Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 1 Nov 2022

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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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dubius, Fierasfer Putnam [F. W.] 1874:344 [Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History v. 16 (for 1873-1874); ref. 18579] Bay of Panama [eastern Pacific]. Lectotype: USNM 153621 [ex MCZ 34037]. Paralectotypes: from Pacific (4, missing): MCZ 12421 (2) and MCZ 34037 (now 0); MCZ 89510 (1, missing), 12424-27 (1, 1, 1, 1), 12430 (1); USNM 153621 [ex MCZ 34037] (1). Markle & Olney 1990:381 [ref. 18996] referred Atlantic syntypes to Carapus bermudensis (Jones 1874) and designated a Pacific syntype as lectotype of dubius. •Valid as Encheliophis dubius (Putnam 1874) -- (Markle & Olney 1990:388 [ref. 18996] with suppression of Fierasfer caninus Günther 1862, Allen & Robertson 1994:76 [ref. 22193], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:94 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:217 [ref. 24023], Markle in Nielsen et al. 1999:16 [ref. 24448], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:163 [ref. 24550], Parmentier et al. 2000:29 [ref. 24936], Echeverry & Polanía 2001:31 [ref. 26212], Nelson et al. 2004:91 [ref. 27807], Randall 2007:121 [ref. 30952], Page et al. 2013:94 [ref. 32708], Palacios-Salgado et al. 2014:237 [ref. 36362]). •Valid as Carapus dubius (Putnam 1874) -- (Arnold 1956:263 [ref. 5315], Parmentier et al. 2000:295 [ref. 26179], Parmentier & Bailly 2002:79 [ref. 26055], Mundy 2005:240 [ref. 28379], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:197 [ref. 28944], Glynn et al. 2008:593 [ref. 29778], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:189 [ref. 30957], Fricke et al. 2018:82 [ref. 35805] as "C. ?dubius", Heemstra 2022:256 [ref. 39704]). Current status: Valid as Carapus dubius (Putnam 1874). Carapidae: Carapinae. Distribution: Central and eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to Ecuador, reaching Hawaiian Islands (U.S.A.) as waif. Habitat: marine.


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