930]. •Valid as Lycodontis afer (Bloch 1795) -- (Dor 1984:27 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Gymnothorax afer Bloch 1795 -- (Smith & Böhlke 1990:140 [ref. 19379], Goren & Dor 1994:7 [ref. 25356], Santos et al. 1997:121 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:55 [ref. 24952], Afonso et al. 1999:69 [ref. 25466], Jiménez et al. 2007:103 [ref. 29038], Wirtz et al. 2007:25 [ref. 30263], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:58 [ref. 35264], Smith 2012:11 [ref. 32155], Wirtz et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32972], Smith & Brito 2016:1626 [ref. 34557], Carneiro et al. 2019:60 [ref. 37250], Reiner 2019:59 [ref. 38139]). Current status: Valid as Gymnothorax afer Bloch 1795. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania south to Namibia, including São Tomé and Principe; possibly at Azores and Madeira. Habitat: brackish, marine.