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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Genera in the family or subfamily Sparidae: [ 103 ] records


Acanthopagrus (subgenus of Chrysophrys) Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1855:242 Masc. Chrysophrys vagus Peters 1852. Type by monotypy. Appeared as "64, Chrysophrys (Acanthopagrus) vagus Pet." in the Arch. Naturgesch., v. 21:242 and not on the corresponding p. 435 in ref. 3449 (see note under ref. 3449). •Valid as Acanthopagrus Peters 1855 -- (Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:178 [ref. 6441], Smith & Smith 1986:581 [ref. 5710], Bauchot & Skelton 1986:331 [ref. 6210], Ataur Rahman 1989:326 [ref. 24860], Gomon et al. 1994:599 [ref. 22532], Popova 1998:121 [ref. 23588], Carpenter 2001:2993 [ref. 26104], Parin 2003:S10 [ref. 28536], Ataur Rahman 2003:352 [ref. 31338], Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2006:1 [ref. 28673], Bray et al. 2006:1226 [ref. 29091], Iwatsuki et al. 2006:406 [ref. 29239], Kume & Yoshino 2008:47 [ref. 29572], Dolganov et al. 2008:220 [ref. 29802], Gomon 2008:588 [ref. 30616], Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2009:43 [ref. 30528], Chiba et al. 2009:167 [ref. 30869], Coad 2010:262 [ref. 36620], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2010:123 [ref. 30738], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2011:38 [ref. 31505], Marshall 2011:263 [ref. 31755], Iwatsuki 2013:1[64] [ref. 32744], Kottelat 2013:352 [ref. 32989], Saddiqui et al. 2014:73 [ref. 33479], Parin et al. 2014:367 [ref. 33547], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:896 [ref. 34062], Trnski & Roberts 2015:1286 [ref. 34203], Esmaeili et al. 2017:95 [ref. 35254], Motomura et al. 2017:153 [ref. 35490], Esmaeili et al. 2018:78 [ref. 36089], Fricke et al. 2018:218 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:100 [ref. 36273], Kuiter 2018:66 [ref. 36369], Pombo-Ayora et al. 2022:1 [ref. 39454]). Current status: Valid as Acanthopagrus Peters 1855. Sparidae.

Allotaius Whitley [G. P.] 1937:139 Masc. Dentex spariformis Ogilby 1910. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Synonym of Dentex Cuvier 1814 -- (Parenti 2019:59 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Dentex Cuvier 1814. Sparidae.

Amamiichthys Tanaka [F.] & Iwatsuki [Y.] 2015:196 Masc. Cheimerius matsubarai Akazaki 1962. Type by original designation. •Valid as Amamiichthys Tanaka & Iwatsuki 2015 -- (Parenti 2019:58 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Amamiichthys Tanaka & Iwatsuki 2015. Sparidae.

Archosargus Gill [T. N.] 1865:266 Masc. Sparus probatocephalus Walbaum 1792. Type by monotypy. •Valid as Archosargus Gill 1865 -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:350 [ref. 24550], Carpenter 2003:1556 [ref. 27092], Chiba et al. 2009:166 [ref. 30869], Parenti 2019:71 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Archosargus Gill 1865. Sparidae.

Argyrops (subgenus of Chrysophrys) Swainson [W.] 1839:171, 221 Masc. Sparus spinifer Forsskål 1775. Type by monotypy. •Valid as Argyrops Swainson 1839 -- (Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:177 [ref. 6441], Smith & Smith 1986:581 [ref. 5710], Carpenter 2001:2992 [ref. 26104], Bray et al. 2006:1228 [ref. 29091], Siddiqui at al. 2014:79 [ref. 33479], Motomura et al. 2017:153 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:218 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:100 [ref. 36273], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2018:401 [ref. 35983], Parenti 2019:72 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Argyrops Swainson 1839. Sparidae.

Argyrozona (subgenus of Polysteganus) Smith [J. L. B.] 1938:300 Fem. Dentex argyrozona Valenciennes 1830. Type by monotypy (also by absolute tautonymy). •Valid as Argyrozona Smith 1938 -- (Smith & Smith 1986:582 [ref. 5710], Parenti 2019:58 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Argyrozona Smith 1938. Sparidae.

Aurata Oken [L.] (ex Cuvier) 1817:1183 Fem. Sparus aurata Linnaeus 1758. Based on "Les Daurades" of Cuvier 1816:272 [ref. 993] (see Gill 1903:966 [ref. 5768]). First technical addition of species and type designation not researched. •Objective synonym of Sparus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Tortonese 1973:405 [ref. 7192], Parin 2003:S12 [ref. 28536], Parin et al. 2014:370 [ref. 33547], Parenti 2019:88 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Sparus Linnaeus 1758. Sparidae.

Aurata Risso [A.] 1827:355 Fem. Aurata semilunata Risso 1827. Type by monotypy. Objectively invalid; apparently preoccupied by Aurata Oken 1817. 1°Homonym. Current status: Uncertain. Sparidae.

Aurata Catesby [M.] 1771:16 Fem. Not available, published in a rejected work on Official Index (Opinion 89, Opinion 259). •In the synonymy of Calamus Swainson 1839 -- (Jordan 1917:30 [ref. 2407]). Suppressed. Current status: Synonym of Calamus Swainson 1839. Sparidae.

Austrosparus Smith [J. L. B.] 1938:241 Masc. Chrysophrys globiceps Valenciennes 1830. Type by original designation. •Synonym of Rhabdosargus Fowler 1933 -- (Smith 1979:702 [ref. 6940], Smith & Smith 1986:592 [ref. 5710], Bauchot & Skelton 1986:332 [ref. 6210], Tanaka & Iwasuki 2013:8 [ref. 32775], Parenti 2019:86 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Rhabdosargus Fowler 1933. Sparidae.

Axineceps (subgenus of Polysteganus) Smith [J. L. B.] 1938:301 Neut. Dentex praeorbitalis Günther 1859. Type by monotypy. •Synonym of Polysteganus Klunzinger 1870 -- (Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2011:18 [ref. 31500], Parenti 2019:62 [ref. 36892] as Axiniceps). Current status: Synonym of Polysteganus Klunzinger 1870. Sparidae.

Boops Cuvier [G.] 1814:91 Masc. Sparus boops Linnaeus 1758. Type by absolute tautonymy. Also in Cuvier 1815:453 [ref. 1019]. •Valid as Boops Cuvier 1814 -- (Tortonese 1973:406 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:884 [ref. 13676], Parin 2003:S10 [ref. 28536], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:46 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:367 [ref. 33547], Parenti 2019:49 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Boops Cuvier 1814. Sparidae.

Boopsoidea Castelnau [F. L.] 1861:25 Fem. Boopsoidea inornata Castelnau 1861. Type by monotypy. Spelled Boopsidea by Castelnau (p. 26); Boopsoidea on p. v. and at head of genus description. •Valid as Boopsoidea Castelnau 1861 -- (Smith & Smith 1986:581 [ref. 5710], Parenti 2019:63 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Boopsoidea Castelnau 1861. Sparidae.

Box Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:346 Masc. Sparus boops Linnaeus 1758. Type by subsequent designation. Type designated by Jordan & Fesler 1893:529 [ref. 2455]. •Synonym of Boops Cuvier 1814 -- (Tortonese 1973:406 [ref. 7192]). Current status: Synonym of Boops Cuvier 1814. Sparidae.

Caeso Gistel [J.] 1848:VIII Masc. Sparus aurata Linnaeus 1758. Type by being a replacement name. Unexplained replacement for "Chrysophrys Rüppell," with no species named by Gistel (see Jordan 1919:338 [ref. 2409]). If regarded as a generic replacement, then goes back to Cuvier with type as above, else Gistel's name is unavailable. Treated as masculine (Art. 30.2.4). •Objective synonym of Sparus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Parenti 2019:88 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Sparus Linnaeus 1758. Sparidae.

Calamus (subgenus of Chrysophrys) Swainson [W.] 1839:171, 221 Masc. Calamus megacephalus Swainson 1839. Type by monotypy. •Valid as Calamus Swainson 1839 -- (Randall & Caldwell 1966 [ref. 9053], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:360 [ref. 14275], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:347 [ref. 24550], Carpenter 2003:1557 [ref. 27092], Chiba et al. 2009:166 [ref. 30869], Parenti 2019:74 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Calamus Swainson 1839. Sparidae.

Cantharus Cuvier [G.] 1816:278 Masc. Sparus cantharus Linnaeus 1758. Type by absolute tautonymy. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Cantharus Bolton 1798 and by Cantharus Montfort 1808 [not researched], replaced by Spondyliosoma Cantor 1849, Cantharusa Strand 1926, and Caranthus Barnard 1927. See also Cantherus in Whitley 1936:136 [ref. 6396]. •Synonym of Spondyliosoma Cantor 1849 -- (Tortonese 1973:414 [ref. 7192], Parenti 2019:56 [ref. 36892]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Spondyliosoma Cantor 1849. Sparidae.

Cantharusa Strand [E.] 1928:54 Fem. Sparus cantharus Linnaeus 1758. Type by being a replacement name. Replacement for Cantharus Cuvier 1816, preoccupied by Cantharus Bolton 1798. •Objective synonym of Spondyliosoma Cantor 1849, an earlier replacement name -- (Parenti 2019:56 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spondyliosoma Cantor 1849. Sparidae.

Caranthus Barnard [K. H.] 1927:720 Masc. Sparus cantharus Linnaeus 1758. Type by being a replacement name. Replacement for Cantharus Cuvier 1816, preoccupied by Cantharus Bolton 1798 and by Cantharus Montfort 1808. Earlier replaced by Spondyliosoma Cantor 1849 and by Cantharusa Strand 1926. •Objective synonym of Spondyliosoma Cantor 1849 -- (Tortonese 1973:414 [ref. 7192], Parenti 2019:56 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spondyliosoma Cantor 1849. Sparidae.

Centracanthus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:42 Masc. Centracanthus cirrus Rafinesque 1810. Type by monotypy. Spelled Centracantus, emended by plenary powers of ICZN to Centracanthus and placed on Official List (Opinion 960); Centracantha Rafinesque 1810:67 (incorrect subsequent spelling) and Centracantus placed on Official Index. •Valid as Centracanthus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Tortonese et al. 1973:417 [ref. 7202], Johnson 1980:11 [ref. 13553], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:908 [ref. 13676], Parin 2003:S12 [ref. 28536], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:49 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:371 [ref. 33547], Parenti 2019:89 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Centracanthus Rafinesque 1810. Sparidae.

Charax Risso [A.] 1827:353 Masc. Charax acutirostris Delaroche 1809. Type by monotypy. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Charax Scopoli 1777 in fishes; replaced by Puntazzo Bleeker 1876. •Synonym of Puntazzo Bleeker 1876 -- (Tortonese 1973:413 [ref. 7192]). •Synonym of Diplodus Rafinescue 1810 -- (Parin 2003:S10 [ref. 28536], Parin et al. 2014:368 [ref. 33547], Parenti 2019:78 [ref. 36892]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Diplodus Rafinesque 1810. Sparidae.

Cheimerius Smith [J. L. B.] 1938:292 Masc. Dentex nufar Valenciennes 1830. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Synonym of Dentex Cuvier 1814, but a valid subgenus Cheimerius -- (Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:886 [ref. 13676]). •Valid as Cheimerius Smith 1938 -- (Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:177 [ref. 6441], Smith & Smith 1986:583 [ref. 5710], Chiba et al. 2009:167 [ref. 30869], Siddiqui at al. 2014:80 [ref. 33479], Fricke et al. 2018:219 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:101 [ref. 36273], Parenti 2019:58 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Cheimerius Smith 1938. Sparidae.

Chryseis Schinz [H. R.] 1822:438 Masc. Sparus aurata Linnaeus 1758. Type by subsequent designation. Earliest type designation not established; see also Whitley 1935:137 [ref. 6396]. •Objective synonym of Sparus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Parenti 2019:88 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Sparus Linnaeus 1758. Sparidae.

Chrysoblephus (subgenus of Chrysophrys) Swainson [W.] 1839:171, 221 Masc. Chrysophrys gibbiceps Valenciennes 1830. Type by monotypy. Spelled Chrysoblepus by Swainson 1839:171 and 442 (index) [ref. 4303]; first reviser not researched. •Valid as Chrysoblephus Swainson 1839 -- (Smith & Smith 1986:583 [ref. 5710], Fricke et al. 2018:219 [ref. 35805], Parenti 2019:76 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Chrysoblephus Swainson 1839. Sparidae.

Chrysophris Cuvier [G.] 1829:181 Fem. Sparus aurata Linnaeus 1758. Type by subsequent designation. Type designated by Jordan 1917:128 [ref. 2407]. •Synonym of Pagrus Cuvier 1816 -- (Paulin 1990:260 [ref. 15774] with type as Labrus auratus Bloch & Schneider 1801). •Objective synonym of Sparus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Tortonese 1973:405 [ref. 7192], Parenti 2019:88 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Sparus Linnaeus 1758. Sparidae.

Chrysophrys Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:299 Fem. Chrysophrys unicolor Quoy & Gaimard 1824. Type by monotypy. As "Chrysophrys. Cuv." but that name (as Chrysophris) not validated until Cuvier 1829. Apparently Chrysophrys is available as above. •Synonym of Pagrus Cuvier 1816 -- (Paulin 1990:260 [ref. 15774]). •Valid as Chrysophrys Quoy & Gaimard 1824 -- (Gomon et al. 1994:600 [ref. 22532], Gomon 2008:589 [ref. 30616], Trnski & Roberts 2015:1288 [ref. 34203], Parenti 2019:77 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Chrysophrys Quoy & Gaimard 1824. Sparidae.

Coleosmaris Norman [J. R.] 1931:359 Fem. Coleosmaris nigricauda Norman 1931. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Synonym of Spicara Rafinesque 1810 -- (Parenti 2019:54 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara Rafinesque 1810. Sparidae.

Crenidens Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:377 Masc. Crenidens forskalii Valenciennes 1830 (= Sparus crenidens Forsskål 1775). Type by monotypy. •Valid as Crenidens Valenciennes 1830 -- (Tortonese 1973:416 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:884 [ref. 13676], Smith & Smith 1986:584 [ref. 5710], Siddiqui at al. 2014:81 [ref. 33479], Bogorodsky et al. 2017:[1] [ref. 35520], Fricke et al. 2018:219 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:101 [ref. 36273], Parenti 2019:50 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Crenidens Valenciennes 1830. Sparidae.

Cymatoceps Smith [J. L. B.] 1938:259 Masc. Chrysophrys nasutus Castelnau 1861. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Cymatoceps Smith 1938 -- (Smith & Smith 1986:585 [ref. 5710], Parenti 2019:78 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Cymatoceps Smith 1938. Sparidae.

Cynaedus Gronow [L. T.] 1763:60 Not available, published in a rejected work on Official Index (Opinion 261) (see Parenti 2019:92 [ref. 36892]). Suppressed. Sparidae.

Cynedus Scopoli [J. A.] (ex Gronow) 1777:455 Masc. Appeared first without species and with spelling as Cynedus (the correct original spelling), Cynaedus used by Jordan and authors. First addition of species not researched. See also Whitley 1936:199 [ref. 6397]. Current status: Uncertain. Sparidae.

Daurada Stark [J.] 1828:452 Masc. Sparus aurata Linnaeus 1758. Type by subsequent designation. Type apparently first designated by Jordan 1917:123 [ref. 2407]. Treated by Stark as masculine. •Objective synonym of Sparus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Parenti 2019:88 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Sparus Linnaeus 1758. Sparidae.

Denius Gistel [J.] 1848:X Masc. Sparus sargus Linnaeus 1758. Type by being a replacement name. Replacement for Sargus Cuvier 1817, preoccupied by Sargus Fabricius 1798 in Diptera. Apparently misspelled Demius by Neave 1940:33 [ref. 12569]. •Synonym of Diplodus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Parenti 2019:78 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus Rafinesque 1810. Sparidae.

Dentex Cuvier [G.] 1814:92 Masc. Sparus dentex Linnaeus 1758. Type by absolute tautonymy. •Valid as Dentex Cuvier 1814 -- (Tortonese 1973:407 [ref. 7192], Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:177 [ref. 6441], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:885 [ref. 13676], Carpenter 2001:2992 [ref. 26104], Parin 2003:S10 [ref. 28536], Bray et al. 2006:1228 [ref. 29091] dated to Cuvier 1815, Iwatsuki et al. 2007:29 [ref. 29100], Chiba et al. 2009:167 [ref. 30869], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:46 [ref. 36649], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2011:18 [ref. 31500], Shinohara et al. 2011:49 [ref. 31715], Parin et al. 2014:367 [ref. 33547], Iwasuki et al. 2015:109 [ref. 33802], Parenti 2019:59 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Dentex Cuvier 1814. Sparidae.

Diplodus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:26, 54 Masc. Sparus annularis Linnaeus 1758. Type by monotypy. Diploctus is a misspelling. •Valid as Diplodus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Tortonese 1973:408 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:890 [ref. 13676], Smith & Smith 1986:585 [ref. 5710], Popova 1998:121 [ref. 23588], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:349 [ref. 24550], Carpenter 2003:1556 [ref. 27092], Parin 2003:S10 [ref. 28536], Casu et al. 2009:142 [ref. 30209], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:47 [ref. 36649], Amir et al. 2013:220 [ref. 32960], Siddiqui at al. 2014:83 [ref. 33479], Parin et al. 2014:367 [ref. 33547], Fricke 2016:1 [ref. 34520], Golani et al. 2017:529 [ref. 35726], Fricke et al. 2018:219 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:101 [ref. 36273], Brown et al. 2019:180 [ref. 36444], Parenti 2019:78 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus Rafinesque 1810. Sparidae.

Dorada Jarocki [F. P.] 1822:200 Fem. Sparus aurata Linnaeus 1758. Unneeded replacement of Sparus Linnaeus 1758. •Objective synonym of Sparus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Parenti 2019:88 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Sparus Linnaeus 1758. Sparidae.

Dulosparus (subgenus of Sparus) Fowler [H. W.] 1933:148, 168 Masc. Pagrus filamentosus Valenciennes 1830. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Synonym of Argyrops Swainson 1839 -- (Parenti 2019:73 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Argyrops Swainson 1839. Sparidae.

Eudynama Gistel [J.] 1848:XIII Neut. Sparus aurata Linnaeus 1758. Type by being a replacement name. Unneeded replacement for Chrysophris Cuvier 1829, apparently not preoccupied. •Objective synonym of Sparus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Parenti 2019:88 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Sparus Linnaeus 1758. Sparidae.

Eusalpa Fowler [H. W.] 1925:4 Fem. Sparus salpa Linnaeus 1758. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Objective synonym of Sarpa Bonaparte 1831 -- (Tortonese 1973:413 [ref. 7192], Parenti 2019:53 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Sarpa Bonaparte 1831. Sparidae.

Evynnis Jordan [D. S.] & Thompson [W. F.] 1912:573 Masc. Sparus cardinalis Lacepède 1802. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Evynnis Jordan & Thompson 1912 -- (Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:177 [ref. 6441], Carpenter 2001:2992 [ref. 26104], Parin 2003:S11 [ref. 28536] as Evynnus, Guan et al. 2012:217 [ref. 31832], Parin et al. 2014:369 [ref. 33547] misspelled once as Evynnus, Parenti 2019:83 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Evynnis Jordan & Thompson 1912. Sparidae.

Exocallus de la Pylaie [A. J. M.] 1835:532 Masc. Exocallus insignis de la Pylaie 1835. Type by being a replacement name. An unneeded substitute name for Boops Cuvier 1814, with species Boops vulgaris renamed insignis. Type species is Sparus boops Linnaeus 1758. •Objective synonym of Boops Cuvier 1814. •Synonym of Boops Cuvier 1814 -- (Parenti 2019:49 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Boops Cuvier 1814. Sparidae.

Grammateus Poey [F.] 1872:182 Masc. Pagellus microps Guichenot 1853. Type by subsequent designation. Type designated by Jordan & Fesler 1893:508 [ref. 2455] as microps; two included species are humilis (microps in synonymy) and medius. •Synonym of Calamus Swainson 1839 -- (Randall & Caldwell 1966:5 [ref. 9053], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:347 [ref. 24550], Parenti 2019:74 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Calamus Swainson 1839. Sparidae.

Gymnocrotaphus Günther [A.] 1859:413, 432 Masc. Gymnocrotaphus curvidens Günther 1859. Type by monotypy. •Valid as Gymnocrotaphus Günther 1859 -- (Smith & Smith 1986:586 [ref. 5710], Parenti 2019:50 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Gymnocrotaphus Günther 1859. Sparidae.

Labeo Bowdich [S. L.] 1825:xii, 122 Masc. Labeo sparoides Bowdich 1825. Type by monotypy. Also involves fig. 29 opposite p. 140 in conjunction with p. xii. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Labeo Cuvier 1816 in fishes, replaced by Labeova Whitley 1950. •Objective synonym of Labeova Whitley 1950. •Synonym of Sarpa Bonaparte 1831 -- (Parenti 2019:53 [ref. 36892]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Sarpa Bonaparte 1831. Sparidae.

Labeova Whitley [G. P.] 1950:44 Fem. Labeo sparoides Bowdich 1825. Type by being a replacement name. Replacement for Labeo Bowdich 1825, preoccupied by Labeo Cuvier 1816 in fishes. •Synonym of Sarpa Bonaparte 1831 -- (Parenti 2019:53 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Sarpa Bonaparte 1831. Sparidae.

Lagodon Holbrook [J. E.] 1855:56 Masc. Sparus rhomboides Linnaeus 1766. Type by monotypy. •Valid as Lagodon Holbrook 1855 -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:352 [ref. 24550], Carpenter 2003:1556 [ref. 27092], Chiba et al. 2009:166 [ref. 30869], Parenti 2019:51 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Lagodon Holbrook 1855. Sparidae.

Leptometopon (subgenus of Polyamblyodon) Smith [J. L. B.] 1940:178 Neut. Polyamblyodon (Leptometopon) cristiceps Smith 1940. Apparently not available from Smith 1940, two included species in subgenus, neither designated as type (Art. 13.3). Genus apparently can date to treatment in Zoological Record for 1940 where only one species was mentioned with the name; Leptometopon also was spelled two ways. See remarks on Art. 13.3 in Appendix A in Eschmeyer 1990 [ref. 20647]. •Synonym of Polyamblyodon Norman 1935. Current status: Synonym of Polyamblyodon Norman 1935. Sparidae.

Lithognathus (subgenus of Pagellus) Swainson [W.] 1839:172, 222 Masc. Lithognathus capensis Swainson 1839 (= Pagellus lithognathus Cuvier 1830). Type by monotypy. L. capensis Swainson is an unneeded substitute for P. lithognathus. •Valid as Lithognathus Swainson 1839 -- (Tortonese 1973:410 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:896 [ref. 13676], Smith & Smith 1986:587 [ref. 5710], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:48 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:369 [ref. 33547], Parenti 2019:63 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Lithognathus Swainson 1839. Sparidae.

Maena Cuvier [G.] 1829:186 Fem. Sparus maena Linnaeus 1758. Type by absolute tautonymy. Spelled Mena by Swainson 1839:170, 215 [ref. 4303]. •Synonym of Spicara Rafinesque 1810 -- (Tortonese et al. 1973:417 [ref. 7202], Parin 2003:S12 [ref. 28536], Parin et al. 2014:371 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara Rafinesque 1810. Sparidae.

Maenas Klein [J. T.] 1776:360 Not available, published in a work that does not conform to the principle of binominal nomenclature. •In the synonymy of Maena Cuvier 1829 = Spicara Rafinesque 1810 -- (Parenti 2019:54 [ref. 36892]). Suppressed. Current status: Synonym of Spicara Rafinesque 1810. Sparidae.

Maenas Bleeker [P.] (ex Klein) 1876:273 Fem. Sparus maena Linnaeus 1758. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Synonym of Spicara Rafinesque 1810 -- (Parenti 2019:54 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara Rafinesque 1810. Sparidae.

Maenas Walbaum [J. J.] (ex Klein) 1792:585 Not available, published in a part of work rejected for nomenclatural purposes in Opinion 21 (1938). Based on Klein 1749:44 [ref. 30141], with reference to Willughby 1686:318, Pl. V.8, fig. 4; 319, pl. V.8, fig. 5 [ref. 30164]. •In the synonymy of Maena Cuvier 1829 = Spicara Rafinesque 1810. Suppressed. Current status: Synonym of Spicara Rafinesque 1810. Sparidae.

Marsis Barnard [K. H.] 1927:682 Masc. Sparus smaris Linnaeus 1758. Type by being a replacement name. Replacement for Smaris Cuvier 1814, preoccupied by Smaris Latreille 1796 in Arachnida. •Synonym of Spicara Rafinesque 1810 -- (Tortonese et al. 1973:417 [ref. 7202], Parenti 2019:54 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara Rafinesque 1810. Sparidae.

Merolepis Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:25 Fem. Sparus massiliensis Lacepède 1802. Type by monotypy. On Official List (Opinion 960). •Synonym of Spicara Rafinesque 1810 -- (Tortonese et al. 1973:417 [ref. 7202], Parenti 2019:53 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara Rafinesque 1810. Sparidae.

Mimocubiceps Fowler [H. W.] 1944:1 Neut. Mimocubiceps virginiae Fowler 1944. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Synonym of Stenotomus Gill 1865 -- (Robins & de Sylva 1964:589 [ref. 6550], Parenti 2019:67 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Stenotomus Gill 1865. Sparidae.

Mylio Commerson [P.] in Lacepède 1802:131 (footnote) Masc. Chaetodon bifasciatus Forsskål 1775. Type by monotypy. Apparently not available from Lacepède, see remarks under Opinion 89 in Appendix B in Eschmeyer et al. 1990 [ref. 26735]. Dates to Munro 1949:185 [ref. 13024]. Treated as masculine, Art. 30.2.4. •Synonym of Acanthopagrus Peters 1855 -- (Kottelat 2013:352 [ref. 32989], •Synonym of Stenotomus chrysops (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Parenti 2019:67 [ref. 36892]).). Suppressed. Sparidae.

Mylio Munro [I. S. R.] 1949:185 Masc. Sparus mylio Lacepède 1802. By original designation. •Synonym of Acanthopagrus Peters 1855 -- (Kottelat 2013:352 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthopagrus Peters 1855. Sparidae.

Naqua (subgenus of Sciaena) Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xvii Not available, no type species or diagnosis. Not meant as a subgenus, but as a species (see Fricke 2008:41 [ref. 30182]). •In the synonymy of Lutjanus Bloch 1790 -- (Kottelat 2013:340 [ref. 32989]). •Probably in the synonymy of Cheimerius Smith 1938 -- (Fricke 2008:41 [ref. 30182]). Current status: Synonym of Cheimerius Smith 1938. Sparidae.

Neosparus Akazaki [M.] 1994:327, 336 Masc. Chaetodon bifasciatus Forsskål 1775. Type by original designation (also monotypic). Proposed somewhat conditionally but regarded as available; author of type species wrongly given as Lacepède. This genus not included in Eschmeyer 1998 [ref. 23416]. •Synonym of Acanthopagrus Peters 1855 -- (Kottelat 2013:352 [ref. 32989], Parenti 2019:68 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthopagrus Peters 1855. Sparidae.

Nudipagellus (subgenus of Pagellus) Fowler [H. W.] 1925:4 Masc. Sparus centrodontus Delaroche 1809. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Synonym of Pagellus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Tortonese 1973:411 [ref. 7192], Parenti 2019:64 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pagellus Valenciennes 1830. Sparidae.

Oblada Cuvier [G.] 1829:185 Fem. Sparus melanurus Linnaeus 1758. Type by monotypy. Spelled Oblata by Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:366 [ref. 996]. •Valid as Oblada Cuvier 1829 -- (Tortonese 1973:410 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:897 [ref. 13676], Parin 2003:S11 [ref. 28536], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:48 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:369 [ref. 33547], Parenti 2019:51 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Oblada Cuvier 1829. Sparidae.

Opsodentex (subgenus of Dentex) Fowler [H. W.] 1925:4 Masc. Sparus macrophthalmus Bloch 1791. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Synonym of Dentex Cuvier 1814 -- (Tortonese 1973:407 [ref. 7192], Parenti 2019:59 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Dentex Cuvier 1814. Sparidae.

Otrynter Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1896:388 Masc. Stenotomus caprinus Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Synonym of Stenotomus Gill 1865 -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:348 [ref. 24550], Parenti 2019:66 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Stenotomus Gill 1865. Sparidae.

Pachymetopon Günther [A.] 1859:413, 424 Neut. Pachymetopon grande Günther 1859. Type by monotypy. •Valid as Pachymetopon Günther 1859 -- (Smith & Smith 1986:588 [ref. 5710], Fricke et al. 2018:220 [ref. 35805], Parenti 2019:51 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Pachymetopon Günther 1859. Sparidae.

Pagellus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:169 Masc. Sparus erythrinus Linnaeus 1758. Type by subsequent designation. Appeared in Cuvier 1829:182 [ref. 995] but not fully written out in Latin (but as Pagr.). Type designated by Desmarest 1856:225 [ref. 17401] -- see Whitley 1939:223 [ref. 25866] but Whitley has wrong date for Desmarest. Pagelus is a misspelling (e.g. by Griffith 1834:164 [ref. 1908]). •Valid as Pagellus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Tortonese 1973:411 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:898 [ref. 13676], Smith & Smith 1986:589 [ref. 5710], Parin 2003:S11 [ref. 28536], Chiba et al. 2009:167 [ref. 30869], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:48 [ref. 36649], Amir et al. 2013:220 [ref. 32960], Siddiqui at al. 2014:85 [ref. 33479], Fricke et al. 2014:1 [ref. 33592], Parin et al. 2014:369 [ref. 33547], Fricke et al. 2018:220 [ref. 35805], Parenti 2019:64 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Pagellus Valenciennes 1830. Sparidae.

Pagrichthys Bleeker [P.] 1859:60 Masc. Pagrichthys castelnaui Bleeker 1859. Type by monotypy. •Synonym of Pachymetopon Günther 1859 -- (Parenti 2019:51 [ref. 36892]). •Synonym of Lithognathus Swainson 1839-- (Russell & van Oijen 2021:426 [ref. 38177]). Current status: Synonym of Lithognathus Swainson 1839. Sparidae.

Pagrosomus Gill [T. N.] 1893:97 Masc. Labrus auratus Forster in Bloch & Schneider 1801. Type by monotypy. Called Sparosomus by error by Gill on pp. 116 and 123 (see Jordan 1920:461 [ref. 4905]). •Synonym of Pagrus Cuvier 1816 -- (Paulin 1990:260 [ref. 15774], Parin 2003:S11 [ref. 28536], Parin et al. 2014:370 [ref. 33547]). •Synonym of Chrysophrys Quoy & Gaimard 1824 -- (Parenti 2019:77 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Chrysophrys Quoy & Gaimard 1824. Sparidae.

Pagrus Cuvier [G.] 1816:272 Masc. Sparus pagrus Linnaeus 1758. Type by absolute tautonymy (species mentioned in footnote). Appeared first in Cuvier 1814:92 [ref. 4884] as "Les Pagres". Cuvier includes S. pagrus of Bloch 1791 (Pl. 267), which is Sparus pagrus Linnaeus. Not preoccupied by Pagrus Plumier in Lacepède 1802 [not available] in fishes. The genus is now restricted to the Mediterranean and Atlantic. •Synonym of Sparus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Tortonese 1973:405 [ref. 7192]). •Valid as Pagrus Cuvier 1816 -- (Bianchi 1984 [ref. 5159], Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:177 [ref. 6441], Paulin 1990:260 [ref. 15774], Carpenter 2001:2992 [ref. 26104], Carpenter 2003:1557 [ref. 27092], Parin 2003:S11 [ref. 28536], Bray et al. 2006:1229 [ref. 29091], Chiba et al. 2009:167 [ref. 30869], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:48 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:370 [ref. 33547], Bañón et al. 2014:323 [ref. 33674], Parenti 2019:83 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Pagrus Cuvier 1816. Sparidae.

Parargyrops Tanaka [S.] 1916:141 Masc. Parargyrops edita Tanaka 1916. Type by monotypy. Misspelled Paragyrops in Jordan 1920:560 [ref. 4905]. •Synonym of Argyrops Swainson 1839 -- (authors). •Valid as Parargyrops Tanaka 1916 -- (Ye in Pan et al. 1991:401 [ref. 23876], Parenti 2019:85 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Parargyrops Tanaka 1916. Sparidae.

Petrus Smith [J. L. B.] 1938:302 Masc. Dentex rupestris Valenciennes 1830. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Petrus Smith 1938 -- (Smith & Smith 1986:589 [ref. 5710], Parenti 2019:61 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Petrus Smith 1938. Sparidae.

Polyamblyodon Norman [J. R.] 1935:21 Masc. Pachymetopon germanum Barnard 1934. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Polyamblyodon Norman 1935 -- (Smith & Smith 1986:589 [ref. 5710], Fricke et al. 2018:220 [ref. 35805], Parenti 2019:52 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Polyamblyodon Norman 1935. Sparidae.

Polysteganus (subgenus of Dentex) Klunzinger [C. B.] 1870:763 Masc. Dentex (Polysteganus) coeruleopunctatus Klunzinger 1870. Type by subsequent designation. Type designated by Jordan 1919:359 [ref. 4904]. •Synonym of Dentex Cuvier 1814, but a valid subgenus Polysteganus as described -- (Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:886 [ref. 13676]). •Valid as Polysteganus Klunzinger 1870 -- (Smith 1978 [ref. 6936], Smith & Smith 1986:590 [ref. 5710], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2011:16 [ref. 31500], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2015:133 [ref. 34109], Fricke et al. 2018:220 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:101 [ref. 36273], Parenti 2019:62 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Polysteganus Klunzinger 1870. Sparidae.

Porcostoma Smith [J. L. B.] 1938:270 Neut. Chrysophrys dentatus Gilchrist & Thompson 1908. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Porcostoma Smith 1938 -- (Smith & Smith 1986:591 [ref. 5710], Parenti 2019:85 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Porcostoma Smith 1938. Sparidae.

Prionosparus (subgenus of Austrosparus) Smith [J. L. B.] 1942:280, 282 Masc. Austrosparus (Prionosparus) tricuspidens Smith 1942. Type by monotypy. •Synonym of Rhabdosargus Fowler 1933 -- (Smith 1979:702 [ref. 6940], Bauchot & Skelton 1986:332 [ref. 6210], Tanaka & Iwasuki 2013:82 [ref. 32775], Parenti 2019:86 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Rhabdosargus Fowler 1933. Sparidae.

Pterogymnus Smith [J. L. B.] 1938:257 Masc. Pagrus laniarius Valenciennes 1830. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Pterogymnus Smith 1938 -- (Smith & Smith 1986:591 [ref. 5710], Parenti 2019:85 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Pterogymnus Smith 1938. Sparidae.

Pterosmaris (subgenus of Centracanthus) Fowler [H. W.] 1925:4 Fem. Smaris melanurus Valenciennes 1830. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Pterosmaris Fowler 1925 -- (Tortonese et al. 1973:419 [ref. 7202], Johnson 1980:10 [ref. 13553], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:909 [ref. 13676]). •Synonym of Spicara Rafinesque 1810 -- (Parenti 2019:54 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Spicara Rafinesque 1810. Sparidae.

Puntazzo Bleeker [P.] 1876:284 Masc. Sparus acutirostris Delaroche 1809 (= Sparus puntazzo Cetti 1784). Type by being a replacement name. Based on Bleeker's style this is a replacement name for Charax Risso 1827, preoccupied by Charax Scopoli 1877 in fishes. •Valid as Puntazzo Bleeker 1876 -- (Tortonese 1973:413 [ref. 7192]). •Synonym of Diplodus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Parin 2003:S10 [ref. 28536], Parin et al. 2014:368 [ref. 33547], Parenti 2019:78 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus Rafinesque 1810. Sparidae.

Rhabdosargus (subgenus of Diplodus) Fowler [H. W.] 1933:175, 178 Masc. Sargus auriventris Peters 1855. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Rhabdosargus Fowler 1933 -- (Smith 1979 [ref. 6940], Smith & Smith 1986:592 [ref. 5710], Bauchot & Skelton 1986:332 [ref. 6210], Carpenter 2001:2993 [ref. 26104], Bray et al. 2006:1229 [ref. 29091], Gomon 2008:588 [ref. 30616], Chiba et al. 2009:167 [ref. 30869], Tanaka & Iwatsuki 2013:1 [ref. 32775], Siddiqui at al. 2014:86 [ref. 33479], Fricke et al. 2018:221 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:101 [ref. 36273], Parenti 2019:86 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Rhabdosargus Fowler 1933. Sparidae.

Roughleyia Whitley [G. P.] 1931:318 Fem. Chrysophrys australis Günther 1859. Type by original designation. •Synonym of Sparus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Parenti 2019:88 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Sparus Linnaeus 1758. Sparidae.

Salema (subgenus of Archosargus) Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1896:390 Fem. Perca unimaculata Bloch 1792. Type by original designation. •Synonym of Archosargus Gill 1865 -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:350 [ref. 24550], Parenti 2019:71 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Archosargus Gill 1865. Sparidae.

Sargus Cuvier [G.] 1816:272 Masc. Sparus sargus Linnaeus 1758. Type by absolute tautonymy. Appeared as "Les Sargues" in Cuvier 1814:91 [ref. 4884]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Sargus Fabricius 1798 in Diptera (and not by Plumier in Lacepède 1802 in fishes); replaced by Denius Gistel 1848. •In the synonymy of Diplodus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:349 [ref. 24550], Parenti 2019:78 [ref. 36892]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Diplodus Rafinesque 1810. Sparidae.

Sargus Klein [J. T.] 1775:966 Masc. Not available, published in a work that does not conform to the principle of binominal nomenclature (see Parenti 2019:92 [ref. 36892]). •In the synonymy of Diplodus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Tortonese 1973:408 [ref. 7192]). Suppressed. Current status: Synonym of Diplodus Rafinesque 1810. Sparidae.

Sargus Walbaum [J. J.] (ex Klein) 1792:586 Masc. Not available, published in a part of work rejected for nomenclatural purposes in Opinion 21 (1938) (see Parenti 2019:92 [ref. 36892]). Based on Klein 1749:56 [ref. 30141]. •In the synonymy of Diplodus Rafinesque 1810. Suppressed. Current status: Synonym of Diplodus Rafinesque 1810. Sparidae.

Sarpa (subgenus of Box) Bonaparte [C. L.] 1831:171 Fem. Sparus salpa Linnaeus 1758. Appeared as name only; as a section under Box as "96. Box, Cuv. (Boops, Riss.). 1. Box, Nob. 2. Sarpa, Nob." Subsequent use in an available way not investigated. •Valid as Sarpa Bonaparte 1831 -- (Tortonese 1973:413 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:905 [ref. 13676], Smith & Smith 1986:593 [ref. 5710], Parin 2003:S12 [ref. 28536], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:49 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:370 [ref. 33547], Parenti 2019:53 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Sarpa Bonaparte 1831. Sparidae.

Scatharus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:375 Masc. Scatharus graecus Valenciennes 1830. Type by monotypy. Misspelled Scathurus by Swainson 1839:223 [ref. 4303]. •Possibly a synonym of Spondyliosoma Cantor 1849 -- (Parenti 2019:56 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Uncertain as Spondyliosoma Cantor 1849. Sparidae.

Seleima Bowdich [S. L.] 1825:xii, 238 Fem. Seleima aurata Bowdich 1825. Type by monotypy. Also involves fig. 37 opposite p. 238 in conjunction with p. xii. An older name for Sarpa Bonaparte 1831, but never used as valid in Sparidae, best to treat as Nomen Oblitum. •Synonym of Kyphosus Lacepède 1801 -- (Desoutter 1973:420 [ref. 7203], Knudsen & Clements 2013:7 [ref. 33031]). •Synonym of Sarpa Bonaparte 1831. Nomen Oblitum. Current status: Synonym of Sarpa Bonaparte 1831. Sparidae.

Semapagrus (subgenus of Pagrus) Fowler [H. W.] 1925:4 Masc. Pagrus auriga Valenciennes 1843. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Synonym of Pagrus Cuvier 1816 -- (Parenti 2019:83 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pagrus Cuvier 1816. Sparidae.

Simocantharus (subgenus of Spondyliosoma) Fowler [H. W.] 1933:182, 185 Masc. Cantharus aeneus Gilchrist & Thompson 1908. Type by original designation. •Synonym of Pachymetopon Günther 1859 -- (Smith & Smith 1986 [ref. 5710] based on placement of type species, Parenti 2019:51 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Pachymetopon Günther 1859. Sparidae.

Smaris Cuvier [G.] 1814:92 Fem. Sparus smaris Linnaeus 1758. Type by absolute tautonymy. Also appeared in Cuvier 1815:111 [ref. 5017] and 1816:269 [ref. 993]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Smaris Latreille 1796 in Arachnida, replaced by Marsis Barnard 1927 (see Parenti 2019:92 [ref. 36892]). Placed on Official Index because of preoccupation (Opinion 960). •In the synonymy of Spicara Rafinesque 1810 -- (Tortonese et al. 1973:417 [ref. 7202], Parin 2003:S12 [ref. 28536], Parin et al. 2014:371 [ref. 33547]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Spicara Rafinesque 1810. Sparidae.

Sparidentex Munro [I. S. R.] 1948:276 Masc. Dentex hasta Valenciennes 1830 (= Chrysophrys cuvieri Day 1875). Type by original designation (also monotypic). Specific name hasta is secondarily preoccupied by Sparus hasta Bloch & Schneider 1801 in Sparus, once replaced by Chrysophrys cuvieri Day 1875, not needed anymore. •Valid as Sparidentex Munro 1948 -- (Iwatsuki & Carpenter 2006:12 [ref. 28673], Bray et al. 2006:1230 [ref. 29091], Chiba et al. 2009:167 [ref. 30869], Coad 2010:266 [ref. 36620], Amir et al. 2014:471 [ref. 33280], Kottelat 2013:353 [ref. 32989], Siddiqui at al. 2014:89 [ref. 33479], Parenti 2019:87 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Sparidentex Munro 1948. Sparidae.

Sparodon Smith [J. L. B.] 1938:249 Masc. Sargus durbanensis Castelnau 1861. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Sparodon Smith 1938 -- (Smith & Smith 1986:593 [ref. 5710], Chiba et al. 2009:167 [ref. 30869], Parenti 2019:88 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Sparodon Smith 1938. Sparidae.

Sparosomus Gill [T. N.] 1893:116, 123 Masc. Chrysophrys unicolor Quoy & Gaimard 1824. Type by monotypy. Apparently in error for Pagrosomus Gill (same publication, p. 97). •In the synonymy of Pagrus Cuvier 1816. Current status: Synonym of Pagrus Cuvier 1816. Sparidae.

Sparus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:277 Masc. Sparus aurata Linnaeus 1758. Type by subsequent designation. Type designated by Bleeker 1876:281 [ref. 447]. On Official List (Direction 34, supplement to Opinion 69). •Valid as Sparus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Tortonese 1973:405 [ref. 7192], Akazaki in Masuda et al. 1984:178 [ref. 6441], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:906 [ref. 13676], Ye in Pan et al. 1991:403 [ref. 23876], Parin 2003:S12 [ref. 28536], Chiba et al. 2009:167 [ref. 30869], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:49 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:370 [ref. 33547], Golani & Fricke 2018:101 [ref. 36273], Parenti 2019:88 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Sparus Linnaeus 1758. Sparidae.

Sphenosargus (subgenus of Salema) Fowler [H. W.] 1940:1 Masc. Salema atkinsoni Fowler 1940. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Synonym of Lagodon Holbrook 1855 based on placement of type species -- (Böhlke 1984:157 [ref. 13621], Parenti 2019:51 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Lagodon Holbrook 1855. Sparidae.

Spicara Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:51 Neut. Spicara flexuosa Rafinesque 1810. Type by monotypy. On Official List (Opinion 960). •Valid as Spicara Rafinesque 1810 -- (Tortonese et al. 1973:417 [ref. 7202], Johnson 1980:10 [ref. 13553], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:909 [ref. 13676], Heemstra 1986:594 [ref. 5660], Popova 1998:122 [ref. 23588], Parin 2003:S12 [ref. 28536], Chiba et al. 2009:167 [ref. 30869], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:49 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:371 [ref. 33547], Parenti 2019:53 [ref. 36892], Şalcioğlu et al. 2021:8 [ref. 38339] ). Current status: Valid as Spicara Rafinesque 1810. Sparidae.

Spondyliosoma Cantor [T. E.] 1849:1032 [50] Neut. Sparus cantharus Linnaeus 1758. Type by being a replacement name. Replacement for Cantharus Cuvier 1816, preoccupied by Cantharus Bolton 1798 and by Monfort 1808. On page 50 of separate. •Wrongly as a synonym of Nemipterus Swainson 1839 -- (Russell 1990:16 [ref. 19228]). •Valid as Spondyliosoma Cantor 1849 -- (Tortonese 1973:414 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:907 [ref. 13676], Smith & Smith 1986:594 [ref. 5710], Parin 2003:S12 [ref. 28536], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:49 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:371 [ref. 33547], Fricke et al. 2018:221 [ref. 35805], Parenti 2019:56 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Spondyliosoma Cantor 1849. Sparidae.

Stenesthes Jordan [D. S.] 1917:87 Fem. Sparus argyrops Linnaeus 1766. Type by being a replacement name. Unneeded replacement for, and synonym of Stenotomus Gill 1865, not preoccupied by Stenotoma. •Synonym of Stenotomus Gill 1865 -- (Parenti 2019:66 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Stenotomus Gill 1865. Sparidae.

Stenotomus Gill [T. N.] 1865:266 Masc. Sparus argyrops Linnaeus 1766. Type by monotypy. Text unclear, but apparently Gill proposed to unite three species under argyrops and provide a new name, therefore type by monotypy. •Valid as Stenotomus Gill 1865 -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:348 [ref. 24550], Carpenter 2003:1555 [ref. 27092], Chiba et al. 2009:166 [ref. 30869], Parenti 2019:66 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Stenotomus Gill 1865. Sparidae.

Synagris Walbaum [J. J.] (ex Klein) 1792:586 Fem. Not available, published in a part of work rejected for nomenclatural purposes in Opinion 21 (1938). Based on Klein 1749:46 [ref. 30141], with reference to Willughby 1686:312, Pl. V.3; 309, Pl. V.1, fig. 2; 314, Pl. V.1, fig. 7; 307, pl. V.5; 316, Pl. V.7; etc. [ref. 30164]. •In the synonymy of Dentex Cuvier 1814 (first species of Klein), and other sparid genera. Suppressed. Current status: Synonym of Dentex Cuvier 1814. Sparidae.

Synagris Bleeker [P.] (ex Klein) 1876:278 Fem. Dentex vulgaris Valenciennes 1830. Type by original designation (also monotypic). Based on Synagris Klein 1775; objectively invalid. •Synonym of Dentex Cuvier 1814 -- (Parenti 2019:59 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Dentex Cuvier 1814. Sparidae.

Synagris Klein [J. T.] 1775:442 Fem. Not available; published in a work that does not conform to the principle of binominal nomenclature. Suppressed. Sparidae.

Taius Jordan [D. S.] & Thompson [W. F.] 1912:570 Masc. Chrysophrys tumifrons Temminck & Schlegel 1843. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Synonym of Dentex Cuvier 1814 -- (Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2011:18 [ref. 31500], Parenti 2019:59 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Dentex Cuvier 1814. Sparidae.

Virididentex (subgenus of Dentex) Poll [M.] 1971:9 Masc. Dentex acromegalus Osório 1911. Type by original designation (also monotypic). •Valid as Virididentex Poll 1971 -- (Parenti 2019:63 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Virididentex Poll 1971. Sparidae.


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