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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the genus Mycteroperca: [ 59 ] records


acutirostris, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:286 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7329 (1), MNHN [Bauchot's holotype] not found. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:23 [ref. 19232] as holotype and paratype. •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Tortonese 1973:360 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:787 [ref. 13676], Smith 1990:701 [ref. 18227]). •Valid as Mycteroperca acutirostris (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:261 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:33 [ref. 25512], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:213 [ref. 25013], Collette et al. 2003:107 [ref. 26784], Heemstra et al. 2003:1353 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:165 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2011:291 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:41 [ref. 33341], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Spier et al. 2018:10 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:7 [ref. 36717], Parenti & Randall 2020:87 [ref. 37354], Carvalho-Filho 2023:119 [ref. 40480], Hoff et al. 2023:6 [ref. 40463], Page et al. 2023:197 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca acutirostris (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda and Cuba south to Leeward Islands, including western Gulf of Mexico and southern Caribbean Sea; Santa Catarina (Brazil). Habitat: marine.

aguaji, Trisotropis Poey [F.] 1867:229 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 14078] Havana, Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:262 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

apua, Bodianus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:50, Pl. 229 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] Brazil. No types known. On p. 37 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:278 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:90 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

arara, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:132 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Serranus arara Valenciennes 1828. •Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:87 [ref. 37354]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

bonaci, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:129 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 10000 (2), 10032-34 (3). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:191 [ref. 22926]. •Valid as Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:135 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:127 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:343 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:108 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:431 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:262 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:34 [ref. 25512], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:262 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:213 [ref. 25013], Musick 2000:17 [ref. 24959], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1644 [ref. 25634], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Heemstra et al. 2003:1354 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:166 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2011:294 [ref. 31786], Cervigón 2011:5 [ref. 39393], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:171 [ref. 32953], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:41 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:14 [ref. 34324], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961], Costa et al. 2017:45 [ref. 35684], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Spier et al. 2018:10 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:7 [ref. 36717], Parenti & Randall 2020:87 [ref. 37354], Carvalho-Filho et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:523 [ref. 38945], Escobar-Sierra et al. 2021:79 [ref. 38844], Carvalho-Filho 2023:120 [ref. 40480], Hoff et al. 2023:6 [ref. 40463], Page et al. 2023:197 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda and Massachusetts (U.S.A.) south to Santa Catarina (Brazil), including offshore islands. Habitat: marine.

boulengeri, Mycteroperca Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] in Jordan 1895:445, Pl. 38 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 5; ref. 2394] Astillero at Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Lectotype: CAS-SU 1621. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1895.5.27.13 (1); CAS-SU 2924 (1), 11621 (1); ZMB 14090 [from Jordan] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:70 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 187, p. 3273 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446] if figured specimen is identifiable. •Synonym of Mycteroperca xenarcha Jordan 1888 -- (Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1603 [ref. 22830], Parenti & Randall 2020:90 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca xenarcha Jordan 1888. Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bowersi, Mycteroperca Evermann [B. W.] & Marsh [M. C.] 1900:158, Fig. 45 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 20 (pt 1) [for 1900]; ref. 14876] Culebra Island, Puerto Rico. Holotype (unique): USNM 49530. •Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:278 [ref. 21042], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:215 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2020:90 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

brunneus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:131 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes and/or Poey specimens: MCZ 10184 (2); ?ZMB 5221 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:191 [ref. 22926] with largest in MCZ 10184 as holotype. •Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:262 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:87 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

calliura, Mycteroperca Poey [F.] 1865:181 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 1; ref. 13954] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 10011 (1), ?ZMB 6361 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:192 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:266 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

camelopardalis, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:132 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cienfuegos, Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:276 [ref. 21042], •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Tortonese 1973:360 [ref. 7192], Heemstra 1991:53 [ref. 19323] with question, Heemstra & Randall 1993:275 [ref. 21042] with question, Parenti & Randall 2020:89 [ref. 37354]). ). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

cardinalis, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:378 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Havana, Cuba. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:45 [ref. 19232]. New name for Johnius guttatus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Based on the 'Bonací cardenal' of Parra 1787:29, Pl. 16 (fig. 1) [ref. 6840]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:278 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:90 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

chalinius, Epinephelus Cope [E. D.] 1871:465 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] St. Martin Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): ANSP 12768. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:154 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca acutirostris (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:261 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:87 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca acutirostris (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

chlorostomus, Trisotropis Poey [F.] 1867:231 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 14078] Cuba. Holotype (unique): MCZ. •Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:266 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

cidi, Mycteroperca Cervigón [F.] 1966:654, Fig. 117 [Investigación Pesquera (Chile) v. 30; ref. 9019] Isla Cubagua, Venezuela. Holotype: MOBR-EDIMAR -P--1210. Paratypes: UF 219264 [ex UMML 19264] (1), MOBR-EDIMAR-P-1211 (3). Type catalog: Lasso et al. 1999:112 [ref. 33859]. •Valid as Mycteroperca cidi Cervigón 1966 -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:305 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1991:345 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:431 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:264 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:35 [ref. 25512], Heemstra et al. 2003:1355 [ref. 27060], Craig et al. 2011:297 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354], Carvalho-Filho 2023:119 [ref. 40480]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca cidi Cervigón 1966. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Jamaica and Venezuela south to northern Brazil. Habitat: marine.

cuvieri, Epinephelus Bleeker [P.] 1874:46 [Poissons de Madagascar et de l'Ile la Réunion Part 4; ref. 443] Unneeded replacement name for Serranus undulosus Valenciennes 1828, not preoccupied. For date of publication (as laterst in Dec. 1974), see Kottelat 2013 [ref. 32740]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca acutirostris (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:261 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:87 [ref. 37354]). Replacement Name. Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca acutirostris (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

cyclopomatus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1861:353 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 10180 (2). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:191 [ref. 22926] with a holotype and paratype. •Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:262 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:87 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

decimalis, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:138 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:262 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:87 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

dimidiatus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:129 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Holotype (unique): MCZ 26953. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:192 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:266 [ref. 21042], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:214 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

emarginatus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] 1843:10 [Ichthyologie des îles Canaries v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 4502] Canary Islands. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7437 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:27 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Smith 1990:701 [ref. 18227]). •Questionably a synonym of Mycteroperca fusca (Lowe 1838) -- (Heemstra 1991:48 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:265 [ref. 21042]). •Synonym of Mycterperca fusca (Lowe 1838) -- (Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2399 [ref. 34618], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca fusca (Lowe 1838). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

falcatus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:138 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Marianao, near Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: ?MCZ (1, dismembered skeleton), MCZ 10014 (1), 10183 (1), 10188 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:192 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:266 [ref. 21042], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:214 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

felinus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:134 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes and/or Poey specimens: MCZ 9994-95 (2), 10004 (1), 10071 (1), 10073 (1), 10192 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:192 [ref. 22926] with a holotype. •Synonym of Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:276 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:90 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

fuscus, Serranus Lowe [R. T.] 1838:196 [Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society v. 6 (pts 1); ref. 2828] Off Madeira. Neotype: MMF 24928. Neotype designated by Heemstra 1991:48-49 [ref. 19323]. See Heemstra et al. 2003:1353 [ref. 27060]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Smith 1990:701 [ref. 18227]). •Valid as Mycteroperca fusca (Lowe 1838) -- (Heemstra 1991:48 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:265 [ref. 21042], Santos et al. 1997:81 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:80 [ref. 24952], Craig et al. 2011:299 [ref. 31786], dated 1836, Wirtz et al. 2013:123 [ref. 32972], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2399 [ref. 34618], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Carneiro et al. 2019:244 [ref. 37250], Reiner 2019:172 [ref. 38139], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354], Golani 2021:41 [ref. 38303], González-Lorenzo et al. 2021:148 [ref. 38374], Kovačić et al. 2021:77 [ref. 39014], Carvalho-Filho 2023:119 [ref. 40480]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca fusca (Lowe 1838). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde Islands, and São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

guttatus, Johnius Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Parra) 1801:77 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Locality not stated [Havana, Cuba]. No types known. Based on the 'Bonací cardenal' of Parra 1787:29, Pl. 16 [ref. 6840]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:278 [ref. 21042], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:215 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2020:90 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

hopkinsi, Mycteroperca Jordan [D. S.] & Rutter [C. L.] 1897:105 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 49; ref. 10644] Region of Kingston, Jamaica. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 5073. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:70 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:276 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:90 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

intermedius, Trisotropis Poey [F.] 1955:122 [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1; ref. 22481] whereabouts unknown. Trisotropis no. 181 of Poey 1875 [ref. 3509]. Posthumous publication. Also appeared in Poey 1962:29 [ref. 26395] and 2000:49 [ref. 26366] with figures in atlas. •Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860) -- (Poey 2000:902 [ref. 26366], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

interstitialis, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:127, Pl. 12 (fig. 6) [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. No types known. •Valid as Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:135 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:131 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:346 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:108 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:431 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:266 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:36 [ref. 25512], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:214 [ref. 25013], Musick 2000:17 [ref. 24959], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1644 [ref. 25634], Heemstra et al. 2003:1356 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:167 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2011:301 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:41 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:14 [ref. 34324], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354], Robertson et al. 2020:162 [ref. 38098], Carvalho-Filho et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:524 [ref. 38945], Bennema & van Moorsel 2022:71 [ref. 39585], Carvalho-Filho 2023:121 [ref. 40480], Hoff et al. 2023:6 [ref. 40463] as interstitilais, Page et al. 2023:197 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda and Florida (U.S.A.) south to Santa Catarina (Brazil), including Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Holocentrus Shaw [G.] 1803:565 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Japan. Unneeded new name for Epinephelus ruber Bloch 1793. •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:89 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

jordani, Epinephelus Jenkins [O. P.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1889:140 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 11 (no. 698); ref. 2342] Guaymas, Sonora, western Mexico. Holotype: USNM 39628. Paratypes: CAS 61868 [ex IU 4031] (1), CAS-SU 416 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:69 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Mycteroperca jordani (Jenkins & Evermann 1889) -- (Hiyama in Kumada 1937:38 [ref. 39147] as jordanai, Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:199 [ref. 9277], Heemstra & Randall 1993:268 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:110 [ref. 22193], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1599 [ref. 22830], De la Cruz-Agüero & Cota-Gómez 1998:357 [ref. 23520], Musick 2000:17 [ref. 24959], Thomson et al. 2000:91 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], Craig et al. 2011:304 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Kells et al. 2016:226 [ref. 35888], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354], Love et al. 2005:111 [ref. 37547], Love et al. 2021:147 [ref. 39279], Page et al. 2023:197 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca jordani (Jenkins & Evermann 1889). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) south to Pacific coast of Baja California Sur (Mexico), including Gulf of California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

latepictus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1861:353 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. •Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:262 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:87 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

macrogenis, Cerna Sassi [A.] 1846:139 [Descrizione di Genova del Genovesato; ref. 18659] Italy, Ligurian Sea, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype: MSNG 43110 (= oMSNG 38933) not found in 1995. Type catalog: Tortonese 1963:335 [ref. 10350]. Original not seen. Also appeared with description in Sassi 1846:390 [ref. 22007]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Tortonese 1973:360 [ref. 7192], Heemstra 1991:53 [ref. 19323], Smith 1990:701 [ref. 18227], Heemstra & Randall 1993:275 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:89 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

marginatus, Bodianus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:331 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Brazil. No types known. Based on Pirati apua of Marcgrave 1648:158 and Bodianus apua Bloch. •Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:278 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:90 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

microlepis, Trisotropis Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1879:141 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 2 (no. 74); ref. 18134] Western Florida, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 5137 (2). •Valid as Mycteroperca microlepis (Goode & Bean 1879) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:135 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:134 [ref. 36591], Boschung 1992:108 [ref. 23239], Heemstra & Randall 1993:269 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:38 [ref. 25512], Murdy et al. 1997:258 [ref. 23144], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:214 [ref. 25013], Musick 2000:17 [ref. 24959], Heemstra et al. 2003:1357 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192] dated 1880, Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:168 [ref. 28815], García-Hernández et al. 2009:92 [ref. 37265], Craig et al. 2011:306 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Spier et al. 2018:10 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:7 [ref. 36717], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354], Carvalho-Filho 2023:120 [ref. 40480], Page et al. 2023:197 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca microlepis (Goode & Bean 1879). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Massachusetts (U.S.A.) south to Yucatan (Mexico), including Gulf of Mexico;Santa Catarina (Brazil). Habitat: brackish, marine.

microps, Trisotropis Poey [F.] 1955:115 [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1; ref. 22481] No types known. Trisotropis no. 171 of Poey 1875 [ref. 3509]. Posthumous publication. Also appeared in Poey 1962:25 [ref. 26395] and 2000:43 [ref. 26366] with figures in atlas. •Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860) -- (Poey 2000:902 [ref. 26366], Parenti & Randall 2020:87 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

nebulosa, Cerna Cocco [A.] 1884:gen. 45, sp. 2 [Naturalista Siciliano [Il Naturalista Siciliano, Giornale di scienze naturali] v. 4; ref. 4874] Messina, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:89 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

nebulosus, Terranus Cocco [A.] 1833:20 [Giornale di Scienze Lettere e Arti per La Sicilia v. 42 (no. 124); ref. 859] Messina, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. The original genus is correctly Serranus. Attributed by Cocco to Cuvier and perhaps not intended as a new species; preoccupied by Serranus nebulosus Valenciennes 1828. •Questionably a synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Heemstra 1991:53 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:275 [ref. 21042]). •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Tortonese 1973:360 [ref. 7192], Smith 1990:701 [ref. 18227], Parenti & Randall 2020:89 [ref. 37354]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Uncertain as Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

olfax, Serranus Jenyns [L.] 1840:9, Pl. 4 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] San Cristóbal Island [Chatham Island], Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1917.7..25.7 (left half skin). •Valid as Mycteroperca olfax (Jenyns 1840) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:270 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:110 [ref. 22193], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1600 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:324 [ref. 24023], Béarez & Jiménez Prado 2003:108 [ref. 37318], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Craig et al. 2011:309 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36248], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca olfax (Jenyns 1840). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: continental Ecuador, and Cocos Island, Malpelo Island and Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

pardalis, Mycteroperca Gilbert [C. H.] 1892:551 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 14 (no. 880); ref. 1626] La Paz Bay, Baja California, Mexico, Gulf of California. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Mycteroperca rosacea (Streets 1877) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:274 [ref. 21042], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1602 [ref. 22830], Parenti & Randall 2020:89 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca rosacea (Streets 1877). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

petrosus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:136 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:278 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:90 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

phenax, Mycteroperca falcata var. Jordan [D. S.] & Swain [J.] 1884:363 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 447); ref. 9337] Key West and Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. Syntypes: BMNH 1884.7.7.187 (1), USNM 34992 (1). •Valid as Mycteroperca phenax Jordan & Swain 1884 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:135 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:141 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:348 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:108 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:432 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:271 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:39 [ref. 25512], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Musick 2000:17 [ref. 24959], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Heemstra et al. 2003:1358 [ref. 27060], Morato et al. 2004:281 [ref. 27533], Smith et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:169 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2011:311 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Carneiro et al. 2019:245 [ref. 37250], Parenti & Randall 2020:89 [ref. 37354], Carvalho-Filho et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:525 [ref. 38945], Carvalho-Filho 2023:121 [ref. 40480], Page et al. 2023:197 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca phenax Jordan & Swain 1884. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina (U.S.A.) south to northern Brazil, including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Azores. Habitat: brackish, marine.

prionura, Mycteroperca Rosenblatt [R. H.] & Zahuranec [B. J.] 1967:241, Figs. 3a, 4a [California Fish and Game v. 53 (no. 4); ref. 7992] Inner Gorda Bank (23°02'N, 109°31'W), Baja California Sur, Mexico, depth 25-30 fathoms. Holotype: SIO 66-48. Paratypes: AMNH 26000 [ex SIO 65-351] (5); SIO (18 lots, 105); USNM 101061 (1), 204315 [ex SIO 65-347] (20). Additional material: BMNH 1969.8.6.1-5 [ex SIO 65-343] (5). •Valid as Mycteroperca prionura Rosenblatt & Zahuranec 1967 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:273 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:110 [ref. 22193], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1601 [ref. 22830], Musick 2000:17 [ref. 24959], Thomson et al. 2000:96 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], Craig et al. 2011:313 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:89 [ref. 37354], Love et al. 2021:147 [ref. 39279], Page et al. 2023:197 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca prionura Rosenblatt & Zahuranec 1967. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) and western Mexico. Habitat: marine.

profundorum, Mycteroperca Cervigón [F.] 2011:3, Figs. 1-4 [Boletín del Instituto Oceanográphico de Venezuela v. 50 (no. 1); ref. 39393] North of the Macanao Peninsula, Isla Margarita, Venezuela, depth 165 - 274 meters. Holotype: MMM 1286. Paratypes: MMM 1287 (1), 1288 (1). •Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860) -- (Craig & Robertson 2023:80 [ref. 41198]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

repandus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:135 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 10076 (1), 10134 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:192-193 [ref. 22926] with a holotype. •Synonym of Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:276 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:90 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

reticulatus, Trisotropis Gill [T. N.] 1865:105 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 17; ref. 1710] Barbados, West Indies. Syntypes: USNM (2). •Synonym of Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:276 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:90 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

rivulatus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:135 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Serranus rivulatus Valenciennes 1830. •Synonym of Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:276 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:90 [ref. 37354]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

roquensis, Mycteroperca Martín Salazar [F. J.] 1956:88, 100, Fig. [Sociedad de Ciencias Naturelles, La Salle.; ref. 12084] Gran Roque Island, Los Roques Islands, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): MHN La Salle 12597. •Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:266 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

rosacea, Epinephelus Streets [T. H.] 1877:51 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum v.1 (no. 7); ref. 4290] Angel Island, Gulf of California, Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 17554 (not found in 1980). •Valid as Mycteroperca rosacea (Streets 1877) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:274 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:111 [ref. 22193], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1602 [ref. 22830], Thomson et al. 2000:93 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:111 [ref. 37547], Craig et al. 2011:315 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:89 [ref. 37354], Walker et al. 2020:4 [ref. 37499], Love et al. 2021:147 [ref. 39279], Page et al. 2023:197 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca rosacea (Streets 1877). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) south to Jalisco (Mexico), including Gulf of California (Mexico) Habitat: marine.

ruber, Epinephelus Bloch [M. E.] 1793:22, Pl. 331 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] "Japan" (probably eastern Atlantic or Mediterranean Sea). Holotype (unique): ZMB 161. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:136 [ref. 24282]. On p. 19 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Tortonese 1973:360 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:787 [ref. 13676], Robins & Ray 1986:136 [ref. 23100], Smith 1990:701 [ref. 18227], Cervigón 1991:349 [ref. 24472], Heemstra 1991:53 [ref. 19323], Cervigón 1992:432 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:275 [ref. 21042], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:213 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:84 [ref. 25466], Parenti & Bressi 2001:281 [ref. 25708], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:79 [ref. 26753], Glamuzina et al. 2002:156 [ref. 28416], Golani 2005:36 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:80 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:42 [ref. 36649], Craig et al. 2011:318 [ref. 31786], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2400 [ref. 34618], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Carneiro et al. 2019:245 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864], Reiner 2019:173 [ref. 38139], Bariche & Fricke 2020:88 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:41 [ref. 37519], Parenti & Randall 2020:89 [ref. 37354], Golani 2021:41 [ref. 38303], Iglésias et al. 2021:175 [ref. 38818], Kovačić et al. 2021:77 [ref. 39014], Fermon et al. 2022:288 [ref. 39448], Carvalho-Filho 2023:119 [ref. 40480], Hoff et al. 2023:6 [ref. 40463], Azzola et al. 2024:4 [ref. 40957], He et al. 2024:3 [ref. 40897]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Portugal south to southern Angola, including São Tomé and Principe. Hybridizes with Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). Habitat: marine.

ruberrima, Mycteroperca olfax var. Jordan [D. S.] & Bollman [C. H.] in Jordan & Eigenmann 1890:367 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 8 (art. 9) (for 1888); ref. 2440] James Island, Galápagos Islands. Holotype: MCZ 90703 [ex MCZ 24198]. Paratypes: USNM 41274 (1). •Synonym of Mycteroperca olfax (Jenyns 1840) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:270 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca olfax (Jenyns 1840). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

rupestris, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:437 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Santo Domingo. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7180 (1), A-7712 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:34 [ref. 19232] with 7180 as holotype. •Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:278 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:90 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

scirenga, Sparus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:50 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Palermo, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:26 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Tortonese 1973:360 [ref. 7192] with question, Smith 1990:701 [ref. 18227], Parenti 2019:104 [ref. 37117], Parenti & Randall 2020:89 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

simonyi, Serranus Steindachner [F.] 1891:172 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 28 (18); ref. 12571] Grand Canary Island. Syntypes: NMW 39457 (2). Species illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1891:352, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [ref. 4236]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Smith 1990:702 [ref. 18227]). •Synonym of Mycteroperca fusca (Lowe 1838) -- (Heemstra 1991:48 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2399 [ref. 34618], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca fusca (Lowe 1838). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

stomias, Trisotropis Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1882:427 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 297); ref. 1840] Florida, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 16902. Paralectotypes: USNM 15462 (1), 21336 (1, not found in 1980), 26561 (1), 26587 (1). Lectotype selected by Smith 1971:189 [ref. 14102]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca microlepis (Goode & Bean 1879) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:269 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca microlepis (Goode & Bean 1879). Epinephelidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tigris, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:440 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] San Domingo [Dominican Republic]. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7178. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:36 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Bullock & Godcharles 1982:53 [ref. 39762], Robins & Ray 1986:136 [ref. 23100], Dennis & Bright 1988:7 [ref. 39782], Bullock & Smith 1991:147 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:351 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:432 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:276 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:41 [ref. 25512], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:215 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:107 [ref. 26784], Heemstra et al. 2003:1359 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:170 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2011:320 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:41 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:14 [ref. 34324], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:89 [ref. 37354], Robertson et al. 2020:162 [ref. 38098], Carvalho-Filho et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:526 [ref. 38945], Escobar-Sierra et al. 2021:79 [ref. 38844], González-Lorenzo et al. 2021:148 [ref. 38374], Bennema & van Moorsel 2022:71 [ref. 39585], Carvalho-Filho 2023:121 [ref. 40480], Page et al. 2023:197 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Florida (U.S.A.), Bahamas and Greater Antilles south to São Paulo (Brazil), including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Introduced at ?Canary Islands. Habitat: marine.

tinca, Serranus Cantraine [F. J.] 1833:176 [Nuovo Giornale de'letterati; Academia Italiana di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti. 26; ref. 19960] Port of Messina, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Holotype: whereabouts unknown. Also appeared in Cantraine 1835:207 [ref. 17346] and Cantraine 1838:4 [ref. 21344]. •Nomen nudum, in the synonymy of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Smith 1990:701 [ref. 18227]). •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Tortonese 1973:360 [ref. 7192], Heemstra 1991:53 [ref. 19323] with question, Heemstra & Randall 1993:275 [ref. 21042] with question, Parenti & Randall 2020:89 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Uncertain as Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

undulosus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:295 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0133 (1), 5288 (1), 7406 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:36-37 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Smith 1990:701 [ref. 18227]). •Synonym of Mycteroperca acutirostris (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:261 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:87 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca acutirostris (Valenciennes 1828). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

venadorum, Mycteroperca Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] in Jordan 1895:446 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 5; ref. 2394] Near Isla Blanca, off Sinaloa, western coast of Mexico. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1895.5.27.342 (stuffed). •Synonym of Mycteroperca jordani (Jenkins & Evermann 1889) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:268 [ref. 21042], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1599 [ref. 22830], Parenti & Randall 2020:88 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca jordani (Jenkins & Evermann 1889). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

venenosa, Perca Linnaeus [C.] 1758:292 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Bahamas. No types known. Type catalog: Wheeler 1985:49 [ref. 20705]. Based on Catesby 1743: Pl. 5. •Valid as Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:136 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:149 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:352 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:108 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:433 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:278 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:43 [ref. 25512], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:215 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1644 [ref. 25634], Heemstra et al. 2003:1360 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:171 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2011:322 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:41 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:14 [ref. 34324], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:90 [ref. 37354], Robertson et al. 2020:162 [ref. 38098], Carvalho-Filho et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:527 [ref. 38945], Escobar-Sierra et al. 2021:79 [ref. 38844], Carvalho-Filho 2023:121 [ref. 40480], Page et al. 2023:197 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758). Epinephelidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda and Bahamas south to São Paulo (Brazil), including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

xanthosticta, Mycteroperca bonaci var. Jordan [D. S.] & Swain [J.] 1884:371 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 447); ref. 9337] Snapper banks off Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 35083 (skin). •Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:262 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:87 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860). Epinephelidae. Habitat: marine.

xenarcha, Mycteroperca Jordan [D. S.] 1888:387 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 39 (for 1887); ref. 10471] James Island, Galápagos Islands. Holotype: MCZ 24198. Additional material: MCZ 10061 (1). •Valid as Mycteroperca xenarcha Jordan 1888 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:199 [ref. 9277], Heemstra & Randall 1993:280 [ref. 21042], Bussing & López S. 1994:94 [ref. 23101], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1603 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:354 [ref. 24555], Musick 2000:17 [ref. 24959], Thomson et al. 2000:94 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:112 [ref. 37547], Craig et al. 2006:94 [ref. 29771], Craig et al. 2011:324 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708], Barriga Salazar 2014:119 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:397 [ref. 34894], Kells et al. 2016:226 [ref. 35888], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Burton & Lea 2019:73 [ref. 37205], Parenti & Randall 2020:90 [ref. 37354], Love et al. 2021:147 [ref. 39279], Page et al. 2023:197 [ref. 40505], Siccha-Ramirez et al. 2023:322 [ref. 40816], Vela-Espinosa et al. 2023:9 [ref. 40981]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca xenarcha Jordan 1888. Epinephelidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: central California (U.S.A.) south to southern Peru, including Gulf of California (Mexico) and Galapagos Islands (Ecuador). Habitat: brackish, marine.


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