Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 8 June 2021

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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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serpens, Muraena Linnaeus [C.] 1758:244 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea, northeastern Atlantic; localities including Norway; southern France; Rome, Italy; Lesbos Island, Greece. No types known. Lectotype or neotype fixation needed: the type locality should be restricted to Mediterranean Sea according to current usage. Originally based on multiple species and at least 13 pre-Linnaean sources including Artedi 1738:24 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:41 [ref. 30349] as Muraena exacte teres, cauda acuta apterygia; Rondelet 1554:409 [ref. 30354] as Serpens marinus, Salviani 1558:58, Pl. (p. 57) [ref. 30229] as Serpen(s) marin(us), Charleton 1668:125 [ref. 30580] as Serpens marinus, Willughby 1686:107 [ref. 30164] and Ray 1713:36 [ref. 30231] as Serpens marinus. Also appeared in Linnaeus 1766:425 [ref. 2786]. •Valid as Ophisurus serpens (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Blache et al. 1973:250 [ref. 7185], McCosker 1977:82 [ref. 6836], Bauchot in Whitehead et al. 1986:583 [ref. 13676], McCosker & Castle 1986:184 [ref. 5690], Paxton et al. 1989:120 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:73 [ref. 24556], Winterbottom et al. 1989:12 [ref. 13251], Leiby 1990:190 [ref. 13652], Kuiter 1993:27 [ref. 23929], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:136 [ref. 25472], Gomon et al. 1994:202 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:26 [ref. 25488], Smith & McCosker 1999:1669 [ref. 24715], Johnson 1999:721 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:32 [ref. 26753], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S95 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:106 [ref. 28072], McCosker et al. 2006:272 [ref. 29006], Fricke et al. 2007:24 [ref. 29533], Smith & McCosker 2008:167 [ref. 30622], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:18 [ref. 36649], Bañón et al. 2011:157 [ref. 31596], Wirtz et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32972], McCosker & Stewart 2015:254 [ref. 34235], McCosker 2016:1666 [ref. 34558], Kousteni & Christidis 2018:2 [ref. 36672], Carneiro et al. 2019:64 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:92 [ref. 36864], Hoschke et al. 2019:153 [ref. 36626], Reiner 2019:72 [ref. 38139], Bariche & Fricke 2020:36 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:12 [ref. 37519], Tuncer et al. 2020:158 [ref. 37745], Golani 2021:15 [ref. 38303]). Current status: Valid as Ophisurus serpens (Linnaeus 1758). Ophichthidae: Ophichthinae. Distribution: Widespread in tropical and warm temperate oceans (but not eastern Pacific or western Atlantic), in eastern Atlantic from Spain south to South Africa, including Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands, and São Tomé and Principe; Mediterranean Sea. Habitat: brackish, marine.