Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 5 October 2021

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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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imperialis, Luvarus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:22 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicilia [Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea]. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:39 [ref. 3595]. •Valid as Luvarus imperialis Rafinesque 1810 -- (Topp 1973:476 [ref. 7209], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1975:307 [ref. 7348], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:279 [ref. 9277], Nakamura in Masuda et al. 1984:223 [ref. 6441], Decamps in Whitehead et al. 1986:998 [ref. 13676], Heemstra 1986:838 [ref. 5660], Robins & Ray 1986:263 [ref. 23100], Nishikawa 1987:215 [ref. 22505], Peden & Jamieson 1988:492 [ref. 12864], Matarese et al. 1989:556 [ref. 26885], Tyler et al. 1989 [ref. 13460], Pequeño 1989:67 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:232 [ref. 24556], McAllister 1990:177 [ref. 14674] as Luvar, Décamps 1990:1008 [ref. 19497], Bannikov & Tyler 1995:20 [ref. 22553], Bauchot in Fischer et al. 1995:1245 [ref. 22830], Santos et al. 1997:104 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:103 [ref. 24952], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:334 [ref. 24555], Fricke 1999:533 [ref. 24106], Nakabo 2000:1318 [ref. 25182], Grau et al. 2000:92 [ref. 25631], Hutchins 2001:46 [ref. 25847], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:138 [ref. 26753], Nakabo 2002:1318 [ref. 26193], Moore et al. 2003:230 [ref. 27076], Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:100 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:174 [ref. 27807], Mundy 2005:485 [ref. 28379], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:739 [ref. 28815], Hoese & Bray 2006:1729 [ref. 29000], Fricke et al. 2007:108 [ref. 29533], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:194 [ref. 30957], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:68 [ref. 36649], Page et al. 2013:180 [ref. 32708], Shinohara et al. 2014:272 [ref. 33330], Stewart 2015:1588 [ref. 34196], Collette in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2854 [ref. 34618], Fourriére et al. 2016:458 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:611 [ref. 34923], Nión et al. 2016:52 [ref. 35565], Kells et al. 2016:310 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:91 [ref. 37205], Carneiro et al. 2019:295 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:100 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:101 [ref. 37117], Reiner 2019:268 [ref. 38139], Gül & Ataç in Gerovasileiou et al. 2020:351 [ref. 37890], Iglésias et al. 2020:292 [ref. 37987], Kovačić et al. 2020:34 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Luvarus imperialis Rafinesque 1810. Luvaridae. Distribution: Circumglobal but antitropical in subtropical and temperate seas (including Mediterranean Sea). Habitat: marine.