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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the genus Diplodus: [ 50 ] records


acutirostris, Sparus Delaroche [F. E.] 1809:348 [62], Pl. 24 (fig. 12) [Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 13; ref. 17380] [Iviça] Ibiza, Balearic Islands, Spain, western Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-8101. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:62 [ref. 20898]. On p. 62 and Pl. 5 of separate. •Synonym of Puntazzo puntazzo (Cetti 1777 [sic]) -- (Tortonese 1973:413 [ref. 7192]). •Synonym of Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum 1792) -- (Fricke et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:81 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum 1792). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

aldrovandi, Sparus Nardo [G. D.] 1827:31, 38 (no. 117) [Giornale di fisica, chimica e storia naturale, medicina, ed arti. (series 2) Dec. II, v. 10; ref. 3146] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Also in Nardo 1827:col. 480 and 486 [ref. 19740]. •Synonym of Diplodus vulgaris (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817) -- (Fricke et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:83 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus vulgaris (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

annularis, Puntazzo Bleeker [P.] 1876:284 [Archives néerlandaises des sciences exactes et naturelles v. 11; ref. 447] Based on Charax puntazzo of Cuvier & Valenciennes = Sparus puntazzo Walbaum 1792; perhaps a new name to avoid Strickland tautonymy. •Synonym of Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum 1792) -- (Fricke et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:82 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum 1792). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

annularis, Sparus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:278 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. •Valid as Diplodus annularis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:409 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:891 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:795 [ref. 18793], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:750 [ref. 24702], Popova 1998:121 [ref. 23588], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:91 [ref. 26753], Parin 2003:S10 [ref. 28536], Golani 2005:42 [ref. 37112], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:179 [ref. 28369], Fricke et al. 2007:87 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:98 [ref. 30517], Fricke 2008:41 [ref. 30182], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:170 [ref. 31251], Casu et al. 2009:142 [ref. 30209], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:47 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:368 [ref. 33547], Fricke et al. 2016:12 [ref. 34520], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2591 [ref. 34618], Golani et al. 2017:529 [ref. 35726], Martins & Carneiro 2018:152 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:556 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:265 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:97 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:78 [ref. 36892], Bariche & Fricke 2020:90 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:42 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus annularis (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; Black Sea; Sea of Azov; eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to Portugal, including Madeira and Canary Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

anularis, Sparus Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:383 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. Also appeared in Devincenzi 1925:302, 322 [ref. 20322] as Sparus sargo vel annularis; Devincenzi treated as a synonym Sargus argenteus Valenciennes 1830. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Sparus annularis Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Diplodus argenteus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Parenti 2019:79 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus argenteus (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

argenteus, Sargus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:60 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-8555 (3), A-8105 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:56 [ref. 20898]. •Valid as Diplodus argenteus (Valenciennes 1830), subspecies argenteus -- (Carpenter 2003:1571 [ref. 27092], Nión et al. 2016:48 [ref. 35565], Spier et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36103]). •Valid as Diplodus argenteus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:182 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:443 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:225 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1645 [ref. 25634], Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:106 [ref. 25942], López et al. 2002:65 [ref. 26808], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:86 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:400 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708], Fabiano et al. 2014:9 [ref. 33530], Pinheiro et al. 2015:20 [ref. 34324], Fricke et al. 2016:12 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:79 [ref. 36892], Ribeiro et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus argenteus (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Brazil south to Argentina. Habitat: marine.

ascensionis, Sargus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:61 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Ascension Island. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-8582 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:58 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Bauchot & Hureau 1990:798 [ref. 18793], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2579 [ref. 34618]). •Valid as Diplodus ascensionis (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Wirtz et al. 2014:8 [ref. 33516], Fricke et al. 2016:12 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:79 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus ascensionis (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Distribution: Southern central Atlantic: Ascension Island endemic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

auricularis, Sargus Günther [A.] 1859:438 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] No locality. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1855.9.19.268. Proposed conditionally but available (before 1961). •Synonym of Diplodus vulgaris (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817) -- (Parenti 2019:83 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus vulgaris (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

bellottii, Sargus Steindachner [F.] 1882:41 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 19 (no. 5) (for 9 Feb. 1882); ref. 20486] Arglim Bank, Canary Islands. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1882:6 [p. 6 of separate], Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [ref. 18784]. •Valid as Diplodus bellottii (Steindachner 1882) -- (Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:892 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:796 [ref. 18793], Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2592 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:160 [ref. 36550], Carneiro et al. 2019:266 [ref. 37250], Parenti 2019:79 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus bellottii (Steindachner 1882). Sparidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Portugal south to Senegal, including Madeira. Habitat: marine.

bermudensis, Diplodus Caldwell [D. K.] 1965:217, Fig. 1 [Fieldiana Zoology v. 44 (no. 23); ref. 9202] Whalebone Bay, St. George's Island, Bermuda. Holotype: FMNH 72520. Paratypes: ANSP 101207-10 (1, 1, 4, 31); FMNH 4976-81 (1, 8, 1, 1, 1, 1), 48092 (6), 48108 (7), 48120 (2), 48160 (22, now 21), 48199 (118), 48291 (9), 48327 (3); LACM 3337 (5); UMMZ 172336 (1 of 122), 172364 (1); USNM 177982 (6), 178505 (1), 178524 (1), 178593 (56), 178656 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:157 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:32 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Diplodus bermudensis Caldwell 1965 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:268 [ref. 25013], Carpenter 2003:1572 [ref. 27092], Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:79 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus bermudensis Caldwell 1965. Sparidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda. Habitat: marine.

cadenati, Diplodus sargus de la Paz [R.], Bauchot [M.-L.] & Daget [J.] 1974:113, Figs. 2, 3A-B [Ichthyologia v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 18899] Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Canary Islands. Holotype: MNHN 1971-29. Paratypes: BMNN 1858.8.3.7 (1), 1858.8.3.8 (1); MNHN 1941-0042 (1), 1974-0056 [ex IFAN Dakar 4867] (1), A-4103 (2), A-6153 (1, dry). •Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:895 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:799 [ref. 18793], Santos et al. 1997:90 [ref. 23531], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2598 [ref. 34618]). •Valid as Diplodus cadenati de la Paz, Bauchot & Daget 1974 -- (Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Martins & Carneiro 2018:155 [ref. 36550], Carneiro et al. 2019:266 [ref. 37250], Parenti 2019:79 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus cadenati de la Paz, Bauchot & Daget 1974. Sparidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to Senegal, including Azores, Madeira and Canary Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

capensis, Charax Castelnau [F. L.] 1861:19 [Mémoire sur les poissons de l'Afrique australe; ref. 767] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. No types at MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:65 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Diplodus hottentotus (Smith 1844) -- (Parenti 2019:80 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus hottentotus (Smith 1844). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

capensis, Sargus Smith [A.] 1844:no pagination, Pl. 23 (fig. 2) [Illustrations of the zoology of South Africa v. 4; ref. 4035] Southeastern coast of South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1845.7.3.52 (stuffed and mounted). •Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Smith & Smith 1986:586 [ref. 5710], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:799 [ref. 18793], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:161 [ref. 25472], Randall 1995:226 [ref. 22896], Fricke 1999:293 [ref. 24106], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377]). •Valid as Diplodus capensis (Smith 1844) -- (Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:223 [ref. 28072], Siddiqui at al. 2014:83 [ref. 33479], Psomadakis et al. 2015:262 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2593 [ref. 34618], Fricke et al. 2018:219 [ref. 35805], Jawad et al. 2018:113 [ref. 36262], Parenti 2019:80 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus capensis (Smith 1844). Sparidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic: Angola to South Africa; southwestern Indian Ocean: South Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius (Mascarenes). Not Oman, India and Pakistan [ref. 34520]. Habitat: marine.

caudimacula, Sargus Poey [F.] 1860:198 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 21715 (1), USNM 4693 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:203 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Diplodus argenteus (Valenciennes 1830), but a valid subspecies caudimacula (Poey 1860) -- (Cervigón 1992:443 [ref. 23827], Carpenter 2003:1571 [ref. 27092]). •Valid as Diplodus caudimacula (Poey 1860) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:349 [ref. 24550], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:162 [ref. 27754], Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:80 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus caudimacula (Poey 1860). Sparidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Caribbean Sea to southern Florida (U.S.A.). Habitat: marine.

cervinus, Charax Lowe [R. T.] 1838:177 [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 2 (pt 3, art. 14); ref. 2831] Lanzarote, Canary Islands [eastern Atlantic]. Neotype: BMNH 1859.5.4.4 [or 1859.5.4.1]. Neotype designated by Bauchot & Daget 1971:321 [ref. 23129]. •Valid as Diplodus cervinus (Lowe 1838) -- (Tortonese 1973:409 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:892 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:796 [ref. 18793], Randall 1995:225 [ref. 22896], Arruda 1997:89 [ref. 24952], Fricke 1999:293 [ref. 24106], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:92 [ref. 26753] but as a valid subspecies, Golani 2005:42 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:87 [ref. 29533], Casu et al. 2009:142 [ref. 30209] as a subspecies, Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2593 [ref. 34618] as a valid subspecies, Golani et al. 2017:529 [ref. 35726] hybrid with D. cervinus x D. levantinus, also valid, Martins & Carneiro 2018:153 [ref. 36550], Carneiro et al. 2019:266 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:97 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:80 [ref. 36892], Bariche & Fricke 2020:91 [ref. 37515]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus cervinus (Lowe 1838). Sparidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to South Africa, including Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands and Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.

cinctus, Sparus Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:282 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Marseille, France, Mediterranean Sea, No types known. Based on Sparus sp., 'Sparius fascia subcaudali ...' of Brünnich 1768:39, No. 58 [ref. 17290]. •Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fricke et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:82 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dubius, Sparus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:68 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Questionable synonym of Diplodus annularis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:79 [ref. 36892], Parenti 2019:117 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Uncertain as Diplodus annularis (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fasciatus, Sargus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:59 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Cape Verde Islands. Syntypes: MNHN A-8099 (1, dry), A-8100 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:58 [ref. 20898] as holotype and paratype. •Valid as Diplodus fasciatus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Bauchot & Hureau 1990:797 [ref. 18793], Wirtz et al. 2013:126 [ref. 32972], Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2595 [ref. 34618], Carneiro et al. 2019:267 [ref. 37250], Parenti 2019:80 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus fasciatus (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Cape Verde Islands endemic. Habitat: marine.

helenae, Sargus Sauvage [H.-E.] 1879:205 [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 3; ref. 13259] Saint Helena Island, southern central Atlantic. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-0952. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:59 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Edwards & Glass 1987:641 [ref. 9166], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:800 [ref. 18793], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2579 [ref. 34618]). •Valid as Diplodus helenae (Sauvage 1879) -- (Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Brown et al. 2019:180 [ref. 36444], Parenti 2019:80 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus helenae (Sauvage 1879). Sparidae. Distribution: Southern central Atlantic: Saint Helena endemic. Habitat: marine.

holbrookii, Sargus Bean [T. H.] 1878:198 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 1 (no. 28); ref. 16021] Savannah Bank, Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 20979 (orig. 6, now 4). •Valid as Diplodus holbrooki (Bean 1878) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:182 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:142 [ref. 23239], Murdy et al. 1997:232 [ref. 23144]). •Valid as Diplodus holbrookii (Bean 1878) -- (Carpenter 2003:1573 [ref. 27092], Nelson et al. 2004:146 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:401 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:150 [ref. 32708], Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:80 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus holbrookii (Bean 1878). Sparidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Chesapeake Bay south to Florida (U.S.A.); northern Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: brackish, marine.

hottentotus, Sargus Smith [A.] 1844:no pagination, Pl. 23 (fig. 1) [Illustrations of the zoology of South Africa v. 4; ref. 4035] Southeastern coast of South Africa. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1845.7.3.51 (stuffed and mounted). •Synonym of Diplodus cervinus (Lowe 1838), but a valid subspecies -- (Smith & Smith 1986:586 [ref. 5710], Randall 1995:225 [ref. 22896]). •Valid as Diplodus hottentotus (Smith 1844) -- (Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:224 [ref. 28072], Siddiqui at al. 2014:85 [ref. 33479], Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:80 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus hottentotus (Smith 1844). Sparidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, southwestern Indian Ocean: South Africa to Mozambique. Habitat: marine.

insularum, Diplodus sargus Cadenat [J.] 1964:962, Figs. 5, 12, 24 [Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér A) Sciences Naturelles v. 26 (no. 3); ref. 1449] Cape Verde Islands. Syntypes: (6) MNHN 1964-0575 to 0578 (1, 1, 1, 1), 1971-0002 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:51 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Bauchot & Hureau 1990:800 [ref. 18793], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2599 [ref. 34618] as subspecies lineatus). •Synonym of Diplodus lineatus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:81 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus lineatus (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

kotschyi, Sargus Steindachner [F.] 1876:203 [155] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] Persian Gulf; Madagascar. Syntypes: (several) NMW 82859 (1). On p. 155 of separate. Species currently recognized as based on Persian Gulf syntype; Madagascar material based on Diplodus capensis (Smith 1844). •Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Abou-seedo et al. 1990:217 [ref. 23688], Randall 1995:226 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:182 [ref. 23922], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Siddiqui at al. 2014:80 [ref. 33479]). •Valid as Diplodus kotschyi (Steindachner 1876) -- (Ali et al. 2018:329 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Eagderi et al. 2019:114 [ref. 37020], Parenti 2019:81 [ref. 36892], Zajonz et al. 2019:80 [ref. 36871] as cf. kotschyi). Current status: Valid as Diplodus kotschyi (Steindachner 1876). Sparidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf and Oman east to India. Habitat: marine.

labiosus, Sargus Bourjot [A.] 1870:48 [Bulletin de la Société de Climatologie d'Alger 1870; ref. 36067] Algier, Algeria, western Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •In the synonymy of Sargus fasciatus Valenciennes 1830 -- (Maire 1916: 316 [ref. 36565]). •In the synonymy of Diplodus fasciatus (Valenciennes 1830). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus fasciatus (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae.

levantinus, Diplodus Fricke [R.], Golani [D.] & Appelbaum-Golani [B.] 2016:3, Figs. 1-4 [Scientia Marina v. 80 (no. 3); ref. 34520] Israel, off Jaffa, eastern Mediterranean Sea, ca. 32°03'N, 34°45'E. Holotype: HUJ 20535. Paratypes: HUJ, MSNG. •Valid as Diplodus levantinus Fricke, Golani & Appelbaum-Golani 2016 -- (Golani et al. 2017:529 [ref. 35726] hybrid with D. cervinus x D. levantinus, also valid, Parenti 2019:81 [ref. 36892], Bariche & Fricke 2020:91 [ref. 37515]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus levantinus Fricke, Golani & Appelbaum-Golani 2016. Sparidae. Distribution: Southeastern Mediterranean Sea: Lebanon and Israel. Habitat: marine.

lineatus, Sargus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:59 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] No locality. Holotype: MNHN A-8102 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:59 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies lineatus -- (Bauchot & Hureau 1990:800 [ref. 18793], Wirtz et al. 2013:126 [ref. 32972], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2599 [ref. 34618]). •Valid as Diplodus lineatus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Carneiro et al. 2019:267 [ref. 37250], Parenti 2019:81 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus lineatus (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Cape Verde Islands endemic. Habitat: marine.

melanura, Sciaena Pallas [P. S.] 1814:254 [Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica v. 3; ref. 3351] Evpatoria, Black Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Diplodus annularis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Popova 1998:121 [ref. 23588], Parin 2003:S10 [ref. 28536], Parin et al. 2014:368 [ref. 33547], Fricke et al. 2016:12 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:79 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus annularis (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

noct, Sargus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:51 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Egypt, Red Sea; Suez, Egypt, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-8565 to 0000-8566 (1, 1) Suez, 0000-8564 (1) and 0000-8575 (2) Red Sea; ?RMNH 985 [ex ZMB] (3). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:59-60 [ref. 20898]. •Mention -- (Tortonese 1973:414 [ref. 7192]). •Valid as Diplodus noct (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Dor 1984:159 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:43 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:226 [ref. 22896], Siddiqui at al. 2014:84 [ref. 33479], DiBattista et al. 2015:20 [ref. 35706], Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Golani et al. 2017:530 [ref. 35726], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[5] 243 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:101 [ref. 36273], Jawad et al. 2018:113 [ref. 36262], Parenti 2019:81 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus noct (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

omanensis, Diplodus cervinus Bauchot [M.-L.] & Bianchi [G.] 1984:103, Fig. A [Cybium v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 8978] Kuria Muria Bay [Oman], Arabian Sea, 17°44'N, 55°62'E, depth 55 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1984-0358. Paratypes: MNHN 1984-0359 (1). •Synonym of Diplodus cervinus (Lowe 1838), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Randall 1995:225 [ref. 22896], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377]). •Valid as Diplodus omanensis Bauchot & Bianchi 1984 -- (Amir et al. 2013:220 [ref. 32960], Siddiqui at al. 2014:84 [ref. 33479], Psomadakis et al. 2015:262 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:81 [ref. 36892], Bogorodsky et al. 2020:525 [ref. 38001]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus omanensis Bauchot & Bianchi 1984. Sparidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Socotra, Oman and Pakistan. Habitat: marine.

oxyrhynchus, Sparus Viviani [D.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:80 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Not available, name mentioned in passing in account of Charax puntazzo (Gmelin) (Parenti 2019:92 [ref. 36892]). •Synonym of Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum 1792) -- (Parenti 2019:82 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum 1792). Sparidae.

oxyrhyncus, Sparus Nardo [G. D.] 1827:31, 38 (no. 118) [Giornale di fisica, chimica e storia naturale, medicina, ed arti. (series 2) Dec. II, v. 10; ref. 3146] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Also in Nardo 1827:col. 480 and 486 [ref. 19740] and spelled oxyrhynchus. •Synonym of Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum 1792) -- (Fricke et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:82 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum 1792). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ponticus, Charax puntazzo var. Nordmann [A. von] 1840:387, Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Voyage dans la Russie méridionale et la Crimée; ref. 3209] Sevastopool in Crimea, Ukraine, Black Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Puntazzo puntazzo (Cetti 1777) -- (Tortonese 1973:413 [ref. 7192]). •Synonym of Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum 1792) -- (Fricke et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:82 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum 1792). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

prayensis, Diplodus Cadenat [J.] 1964:955, 965, Figs. 8, 14, 20 [Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér A) Sciences Naturelles v. 26 (no. 3); ref. 1449] Port of Praia, São Thiago Island [São Tiago, also Santiago], Cape Verde Islands. Holotype: MNHN 1964-0579 [ex IFAN 693]. Paratypes: (3) MNHN 1964-0580 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:50-51 [ref. 20898]. •Valid as Diplodus prayensis Cadenat 1964 -- (Bauchot & Hureau 1990:798 [ref. 18793], Wirtz et al. 2013:126 [ref. 32972], Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2596 [ref. 34618], Parenti 2019:81 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus prayensis Cadenat 1964. Sparidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Cape Verde Islands endemic. Habitat: marine.

puntazzo, Sparus Cetti [F.] 1777:115 [Anfibi e pesci di Sardegna; ref. 18872] Sardinia, Italy, western Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Not available, used as a vernacular name only, from Sardegna [Sardinia, Italy]. Dates to Walbaum (ex Cetti) 1792. •In the synonymy of Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum 1792) -- (Parenti 2019:81 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum 1792). Sparidae.

puntazzo, Sparus Walbaum [J. J.] (ex Cetti) 1792:282 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Sardinia, Italy, western Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Species name misspelled pantazzo by Cuvier 1831:133 [ref. 30376] with author Risso. •Valid as Puntazzo puntazzo (Cetti 1777) -- (Tortonese 1973:413 [ref. 7192] but dated to Gmelin 1789, Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:170 [ref. 31251] dated to Cetti 1784). •Valid as Diplodus puntazzo (Cetti 1777) -- (Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:893 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:798 [ref. 18793], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:92 [ref. 26753], Parin 2003:S11 [ref. 28536], Golani 2005:43 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:87 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:99 [ref. 30517], Casu et al. 2009:142 [ref. 30209], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:47 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:368 [ref. 33547]). •Valid as Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum 1792) -- (Wirtz et al. 2013:126 [ref. 32972], Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2597 [ref. 34618], Golani et al. 2017:529 [ref. 35726], Martins & Carneiro 2018:154 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:556 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:267 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:97 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:81 [ref. 36892], Bariche & Fricke 2020:90 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:42 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum 1792). Sparidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; Black Sea; eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to South Africa, including Madeira and Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

raucus, Sargus Geoffroy St. Hilaire [E.] 1809:Pl. 18 (fig. 1) [Poissons du Nil v. 1 (part 1); ref. 4182] Neotype locality: Bardawil Lagoon, northern Sinai, Egypt. Original locality: Egypt, eastern Mediterranean Sea. Neotype: HUJ 6047. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:69 [ref. 20898]. Description published in a later edition by Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1837:340 [ref. 4186]. The material used for the description, MNHN 0000-5740 (2 specimens) from Alexandria (Egypt), was identified by Bauchot & Daget 1971:322 [ref. 23129] as Diplodus cervinus (Lowe 1838), so the description is partly based on that species. None of the specimens in MNHN 0000-5740 agrees with the holotype that was illustrated as above on Pl. 18 (fig. 1). Neotype designated by Fricke et al. 2016:11 [ref. 34520]. •Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fricke et al. 2016:11, 14 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:82 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rondeletii, Sargus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:14, Pl. 141 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Naples; Marseille; Toulouse; Malta; Alexandria, Egypt, Mediterranean Sea; Lac de Bizerte, Tunisia. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-8529 to 0000-8530 (1, 1), 0000-8602 (1), 0000-8671 (1), A-8098 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:60-61 [ref. 20898]. Name spelled Sargus rondeleti by Berthelot 1840:90 [ref. 30346]. •Synonym of Diplodus sargus, subspecies sargus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:92 [ref. 26753]). •Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:409 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:894 [ref. 13676], Golani 2005:43 [ref. 37112], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:47 [ref. 36649], Fricke et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34520], Artüz & Fricke 2019:557 [ref. 36612], Parenti 2019:82 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

salviani, Sargus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:28 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-8533 (1), 0000-8534 (1), 0000-8549 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:61 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Diplodus vulgaris (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817) -- (Tortonese 1973:410 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:801 [ref. 18793], Fricke et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:83 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus vulgaris (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

sargo, Sparus Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:379 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. No types known. Corresponds to Sparus anularis on p. 372. As S. sargo vel annularis in Devincenzi 1925:302 [ref. 22561]. Also appeared in Devincenzi 1925:303, 322; Devincenzi regarded as a synonym of Diplodus argenteus (C.V.) [= Sargus argenteus Valenciennes 1830]. •Synonym of Diplodus argenteus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Fricke et al. 2016:12 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:79 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus argenteus (Valenciennes 1830). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

sargus, Sparus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:278 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Spelled sargius in Rafinesque 1810:24 [ref. 3595]. •Valid as Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:409 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:894 [ref. 13676], Abou-seedo et al. 1990:217 [ref. 23688], Randall 1995:226 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:182 [ref. 23922], Arruda 1997:89 [ref. 24952], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:92 [ref. 26753] but as a valid subspecies, Parin 2003:S11 [ref. 28536], Golani 2005:43 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:87 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:99 [ref. 30517], Fricke 2008:41 [ref. 30182], Casu et al. 2009:142 [ref. 30209] as a subspecies, Lipej & Dulčić 2010:47 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:368 [ref. 33547], Fricke et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34520], Golani et al. 2017:529 [ref. 35726], Martins & Carneiro 2018:158 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:557 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:267 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:97 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:82 [ref. 36892], Kovačić et al. 2020:42 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; Black Sea (but not in southeastern Mediterranean). Habitat: brackish, marine.

senegalensis, Diplodus Cadenat [J.] 1964:968, Figs. 6, 7, 25 [Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér A) Sciences Naturelles v. 26 (no. 3); ref. 1449] Port-Étienne, Mauritania; coasts of Senegal. Syntypes: (15). •Synonym of Diplodus bellottii (Steindachner 1882) -- (Bauchot & Hureau 1990:796 [ref. 18793], Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2592 [ref. 34618], Parenti 2019:79 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus bellottii (Steindachner 1882). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

sparlotus, Sparus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:49 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:26 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Diplodus annularis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Döderlein 1891:215 [ref. 17416], Fricke et al. 2016:12 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:79 [ref. 36892], Parenti 2019:104 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus annularis (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sparulus, Sparus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:48 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:25 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Diplodus annularis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:79 [ref. 36892], Parenti 2019:118 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus annularis (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

sparulus, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:26, 76, not Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN A-0125 (2, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1978:31 [ref. 20862]. Illustration is of Abudefduf sparoides (Quoy & Gaimard 1825) in Pomacentridae according to Fricke 1999:367 [ref. 24106]. •Synonym of Diplodus annularis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fricke 1999:367 [ref. 24106], Fricke et al. 2016:12 [ref. 34520]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus annularis (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

striatus, Sargus Bliss [R.] 1883:50 [Transactions of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius (N. S.) v. 13; ref. 16966] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MCZ 5731. •Synonym of Diplodus cervinus (Lowe 1838), but a valid subspecies -- (Fricke 1999:293 [ref. 24106], Heemstra et al. 2004:3321 [ref. 27945]). •Valid as Diplodus striatus (Bliss 1883) -- (Fricke et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:82 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus striatus (Bliss 1883). Sparidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: Mauritius and Rodrigues Island (Mascarenes endemic). Habitat: marine.

trifasciatus, Sparus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:50 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:26 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Diplodus cervinus (Lowe 1838) -- (Tortonese 1973:409 [ref. 7192] with question, Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:892 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:796 [ref. 18793], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:92 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:42 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:80 [ref. 36892] with question, Parenti 2019:104 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus cervinus (Lowe 1838). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

typicus, Diplodus sargus Cadenat [J.] 1964:960, Figs. 4, 11, 23 [Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér A) Sciences Naturelles v. 26 (no. 3); ref. 1449] Mediterranean Sea; African Atlantic coasts. No types known. •Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758) in part -- (Fricke et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34520]). •Synonym of Diplodus cadenati (de la Paz, Bauchot & Daget 1974) in part -- (Fricke et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34520] with first author as Paz, Parenti 2019:79 [ref. 36892], Parenti 2019:82 [ref. 36892]). •Synonym of Diplodus sargus, subspecies cadenati de La Paz, Bauchot & Daget 1974 -- (Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2598 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

varatulus, Sparus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:48 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:26 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Döderlein 1891:247 [ref. 17416], Fricke et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:82 [ref. 36892], Parenti 2019:104 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vetula, Sargus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:48 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-8544 (1) Martigues, 0000-8543 (2, poor condition) Naples. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:61-62 [ref. 20898] as holotype and paratypes •Synonym of Diplodus sargus subspecies sargus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:92 [ref. 26753]). •Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:409 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:894 [ref. 13676], Fricke et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34520], Parenti 2019:82 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Diplodus sargus (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vulgaris, Sargus Geoffroy St. Hilaire [E.] 1817:312, Pl. 18 (fig. 2) [Poissons du Nil v. 1 (part 1); ref. 4184] Egypt, eastern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:69 [ref. 20898]. •Valid as Diplodus vulgaris (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817) -- (Tortonese 1973:410 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:895 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:801 [ref. 18793], Arruda 1997:89 [ref. 24952], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:93 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:43 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:87 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:100 [ref. 30517], Casu et al. 2009:142 [ref. 30209], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:47 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:368 [ref. 33547], Fricke et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34520], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2600 [ref. 34618], Golani et al. 2017:529 [ref. 35726], Martins & Carneiro 2018:159 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:557 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:268 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:83 [ref. 36892], Bariche & Fricke 2020:91 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:42 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Diplodus vulgaris (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817). Sparidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; Black Sea; eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to South Africa, including Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands and Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.