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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Cynodontidae: [ 13 ] records


armatus, Hydrocyon Jardine [W.] in Schomburgk 1841:249, Pl. 25 [The Natural history of fishes of Guiana; ref. 18707] Sandbars in vicinity of Maipuri campsite, 4°34'N, 58°35'W, Essequibo River, Guyana. Neotype: ANSP 175725. Book contains 2 plates numbered 25, both of which are identified as Hydrocyon armatus. Neotype designated by Toledo-Piza et al. 1999:273 [ref. 24227]. •Valid as Hydrolycus armatus (Jardine 1841) -- (Toledo-Piza et al. 1999:267 [ref. 24227], Toledo-Piza in Reis et al. 2003:235 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:67, 186 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:36 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:83 [ref. 35773], Koerber et al. 2022:17 [ref. 39235]). Current status: Valid as Hydrolycus armatus (Jardine 1841). Cynodontidae. Distribution: South America: Amazon and Orinoco River basins and rivers of Guyana (Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana and Venezuela). Habitat: freshwater.

gibbus, Rhaphiodon Spix [J. B. von] & Agassiz [L.] 1829:77, Pl. 27 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Lago Manacapuru, Amazonas State, Brazil. Neotype: MZUSP 6539. As Cynodon gibbus on plate; first reviser not researched. Neotype designated by Toledo-Piza 2000:63 [ref. 24268]. Case 3041 [ref. 24268] before the ICZN was settled in Opinion 2012 [ref. 31354], and gibbus was placed on the Official List with authorship as Spix & Agassiz •Valid as Rhaphiodon gibbus Spix & Agassiz 1829 -- (Taphorn 1992:436 [ref. 23654]). •See Planquette et al. 1996:212 [ref. 22818]. •Valid as Cynodon gibbus (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:27 [ref. 37559], Ortega & Vari 1986:10 [ref. 9708], Géry et al. 1999:71 [ref. 24114], Toledo-Piza 2000:57 [ref. 24268], ICZN 2002:224 [ref. 31354], Toledo-Piza in Reis et al. 2003:234 [ref. 27061] with original genus as Cynodon, Barriga Salazar 2014:109 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:66, 186 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:36 [ref. 35633], Silvano et al. 2020:114 [ref. 38133], Meza-Vargas et al. 2021:15 [ref. 39298], Koerber et al. 2022:16 [ref. 39235], Cortés Hernández et al. 2023:456 [ref. 40760], Vieira et al. 2023:18 [ref. 40759]). Current status: Valid as Cynodon gibbus (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Cynodontidae. Distribution: South America: Amazon and Orinoco River basins and rivers of Guyana (Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru and Venezuela). Habitat: freshwater.

meionactis, Cynodon Géry [J.], Le Bail [P.-Y.] & Keith [P.] 1999:70, Fig. 1 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 25 (no. 3/4) [for 1998]; ref. 24114] Antecume Pata, Upper Maroni above Maripasoula, French Guiana. Holotype: MNHN 1998-0397. Paratypes: MHNG 2594-14 (1), MNHN 1998-0398 (1), 1998-0400 (1), 1998-0401 (1). •Valid as Cynodon meionactis Géry, Le Bail & Keith 1999 -- (Toledo-Piza 2000:57 [ref. 24268], Keith et al. 2000:13 [ref. 24547], Toledo-Piza in Reis et al. 2003:234 [ref. 27061], Toledo-Piza 2024:331 [ref. 40817]). Current status: Valid as Cynodon meionactis Géry, Le Bail & Keith 1999. Cynodontidae. Distribution: South America: coastal rivers in French Guiana and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

pectoralis, Cynodon Günther [A.] 1866:30 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 3) v. 18 (no. 103) (art. 7); ref. 18187] Upper Amazon River, Brazil. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1866.2.15.22. •Valid as Hydrolycus pectoralis (Günther 1866) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:10 [ref. 9708], Taphorn 1992:433 [ref. 23654]). •Synonym of Hydrolycus scomberoides (Cuvier 1819) -- (Toledo-Piza et al. 1999:274 [ref. 24227], Toledo-Piza in Reis et al. 2003:235 [ref. 27061], Toledo-Piza 2024:332 [ref. 40817]). Current status: Synonym of Hydrolycus scomberoides (Cuvier 1819). Cynodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

rapax, Hydropardus Reinhardt [J. T.] 1851:46 [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra den Naturhistoriske Forening i Kjøbenhavn, Aaret 1849 (nos 3-5); ref. 3692] Montevideo, Uruguay. Holotype: ZMUC 183. Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:45 [ref. 9588]. •Synonym of Rhaphiodon vulpinus Spix & Agassiz 1829 -- (Taphorn 1992:439 [ref. 23654], Toledo-Piza 2000:69 [ref. 24268], Toledo-Piza in Reis et al. 2003:235 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:12 [ref. 33622] dated 1849, Mirande & Koerber 2015:20 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:31 [ref. 35267], Toledo-Piza 2024:333 [ref. 40817]). Current status: Synonym of Rhaphiodon vulpinus Spix & Agassiz 1829. Cynodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

scomberoides, Hydrocynus Cuvier [G.] 1816:168 [Le Règne Animal; ref. 993] See Hydrocyon scomberoides Cuvier 1819. On Official List ICZN. •Not available -- (Toledo-Piza et al. 1999:277 [ref. 24227]). Suppressed. Current status: Synonym of Hydrolycus scomberoides (Cuvier 1819). Cynodontidae.

scomberoides, Hydrocyon Cuvier [G.] 1819:357, Pl. 27 (fig. 2) [Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (N. S.) (Série A) Zoologie v. 5; ref. 1017] Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-8659. Cuvier specimens: MNHN 0000-1713 (1), A-8549 (1, dry), A-9854 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:8 [ref. 19577]. Appeared first in Cuvier 1816:168 [ref. 993] as Hydocynus scomberoides, but species dates to Cuvier 1819 as above after that name and date was placed on the Official List in Opinion1581(see Toledo-Piza et al. 1999:277 [ref. 24227]); lectotype designation by Eschmeyer 1998:1527 unneeded; both descriptions apparently based on same specimen. •Valid as Hydrolycus scomberoides (Cuvier 1819) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:10 [ref. 9708], Taphorn 1992:433 [ref. 23654], Toledo-Piza et al. 1999:273 [ref. 24227], Toledo-Piza in Reis et al. 2003:235 [ref. 27061] dating to 1816, Barriga Salazar 2014:109 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:67, 186 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:36 [ref. 35633], Meza-Vargas et al. 2021:15 [ref. 39298], Toledo-Piza 2024:332 [ref. 40817]). Current status: Valid as Hydrolycus scomberoides (Cuvier 1819). Cynodontidae. Distribution: South America: Amazon River basin (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru). Habitat: freshwater.

septenarius, Cynodon Toledo-Piza [M.] 2000:65, Fig. 24 [American Museum Novitates No. 3286; ref. 24268] Rio Tefé, supiã-Pacu, between 3°40" and 4°20'S, 65°50' and 65°10'W, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 32590. Paratypes: CAS 204164 (1), INPA 14531 (2), MCP 21735 (2), MNRJ 18171 (2), MZUSP 53306 (9), USNM 352434 (2). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Cynodon septenarius Toledo-Piza 2000 -- (Toledo-Piza in Reis et al. 2003:234 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:36 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Cynodon septenarius Toledo-Piza 2000. Cynodontidae. Distribution: Upper Orinoco River basins and rivers of Guyana: Brazil, Colombia, Guyana and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

tamuco, Salmo Natterer [J.] in Diesing 1836:24 [Annalen des Wiener Museums der Naturgeschichte v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 18471] Not available, no distinguishing characters provided. •Unavailable name -- (Toledo-Piza et al. 2024:446 [ref. 40817]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Rhaphiodon. Cynodontidae.

tamuco, Salmo Kner [R.] (ex Natterer) 1860:55 [47] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 18; ref. 7130] On p. 47 of separate. Not available, name mentioned in passing under Cynodon vulpinus Spix; from Brazil. •In the synonymy of Rhaphiodon vulpinus Spix & Agassiz 1829 -- (Taphorn 1992:439 [ref. 23654]). •Questionably a synonym of Rhaphiodon vulpinus Spix & Agassiz 1829 -- (Toledo-Piza in Reis et al. 2003:235 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:12 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:20 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:31 [ref. 35267]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Rhaphiodon vulpinus Spix & Agassiz 1829. Cynodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

tatauaia, Hydrolycus Toledo-Piza [M.], Menezes [N. A.] & Santos [G. M. dos] 1999:263, Figs. 7-8 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 10 (no. 3); ref. 24227] Rio Xingu, Belo Monte, 3°10'S, 51°50'W, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 48005. Paratypes: AMNH 223196 (3), BMNH 1997.11.13.1-3 (3), CAS 97484 (3), INPA 13275 (3), MCP 20446 (3), MNRJ 16464 (3), MZUSP 52449 (5), USNM 346867 (3); plus non-type material. •Valid as Hydrolycus tatauaia Toledo-Piza, Menezes & Santos 1999 -- (Toledo-Piza in Reis et al. 2003:235 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:36 [ref. 35633], Meza-Vargas et al. 2021:15 [ref. 39298]). Current status: Valid as Hydrolycus tatauaia Toledo-Piza, Menezes & Santos 1999. Cynodontidae. Distribution: South America: Amazon and upper Orinoco River basins and riverso of Guyana (Brazil, Colombia, Guyana, Peru and Venezuela). Habitat: freshwater.

vulpinus, Rhaphiodon Spix [J. B. von] & Agassiz [L.] 1829:76, Pl. 26 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Mouth of Uruará canal to Amazon River, at Vira Sebo community, Canaã Village, Prainha City, 01°53’33''S, 53°29’17''W Pará State, Brazil [Brasiliae fluviis]. Holotype (unique): MHNN 822. Type catalog: Kottelat 1988:84 [ref. 13380]. As Cynodon vulpinus Spix on plate. Name first published in Cuvier 1829 [ref. 995]. Comments on type locality see Koerber 2021:93 [ref. 38172]. Confirmation of the holotype by Toledo-Piza 2000:74 [ref. 24268]. •Valid as Rhaphiodon vulpinus Spix & Agassiz 1829 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:10 [ref. 9708], Taphorn 1992:439 [ref. 23654], Gómez & Chebez 1996:46 [ref. 23791], Sverlij et al. 1998:11 [ref. 27632], Britski et al. 1999:68 [ref. 24147], Toledo-Piza 2000:69 [ref. 24268], López et al. 2002:63 [ref. 26808], Toledo-Piza in Reis et al. 2003:235 [ref. 27061] with authors as Spix & Agassiz, López et al. 2003:35 [ref. 27366] as Raphiodon, Menni 2004:72 [ref. 28131] as Raphiodon, Mirande 2010:481 [ref. 31006], Barriga Salazar 2014:109 [ref. 35745], Litz & Koerber 2014:12 [ref. 33622] as Raphiodon, Sarmiento et al. 2014:68, 186 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:20 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:415 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:29 [ref. 35565], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:36 [ref. 35633], Koerber et al. 2017:31 [ref. 35267], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:83 [ref. 35773] as Raphiodon, Reis et al. 2020:462 [ref. 38364], Silvano et al. 2020:118 [ref. 38133], Koerber 2021:93 [ref. 38172], Meza-Vargas et al. 2021:15 [ref. 39298], Koerber et al. 2022:17 [ref. 39235], Loureiro et al. 2023:35 [ref. 40506], Toledo-Piza 2024:333 [ref. 40817]). Current status: Valid as Rhaphiodon vulpinus Spix & Agassiz 1829. Cynodontidae. Distribution: South America: Amazon, Orinoco and Paraná River basins and rivers of Guyana (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela). Habitat: freshwater.

wallacei, Hydrolycus Toledo-Piza [M.], Menezes [N. A.] & Santos [G. M. dos] 1999:259, Figs. 1a, 2-3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 10 (no. 3); ref. 24227] Rio Negro, Mandiquié, 0°30'S, 64°30'W, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 32645. Paratypes: AMNH 223197 (3), BMNH 1997.11.13.4-6 (3), CAS 97483 (3), INPA 13274 (3), MCP 20445 (3), MNRJ 16463 (3), MZUSP 52448 (13), USNM 346866 (3); plus non-type material. •Valid as Hydrolycus wallacei Toledo-Piza, Menezes & Santos 1999 -- (Toledo-Piza in Reis et al. 2003:235 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:36 [ref. 35633], Silvano et al. 2020:117 [ref. 38133]). Current status: Valid as Hydrolycus wallacei Toledo-Piza, Menezes & Santos 1999. Cynodontidae. Distribution: South America: Amazon River basin and Orinoco River basins (Brazil, Venezuela and Colombia). Habitat: freshwater.


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